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Racism - Science topic

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Totalitarianism and ideologies have often ensured that political, historical, philosophical, scientific, and artistic ideas conform to what the rulers consider correct. This has led to scientific impostures and rewritings of history, which are ethically questionable if not unacceptable. Illustration: Skulls from the collection of Samuel Morton, one of the American fathers of "scientific racism", illustrate his classification of humanity into five races (fruits, according to him, of five divine decisions), which today are outdated. Left to right: Black American woman and white man, Native Mexican man, Chinese woman and Malaysian man, PHOTOGRAPH BY ROBERT CLARK/ UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM OF ARCHEOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGY
This forum is intended as a platform for discussion and exchange on the topic where all examples and illustrations are welcome.
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Well Prof. Jamel Chahed in my case I have experienced several unpleasant academic situations where totalitarianism was imposed inside schools & universities in our country:
For example we were banned in Venezuela to have access to foreign journal subscriptions back in 2010 (in our university) when still there was not hyperinflation. In addition, a couple of years later forced to use a software called "canaima" (kind of incomplete linux version given to children in schools firstly and then moved to supplant university computers with a posteriori disaster).
I do not know the results (quantitatively) on how the authoritarian disaster ended since there are not statistics, because whatever happens wrong in the public education sector in Venezuela (more than 90 % of the total) is erased as soon as possible because there is not even a one good experience. Venezuela is a totalitarian failed land in all aspects including education, science and technology. Some university authorities were imposed by a fake supreme court without any meritocracy, and so on. It is too much to say in one thread.
However, anybody can see the results of the illiteracy in teaching STEAM core subjects in middle schools and in universities. Please some articles with results from polls conducted by one Private Catholic University are in Spanish but google translate helps. Lack & total loss of the most basic students competences such as reading and basic maths among many negative results due to Authoritarianism:
Kind Regards.
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Discrimination is a topic in many ways. Students at different universities report discrimination in the context of the pandemic. They experience discrimination due to their disability, their social background, their religion, their nationality a.s.o. Do you know research projects that systematically investigate discrimination at universities?
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There are no active projects
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Transformation, unlike resolution, restoration, management, reform, or revolution addresses very distinctive issues that these other approaches to conflict and justice do not. Transformative justice challenges all aspects of authoritarianism, domination, and control within society today. For this reason, transformative justice is more than an alternative to a criminal justice system, but a social justice philosophy for peace with tools to achieve such goals. Further, it is a non-dogmatic, process-based philosophy that allows for creative approaches in transforming conflict and addressing issues of brutality, racism, assault, abuse, accountability, responsibility, loss and, most importantly, healing.—A. J. Nocella
What say ye?!
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  1. Restorative justice and transformative are two quite different perspectives.
  2. Restorative  process aims at personal and and interpersonal transformation and can open spaces for social transformation.
  3. Restorative justice falls on a continuum between retributive and transformative justice.
Restorative or transformative justice? – Restorative Justice Blog (emu.edu)
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Our school system basically a predominant of societal role with respect to boundary of country but not at all globally.Designed of communicating in various subject compelled with many language acquired and applicability of in various discipline.Integrity of learning and mankind are retrospective.
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A cada troca de governo no país, deixa-se e lado a educação!
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Hi, does anyone know of a questionnaire that was used to ask about racial discrimination against nurses with a migration background? I would be very happy to receive a feedback. Thanks in advance.
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Hi there.. Did you think about using the Perceived Ethnic Discrimination Questionnaire (PEDQ)?
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Dear All
I am writing this concern to find out if any author (as a corresponding author) belongs to one of developing countries and tries to submit his work in the Crop Journal (The Crop Journal | ScienceDirect.com by Elsevier). I have submitted twice and got a rejection from the editor without convincing reasons (your paper doesn't meet the standards of the journal)
1- The first rejection, I have contacted the handling editor providing many similar articles published in the journal in the same year (2020) and with fewer analyses than I did in my paper. His reply was, "submit it again and select another editor"). The same manuscript was successfully published in BMC Plant Biology
2- second rejection was in 2021. Imagine I submitted a new article (two years data, with three locations) and after three hours I got a rejection from the handling editor telling me the same silly reason. I am quite sure that three hours for a manuscript including many figures and tables and more than 6-8 supplementary files were not enough to make a fair judge on the paper. I resulted from it again asking the chief in the editor to assign another editor. After one house, I got the rejection by the same handling editor.
So, it looks to me that the editor just read the affiliation and decide to reject the paper without reading it carefully. I officially complain to the Elsevier publisher about this situation.
Does any face the same situation?
Your feedback is extremely important.
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Dear Amira M.I. Mourad I have had an opportunity to publish one of my reviews "Integrated physiological and molecular approaches to improvement of abiotic stress tolerance in two pulse crops of the semi-arid tropics" in the Crop Journal (Vol 6, No. 2). Although the review process was highly rigorous, the handling editor seemed to be cooperative. However, at that time, the journal was devoid of "impact" factor. Soon after, it received an impressive impact factor, and thereafter, it began to charge publication fee. Because of high publication fee, I did not even think further to submit any paper to this Journal.
That what you have narrated happens sometimes with most authors. Sometimes, even for simple reasons (such as language, grammatical mistakes, etc), the editor decides to reject the submission. For authors, these may be simple reasons, but for the editor these may become the major ones. Moreover, the number of submissions and acceptance rate also account for such rejections. To my knowledge, the journal is an official publication of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences; I don't think the handling editor can practice any bias towards authors belonging to developing nations.
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I am conducting a study based on the Health Belief Model (People will not change their health behaviors unless they believe that they are at risk). My target population is African American females but my findings are not consistent with the HBM. I am wondering about the potential for racial bias in the development of the HBM or other validated instruments, but I am having trouble finding studies to support this theory. Any suggestions?
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Thanks you for your suggestions
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Is not the term anti-Semitic, as it is used today to refer to bigotry against Jews, used loosely and erroneously? “Anti-Semitic” literally and technically means being opposed to someone who speaks a Semitic language (e.g. Arabic and Hebrew). My question is: why then was the term “anti-Semitic” coined in 19th century Germany to refer – rather confusingly – to a phenomenon of hatred of Jews in Europe who, however, did not speak a Semitic language at the time? Do we know with any certainty and rigour how much knowledge of philology and linguistics Wilhelm Marr, the German writer who coined the term “anti-Semitic” in 1879, had?
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The University of Bristol has sacked David Miller, a sociology professor who was accused of making antisemitic comments...
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I'm doing a longitudinal multilevel model analysis of change to look at the impact racism has on health. My level 2 is thus individual, while my level 1 is time/wave. I'm using 5 different waves of the UKHLS and in order to include more people I decided to use an unbalanced dataset as every book I read said that MLM can handle that without a problem. However now while trying to fit even one of the simplest models I'm already encountering a problem getting an error message. This is my code and the error message I receive: m1 <- lmer(data = lusl, generalhealth ~ 1 + wave0 +(1 + wave0 | pidp), na.action=na.exclude) Error: number of observations (=30962) <= number of random effects (=31520) for term (1 + wave0 | pidp); the random-effects parameters and the residual variance (or scale parameter) are probably unidentifiable
Am I doing something wrong or is MLM not able to handl eunbalanced data after all?
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Dear, Nora. let me just watch your question
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As we move forward to dismantle racism within education, it is important to identify and share effective strategies to elevate the curriculum to a higher standard that recognizes and celebrates global diversity.
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Teacher should plan to connect Students with literature to learn new things they have to Look for resources beyond the textbook and involve them in the self learning, imagination based activities, and allow them to learn from their own experiences by engaging day-to-day activities means give them chance to present their skills by time to time. This may create enjoyment in the classroom to increase their capacity.
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I am writing a paper on racism in science and would like to hear reports about scientists and researchers who have experienced situations involving racist attitudes from other researchers, and how this issue has impacted or impacts on research.
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It influences a lot, a lot: without going any further, the concept of "race" is not valid for the Human Being, it was invented by the racists (and the Hugo Project, with the sequencing of the entire human genome, has definitively demonstrated that already enough We affirm it: In the Human Being, ALL OF THE SAME SPECIES DO NOT EXIST RACES! National Socialist anthropology, which tried to substantiate the concept (pseudo-concept in reality) that the "Aryan race" was the superior with its studies and theoretical validation (absolutely false) of the phrase "Gegen Tipus" or "Gegenthipus" - totally refuted by Eysenck, Adorno et al. and many others, fortunately - and even affirming that the "non-Aryans" were or are
"subhuman" (especially Jews).
The problem is that racism is a false "Psychopathology", but that it has cost and continues to cost MILLIONS OF HUMAN LIVES !; I suggest that you read several of our contributions, here in "RG" on Racism, Prejudices, Stereotypes, Ethnocentrism, etc. (both in Articles, as in Chapters, POnences, etc.) that are TRUE TOXIC AND POLLUTING IDEAS, and HOW TO FIGHT THEM. Thanks.
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The Capstone is complete, responses no longer necessary
My graduate capstone is reviewing research on MORAL DISTRESS SYMPTOMS as they apply to (contribute to the emotional state of) police and the contribution it makes to police violence (use of force beyond a threshold).
For example, moral distress from working with child sex abuse material could lead to perceiving everyone as an abuser and influence decision-making.
Police violence is more likely in an officer with compromised decision-making skills (ethically or due to hypervigilance.)
Any research on racism and how it influences this topic is appreciated.
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Considero q en mi país todos tenemos los mismos derechos sin distinción de la raza o color de piel.y es como debe ser porque todos somos humanos, pero he visto en noticias por diferentes fuentes y redes sociales q en otros países son discriminados por el color de su piel. Es un aspecto q debemos mejorar en el mundo
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In researching the enduring place of racism in society, I have been impressed with Leon Poliakov's 1971 analysis of various social mythologies/genealogies in "The Aryan Myth." I am also interested in hearing other perspectives on the "stickiness factor" of these ideas.
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The cause of racism is not skin color, but human thinking. Therefore, healing from racial prejudice, xenophobia and intolerance should be sought primarily in rescuing from misconceptions that for centuries have been a source of misconceptions about the benefits or, conversely, the lower position of various groups among mankind.
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On White Supremacy:
The obsession as to whether human-kind is fundamentally bad or good has preoccupied scholars for millennia. This can be traced back to the Catholic theologian, Augustine (354-430), who believed that men and women are basically bad, all born into original sin, and therefore require close supervision by which to cleanse their souls. In the enlightened age, intellectuals such as Rousseau (1712-1778) came up with the counter argument defending the premise that human-kind is basically good, an ethos that has been adopted by many liberal societies of today even if only by lip-service. We know that if one wants an economy that is maximally uncreative and unproductive, totalitarianism (left or right driven) is the best political system by which to achieve this. Here a minority of the population under its leadership employs all the state’s resources to control the majority under the assumption that the majority has ‘bad habits’ that must be altered and if not possible contained using police-state tactics. Such a society is unsustainable, as we witnessed with the disintegration of the Soviet Union in December 1991.
So, what about White Supremacy. This viewpoint has a long history in the United State going back to the age of slavery [1620 to 1865] when Black people (including their children) were sold and killed like cattle. At its zenith in 1860, some 13% of the US population, 4 million people of a population of 31 million, were enslaved. Shortly after the passage of the 13th Amendment (which was meant to end slavery in 1865) segments of the White population resisted this policy by forming the Ku Klux Klan who adopted an Augustine-viewpoint that led to the mass lynching of mainly Black males that continued well into the mid-20th Century. According to the Equal Justice Initiative (2017), 4084 African-Americans were lynched between 1877 and 1950, mainly in the Southern United States. In the 1960’s three acts were passed by Congress to remedy this bad history: the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965, and the Civil Rights Act of 1968.
Now let us fast forward to the Age of Trump (2016-2020). Donald Trump, an Independent, became a Republican so that he could win the presidential election in November 2016. His madness, which includes racism, bigotry, and contempt for women, is expressed regularly via Twitter and Fox News. This madness has now been amplified by the recent killing of an African American man, George Floyd, who was caught on camera being suffocated by a Minneapolis police officer. With Christian Bible in hand and in front of St. Johns church in Washington DC, Trump declared (much like Hitler did during his rallies in the 30 and 40’s) that he would impose law and order on the masses who are protesting the killing of George Floyd. So far, 10,000 protesters have been arrested by police (Aljazeera, June 4, 2020). The ~ 25,000 White Supremacist of America are standing by to see whether Trump can create an opportunity for them to return America to its roots: by having a large segment of the population (mainly immigrant and non-White) be put under the control of a White minority to satisfy (unbeknown to them) the dictates of the Catholic theologian, Augustine (354-430). If you believe in humanity and its sustainability, you can never allow this to happen since this is a recipe to continuous warfare, much like what goes on in the Middle East today.
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Not accepted at all. All popple must equal. All humans are from one origin.
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In Europe (in France and Germany at least), there is a new cultural-political position suggesting there were no human races … Not really … only as a delusion… as a constructed deception originating from the early modern times of beginning colonialism. – So not whites, no blacks (in former times: “negros” – sorry, I apologize for this), no yellow or Mongolian race, no Eskimos and so on.
The traditionalists in Europe still oppose this position and complain about a new ideological war with the progressive activists, who try for instance to make jobs dependent on compliance to the no-race-concept.
I would be especially interested in the opinions of coloured people and of non-Westerners. (But this is not meant as an exclusion … So all are invited (independent of any external traits) …).
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I do find this article belong to this research question.
The way that the media reports Black civil-rights protests has contributed to the long delay in reckoning with anti-Black racism, argues media researcher Danielle Kilgo. Kilgo and her colleagues used linguistic analysis to quantify narratives from newspapers, websites and television, mainly in the United States. The results reveal that civil-rights protesters are the least likely to have their concerns and demands presented substantively, compared with protestors focusing on other issues, such as women’s rights or gun control. “Less space is given to protesters’ quotes; more space to official sources,” she writes. “The dominant narrative accentuates trivial, disruptive and combative actions.”
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Articles that share the history and development of medicine in the UK, any aspect of medicine and medical education.
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I have only researched the subject for the Portuguese colonies (Mozambique, East Timor, and Macao) but I have consulted several studies regarding the British and the French colonial empires. One of the books that I found interesting is:
SETH, Suman. Difference and Disease: Medicine, Race, and the Eighteenth-Century British Empire. New York: Cornell University, 2018 (you will find a generous bibliography and sources in this book).
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Today, racism continues to be one of the main discrimination problems in our society. On multitudes of occasions, we are present in situations where people are treated with inferiority and where they are judged with a wide variety of prejudices. This problem is usually seen in education, health, housing, politics, employment and in everyday life itself, both publicly and privately. Racism and racial discrimination is caused by fear, hatred, ignorance, ideology, by socio-economic circumstances, among others. That is why, today, various measures and struggles are carried out to become aware of the existing global problems. The UN is one of the main organizations that emphasizes this problem, due to the great lack of tolerance present in today's world, its main objective being to end racism, ethnic discrimination and xenophobia and trying to prevail above all the principle equality of all human beings. But do you think that one day the multitude of struggles and measures will bear fruit? What is your opinion?
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It is something completely abject that usually comes out from the difficulty to accept cultural diversity: there aren't "good" or bad "cultures", "inferior" or "superior", "civilized" or "uncivilized", "pure" or "impure", "right" or "wrong". There are only different cultures. It is exactly the same with human groups and individuals: we have different colors, different noses or eyes, diverse hair along with diverse cultures, diverse habits, and diverse cultural practices.
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Dear colleagues,
Do you think that the peer review process entails experiences of racism? Recently, this issue came up in discussion with a few students who are people of colour. I found it very disheartening but I am sure it is way more discouraging for young graduates to experience racism in the peer-review process. Is there anything that can be done to make the reviewers more objective and not hung up on colonial and racist legacies? Any thoughts would be appreciated. Thank you!
Warm regards,
Gulnaz
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Thank you Gulnaz Anjum for the question but I failed to understand how can a peer review process could entail racism. The peer-review process I'm familiar with is confidential; even names are not revealed! So how can reviewers apply "racism" when no indication is made to names, photos or identities during the process. Having said this, I, equally, would not be surprised that sometimes "sick" mentalities are capable of infusing their venom in devious ways!
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Dear All,
I have been looking for papers, or books, that focus on the issues surrounding adoption of mixed Black-Caribbean/Caucasian children. I am interested in literature that looks at any aspects of adoption of this population, e.g. belonging, identity, otherness, education, acceptance, racism, live trajectories etc.
Literature from any year will be greatly appreciated.
Thank you,
Gillian
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I am exploring the case of social protest in Ecuador, in October of 2019. During a week of escalation of social conflict, both open expressions of racism and xenophobia appeared in the public discourse. Indigenous peoples who were part of the protesters received open racist attacks, while Venezuelan migrants were blamed for the violence. Indigenous peoples are clearly racialized in Ecuador, while Venezuelan migrants are not clearly so (in contrast to Haitian migrants, for instance).
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I believe that you are referring to a universal phenomenon not confined to a particular country. Too many ethnic group in the world are prejudiced against in too many spots of the world. They are all the outcome of misconception which, at times, is fed by sick ideologies, fanaticism, and bigotry.
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Are you part of a community-led organization that advocates for racialized communities?
Are you part of a coalition that is advocating for change?
Bringing people together or running a campaign to raise awareness of racism?
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Looks like an interesting research topic particularly on indigenous communities and their experiences.
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Modern technology is destructive: it has polluted the earth, the wáter and the air of our planet. Humanity has devastated the ecology of the whole world. Hundreds of animals and plants are now endangered species. Climatic change and global warming are now serious threats for the development of a sustainable life. Humanity has created very sophisticated weapons of mass destruction. War has become a very profitable business. Political and religious radicalism are real threats to the world's peace, as well as racism, hatred and all forms of discrimination. Hunger, poverty and social differences are sources of disease and conflict. All these human creations have become an almost uncontrolable monster that is pushing this world towards global destruction. 
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Thank you Christian for your answer. Artificial Intelligence and genetically modified humans are no more something that belongs to science fiction. The more it becomes a real possibility the more I dread. We are not God. I find it terrifying, especially the idea of creating genetically modified humans. Before that we have to survive the pandemic and its consequences.
Best,
Julio
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How both climate change and systemic racism have their roots in colonization and the accompanying exploitation and extraction of both people and the environment.
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I asked a similar question a week ago. It emanated out of the yellow vest protests of western Canada. Many of these right wing protesters espoused positions that were pro-oil and pipelines, an anti-immigration with Islamophobic overtones. To somewhat digress, a recent anti-mask rally in Saskatchewan was organized by a known white supremacist. Research is needed to deconstruct these strange juxtapositions between anti-science beliefs and overt racism.
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Stigma is a set of unfair, negative beliefs about a certain group of people, such as people with mental health issues or addiction. In some cases, health practitioners may make diagnosis and treatment decisions based on stereotypes, racial prejudices, or unfair beliefs about mental illness. What is our role as health practitioners to prevent this misbehavior ?
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I am looking for information on the history and current movements focused on Black skin color pride (dark skin is beautiful; all colors are beautiful; Black is beautiful. Most of the articles I am finding focus on racial pride but I have not found those which discuss the promotion of dark skin as beautiful in the 1960s and 1970s as well as currently. Thank you!
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Read "Toni Morrison: The Struggle to Depict the Black Figure on the White Page" by Timothy B. Powell. It may be of help. In God Help the Child, Toni Morrison deals with darkness of skin as an important issue.
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I would argue that FOX New is an example of Edmond Burke (an Originalist from England) on steroids. The late founder of FOX News, Roger Eugene Ailes, surrounded himself with tall, blue-eyed, full-lipped, blonde bombshells who submitted to his every wish (for advancement of course) so that he could be transported back to the fifties as he reached climax in his office chair (all permitted by his loyal wife). But of course, this is not new. Bill Clinton and his enabling wife, Hillary, institutionalized this behavior in the White House under a modernist agenda—as the conservative speaker of the House Newt Gingrich convinced Bill that there were too many idle Black Folks ripping off the White Tax-Paying People of America, a class who was handsomely bailed-out in 2008. To add to the Originalism of FOX News, there is the occasional ‘Jim Crow’ on display pontificating (in black face) about the virtues of the Free Markets in the way wealth trickles down to the underclass so that the hungriest can end up on FOX News collecting a 7-figures salary. Many of these black faces try to convince us that there has been more than enough change to the Constitution to deal with all the inequities and for those who complain about injustice, such as the Black Lives Matter movement, they lack initiative, suffering from a disease called laziness, a choice they made soon after they were born. This lack of initiative can be seen when one walks down Main Street in Houston Texas to observe black folk on all fours eating out of a bowl filled with McDonalds food-scraps or black folk coiled on a tram flatform with matted hair and backside exposed rolling around in circles like a serpent that has sustained vestibular damage. You would never know that the Mayor of Main Street is a modernist Black Democrat, who has been described by some as, ‘He left the Hood never looking back for he is intent in separating himself from his race but he insists on being a role model to his people on voting day.’ When a black fellow recently expressed his reason for not voting ‘there is no one in power who supports my interests’, I assured him that the Biden/Harris ticket would begin to right many of the wrongs of the past. He remained incredulous for he understands that FOX News is more the norm than the exception here in America. Some would say that after Lincoln amended the Constitution there has been little change in race relations for many Black folks still feel as though they are three-fifths white as specified in the ‘original’ Constitution of 1787.
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True claim, I agree with you
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What are racism's effects on language acquisition?
Whether on a personal or institutional level, please share your experiences.
Thank you.
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Racism, as any other from of discrimination like untouchability or other marginalization invariably affects language acquisition. In case of academic language acquisition like teaching English as second language, there is an observed and marked indications that the degree of language learning is not the same as the 'majority ' or 'mainstream ' learners.
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I am starting some new research on the inherent racism in capitalism and the socio-economic systems of health, housing and education and would like to know what to read.
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Massey and Denton, American Apartheid.
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Although many academic papers have pointed out that shark conservation is an international issue that requires multi-nation collaboration, public media still commonly attribute this problem to a single nation, China, and see shark finning as the major, if not only, reason for shark's being forced to the edge of danger. They believe racism is the "weapon" and key to the solution.
Even worse, quantities of news comments and even news reports themselves are full of racism.
What the news industry and the public think of shark conservation is vastly different from what the academic field has found. There are two types of shark conservation, one of the folk concept and the other of academic.
In folk concept, shark's situation is all due to China, and shark fin soup is the only reason for massacring sharks. The public pay no attention to the bycatch problem of tuna fisheries, nor do they criticize sports fishing that targets endangered mako shark.
It has been obvious that in public-oriented shark conservation publicity, racism has been quite ubiquitous. Just open some news link on Facebook ot Twitter, and you may easily find racist comments that believe all Chinese are bad to sharks. I tried to rebute them but they refuse to listen.
But racism is vicious and it can not help any vulnerable species. How to help provide a comprehensive view of shark's situation and help remove racism in shark conservation education?
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Thank you for pointing this out. On a related note, it seems that science practiced by some in the Western countries (e.g., US, EU) perpetuate the colonial roots of the natural sciences. For example, coral reef researchers from the US going to the South Pacific doing field work and then telling the locals how to manage their reef fisheries. Without capacity building and collaboration with local scientists and fishers, this behavior is tantamount to intellectual piracy stealing the nation's intellectual legacy.
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the theme of race in the book the bluest eye
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Toni Morrison’s novel enlightens readers about the challenges plaguing Blacks in America, what oppression looks and feels like, and what it creates, while evincing the commonalities among all people.
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Can we have gender and/or racial bias in the meritocratic system? What is your reasoning?
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It is just my opinion which supported by the reality observed in my country.
Regards
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I am writing a scholarly advocacy article - the question is:
"What is the problem with using an historically specific example of racism as a template for understanding the multifaceted nature of racism itself?"
Any input would be much appreciated and happy to cite
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A special thanks to Anthony Clancy Salvatore Saiu and Christopher Zieske for their input on my equality research report.
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My topic is “Polymorphous Discrimination: Rohingya Women in the Goggles of Intersectionality“. I would be happy to have a number of scientific journals to publish in: any Credible journals are therefore welcome. Thanks a lot for your suggestion.
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You can use Scopus as well. Here is the link for sources:
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Racial discrimination is any discrimination against individuals on the basis of their skin color, or racial or ethnic origin.
Please share your opinion's. Thanks in advance
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Hi Milon,
I am not sure that there is any one way to overcome this. I am very sorry for your experience as this can be painful. Because there are no clear ways of surely overcoming such an experience, I will share with you what I have read in the literature that seems to help. First, I think it is important to what you attribute this discrimination. You should not attribute this internally as if it were legitimate or as if you deserved it. I think you should attribute this externally as a flaw in the person who discriminated against you. There is never justification for mistreating someone on the basis of an immutable characteristic. Second, I think it is important not to generalize this experience too far. It is easy to go through such a hurtful experience and then believe everyone views you this way. In fact, the vast majority of people likely do not view you negatively like the person who discriminated against you. Third, I think it is important for you to reflect on the pride you have in being of a difference ethnicity/race. Taking in pride in your group membership has been shown to produce many positive effects. Never be ashamed of who you are. Fourth, you may wish to seek social support from friends and family. Support in these times an be very helpful. I know these are vague recommendations, but I hope you will consider them. And I hope you are doing better.
Cory
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That has been some commentary about increased racism, bullying and xenophobia against Chinese/ Asian people in the wake of the Coronavirus.
Can anyone point me to quality resrouces for schools to help prevent and respond to this behaviour in the school community. Any research or relevant resources following the SARS outbreak in 2002?
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Any racism is absolutely condemnable! Regretfully we cannot eradicate stupidity.
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I'm writing a book that raises questions about the traditional meanings of justice and injustice.
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No, I wouldn’t say ignorance is the root of prejudice. Prejudice can be a learned outcome, but also throughout history some groups had tension with other groups, hence developing prejudice.
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This title might not be very clear, let me elaborate :
Let's say, you're a computer scientist on your browser. You innocently browse the web, looking for a new book about procrastination (or anything else). Suddenly, a click lead you to the homepage of EvilCorpWorld, a (fictional) company incarnating the opposite of your ethical views.
EvilCorpWorld isn't a "common evildoer", they blatantly make the world a worst place. According to your ethical views, they could be enslaving children, selling weapons to warlords, practicing tax fraud at country scale, they support network promoting racism and sexism...
On the homepage of EvilCorpWorld, you inadvertently notice a big security flaw. Something like "click here for rootshell (Admin only!)". For the sake of simplicity, let's say it's an actual flaw, not a honeypot or anything else.
Now you have three possibility :
  • to tell : email EvilCorpWorld to warn them about the huge flaw.
  • to poke : like with a stick, poke the flaw, trying to see how far you can get. Poking does not mix with wrongdoing on purpose or for benefit. It's more a playful activity.
  • to delegate : unsure of what to do, asking someone more versed in infosec what they think
What would be the most ethical-wise thing to do (maybe something other than three options)?
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Item 4 in a previous post, identity, is fundamental and at a certain level, un- provable as a absolute. We assume identity (this IS this) given evidence, but evidence too, is a form of identity (this PROVES this). The links "is" and "proves" are human judgement, and it's turtles all the way down. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turtles_all_the_way_down
Other than that, you have offered a lot of good ideas (and good questions and good comments) to unpack in your reply. Not sure what else I could add.
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There is an enormous amount of research about conflicts and polarisation, like the Allport contact hypothesis and also the genocide literature of Abram de Swaan. What lacks to my opinion is research about how to end a conflict effectively. Possible parties who might intervene are victims, offenders and bystanders. Much of the work I know about ending conflicts like colonisation, suppressing people by means of racism etc. is based on Martin Luther King, the Dalai Lama, Nelson Mandela and Mahatma Gandhi.
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Very important question. In fact, I don't Know research in this field, only about conflicts. But, when I have more time, I intend to say anything about this topic.
Best regards
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I am currently working on my masters thesis about a german far-right group and their use of instagram and social media. During my research I encountered several racist and homophobic expressions, including the N-word.
Of cause these findings have to be mentioned in the paper.
But do you directly quote this? Do you censor the most extreme parts?
Quoting things correctly is one of the most fundermental rules of sience, but doing so would reproduce racism, even if it is in a commented, sientific context.
How did/do you deal with such problems in your papers? Does your institut/lab have rules about this?
I am really looking forward to hearing your opintion on that matter.
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A good response from Karl. Direct quotation directly signifies that they are not 'your words' Matthias. On the other hand - don't be over-sensitive to the situation. Anyone reading/marking your work/thesis will know the context of it. Social research works best when it doesn't censure - and 'stays true' to the social reality and accurately represents the social actors/players within. So, for me, ensure that your opening chapter clearly defines context - and contains some sort of 'disclaimer'. As well as direct quotation - you can add emphasis to words or terms i.e. italics. Again - explain early on that emphasis means you are using them 'in context' because, not to, would not accurately represent the topic context.
I note your point about 'reproducing racisms' - but I don't see it that way. It is already there. You are merely 'representing' what is already known to exist. As long as you are presenting in an objective, distant, neutral and balanced manner (and not intending to 'fuel any flames) - then you can't be accused of 'reproducing'.
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Racism is the belief that a particular race is superior or inferior to another, that his or her inborn biological characteristics predetermine a person's social and moral traits. Racial separatism is the belief, most of the time, based on racism, that different races should remain segregated and apart from one another. The racist never believe that he is racism. I can't determine what is the worst case in this argument, colour, religion, social level, etc
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Thank you dear Atef Nassar for reading my article. Concerning Muslim activists, yes, I partly agree. There are good scholars in religious and social studies, but they do not have access to powerful media to disseminate their ideas. The good thing, however, is that there has been a strong move or wave to conduct team work (or co-authorship) to implement new ideas. But things take time. We are still optimistic.
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I have looked at "white racism" research which generally shows up in contexts where there is a majority/minority dynamic. I am looking for racism research particularly directed towards Pakistani community, sometimes including Indians and Bengalis as well. In particular, I want to look at "othering" research focusing on Pakistanis/ browns, and othering by Middle Easterns, Black communities and South East Asians in particular.
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Salaams
I conduct research on the Indian community in South Africa. Would you like to chat?
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I can't find anything related to this subject. All I can find is related to racial discrimination.
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My immediate guess is: You probably can't measure discrimination against homeless people from the view of the perpetrators.
My reason: To answer the above, the perpetrators need to be known. I assume no one would simply accept that they have some sort of discrimination against the homeless, thus leaving you with no participants to collect your data (levels of discrimination) from.
However, what might be somewhat possible is to explore the idea of how some people (e.g., bystanders and pedestrians) might be thinking about the homeless people; what are some of their biases and stereotypes about this population. You can do this by interviewing a number of people. You will then analyse the transcript of those interviews to explore themes related to discrimination.
I hope this was somewhat useful.
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As an IR/Comparative Politics scholar I've always tried to follow the dictum "let the research question determine the methodology, method, etc." I remain a disciplinary and methodological pluralist. And now I find myself writing what amounts to a defense against a resurgent scientism from some quarters, which I feel are targeting inherently vulnerable research programs (such as made clear in the Grievance Studies hoax). At the moment, I'm wrestling with concepts from the philosophy of science that I struggle to get a good bead on. Take for instance one critic who dismisses the work of an increasingly well known sociologist advancing a theory out of critical race studies as pseudoscience because she does not adhere to Popper's 1963 monist demand for the hypothetico-deductive method as the only demarcation between science and non-science and specifically that she does not employ quantitative methods. Yet in one essay by this critic, an argument against the removal of Gen. Robert E. Lee's statue from New Orleans, the author 1) notes that he firmly rejects presentism - though qualifies that to say of course we should still be able to morally criticize slavery, and 2) argues that to fully understand the meaning of the statue's removal (meaning for whom, the author does not specify) we must contextualize the historical figure Lee, for as the critic notes, Lee was inescapably a man only to be understood in the context of the time he could not escape. Failure to contextualize Lee, leads us to miss what a good and honorable man he was, and thus why the statue's removal should be reconsidered. So my puzzle is this: Is this an epistemological inconsistency? Isn't, for all it's obvious problems, presentism - the view that, inter alia, only present things exist -- something of a positivist epistemology that a hard core positivist must embrace if he or she is to be remain epistemologically consistent? Additionally, isn't' demanding at the same time that we adopt an epistemic contextualism in order to see the error in removing a statue celebrating the man who led the army of the confederacy in defense of slavery rather contradictory for one who dismisses as pseudoscience sociological work that emphasizes the cultural context that gives rise to, for example, internalized racism among the dominant racial group? Am I seeing what I think I'm seeing? Or do I just not adequately appreciate the complexity of these concepts?
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Presentism in historical or sociological analysis is simply the anachronistic treatment of the past in terms of present-day ideas and outlooks. You can say that this presentism involves a contextual fallacy by ignoring or not giving the historical context its proper due in treatments of the past (cf. "Whig history"). The metaphysical thesis of presentism, i.e. that only the present exists, need not be a corollary of historical/sociological presentism. A metaphysical presentist can still claim that the past existed, along with its contextual features, and can be inferred from its present-day spoor (which is not to deny that there will be evidential gaps). The early forms of logical positivism (LP) would've entailed that meaningful propositions about the past are equivalent to propositions about what can be observed in the present, and so in that sense early LP entailed metaphysical presentism (although those LP-ists would've eschewed the word "metaphysical"); that kind of LP is indeed hardcore but it's an ism that involved many inconsistencies, not just the one you allude to, and has had its day.
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What is genocide? A quick search gives the following definition: the deliberate killing of a large group of people, especially those of a particular ethnic group or nation.
Now, in this scenario, there's no actual killing. However, it has long been understood that race is not a biologically valid trait. We are all one species and there hasn't been time for actual biologically valid separations from groups to evolve. So, what differentiates one group of people from another is culture.
If a group of people are required to give up their cultural heritage, then that ethnicity is gone. Obviously this is a fairly charged question, but I think the RG community is up to answering it honestly and rationally.
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Re David's response above: I say it depends on the element that is being restricted. For example, in Canada in the 1960s, in order to dissuade the Inuit from their life as hunters and travelers, the government sent in forces to kill all the sled dogs (which of course provided the major means of transportation over the ice and snow). The result of restricting or eliminating this one element was beyond devastating. In one action, the people were forced not only to give up their way of life as hunters (of seals, caribou, and other Arctic wildlife) around which their culture had developed, it forced them into squalid reserves. Of course, that was not the only attempt at cultural genocide; the government forced children into residential schools to "kill the Indian in the child" (including loss of language), which also damaged them as human beings--they were abused in the schools, and separated sometimes by great distance from their friends and family. Either one of these acts alone likely would have severely damaged the culture, but in combination, it represented an attempt at cultural genocide that nearly succeeded. The culture has survived but is still in recovery mode--the damage done was extensive, and the effects are still felt in those communities.
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What factors influence the degree of telling the truth in academic research?
I have humanities in mind, particularly politics related topics.
How much where a researcher comes from influences his/her inclination to reveal the truth? What triggered this question is a declaration by a European teacher that researchers from the Middle East don't tell the truth in their writings!
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Most of this discussion has already been developed by K. Popper and J. Habermas. See Adorno, Albert, Dahrendorf, Habermas, Pilot und Popper, The Positivist Dispute in German Sociology, Heinemann London 1976 and Harper Torchbook 1976.
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I am trying to look for whether the use of the biological theory of race has reduced or transnationalism has a different way of classifying people into different categories (e.g. diasporas, ethnicity, or geographic origin of the migrants, etc.,) with distinct status and power!
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Yes, biological explanation of race has been refuted (mainly by the anthropologist Franz Boas).Transnationalism is one aspect of the complicated issue of racial inequality as it basically relates to globalization, particularly im/migration experience in which immigrants try to keep their relationships with their homeland while adopting (coping with) the new/hosting country (where they face hierarchical categorizations or racial inequality).
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I am trying to understand the impact of the contemporary global market economy on international migration and immigration policies of the Western countries. In particular, I am trying to look for whether the use of the biological theory of race has reduced or transnationalism has a different way of classifying people into different categories (e.g. diasporas, ethnicity, or geographic origin of the migrants, etc.,) with distinct status and power!
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Les divergences culturelles contribuent à la marginalisation des immigrés. Cependant, les rapports économiques (besoins de mains d'oeuvre, implantations commerciales formelles et informelles) contribuent à l'intégration des immigrés. Ainsi les grandes villes de "melting pote" passent au statut de "salad bowl". La voie la plus sûre de l'integration des immigres est la voie économique.
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Does anybody know any research about how training and information influence the result of implicit association tests?
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Karim Farsakh Do you know if an english translation exists?
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Racial Profiling of Muslims in Abroad: A Reflection of the Issue in UK and USA, Pre and After-Math of 9-11
How the Islamophobia contributed to a new kind of Racial Abuse for Muslims all over the World
Selected writers are Hanif Kureishi, H M Naqvi and Mohosin Hameed
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The rights of many Arabs and Muslims who were detained in the fight against terrorism after the September 11 attacks in the United States were violated, the court decision is in this country.
According to the 2nd Appellate Court, several security officials led by then President George W. Bush, including former FBI Director Robert Mueller and then Justice Minister John Ashcroft, justified the fight against terrorism, violated the rights of many Arabs and Muslims violating the US Constitution.
Ashcroft, Mueller and former director of the James Ziglar news agency, after September 11, 2001, arrested a large number of men in New York and New Jersey, mostly Muslims and Arabs, and violated their rights for months.
This trial was first launched 13 years ago by a non-governmental organization Center for Constitutional Rights (CCR), headquartered in New York. CCR lawyer Rachel Meeropol stated in connection with the decision:
"The court took advantage of this opportunity and reminded the people, whether they were citizens or not, human rights, the rule of law must not be sacrificed in the name of a hysteria of national security."
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What is the reason for the racism of men when women take the leadership position ???
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I think men's racism against women have very old roots: patriarchal societies exists only since 5000 years. It means 95.000 years of matriarchal societies had had an heavy impact on men. Since then, they make up with us women for all those years.
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In their 2011 text, Teaching Science Fiction, Andy Sawyer and Peter Wright posit that science fiction is "one of the most effective genres for challenging the perspectives of a student body" (1). Yet Teaching Science Fiction is one of the few recent compendiums on teaching speculative fiction; the last significant scholarly focus on speculative fiction and pedagogy was in the 1970s and 1980s. The majority of publications after 2000 on teaching science fiction consider the teaching of science through science fiction. Very few of the more recent texts consider how instructors of science fiction might engage with concepts of social justice, or how instructors who teach social justice concepts could do so by engaging with speculative fiction literature.
The last decade has seen incredible progress in a genre that has been fraught with racism and sexism at least as much as it challenges it. With the mainstream success of Black Panther, N.K. Jemisin's ouevre, Janelle Monae's music and videos, Tomi Adeyemi's book and movie deals, and Netflix series such as Black Lightning, it is clear that the authorship and readership of speculative fiction is changing.
Moreover, instructors in literature and the cognate disciplines are already - and have been for some time - teaching social justice concepts through speculative fiction. However, there is little scholarly conversation about why and how we do it, how to teach social justice through speculative fiction more effectively, or how to have successful conversations with administrators about teaching social justice through speculative fiction. Proposals on secondary education and teacher education are particularly welcome.
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Great contributions!
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hi, I am looking for a sms/text/tweets collection about racism, xenophobia and violence in order to train an algorithm. I am using RapidMiner.
Thank you.
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I'm hoping to adapt a subset of the items in the Racism Experiences scale but I can't seem to find it anywhere given that the scale is unpublished. Is anyone aware of where this scale can be obtained?
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Hi, Dr. Trujillo. I was able to find the Racism and Life Experiences Scales as part of this dissertation. See the Measures section for information on each of the three subscales. See pages 88 and 89 for the Racism and Life Experiences Scales. I hope you are doing well, and I wish you a wonderful weekend.
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Hi dear colleagues,
What is a racial discrimination? Does this exist in your country? Is it one of the causes of wars over the world?
ما هو التمييز العنصري؟ هل هذا موجود في بلدك؟ هل هو أحد أسباب الحروب في العالم؟
Thank you for sharing your opinions with us,
Kind regards
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Drling Dr. Hamid,
There is no racial discrimination in my county'' Al Iraq'' God preserved him. I am sure when it was exist in any area may causes to an internal war. As well as, to wars over the world.
Regards,
Naseer Almukhtar
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I just started as a professor at the University of Baltimore teaching conflict (ethnic, cultural, etc). Our masters students understand very well structural violence, racism, oppression, etc. Many live it daily.
Sometimes I feel like I'm just providing them with better vocabulary for their challenges. I keep asking myself - How can I teach conflict factors without leaving folks feeling there's no way out?
So, I ask you: who works well at the intersection of structural violence and personal agency?
If it's all structural then there's no hope for the individual, but to only point to personal power denies the existence of structural factors.
Who provides a "line of flight" (à la Deleuze) ?
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Folks, thanks for your thoughts. I like the idea of Ranciere's equality as a starting point. Then we have the issue of all members of society actually imposing the structural inequality even within the same group. In this way we police ourselves...not consciously. So even the top down cannot be dissolved completely if we are the enforcers of the violence. Right?
I guess this sends us back to examining how within ourselves we replicate systems of inequality and then - perhaps via our own reprogramming - shift the structuring structures. This is why I like the work of "showing up for racial justice" in which white people consider how they may inadvertently be perpetuating racial inequality.
And, yes, Erica, thank you. I do partner with some non-profits doing good work. We cultivate hope in the classroom as well.
Thanks again...Any other thoughts out there?
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Many universities raise this nicely written slogan "XYZ University is an equal employment opportunity/affirmative action employer and intends to recruit, hire, train & promote without regard to race, color, gender, age, religion, national & ethnic origin, disability, marital status, or sexual orientation ".
Scientists usually seek truth but most of them shun from talking honestly about what is actually going on in many universities which is utter discrimination practiced either "guardedly" or "bluntly".
In many parts of the world, unfairness is done “from what texts are read, to who is admitted, employed, and promoted, to who does research & who is denied, to what knowledge is valued & what is dismissed or ignored”. In 3rd world countries, the situation worsens to nepotism according to political affiliation or to belonging to a certain secretive group or to being an inhabitant in a particular city or to being a son or daughter of an influential person or a family.
Isn't time to confront this disastrous policy of discrimination at a global scale? The continuation of implicit & explicit discrimination will eventually lead to the downfall of academic institutions whatever resilience is "assumed" to be.
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In higher learning institutions like Universities, people must be recruited, hired, trained & promoted on merit without discrimination with regard to race, color, gender, age, religion, national & ethnic origin, disability, marital status, or sexual orientation.
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I am continuing to conduct research in this area for a Year 12 Research Project, so if anyone has a publication in mind, which provides reliable information related to the topic, please let me know. 
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For a high school project you don't need highly academic articles on a complex topic. Some useful ones that give basic information would be:
1. K. Appiah (2016) Racial identity is biological nonsense' The Guardian, Oct 18.
2. E. Simon (2017) "How 'white people' were invented by a playwright in 1613" Aeon Magazine (online) Aug. https://aeon.co/ideas/how-white-people-were-invented-by-a-playwright-in-1613
3. C H Hoyt (2016) "Mean racist, kind racist, non-racist---which are you?" OUP blog (Dec). https://blog.oup.com/2016/12/racism-identity-race/
These are not difficult and are relatively straightforward articles. The concept of racial talk covers a wide area---biology, philosophy (construction of social concepts) and cognitive psychology (references to 'tribalism' and implicit biases, etc). These articles hint at the complexity that you will hopefully explore in your later education. Regards, Ivan
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Hi I am a Policy debater and this is the last key I need to finish my case. 
(Please provide evidence and sources)
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For contact hypothesis, check out meta analysis by Petigrew and Tropp (2006).  
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I'm looking for impacts like prevents structural violence, prevents racism, decreases poverty, etc.
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2.  Economic benefits of reducing achieving gap.
Dennis
Dennis Mazur
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I'm working on a lit review of current research linking PTSD (particularly from exposure to racism) and pre-term labor. 
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I am very familiar with the (post)structural literature on "binary oppositions" which I find extremely helpful. But I sometimes wonder if dualistic thinking, or binarism, is part of the brain's evolution, which can then explain racism and similar phenomena. If you know of any key articles or books, kindly let me know. Thanks!
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"do we think dualistically (e.g., us vs. them) as a function of the brain's natural evolution or is the dualistic thinking more a function of culture/language as the (post)stucturalists argue?"
That is a deep question.  I don't presume to 'answer' it.  One possible approach: compare studies of chimpanzees. What does primatology say about 'us vs them' for common chimpanzee and for bonobo? They do not have language. However they have two dozen or more vocalizations, and variations of threat-displays. Goodall describes these in Chimpanzees of the Gombe. Aggression displays and attacks are used to maintain the dominance hierarchy, which is far more intense than among 'evolved' humans. Chimpanzee culture examined using application of NEO-5-Factor Inventory shows their 'culture' not high on the 'openness/intellect' scale. This is to my mind major factor in their not evolving more human-like culture. Goodall also reports the merciless violence by which one chimpanzee group exterminated another group. If one takes this comparative primate approach, then at first glance it looks to me like the 'us vs. them' behavior is common to primates and prior to human language evo. On other hand, as noted, chimpanzees have their own 'culture/language' or more precisely 'culture/communicative behaviors'.  I have never heard of a study that examined chimpanzee culture/communicative behaviors with respect to creating stereotypes of 'us vs them'.  So that is for future research.  It might help answer the question.
On the other other hand, postmodern emphasis on culture/language and 'us vs them' was a valuable contribution. But seems history of philosophy has explored this for several thousand years, and to that extent not a novel idea. Don't Aristophanes' plays lampoon the way culture/language promoted 'us/them' provokes aggression and war?  And postmodernism did not integrate primatology findings, at least I don't think so -- in my lifespan I found postmodernism somewhat boring and skipped over it.
I also believe from my review of the literature, though could easily have missed some research, that the 'human' language neural network is dissociated from the intergroup aggression network. In neuroimaging the language network is cortical; the 'us/them' network hub is in the limbic amygdala, and, as I recall, has nodes in other limbic areas such as the medial prefrontal, which is hub for concepts of self and harm. 
I had not thought about the Oldowan Pecked cobbles numerosity, the two sets (2 large cupules versus 4 small cupules) for comparison of equitable share, with respect to 'us/them' but it could have easily applied to this for intra-group sharing of resources.
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Education and racism, inequality, unfairness, manipulation, control, bias, gender gap, discrimination.
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I agree with the colleagues who posted the first two responses to the discussion thread. But, the implementation of such an education prerequisites, in general,  the appropriate persons. Are there? Unfortunately, I have serious doubts.
Regards 
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I am researching racism in France, related policies and their effects, but most of what I find is in English by US authors.  I would like to read on this issue in French by French scholars/writers.  Also, I am  interested in different/opposing pov.
Many thanks
Mary Helen C
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Dear Ms.  Mary-Helen Castanuela
I am writing to tell you that I read one intreset article about Paradoxes of Race Policy
in the United States, Great Britain, and France.
Please find attached article as a PDF file.
I hope I have been some of help.
Best regards,
Andrija
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I am trying to learn how we can stop racism in the classrooms and what are some questions we need to ask ourselves as educators.
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Hello,  interesting significant question. 
I reckon this article provides  some ideas, opinions and findings:
Classroom Environment and EFL Students' Feelings of Alienation: Reflections on Bahcesehir University Setting
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Any linguistic/stylistic features will help me.
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I haven't read it for many years, but I recall Calpurnia chiding Jem and Scout for using "nigger talk" (and I'm quoting her) when voicing some superstitious belief. This to me meant that there were levels of racism within the black community, and that Cal saw herself as intellectually superior to many of her peers...but then, don't we all?
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I'm studying the effect criminology and the other social sciences have on racial bias compared to other majors. If there is a correlation I want to project this towards police as a critical area of study for police officers in higher education.
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I teach and research in the area of Indigenous studies. Repeatedly I have conversations with individuals from all walks of life about Indigenous issues. These conversations occur after they ask what I do for a living, as is typical in the US and Canada. Almost invariably, I then find myself embroiled in a long and heated discussion about the indigenous topic du jour or am quizzed on my knowledge: "What do you mean, you don't know the word for (fill in the blank) in Arawak/Ojibwe/Navajo/Mohawk/"Indian?" I have become hesitant to tell people what I teach and will sometimes say, truthfully, "I'm an anthropologist." It recently struck me that I am not quizzed or confronted when I claim anthropology as my field but Indigenous studies leaves me open for all kinds of conversations, most of which I don't enjoy. So what is the difference? Why is Indigenous studies as a field open for critique by non-specialists while other fields are not? What about your fields, colleagues? Are you questioned, quizzed, subjected to opinions that are often ill-informed? Or does your field get a "pass?" I am considering an article/opinion piece on this topic but am not sure if there is really anything to this, other than my personal experience. 
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Sometimes I receive wonderful feedback on my research findings from non-specialists. They are able to see a particular issue from a different perspective and even provide pointers to help me further develop my argument[s]. However, I dislike individuals who criticize just for criticism sake. They waste your time and try to ignore them as much as possible.
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Source recommendations welcome
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Nicole,
Have a look at Shirley Better's book 'Institutional Racism: A Primer on Theory and Strategies for Social Change'. I've made reference to the book a few times now in my own research and she has a lot of examples you may find useful. I have other sources and articles if you want me to link them to you.
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I want to stop racism in the classroom but the reality is it starts at home or does it? Can I teach children to love everyone despite the color of their skin and hope they teach their parents?
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You can have a multicultural day, where you allow the children to explore each other's cultural backgrounds by peering them off and then allow them to share what they have learnt about their peer partner's culture with their parents. Hopefully, they will be educating the parents about other cultures.
Many thanks,
Debra
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My first year of teaching I had 22 students, most asian, I had two from the Congo and they were mistreated. I want to do my dissertation on incorporating love for all races in my class rules or read books based on this~ I am brainstorming.
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Thank you so much Mr. Singh!
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According to an Encyclopedia Britannica article on this topic, “Political correctness (PC),” is a “term used to refer to language that seems intended to give the least amount of offense, especially when describing groups identified by external markers such as race, gender, culture, or sexual orientation. The concept has been discussed, disputed, criticized, and satirized by commentators from across the political spectrum. The term has often been used derisively to ridicule the notion that altering language usage can change the public’s perceptions and beliefs as well as influence outcomes.”
See:
The strongest pc position is that which prescribes defamatory racial insults: those which are generally known and normally considered to be insulting. This precept fits the common-sense avoidance of inflammatory behavior, and I think it is generally accepted. Much of the rest, however, veers toward prohibition of “non-progressive” political speech and depends on a regime of encouraging heightened sensitivity to possibly insulting language and discourse; and as a consequence it involves simple indulgence of more doubtful political positions which require careful examination and inquiry.
According to the Britannica article:
Linguistically, the practice of what is called “political correctness” seems to be rooted in a desire to eliminate exclusion of various identity groups based on language usage. According to the Sapir-Whorf, or Whorfian hypothesis, our perception of reality is determined by our thought processes, which are influenced by the language we use. In this way language shapes our reality and tells us how to think about and respond to that reality. Language also reveals and promotes our biases. Therefore, according to the hypothesis, using sexist language promotes sexism and using racial language promotes racism.
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A point worthy of examination here is the idea that language “determines” our thought processes to such a degree that they cannot be modified in open discussion. This may certainly be true in particular cases, regarding persons and even tightly-bound groups, but it is not generally true. The contrary argument is that choice of language should be a result of discourse and detailed examinations of problems, questions and position—and not a prerequisite of participation. The alternative position, defending imposition of “pc,” appears to substitute pre-existing feeling and conviction for open debate and detailed examination of alternatives.
The Britannica article also states that:
Those who are most strongly opposed to so-called “political correctness” view it as censorship and a curtailment of freedom of speech that places limits on debates in the public arena. They contend that such language boundaries inevitably lead to self-censorship and restrictions on behaviour. They further believe that political correctness perceives offensive language where none exists. Others believe that “political correctness” or “politically correct” has been used as an epithet to stop legitimate attempts to curb hate speech and minimize exclusionary speech practices. Ultimately, the ongoing discussion surrounding political correctness seems to centre on language, naming, and whose definitions are accepted.
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It appears to be a deep flaw in “PC” that what counts as “politically incorrect” speech or behavior is made to depend on the decision or impression of those claiming to be offended or affected, which is a kind of self-certification of being wronged, inconsistent with the generally accepted idea that no one should be judge and jury in his or her own case. Insofar as “PC” is then enforced by administrative decisions, especially within state-sponsored institutions, such as universities, “PC” is argued to amount to state-imposed restrictions on freedom of speech. The effect of such censorship is to force the conflicts out of the universities into less acceptable and manageable forms and arenas.
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I view political correctness as a means used to protect an ideology from unwanted questions. Political incorrectness is distinguished from lack of civility or just plain absence of regard for the feelings of others.
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Thank you in advance. Your replies are greatly appreciated. 
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I would like my participants to complete a racism survey before doing a qualitative study, does this mean that I am doing a mixed design?
To be considered as mixed design, both the quantitative research (racism survey) and later qualitative research should be connected / related.  E.g. if you are studying certain factors influencing racism & through your survey you'd discovered a factor X is significantly influencing racism in which later through qualitative research i.e. you interview some surveyed respondents why & how factor X is related to racism.  If both quantitative & qualitative research are independent or non-related, or you'd interviewed some interviewees which were not involved in your earlier survey etc. they are not mixed design.  By reading your research problem, research objective(s) and research question(s), other researchers can evaluate whether you are doing the correct mixed design.  This quantitative then followed by qualitative research in mixed design is called Sequential Explanatory Design.
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I am looking for a qualitative survey to exclude or at least note potentially racist participants. Does anyone have any ideas?
Thank you in advance. 
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Dear Michaelle,
There are many studies covering measurement of racial attitude and discrimination. You may find the some interesting as shown below.
Thanks!
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Disaggregated data collection and analysis is recommended for policy development to address race inequality. Moreover it provides a useful tool to address Afro-phobia and other forms of xenophobia.
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Dear Ade,
I suggest you to read the book:
Advances on Income Inequality and Concentration Measures
Edited by Achille Lemmi and Gianni Betti
Routledge 2008
Print ISBN: 978-0-415-44337-1
eBook ISBN: 978-0-203-92792-2
Gianni
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Articles based on race within sport
- good definition of race and racism
- issues around racism in sport
- is this still an issue today in sport?
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'Football, Racism and the Limits of 'Colour Blind' Law', a book chapter by R Welch co-authored with Simon Gardiner, pp 222-236 in Burdsey D. (ed.) Race, Ethnicity and Football, Abingdon: Routledge 2011 springs to mind.  A version is available at https://www.academia.edu/3515838/Football_Racism_and_the_Limits_of_Colour_Blind_Law
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I am devising a unique definition derivative from the concept of racial discourse and intergroup conflicts. I need suggestions on whether Racial Dissension could be endorsed as phrase for defining interracial conflicts derived from racial dissension variables - unit determinants for inducing disharmony between coexisting races. 
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I think I see what you're saying, and I agree that Dissension (or even Dissonance) would seem to capture the concept.
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I am trying to find social factors and social profile of victimization. I hope to have an insight about research which is being conducted on this topic. Furthermore, I also hope to have an insight about the relation between victimization and black people.
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Well, i cannot answer for brazil, but the cultural impact of african americans on western music is enormous: blues, gospel, jazz, rythm and blues, soul, rockn roll, hip hop, funk, disco etc etc. White priviliged middle class youth all over the world quote gangsta rap and identify with the back struggle. 
The negative side, slavery, followed by jim crow, followed by economic marginalization, we have all seen it at work in the us system of mass incarcetation. Gang warfare etc.
But you know all this cultural stuff. Clearly you need to look into the statistics, and see where blacks are at an disadvantage compared to others. The obvious place to start is google scholar.