Science topic

RPAS - Science topic

Explore the latest questions and answers in RPAS, and find RPAS experts.
Questions related to RPAS
  • asked a question related to RPAS
Question
10 answers
A quick question - what are in your opinion the best conferences to apply with topics related to UAV/RPAS (path planning, autonomous takeoff/landing, SLAM, navigation, computing, etc.).
Thanks!
Relevant answer
Answer
Some excellent places to seek them are wikicfp, ieee, aiaa, and acm.
  • asked a question related to RPAS
Question
5 answers
Is there a group of crucial and important UAV's parameters/features regardless of kind of mission (search missing people, disaster, evacuation, emergency deliveries, monitoring, fight a fire, training, saving trapped people, contamination, flying rescue cushion)? Or maybe every kind of mission has their own crucial parameters/features?
Relevant answer
  • asked a question related to RPAS
Question
3 answers
What are (other than listed below) guidance materials, operational manuals, standards and recommended practices about public safety drone usage? Include such important for pilots of drone/UAV issues as: training, operational procedures, ConOps, testing UAV, maintenance, etc.
See:
- NFPA 2400, Standard for Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (sUAS) Used for Public Safety Operations, https://www.nfpa.org/codes-and-standards/all-codes-and-standards/list-of-codes-and-standards/detail?code=2400
- Public Safety and Law Enforcement Toolkit, https://www.faa.gov/uas/public_safety_gov/public_safety_toolkit/
- Code of Conduct, Humanitarian UAV Network http://uaviators.org/docs
- ISO 21384-3:2019 Unmanned aircraft systems — Part 3: Operational procedures https://www.iso.org/standard/70853.html?browse=tc
  • asked a question related to RPAS
Question
12 answers
As far as I know most of the countries haven't introduced yet rules for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle flights. My question concerns mainly for emergency/post-disaster situation when large number of UAVs may transport relief item. UAVs, military flights both helicopters and aeroplanes, and civil flights must be separated for the sake of everybody's security.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Professor Bela,
I hope you are doing well.
Since we are working on a drone-based project in France, we asked the French administration to give us information about the regulations. They answered like this:
- How are the drones positioned in relation to the crowd? How many meters high do they move?
 The Gendarmerie explained to me that the drones are at least 30 meters away from the vertical of the crowd. Their maximum flying height is 150 m (above ground or water level)(except with derogations given by the DGAC- justifying a high level of security).
- Overview of artificial obstacles It is possible to exceed the height of 150 m when flying over an artificial obstacle of more than 100 m in height, provided that the height of the obstacle does not exceed 50 m above this obstacle.
- Is there a ratio between the number of people expected at an event and the number of drones employed? The Gendarmerie told me that no, there is no ratio expected attendance / number of drones deployed. Nevertheless, the size of the event area, the geographical configuration, the possibility of helicopter overflight or not, the existing video protection network (cameras), the number of high points in the surrounding area are all elements that are used to calibrate the capability requirement.
- Prohibited or restricted areas :
All of the above-mentioned prohibited or restricted areas are published in what is known as the "aeronautical information", containing all the information intended to ensure safety, the regularity and efficiency of air navigation. Aeronautical information includes information of a permanent nature (Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP)) and others of an urgent or temporary nature (NOTAM and SUP supplements to AIP). These documents can be consulted at http://www.sia.aviation-civile.gouv.fr. The DGAC has developed an interactive map of restrictions for leisure activities, available at http://www.geoportail.gouv.fr/donnees/restrictions-pour-drones-de-loisir. It was primarily designed for leisure users and is currently published in a provisional version (because it does not present all the information necessary for professionals). It may nevertheless provide them with first-level information that will be useful to them. - Risk of flying at different altitude levels (global air traffic management) In order to limit the risk of collision, the french regulation lay down : * a maximum flying height of 150m for drones (except derogations) * reduced maximum heights near airports * areas in which flights by drones are prohibited or restricted (close proximity to airports, military aircraft manoeuvring areas etc.). The U-SPACE project is currently under development (it aims at the integration of drones in air navigation). The European U-SPACE project aims to create a largely automated system to manage the air traffic of drones and also to ensure their compatibility with conventional aviation, new levers will be created to allow a better transmission of information between conventional and uninhabited aviation, which will make it possible to avoid any risk of collision.
- Regulation in EU countries and new  harmonised european regulation:
For the time being, each EU Member State has its own regulation for drones weighing less than 150 kilograms (above this threshold, EU competence).  However, from 1 July 2020 a new European regulation will start to apply (and provide for a harmonised regulation for all EU Member States).
However, it is not clear whether these new European regulations apply to drones used by the security forces (Gendarmerie and Police) (which is the sovereign competence of each state). However, as at present the security forces do not make too much use of the derogations granted to them and follow the provisions that apply to companies (so in practice it will still be necessary to follow these new European regulation). - Provisions relating to the capture of images by security forces : The regulations relating to video for the gendarmerie are as follows and enshrined in the doctrine of employment in its paragraph "conservation and processing of images": The carrying of cameras, by drones allows the capture of personal data (faces, vehicle number plates, etc.) that can be recorded in computerized processing. As the UAV is only a sensor, the processing of these data in a file must meet the purposes of the file and be carried out in accordance with its own recording and consultation conditions. When drones systems are implemented, the administrative or judicial authorities in charge of their use are informed in advance of the potential capture of individual data. Drones system managers shall apply, in close liaison with the commander of operations, the rules for the storage and destruction of images and other personal data collected. They shall establish access rights in accordance with the right-to-know principle and shall ensure their effective application. The chain of command and the "data processing and freedoms" referents ensure control at all stages of collection: transmission, storage, opening of access rights, conditions of conservation and destruction. The conservation of images is limited to thirty days from the day they are recorded. At the end of this period, these data are automatically erased. Two exceptions are tolerated for the purposes of exploitation within the framework of a procedure or for training by feedback. Where data have been extracted and transmitted for the purposes of judicial, administrative or disciplinary proceedings, they are kept in accordance with the rules specific to each of those proceedings. For training purposes, blurring of faces and identification elements (number plates, etc.) is carried out. The IGGN (General Inspectorate of the National Gendarmerie) verifies on its own initiative that the processes for collecting and controlling this data processing are respected. The CNIL is likely to carry out certain checks to detect possible misuse or abuse of personal data.
I hope this information is useful to you.
Best regards,
Mahmoud
  • asked a question related to RPAS
Question
5 answers
Honey bee is very useful insect , so we should safe it.
Relevant answer
Answer
Please go through the following RG link and PDF attachments.
  • asked a question related to RPAS
Question
9 answers
Is it correct to use a term "drone/UAV special for fire service/fire brigades"? Or are there only a adaptations/modifications of available models (like adaptations of Matrice - see https://www.dslrpros.com/inspire-1-first-responder-thermal-kit.html https://www.rmus.com/collections/police-fire-search-and-rescue-drones)?
Relevant answer
Answer
It depends a bit on what aspect of the fire-fighting you focus:
- For the assessment phase, typically quite standard UAV's are used. These are typically sturdier models that feature a short deployment time and are often also used by civil protection, police, ...
- For the fire-extinguishing phase, purpose-built solutions do exist, e.g.: https://www.aerones.com/eng/firefighting_drone/
  • asked a question related to RPAS
Question
5 answers
What is the better strategy?
to have "wet" lifeguards - physically fit lifeguards who are able to rescue (a reactive activity)?
or
to have "dry" lifeguards - excellent vigilant lifeguards who are trained and experienced in preventing bathers from entering risky situations and scenarios (a proactive activity)?
Daniel Hartmann
Relevant answer
Answer
Agree. Both should not be applied separately. A combination of those two strategies is the most effective. Lifeguards should be trained to perform that. 
  • asked a question related to RPAS
Question
6 answers
Recently I have visited a rural area of Nepal where frequency of Thunder and Lightning is very high and thus there is a high number of human casualty and property loss for many years. I would like to know any research work about localized effect of Thunder and Lightning in a very small area and any mitigation measures?
Relevant answer
Answer
If you are interested in science then use a fast speed video camera or use a fast Antenna ( A circular plate - VLF/LF) sensor network as 3D monetering . You can also setup a high voltage laboratory to check the stepped leader physics and may be a cloud chamber for lightning initiation. Overall it depend on fundding from your colabration because each of the experiment is costly.
  • asked a question related to RPAS
Question
6 answers
Recent news is worrying.  Caterpillars of the wax moth Galleria mellonella digest artificial plastics (Bombelli et al 2017) and it has been suggested that they might be produced en masse to help consume the vast amounts of waste plastic that have accumulated worldwide.  One can imagine that releasing large numbers of the caterpillars could pose a serious problem for honeybee colonies. 
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello Anthony:
Do you mean  releaising large numbers of the wax moth caterpillars to eat plastics ? I think you did not understand the significant finding of Bombelli et al. 2017. Is the Polyethylene polymer that is chemically degraded by contact with the worm homogenate. The fast rate of biodegradation reported in the paper of Bombelli et al. 2017 have potential for significant biotechnological applications. This means that the chemical components of the wax moth caterpillars can be used to decompose artifical plastics as Andrew pointed out, not the caterpillar on its own, so this biotechnological application does not pose risk to bee hives.
Regards,
Luis Miguel
  • asked a question related to RPAS
Question
1 answer
We want to monitor nest and ambient temperature on the tundra, but have just been informed that they have again delayed our order and it won't arrive until AFTER our field season.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Melanie,
Bummer about the ibuttons. I worked with a Canadian company some years ago that sell loggers that should meet your needs. The company is Alpha Mach (alphamach.com). They were very responsive and had some high quality products. I think what I used were called ib-krill tags. They also now have what is called a WeeTag--these are RF&RFID temperature loggers; I've wanted to try these at some point.
Good luck to you! Are you in AK now? I leave for AK tomorrow...
Loren
  • asked a question related to RPAS
Question
4 answers
The goal is to track movement and measure specific overwintering micro-habitat conditions for northern leopard frogs in southern Alberta.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hey Sejer - I was going to write a suggestion exactly as Tigen has already done!  So, please let this be another vote for passive harmonics.  I would strongly suggest you consider using these methods.  They are safe, accurate, and in your context, I think perfect.  Best of luck with your research!  
David
PS - I would also suggest approaching old ski resorts to purchase used units to locate the transponders.  The biggest and most expensive part of this equipment is the actual transceiver that broadcasts the signal to the diode in the field.  The transceiver is the biggest cost, so you can buy a used unit from an avalanche rescue unit that most ski resorts have and need to regularly update their equipment.
  • asked a question related to RPAS
Question
8 answers
Due to their noise would they be allowed only in special flight corridors? Could they hurt communities living under their corridors?  Would it be an A-B transport (station to station) or based on the network of default connections? Would automation enable flights to everybody using autonomous air vehicles (AAVs)? How could ii impact suburbs and towns deeper inside regions?
Relevant answer
Answer
Does anyone really believe that this time, flying cars will become a reality? Way back in the 1940s and 1950s, there were similarly unrealistic (in my opinion) articles showing helicopters parked in driveways of homes, as if people would be flying to work or to the supermarket. I think that noise would not be the major obstacle here. It is more the idea of millions of people attempting to cope with a 3D traffic problem, in congested urban areas.
Not to mention, energy consumption.
Having been negative, let's see what might have changed that would make flying cars any more likely.
One change is that small flying cars might have become affordable lately. Okay, although cost was not the only obstacle.
What about autonomous cars? If flying cars can avoid dependency on the "skills" of the average driver, or even the average pilot (in such congested flying environments), there might be some hope. For the time being, autonomous cars, operating in 2D, appear to be beyond what many people think is possible, although I'm not among these skeptics. Any bets on the likelihood of autonomous flying cars, anytime soon?
Of course, flying cars could potentially be viewed as a very limited type of service, more like "air taxis" of today. Anything done in such small scale could be feasible and practical. But then, attempting to make such cars affordable for the average person seems almost pointless, as does their diminutive size and payload.
  • asked a question related to RPAS
Question
6 answers
i don't have an idea how to detect the underground water level.
Relevant answer
Answer
 Thank you everyone for your guidance.
  • asked a question related to RPAS
Question
1 answer
I want to compare the performance of my athletes (14-19 years old) to normative data to know whether their time of the 30m flying is above average or not. Thanks in advance!
Relevant answer
Answer
While I don't have a definitive answer for you, here are some tips to help you out.
1) Find some normative data first, and then perform the same test with your athletes. Performing random tests and trying to find matching norms is more work than administering the specific tests where the norms are already known. Obscure tests are very hard to find normative data for.
2) Specificity is key here. What sport do your athletes play? Simply trying to match 14-19 year old data won't be very valid, as the sporting discipline must also be taken into account. Soccer players and swimmers, for example, will have different testing results.
3) Contact some local amateur sport teams and clubs in your local area, and ask if they would be willing to share some of their testing data with you. If they're in a good mood, maybe they'll remove the names and send you some data that could help you.
  • asked a question related to RPAS
Question
1 answer
 Methodology and what impacts you are monitoring
Relevant answer
Answer
I support numerical models and basic climatology
  • asked a question related to RPAS
Question
8 answers
Hi all
In the press there has been coverage on companies' risk management plans for climate change, e.g. impact of rising sea levels on low lying airports, or more frequent storms meaning smaller turbo-props and regional jets that can't fly above the clouds (ie. insufficient altitude) impacting airport delays, groundings, etc.  How can we plan so we can best manage this risk (or opportunity?)
Relevant answer
Answer
It really sounds like you are aware of some of the hazards, impacts.  So just like we plan for other infrequencies as floods, wildfire (air pollution and sight distance impact), fog, high winds, etc. some of the climate change models should help predict a greater frequency, and then rely on the weather forecasting to help determine hazards of any specific period.  If we can predict likelihood of airport shutdown for conditions, why not consider greater use of social media to contact travelers so they can leave a day early or later, and adjust a few flights to accomodate the increased traffic demands, rather than having huge travelers waiting for flight changes within the airport.  Predictive tools for conditions continue to increase, so make the best uses.  Also, best to avoid locating airports in floodplain or tidal surge zone.  Since tsunamis may be very high, consider proximity and potential, nonetheless, with evacuation plans or construction save zones within the airport designed to handle severe conditions.  Most facilities have a design life in mind, so that should help set boundaries on sea level rise questions.
  • asked a question related to RPAS
Question
4 answers
Hi all,
I am looking for a reliable source which presents the size of the British Empire following the First World War, including total area covered (colonies, dominions, mandated areas, etc.) and population size.
Any ideas? Thanks!
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you, Tom! Will look them up.
  • asked a question related to RPAS
Question
3 answers
I´m interested in carrying out studies of bark beetles dispersal (Hylurgus and Hylaster). Anyone know practical experiences of marking those insects, using fluorescents dust or paint ?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Miguel,
Please check the useful PDF attachment..
Good luck
  • asked a question related to RPAS
Question
2 answers
DNA repair mechanism
Relevant answer
Answer
This is great 
Thank you for explanation
  • asked a question related to RPAS
Question
3 answers
We want detect bee by camera, and camera will be attached at UAV.. 
After detect bee, UAV will track the bee and we can know location of bee by map what UAV provided.
UAV should keep some distance from bee.
This situation, what is most suitable camera for detection bee? 
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Jeongeun,
since you have to track multiple fast moving targets I would suggest to buy a camera that meets the following requirements:
  • high resolution ( >= 720p  ), bees are small targets
  • high framerate
  • global shutter
  • (easy interface)
Take a look at the following camera from PointGrey: https://www.ximea.com/usb3-vision-camera
It meets all the requirements: 500fps@VGA, 90Mpx@4Mpx, global shutter, ROS node for integration in the Robot Operating System (if you want to implement some realtime operations..)
Hope it helps
  • asked a question related to RPAS
Question
9 answers
Dear colleagues,
The views varied about the electrically fishing risks. What do you think as a specialist?
Relevant answer
Answer
Electric fishing treatments using Pulsed Direct Current reduced the growth, food conversion, condition and survival of the fish to smaller degree.
  • asked a question related to RPAS
Question
3 answers
I need to know how much fuel a 100, 150 and 200 ton vessel uses. In addition, what is the effective cargo carried by these ships. Finally, if I want to calculate the distance from one port to another, for example valparaiso-shangai, I have shipping lines, however this boat will not go direct, are there factors in the literature to amplify these distances?
Relevant answer
Answer
Any book on Intro to Naval Arch. can help you. Check out SNAME and ITTC web sites.
  • asked a question related to RPAS
Question
9 answers
I'm interested in, if they used them for repairs, monitoring, deterring birds, what else?
Relevant answer
Answer
While the common use is still somewhat limited due to mentioned regulatory concerns, possible additional (to those already mentioned) future uses could include: aircraft inspection (e.g. from the ground hard to access areas such as top of fuselage and vertical fin), infrastructure inspection and security (to include remote sites such as NAVAIDs, approach lighting systems, antennae structures), and flight verification tasks for navigation systems (e.g. testing ILS or approach radar accuracy)...
I'm pretty sure there is more to come as the technology and its civil application is rapidly evolving. Besides pure UAS/UAV uses, it's probably also worth mentioning other possible unmanned/robotic solutions around airports (e.g. self-driving luggage carts)...
Stefan