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Radiochemistry - Science topic

Radiochemistry is the chemistry of radioactive materials, where radioactive isotopes of elements are used to study the properties and chemical reactions of non-radioactive isotopes.
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Publications related to Radiochemistry (3,471)
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The East Coast of Johor in Malaysia is a strategic area as a candidate site for nuclear power plants. Its location is near coastal area and is therefore convenient to use seawater as a source of cooling for power plants. This makes the East Malaysia waters, and their surroundings stand a high risk of direct radioactive contamination, especially in...
Article
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(1) Background: [18F]Flumazenil 1 ([18F]FMZ) is an established positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer for the imaging of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor subtype, GABAA in the brain. The production of [18F]FMZ 1 for its clinical use has proven to be challenging, requiring harsh radiochemical conditions, while affording low radioc...
Article
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The Nuclear and Radiochemistry Group at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has developed a suite of diagnostics and techniques that can be used for astrophysics experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Capabilities have been developed to add material to the outside of NIF hohlraum assemblies as well as to the interior of NIF...
Article
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Background Manganese porphyrins have several therapeutic/imaging applications, including their use as radioprotectants (in clinical trials) and as paramagnetic MRI contrast agents. The affinity of porphyrins for lipid bilayers also makes them candidates for cell/liposome labelling. We hypothesised that metalation with the positron emission tomograp...
Article
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Flerovium (Fl, element 114) is the heaviest element chemically studied so far. To date, its interaction with gold was investigated in two gas-solid chromatography experiments, which reported two different types of interaction, however, each based on the level of a few registered atoms only. Whereas noble-gas-like properties were suggested from the...
Article
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The Swiss spallation neutron source SINQ of the Paul Scherrer Institute provides neutrons via proton-induced spallation reactions in a lead target. Produced neutrons are thermalized and impinge on ²³⁵U-targets, enclosed in a three-part chamber assembly, which is located in the inner wall of the SINQ shielding. The thermal-neutron-induced fission pr...
Preprint
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The mechanism responsible for the FLASH effect, normal tissue sparing by ultra-high dose rate (UHDR) irradiation with isoeffective tumor control compared to conventional dose rate (CDR) irradiation, remains undetermined. Here we investigate the contribution of interspur interactions (interactions between radiolytic species of individual particle tr...
Article
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Sorbents based on Fe(OH)3 and aluminum oxide are widely used in oceanology for the recovery of cosmogenic radionuclides 7Be, 32Si, 32P, and 33P from the seawater. It is also possible to use them for the recovery of the natural radionuclides 210Pb, 234Th. A comparative study of the sorbents based on Fe(OH)3 and acrylic fiber obtained through various...
Article
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The automation of positron emission tomography (PET) radiochemistry using cassette-based automated radiosynthesis platforms is an essential component of clinical translation for the vast majority of 18F-based radiopharmaceuticals. The technology is widely adopted by good manufacturing practice (GMP) compliant radiopharmaceutical production faciliti...
Article
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Indirect ¹⁸F labeling methods using ¹⁸F-containing compounds such as N-succinimidyl-4-[¹⁸F]fluorobenzoate and 4-[¹⁸F]fluoroiodobenzene as labeling reagents have been reported because direct ¹⁸F labeling has difficulty in labeling aromatic compounds. In this study, we synthesized the ¹⁸F-labeling reagent 4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-y...
Article
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Background Positron emission tomography (PET) is a powerful tool in medical imaging, especially in combination with the PET radionuclide fluorine-18 that possesses optimal characteristics. For labelling of biomolecules and low-molecular weight tracers, fluorine-18 can be covalently bound to silicon by either nucleophilic replacements of leaving gro...
Article
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The increasing number of positron-emission tomography (PET) tracers being developed to aid drug development and create new diagnostics has led to an increased need for radiosynthesis development and optimization. Current radiosynthesis instruments are designed to produce large-scale clinical batches and are often limited to performing a single synt...
Article
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The Sorgentina-RF project will use fusion neutrons to produce 99Mo, a precursor of 99mTc, by irradiating natural molybdenum. 99Mo is produced by means of the inelastic reaction 100Mo(n, 2n)99Mo on 100Mo, which is an isotope of natural Mo. From a functional point of view, the project consists of two parts: an irradiation neutron source at 14 MeV and...
Article
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The gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) is a promising molecular target for imaging and therapy of prostate cancer using bombesin peptides that bind to the receptor with high affinity. Targeted copper theranostics (TCTs) using copper radionuclides, 64Cu for imaging and 67Cu for therapy, offer significant advantages in the development of next-...
Article
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The positron emission tomography (PET) molecular imaging technology has gained universal value as a critical tool for assessing biological and biochemical processes in living subjects. The favorable chemical, physical, and nuclear characteristics of fluorine-18 (97% β+ decay, 109.8 min half-life, 635 keV positron energy) make it an attractive nucli...
Article
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Hypoxia promotes angiogenesis, which is crucial for tumor growth, and induces malignant progression and increases the therapeutic resistance. Positron emission tomography (PET) enables the detection of the hypoxic regions in tumors using 2-nitroimidazole-based radiopharmaceuticals. We describe here a physicochemical study of the Sc(DO3AM-NI) comple...
Article
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Frederick Soddy (1877-1956) was the most prominent chemists of the first half of the 20th century. He is known for his numerous papers in the field of radiochemistry. He was the laureate of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for 1921. The purpose of this paper is to familiarize readers with the important events in the life of Soddy and his research activ...
Article
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Mechanically interlocked molecules present opportunities to construct therapeutic drugs and diagnostic imaging agents but harnessing supramolecular chemistry to make biologically active probes in water is a challenge. Here, we describe a rotaxane‐based approach to synthesise radiolabelled proteins and peptides for molecular imaging of cancer biomar...
Article
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This work deals with the impact of chloroform radiolysis on astatine chemistry. Astatine-211 is a promising radionuclide for the targeted alpha therapy of cancers. Yet, the production of ²¹¹At based radiopharmaceuticals is often complicated by radiolysis due to its own decay, leading to solvent degradation and then impacting astatine chemical state...
Article
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Background The Editorial Board of EJNMMI Radiopharmacy and Chemistry releases a biyearly highlight commentary to update the readership on trends in the field of radiopharmaceutical development. Results This commentary of highlights has resulted in 23 different topics selected by each member of the Editorial Board addressing a variety of aspects ra...
Article
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Background: Cyclotrons form a central infrastructure and are a resource of medical radionuclides for the development of new radiotracers as well as the production and supply of clinically established radiopharmaceuticals for patient care in nuclear medicine. Aim: To provide an updated overview of the number and characteristics of cyclotrons that a...
Article
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Positron emission tomography (PET) is an important technique for the early diagnosis of disease. Due to the specific physical and chemical properties of Fluorine-18, this important isotope is widely used in PET for labelling and molecular imaging, and its introduction into medicine molecules could produce PET tracers. Developing with the developmen...
Article
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Mitochondrial complex I (MC-I) is an essential component of brain bioenergetics and can be quantified and studied using positron emission tomography (PET). A specific high affinity 18 F radiotracer for MC-I enables monitoring of neurodegenerative disease progression and pathology via PET imaging. To facilitate clinical research studies tracking MC-...
Preprint
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Formation and degradation of gold nanostructures in tetrachloroauric acid (HAuCl4) is comprehensively investigated via in situ liquid-phase transmission electron microscopy (LP-TEM). By introducing a novel technique to simulate arbitrary kinetic models for radiochemistry, we provide a holistic understanding of reaction mechanisms in irradiated HAuC...
Preprint
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Formation and degradation of gold nanostructures in tetrachloroauric acid (HAuCl4) is comprehensively investigated via in situ liquid-phase transmission electron microscopy (LP-TEM). By introducing a novel technique to simulate arbitrary kinetic models for radiochemistry, we provide a holistic understanding of reaction mechanisms in irradiated HAuC...
Article
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Despite numerous innovative treatment strategies, the treatment of glioblastoma (GB) remains challenging. With the current state-of-the-art therapy, most GB patients succumb after about a year. In the evolution of personalized medicine, targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) is gaining momentum, for example, to stratify patients based on specific biom...
Article
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Background The GMP-compliant production of radiopharmaceuticals has been performed using disposable units (cassettes) with a dedicated synthesis module. To expand this “plug ‘n’ synthesize” principle to a broader scope of modules we developed a pressure controlled setup that offers an alternative to the usual stepper motor controlled rotary valves....
Article
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The degree of acetylation of lysine residues on histones influences the accessibility of DNA and, furthermore, the gene expression. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are overexpressed in various tumour diseases, resulting in the interest in HDAC inhibitors for cancer therapy. The aim of this work is the development of a novel 18F-labelled HDAC1/2-specif...
Article
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Positron emission tomography with selective radioligands advances the drug discovery and development process by revealing information about target engagement, proof of mechanism, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. Positron emission tomography (PET) is an essential and highly significant tool to study therapeutic drug development, dose re...
Article
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Purpose Microtubules (MTs) are structural units made of α and β tubulin subunits in the cytoskeleton responsible for axonal transport, information processing, and signaling mechanisms—critical for healthy brain function. Chronic cocaine exposure affects the function, organization, and stability of MTs in the brain, thereby impairing overall neuroch...
Article
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With the development of 68 Ga and 177 Lu radiochemistry, theranostic approaches in modern nuclear medicine enabling patient-centered personalized medicine applications have been growing in the last decade. In conjunction with the search for new relevant molecular targets, the design of innovative chelating agents to easily form stable complexes wit...
Conference Paper
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Studies on penetration into the soil surface by Fallout Radionuclides (FRNs) as tracers in Malaysia are still not widely implemented to date due to lack of exposure to its use and importance. Therefore, the main purpose of this research paper provided is to share soil penetration analysis data obtained from the application results of FRNs namely Be...
Conference Paper
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This research paper is a study that has been conducted on soil erosion and sedimentation in The Timah Tasoh reservoir by using Fallout Radionuclides application as a tracer in areas of land use diversity during the wet and dry seasons. All tracers used such as Beryllium-7, Cesium-137 and Pb-210ex are capable of measuring the rate of soil erosion an...
Article
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Nuclear chemistry and radiochemistry is a branch of chemistry that has high experimental risks, has high research costs, and is subject to certain prejudices. However, it has an extremely important influence on the development of human life. It is particularly important to emphasize the general education of nuclear chemistry and radiochemistry with...
Article
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Significance Glutamate-ureido-lysine (GUL) probes are specific for prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), overexpressed by most prostate cancers. This antigen can be lost as the cancer progresses. Recent reports have indicated that GUL probes can still identify these PSMA-negative tumors, indicating that the expression of alternative PSMA-like...
Article
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Nuclear medicine's development during the last 50 years illustrates a significant relationship between government investments in research and technology and breakthroughs in health care in the United States and throughout the world. As a result of these efforts, novel nuclear medicine methods have been created that may non-invasively detect illness...
Book
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This monograph is the result of the analytical work of post-graduate students and professors of the Scientific and Post-Graduate Educational Centers of the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology of Russia in the fields of physical chemistry, radiochemistry and electroch...
Article
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Herein, we describe the design, synthesis and deciphering of the key characteristics of the structure activity relationship (SAR) of trifluoromethyloxadiazole (TFMO) bearing class-IIa HDAC inhibitors. Our medicinal chemistry campaign of 23 compounds identified compound 1 as a highly potent inhibitor with sub nM affinity to class-IIa HDAC4 isoform....
Article
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Nuclear medicine has evolved over the last half-century from a functional imaging modality using a handful of radiopharmaceuticals, many of unknown structure and mechanism of action, into a modern speciality that can properly be described as molecular imaging, with a very large number of specific radioactive probes of known structure that image spe...
Article
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Progress in unraveling the complex biology of cancer, novel developments in radiochemistry, and availability of relevant α-emitters for targeted therapy have provided innovative approaches to precision cancer management. The approval of 223Ra dichloride for treatment of men with osseous metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer unleashed target...
Article
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Objective: In the recent time, endoradionuclide therapy for metastatic castration-resistant prostate carcinoma employing 177Lu-PSMA-617 has yielded encouraging results and several clinical trials with the agent are currently ongoing. Routine preparation of 177Lu-PSMA-617 patient doses can be made simpler and convenient, if the ingredients essentia...
Article
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In the field of 18F-chemistry for the development of radiopharmaceuticals for positron emission tomography (PET), various labeling strategies by the use of prosthetic groups have been implemented, including chemoselective 18F-labeling of biomolecules. Among those, chemoselective 18F-fluoroglycosylation methods focus on the sweetening of pharmaceuti...
Book
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This monograph summarizes the results of the analytical work of post-graduate students and teachers of the Scientific and Educational Centers of the Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Mendeleev UCTR and MIIT-RUT...
Article
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The activity ratio of uranium in unknown samples and materials is a crucial signature tool for verification, assay and tracking their origin. This paper deals with using γ-spectrometry analysis and an innovative derived formula to calculate the 235U/238U activity ratio. Reference IAEA materials and highly efficient, calibrated HPGe spectrometer wer...
Article
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This guideline on molar activity (Am) and specific activity (As) focusses on small molecules, peptides and macromolecules radiolabelled for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. In this guideline we describe the definition of Am and As, and how these measurements must be standardised and harmonised. Selected examples highlighting the importance...
Article
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There is an unmet medical need for non-invasive, sensitive, and quantitative methods for the assessment of fibrosis. Herein, an improved collagelin analogue labelled with gallium-68 for use with positron emission tomography (PET) is presented. A cyclic peptide, c[CPGRVNleHGLHLGDDEGPC], was synthesized by solid-phase peptide synthesis, conjugated to...
Article
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Positron emission tomography (PET) has become an invaluable tool for drug discovery and diagnosis. The positron-emitting radionuclide fluorine-18 is frequently used in PET radiopharmaceuticals due to its advantageous characteristics; hence, methods streamlining access to ¹⁸ F-labelled radiotracers can make a direct impact in medicine. For many year...
Conference Paper
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Radionuclides suitable for internal radiotherapy with special emphasis on emerging alfa emitters. Radiochemistry (chelators, binding stability, mechanism of delivery, minigenerators), Radiopharmaceuticals suitable for internal radiothetherapy and their stage of application.
Article
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In oncology, biomarker research aimed to provide insights on cancer biology via positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission tomography (SPECT) imaging has seen an incredible growth in the past two decades. Despite the increased number of publications on PET/SPECT radiopharmaceuticals, the field lacked standardization of in vitro a...
Article
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210Po and 210Pb occur naturally and are the most radiotoxic isotopes of the uranium (U) decay chain. Samples of Boletus edulis and related mushroom species, including B. pinophilus, B. reticulatus, B. luridus and B. impolitus, collected from Poland and Belarus were investigated for the activity concentrations of these isotopes and also for their po...
Article
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Background: The Editorial Board of EJNMMI Radiopharmacy and Chemistry releases a biyearly highlight commentary to update the readership on trends in the field of radiopharmaceutical development. Results: This commentary of highlights has resulted in 21 different topics selected by each member of the Editorial Board addressing a variety of aspects r...
Article
Full-text available
The aluminium-[¹⁸F]fluoride ([¹⁸F]AlF) radiolabelling method combines the favourable decay characteristics of fluorine-18 with the convenience and familiarity of metal-based radiochemistry and has been used to parallel gallium-68 radiopharmaceutical developments. As such, the [¹⁸F]AlF method is popular and widely implemented in the development of r...
Article
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Purpose We present here a Zr-89-labeled inhibitor of prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) as a complement to the already established F-18- or Ga-68-ligands. Procedures The precursor PSMA-DFO (ABX) was used for Zr-89-labeling. This is not an antibody, but a peptide analogue of the precursor for the production of [ ¹⁷⁷ Lu]Lu-PSMA-617. The ligan...
Preprint
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Artificial intelligence and machine learning are poised to disrupt PET imaging from bench to clinic. In this perspective we offer insights into how the technology could be applied to improve the design and synthesis of new radiopharmaceuticals for PET imaging, including identification of an optimal labeling approach as well as strategies for radiol...