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Quran - Science topic

This is a group about Quran researches in any countries. more description to be continued...
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Emon, A.M.; Ahmed, R. (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Islamic Law, 2018, ISBN 978–0–19–967901–0, states “Qur’an has no more than 500 verses of legal import” (page 406, Chapter 16, The Classical Period, Scripture, Origins, And Early Development by Mariam Sheibani, Amir Toft, And Ahmed El Shamsy).
A source for that information is not provided.
Would you kindly help us and tell me who has done the study that found that number?
Regards.
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Brother Badruddin Hj Ibrahim, salam.
Please explain.
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I am trying to classify history of eastern kufic script (iranian kufic) on the basis of regional styles. To do this, I need Qurans which remain their colophons (contain date and location of transcribing). 
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I'm preparing the second edition of my monograph on "warning" (inzar theme) with the following title:
"Inzar Theme: An Example of Methodological Quran Exegesis"
It contains 8700 words.
What publisher do you suggest for publishing my book?
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Thanks Medhat! I know it, too. But my question is remaining.
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History of the Quran
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If it is the revealed word of GOD, by logic it is TIMELESS AND AHISTORIC; like the Bible
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Zakat is the third pillar of Islam and it is an obligatory
payment that a free and rational Muslim who owns a certain amount of wealth has to observe. Its importance in Islam is manifested by the numerous pairings of its obligation to that of prayer (salah) in the Quran. Among the fundamentals of Islam, it has the most direct economic implications on Muslims for it involves the distribution of wealth from the affluent in society to those in need.
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عامل مهم في تعزيز العدالة الاجتماعية
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I am interested in the rules of conduct and in the differences between different Islamic traditions and subgroups.
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في العراق تم بحث الموضوع في رسائل ماجستير عديدة
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I have a doubt in my mind. What's the meaning of salah according to the Quran
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It is dad to hear however I still believe that no matter how thin our religious belief is it is still alive within us. We need persons that within small actions bring about or shed light into our soul@
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I need Urgent basis, How to Implement Arabic Speech to Urdu Text using speech recognition Matlab tool, if i use neural network is it possible to design according to my requirements.
Speech to Text (Using Matlab)
Arabic Quranic Speech to Urdu Text if i used audio data sets and recorded speech and i want to convert it into a Urdu text using Matlab.
Answer please !
Thanks
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  • A back-translation is a translation of a translated text back into the language of the original text, made without reference to the original text. Comparison of a back-translation with the original text is sometimes used as a check on the accuracy of the original translation, much as the accuracy of a mathematical operation is sometimes checked by reversing the operation.
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اعتقد بأنه على الرغم من عيوب ترجمة النص القرآني وأنه قد يفقد الكثير من الدقة والصياغة الا انه في نفس الوقت لايمكن إيصال النص القرآني الشريف للمتحدثين بغير اللغة العربية
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There are many English translations of the Quran. In your opinion, which one is the best and why?
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F.
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He uses in his book five criterions for the batıni people to show their ideas are not true by using Quranic verses.
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No
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For knowledge of mine and people with me,I need this help from ourscientific community.Long back,my teacher Late Prof K S Bhargava took coloured photos of sacred plants of India for his proposed book entitled 'Sacred plants of India.But, unfortunately he expired and thereafter we have no information about his write-up.
To my knowledge,Plants in Bibles and Plants in Holy Quran have been published.Plants of many Sacred Groves are also available in literature.
In my opinion ,this procedure of linking plants with human faith,has been the most effective way of plant conservation
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Yellow Bird of Paradise by my Colleague
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HI,
I would like to start a discussion about how to apply new technologies to Quran and Hadith. In fact, a lot of information exist in the holy Quran and a lot of these information has been explained through Hadith. A lot of website has been developed give some of these information according to users. Therefore, a lot of data has been generated and they increase day after day.
However, some of these information can be wrong. I have two main questions:
1- what technologies has been used for Quran and Hadith and for what purposes?
2- There are researchers work in this filed and use DataScience (IA, Semantic technologies, Knowledge representation , machine learning and deep learning, etc.)
If you have propositions for a collaborative work you're welcome.
Hind
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Hi Hind,
Yes no doubt the domain of Automating the Quranic/Hadith text have been gaining recognition recently due to the quality of the text which is usually referred to as 'golden text' in the field of text mining.
As a clarification to your statement "... a lot of data have been generated and they increase day by day..."
The Quranic textual data can/must never be manipulated due to the sacredness of the Holy Text. However, as data scientists, one of the tasks is discovering knowledge/features (otherwise termed labels) from the textual data using machine learning/data mining approach.
There are quite a number of research works such as: Quranic Text Classification; Topic modeling of the Quran/Hadith; Semantic analysis (often in the field of NLP), Ontology etc.
To enhance your background knowledge of this domain, kindly read through my papers. (Attached is a paper on the comparative analysis of some techniques been employed).
Feel free to check other related papers.
Best regards,
Abdullah
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Yule (2010) assumes that animals use systems of communication that are substantially different from human language. For instance, unlike human language, animals use linguistic systems that relate to the immediate time and place of communication. Also, animals are said to use “fixed and limited sets of vocal or gestural forms” (p. 13). Evidence from religious sources (Holy Quran) suggests that animals can competently communicate with human beings in systems that are both complex and productive. It is legitimate to ask therefore: Is it possible to integrate religious evidence into the linguistic theory to account for animal language?
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The answer is that this is not fruitful and has no benefit
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  • In the light of what we see as a multiplicity in the phonetic images in reading Qur'an (Qur'anic Readings). Is there a difference between Holy Qur'an, revealed by Allah to His Messenger Muhammad (Peace and Blessings be Upon Him) and the (Qur'anic Readings)?
  • What is the truth of the license contained in the seven letters?
  • Was the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), the source of Quranic readings, or it was what was permissible for the Sahabah (companion)?
  • Can the Companions prevent the reading of the Qur'an, which the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) authorized?
  • في ضوء ما نشهده من تعدد الصور الصوتية في قراءة القرآن الكريم (القراءات القرآنية)، هل هناك فارق بين القرآن الكريم الذي أنزله الله على رسوله محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم والقراءات القرآنية ؟
  • وما هي حقيقة الرخصة الواردة في الأحرف السبعة؟
  • وهل كان مصدر القراءات القرآنية من النبي، صلى الله عليه وسلم، أم من ما رخص به للصحابة؟
  • وهل يمكن أن يجمع الصحابة على منع أوجه قراءة القرآن التي رخص بها النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم؟
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ثالثا : مصدر الأحرف السبعة التي لا يخرج شيء منها عن القراءات العشر المتواترة هو الوحي حصرا وليس لأحد من البشر ولا للهجة أي يد أو تأثير فيها.
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قال الله تعالى:(الزَّانِيَةُ وَالزَّانِي فَاجْلِدُوا كُلَّ وَاحِدٍ مِّنْهُمَا مِائَةَ جَلْدَةٍ ۖ وَلَا تَأْخُذْكُم بِهِمَا رَأْفَةٌ فِي دِينِ اللَّهِ إِن كُنتُمْ تُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ ۖ وَلْيَشْهَدْ عَذَابَهُمَا طَائِفَةٌ مِّنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ )لماذا قدم الله تعالى الزانية على الزاني في الآية القرآنية؟
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The number of syllables in Arabic words varies from one word to another according to its morphological formula , what it contains of the plus letters, and the associated suffixes. the Some long words that contain many syllables can be found in the Holy Quran.
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أَفَإِستَسقَينَاكُمُوهما
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Many other apparent clashes between the Quran and science are explained by scholars by treating the problematic passages as poetic language that can be reexpressed or explained by more literal statements that do not clash. However, the “seven heavens” seem to present a more difficult case; consider:
  • 71:15 “Allah has created the seven heavens, one above another”.
  • 37:6 “We have indeed decked the lowest heaven with an adornment, the stars.”
  • 71:15 “See ye not how Allah has created the seven heavens, one above another,”
  • 71:16 “And made the moon a light in their midst, and made the sun as a (Glorious) lamp?” [transl.: Yusuf Ali]
Therefore: If the stars deck the lowest of the seven heavens, and the moon is in the midst of the seven heavens, then the moon is higher than the stars.
An astronomical falsehood seems to be entailed. If not, can anyone here on RG give an explanation?
Thank you.
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Dear James Gary
Thank you for your good response
I hope you read this book
God's Guide to the Expanding Universe, 40 American Scientists Announce Their Positive Views of Religion
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Opinions are still repeated in the subject of the letters cut in the Holy Quran and did not reach to reveal their secrets.
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بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته
أخي الفاضل أسأل الله تعالى أن تكون بأفضل الأحوال
لا تعد الآراء الحديثة التي قرأتها في تفسير الحروف المقطة محض اجتهاد لا دليل عليه
نحو تفسير (كهيعص) الكاف كفايتنا والهاء هدايتنا والعين عصمتنا ... وباقي الآراء لا تخرج عن ترجيح رأي سابق أو استبعاد آخر
وقرأت بعض الدراسات التي كتبها الأستاذ عبدالله جلغوم في الإعجاز العددي في القرآن الكريم يستدل بها بأن هذه الحروف تعد توثيقا حسابيا ورقميا يثبت أن القرآن الكريم لا زيادة ولا نقص فيه.
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تعهد القرآن الكريم من خلال قراءته وحفظه، عامل في تعزيز العربية في ذهن المتعلّم ولسانه.
The pledge of the Quran through reading and memorizing it is a factor in promoting Arabic in the mind of the learner and his tongue.
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من المؤكد ان نزول القران باللغة العربية قد ساهم بشكل فعال في انتشارها
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.Quranic schools are environments of Arabic grammar, which the learner learns.
المدارس القرآنية تعد بيئات للانغماس اللغوي في العربية، مما يساد المتعلم في تعلمها.
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أعتقد أن للتعليم القرآني عموما سواء أكان عبارة عن مدارس نظامية أم في صورة كتاتيب وزوايا وحلقات مسجدية ...إلخ دورا هاما في تعليم العربية وترسيخ ملكتها لدى منتسبي هذا النوع من التعليم، وذلك من خلال البيئة الاصطناعية من الانغماس في النص القرآني سماعا وتكرارا وتدبرا وحفظا ... مما يساعد على عملية الاكتساب للغة وإن لم تكن مقصودة عينا، وهو ما تؤكده النظرية السلوكية في تعليم وتعلّم اللغات، وغيرها من النظريات مثل نظرية تشوكمسكي العقلية ونظرية الفطرة والممارسة لعبد الدنان...إلخ
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Project management in research project
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Yes, it is one of the foundations of research
Best Regards Javan Gh. Doloei
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Salam Alaikum,
What do you mean by Halal research?
Is it using medications from Quran and Sunnah ? or are you looking for verses that talking about this disease?
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Wa alaykumu s-salam Dr. Mustafa,
Thank you.
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Example of text mining in Quran
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With Python we can read Arabic text in the file and code.. but the instalation of wordcloud for example is complex.
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There are an increasingly growing number of Qur'anic translations. Even with an acknowledged awareness that no one translation can capture the fullness of the Arabic, it would be interesting to understand a) in what ways is this current translation is to be considered a "perfected translation" and b) how this improves on existing translations?
Regards
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Hello,
You have certainly broached up a very interesting question. Personally speaking, the present translations, while regarded as excellent transference of divine messages , frequently involve hermeneutic and interpretive additions that are subjective and tinted with sectarian bias. As such, improving the translation quality of Qur'anic translations, the translator should adhere to the principle of faithfulness and by adopting a strictly semantic approach, recreate the divine messages to an avid expectant world as faithfully as possible.
Best regards,
R. Biria
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Passages such as the following make it sound like the Prophet Muhammad thought the Christian Trinity was comprised of God, Mary, and their offspring Jesus:
God will say: ‘Jesus Son of Mary, did you ever say to mankind: “Worship me and my mother as gods besides God?”’
‘Glory be to you,’ he will answer, ‘I could never have claimed what I have no right to.’ (5.117)
The Creator of the heavens and the earth—how should he have a son, seeing that He has no consort, and He created all things? (6.102)
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Muhammad did not blaspheme when he asked these questions, because he was not a Christian; but many theologians and historians of religions have affirmed that there is a relationship between the beliefs of Muslims and Christians, although Islam appeared approximately 600 years after the birth of Jesus of Nazareth.
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It's easy to make an argument that particular claims recorded in a scripture are factually true (one just needs to use the standard historical criteria of authenticity). But a writing containing truth, even if it is completely error-free, isn't necessarily divinely inspired. So is it possible to successfully argue for divine inspiration? If so, how?
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I notice when discussing the Bible, etc, as divinely inspired the good parts only are selected for proof and reverence. In fact do they not also contain immense violence? Massacres and genocides? Are these too divine and approved of and adherred to events?
2:23 And he went up from thence unto Bethel: and as he was going up by the way, there came forth little children out of the city, and mocked him, and said unto him, Go up, thou bald head; go up, thou bald head.2:24 And he turned back, and looked on them, and cursed them in the name of the LORD. And there came forth two she bears out of the wood, and tare forty and two children of them.
Few children torn apart in the name of YHWH-doesn't matter maybe?
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If intrinsic, then Scripture is the Word of God no matter whether anyone reads it or responds to it. If instrumental, then Scripture becomes the Word of God when God chooses to use it to generate an encounter with himself.
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Dear Kirk, I think the differentiation makes no sense. All scriptures finally are "Gods Word" in "Human words", because there is no "Divine Language" or if there is such thing, to understand it we have to translate it into human language. To differentiate an instrumental from an intrinsic makes no sense, because all forms of communications finally want to come from a sender to an receiver with the end that the receiver understands something, if not, it is a senseless communication, and than even the question if it exists or not, if it is possible or not, is irrelevant. So talking about Gods Word always implies a sense and therefore never can be intrinsic. The other term "instrumental" or "funcional" is for me a missleading conception, because does not appreaciate sufficiently the human nature with it's liberty. We should conceive revelations more in dialogic model or structure.
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I am particularly interested in tools and methods of analyzing verses?
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Can we dig this website together and we might get some way to sort the information based specific word!!!
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In order to answer the doubts about Abraham, I need the articles and books related to the subject of Abraham's lies.
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For a good history of religion approach, I recommend David Rosenberg, Abraham: The First Historical Biography (Basic, 2006).
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On Thursday the 18th of Dhu al-Hijjah, the Muslims arrived at Ghadir Khumm. The following verse of the Quran was revealed at the historic occassion:
O Messenger! proclaim the (message) which hath been sent to thee from thy Lord. If thou didst not, thou wouldst not have fulfilled and proclaimed His mission. And Allah will defend thee from men (who mean mischief). For Allah guideth not those who reject Faith (5:67).[5]
According to the verse, Muhammad was obliged to proclaim an important message. The verse clearly denotes the importance of the message, by saying that if he does not announce it, then he has not performed his mission. After revelation of the verse, Muhammad ordered the caravan to stop, and ordered those who had passed Ghadir Khumm to return, and for them to wait there until the arrival of those who were still on their way.[6][7] Sunni Muslims, however, believe neither the verse was revealed at Ghadir Khumm nor it was about anyone's appointment as successor, rather it was God's command to Prophet Muhammad to proclaim every message of Islam without fearing anyone.
According to Shia scholar Sheikh Abdul Hosein Amini’s work Al-Ghadir, immediately after Muhammad had finished his speech, the following verse of the Quran was revealed:
This day have those who reject faith given up all hope of your religion: yet fear them not but fear Me. This day have I perfected your religion for you, completed My favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion (5:3).
Sunni Muslims believe this verse was revealed during the Farewell Pilgrimage of the Prophet Muhammad on the Day of Arafah, the ninth day of Dhul Hijja.
References
"Special security measures in Najaf ahead of Eid Al-Ghadir". 17 September 2016. Retrieved 19 September 2016.
"Iran Public Holidays 2016 and 2017". Retrieved 19 September2016.
 to:a b Al-Shaykh Al-Mufid, Muhammad. Irshad. Qom: Maktaba Basirati. p. 91.
 Shaykh Tabarsi, Ahmad ibn Ali. al-Ihtijaj. 1. Mashhad: Nashr al-Murtaza. p. 56.
 "Yusuf Ali Translation".
 Al-Shahrastani (1984). Kitab al–Milal wa al-Nihal. London: Kegan Paul. pp. 139–140.
Tafsir ibn Abi Hatim Vol. 4 Pg. 1172 Hadith no. 6609
 "Tafsir Ibn Kathir Online".
Veccia Vaglieri, Laura. "G̲h̲adīr K̲h̲umm". Encyclopædia of Islam, Second Edition. Brill Online. Retrieved 2013-03-28.
 Dakake, Maria Massi (2007). The charismatic community : Shiʻite identity in early Islam. Albany: State University of New York Press. pp. 34–37. ISBN 0791480348.
 Tahir-ul-Qadri, Dr Muhammad (2005). The Ghadir Declaration. Tehreek-e-Minhaj-ul-Quran. p. 26. ISBN 9693205138.
Dhahabi, Shams al-Din. Siyar A'lam Al-Nubala'i. Dar Al-Hadith. pp. 623–624.
Al-Manaaw, Abdur Raoof. Fayd Al-Qadeer. Dar al-Hadith. p. 217.
 al-Bahrani, Seyyed Hashim. Al-Burhan Fi Tafsir al-Quran. 1. pp. 434–437.
Makarem Shirazi, Naser. Tafsir Nemooneh. 4. pp. 263–271.
Sobhani, Ja'far. Al-Iman va al-Kofr fi al-Ketab va al-Sunnah. 1. p. 244.
"Tafsir Ibn Kathir Online".
Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Ahmad. Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal. 4. Beirut: Dar al-Ihya al-Torath al-Arabia. p. 281.
 to:a b Amini, Abdul Hosein. Al-Ghadir. 1. Qom: Dar al-Kotob al-Islamia. pp. 9–30.
Muhib al-Din al-Tabari, Ahmad ibn Abdullah. Zakhayer al-Oqba. Cairo: Maktabat al-Qodsi. p. 67.
 ibn Oqde, Ahmad ibn Muhammad. al-Vilaya. Qom: Dalil-e Ma. pp. 150–152.
ibn Maqazeli, Ali ibn Muhammad. Manaqib. Beirut: Dar al-Adhwa. p. 69.
 Himaway al Juwayni, Ibrahim b Muhammad. Fara'id al-Simtayn. Beirut: Mahmudi. p. 315.
 Ibn al-Jazari, Muhammad. Asna al-Matalib. Isfahan: Maktabat al-Imam Amir al-Mu’menin. p. 48.
 Ibn 'Abd al-Barr, Yusuf ibn Abdallah. The Comprehensive Compilation of the Names of the Prophet's Companions (Arabic: الاستعياب في معرفة الاصحاب). 3. Beirut: Dar al-jil. p. 1099.
Amir-Moezzi, Mohammad Ali (2014). "Ghadīr Khumm". In Fleet, Kate; Krämer, Gudrun; Matringe, Denis; Nawas, John; Rowson, Everett. Encyclopaedia of Islam (Third ed.).
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بِسْمِ اللَّـهِ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
In this year, Thursday, May 18, 1995 coincides with the 18th of Dhul-Hajjah, the anniversary of the event of Ghadir Khum where the Messenger of Allah delivered his LAST sermon. The greatest parallel/frequent (Mutawatir) tradition in the History of Islam is related to this sermon of the Prophet (S).
Please see Part 3 for a complete list of 110 companions of Prophet who narrated this tradition, as well as classified lists of the Sunni traditionists/historians/commentators of Qur’an who confirmed this tradition to be authentic and frequent, and their corresponding books where the tradition can be found. Also in Part 2 we discuss the meanings of wali, mawla, and wilayah.
The Farewell Pilgrimage
Ten years after the migration, the Messenger of Allah ordered to his close followers to call all the people in different places to join him in his last pilgrimage. On this pilgrimage he taught them how to perform the pilgrimage in a correct and unified form. This was first time that the Muslims with this magnitude gathered in one place in the presence of their leader, the Messenger of Allah. On his way to Mecca, more than seventy thousand people followed Prophet (S). On the fourth day of Dhul-Hajjah more than one hundred thousand Muslims had entered Mecca.
Revelation Of Verse 5:67
On the 18th of Dhul-Hajjah, after completing his last pilgrimage (Hajjatul-Widaa), Prophet was leaving Mecca toward Medina, where he and the crowd of people reached to a place called Ghadir Khum (which is close to today’s Juhfah). It was a place where people from different provinces should say Good bye to each other and take different routes for their home. In this place, the following verse was revealed:
"O Apostle! Deliver what has been sent down to you from your Lord; and if you don’t do it, you have not delivered His message (at all); and Allah will protect you from the people ...”(Qur’an 5:67).
Some of Sunni references confirming that the revelation of the above verse of Qur’an was right before the speech of Prophet in Ghadir Khum:
(1) Tafsir al-Kabir, by Fakhr al-Razi, under commentary of verse 5:67, v12, pp 49-50, narrated on the authorities of Ibn Abbas, al-Bara Ibn Azib, and Muhammad Ibn ‘Ali.
(2) Asbab al-Nuzool, by al-Wahidi, p50, narrated on the authorities of Atiyyah and Abu Sa’id al Khudri.
(3) Nuzul al-Qur’an, by al-Hafiz Abu Nu’aym narrated on the authorities Abu Sa’id Khudri and Abu Rafi.
(4) al-Fusool al Muhimmah, by Ibn Sabbagh al-Maliki al-Makki, p24
(5) Durr al-Manthur, by al-Hafiz al-Suyuti, under commentary of verse 5:67
(6) Fathul Qadir, by al-Shawkani, under commentary of verse 5:67
(7) Fathul Bayan, by Hasan Khan, under commentary of verse 5:67
(8) Shaykh Muhi al-Din al-Nawawi, under commentary of verse 5:67
(9) al-Sirah al-Halabiyah, by Noor al-Din al-Halabi, v3, p301
(10) Umdatul Qari fi Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari, by al-Ayni
(11) Tafsir al-Nisaboori, v6, p194
(12) and many more such as Ibn Mardawayh, etc...
The last sentence in the above verse indicates that the Prophet (S) was mindful of the reaction of his people in delivering that message but Allah informs him not to worry, for He will protect His Messenger from people.
The Speech
Upon receiving the verse, the Prophet (S) stopped on that place (the pond of Khum) which was extremely hot. Then he sent for all people who have been ahead in the way, to come back and waited until all pilgrims who fell behind, arrived and gathered.
He ordered Salman (ra) to use rocks and camel toolings to make a pulpit (minbar) so he could make his announcement. It was around noon time in the first of the Fall, and due to the extreme heat in that valley, people were wrapping their robes around their feet and legs, and were sitting around the pulpit, on the hot rocks.
On this day the Messenger of Allah spent approximately five ours in this place; three hours of which he was on the pulpit. He recited nearly one hundred verses from The Glorious Qur’an, and for seventy three times reminded and warned people of their deeds and future. Then he gave them a long speech. The following is a part of his speech which has been widely narrated by the Sunni traditionists:
The Messenger of Allah declared: "It seems the time approached when I shall be called away (by Allah) and I shall answer that call. I am leaving for you two precious things and if you adhere both of them, you will never go astray after me. They are the Book of Allah and my progeny, that is my Ahlul-Bayt. The two shall never separate from each other until they come to me by the Pool (of Paradise)."
Then the Messenger of Allah continued: "Do I not have more right over the believers than what they have over themselves?”People cried and answered: "Yes, O’ Messenger of God.”Then Prophet (S) held up the hand of ‘Ali and said: "Whoever I am his leader (Mawla), ‘Ali is his leader (Mawla). O’ God, love those who love him, and be hostile to those who are hostile to him."
ألَسْتُ أولى بالمؤمنين من أنفسهم؟ قالوا بلى يارسول الله. قال: من كنت مولاه فعلي مولاه. اللهم وال من والاه و عاد من عاداه.
Some of the Sunni references:
(1) Sahih Tirmidhi, v2, p298, v5, p63
(2) Sunan Ibn Maja, v1, pp 12,43
(3) Khasa’is, by al-Nisa’i, pp 4,21
(4) al-Mustadrak, by al-Hakim, v2, p129, v3, pp 109-110,116,371
(5) Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v1, pp 84,118,119,152,330, v4, pp 281,368,370, 372,378, v5, pp 35,347,358,361,366,419 (from 40 chains of narrators)
(6) Fada’il al-Sahaba, by Ahmad Hanbal, v2, pp 563,572
(7) Majma’ al-Zawa’id, by al-Haythami, v9, p103 (from several transmitters)
(8) Tafsir al-Kabir, by Fakhr al-Razi, v12, pp 49-50
(9) Tafsir al-Durr al-Manthur, by al-Hafiz Jalaluddin al-Suyuti, v3, p19
(10) Tarikh al-Khulafa, by al-Suyuti, pp 169,173
(11) al-Bidayah wal-Nihayah, by Ibn Kathir, v3, p213, v5, p208
(12) Usdul Ghabah, by Ibn Athir, v4, p114
(13) Mushkil al-Athar, by al-Tahawi, v2, pp 307-308
(14) Habib al-Siyar, by Mir Khand, v1, part 3, p144
(15) Sawaiq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, p26
(16) al-Isabah, by Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, v2, p509; v1, part1, p319, v2, part1, p57, v3, part1, p29, v4, part 1, pp 14,16,143
(17) Tabarani, who narrated from companions such as Ibn Umar, Malik Ibn al-Hawirath, Habashi Ibn Junadah, Jari, Sa’d Ibn Abi Waqqas, Anas Ibn Malik, Ibn Abbas, Amarah,Buraydah,...
(18) Tarikh, by al-Khatib Baghdadi, v8, p290
(19) Hilyatul Awliya’, by al-Hafiz Abu Nu’aym, v4, p23, v5, pp26-27
(20) al-Istiab, by Ibn Abd al-Barr, Chapter of word "ayn”(‘Ali), v2, p462
(21) Kanzul Ummal, by al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, v6, pp 154,397
(22) al-Mirqat, v5, p568
(23) al-Riyad al-Nadirah, by al-Muhib al-Tabari, v2, p172
(24) Dhaka’ir al-Uqba, by al-Muhib al-Tabari, p68
(25) Faydh al-Qadir, by al-Manawi, v6, p217
(26) Yanabi’ al-Mawaddah, by al-Qudoozi al-Hanafi, p297 ... And hundreds more. Please see part 3 for more classified references (traditionists, historians, and commentators).
The above was just a part of speech of the Prophet (S). For a more detailed speech of the Prophet, please see the end of this part.
Revelation Of Verse 5:3
Immediately after the Prophet (S) finished his speech, the following verse of Holy Qur’an was revealed:
"Today I have perfected your religion and completed my bounty upon you, and I was satisfied that Islam be your religion.”(Qur’an 5:3)
Some of Sunni references which mentioned the revelation of the above verse of Qur’an in Ghadir Khum after the speech of the Prophet:
(1) al-Durr al-Manthur, by al-Hafiz Jalaluddin al-Suyuti, v3, p19
(2) Tarikh, by Khatib al-Baghdadi, v8, pp 290,596 from Abu Hurayra
(3) Manaqaib, by Ibn Maghazali, p19
(4) History of Damascus, Ibn Asakir, v2, p75
(5) al-Itqan, by al-Suyuti, v1, p13
(6) Manaqib, by Khawarazmi al-Hanfi, p80
(7) al-Bidayah wal-Nihayah, by Ibn Kathir, v3, p213
(8) Yanabi’ al-Mawaddah, by al-Qudoozi al-Hanafi, p115
(9) Nuzul al-Qur’an, by al-Hafiz Abu Nu’aym narrated on the authority Abu Sa’id Khudri.
... and more.
The above verse clearly indicates that Islam without clearing up matter of leadership after Prophet was not complete, and completion of religion was due to announcement of Prophet’s immediate successor.
Oath Of Allegiance
After his speech, the Messenger of Allah asked every body to give the oath of allegiance to ‘Ali (as) and congratulate him. Among those who gave him the oath were Umar, Abu Bakr, and Uthman. It is narrated that Umar and
Abu Bakr said:
"Well done Ibn Abi Talib! Today you became the leader (Mawla) of all believing men and women."
Sunni references:
(1) Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v4, p281
(2) Tafsir al-Kabir, by Fakhr al-Razi, v12, pp 49-50
(3) Mishkat al-Masabih, by al-Khatib al-Tabrizi, p557
(4) Habib al-Siyar, by Mir Khand, v1, part3, p144
(5) Kitabul Wilayah, by Ibn Jarir al-Tabari
(6) al-Musannaf, by Ibn Abi Shaybah
(7) al-Musnad, by Abu Ya’ala
(8) Hadith al-Wilayah, by Ahmad Ibn `Uqdah
(9) Tarikh, by Khatib al-Baghdadi, v8, pp 290,596 from Abu Hurayra ... and more.
The Number Of People In Ghadir Khum
It was Allah’s will that an increased popularity is associated with this tradition via the tongs of narrators and over the times. So that there is a standing proof for the guiding Imam (peace be upon him). Allah ordered His Prophet (S) to notify people at a time of crowded populous so that all become the narrators of the tradition, while they exceeded a hundred thousand.
Narrated by Zaid Ibn Arqam: Abu al-Tufail said: "I heard it from the Messenger of Allah, and there was no one (there) unless he saw him with his eyes and heard him with his ears."
Sunni reference:
(1) al-Khasa’is, by al-Nisa’i, p21;
(2) al-Dhahabi said it is sahih (authentic), as said in:
(3) History of Ibn Kathir, v5, p208
It is also narrated that:
"The Messenger of Allah called at the height of his voice."
Sunni reference: Manaqib al-Khawarizmi, by al-Khawarizmi, p94
"There were with the Messenger (S) from the companions, Arabs, residents around Mecca and Medina one hundred and twenty thousand (120,000) and they are those who were present in the Farewell Pilgrimage and heard this speech."
Sunni reference: Manaqib, by Ibn al-Jawzi
Revelation Of Verse 70:1-3
Some Sunni commentators further claim that the first three verse of the chapter of al-Ma’arij (70:1-3) was revealed when a dispute arose after Prophet reached Medina. It is recorded that:
On the day of Ghadir the Messenger of Allah summoned the people toward ‘Ali and said: "‘Ali is the mawla of whom I am mawla.”The news spread quickly all over urban and rural areas. When Harith Ibn Nu’man al-Fahri (or Nadhr Ibn Harith according to another tradition) came to know of it, he rode his camel and came to Medina and went to the Messenger of Allah (S) and said to him: "You commanded us to testify that there is no deity but Allah and that you are the Messenger of Allah. We obeyed you. You ordered us to perform the prayers five times a day and we obeyed. You ordered us to observe fasts during the month of Ramadhan and we obeyed. Then you commanded us to offer pilgrimage to Mecca and we obeyed. But you are not satisfied with all this and you raised your cousin by your hand and imposed him upon us as our master by saying `’Ali is the mawla of whom I am mawla.’ Is this imposition from Allah or from You?”The Prophet (S) said: "By Allah who is the only deity! This is from Allah, Mighty and the Glorious."
On hearing this Harith turned back and proceeded towards his she-camel saying: "O Allah! If what Muhammad said is correct then fling on us a stone from the sky and subject us to severe pain and torture.”
He had not reached his she-camel when Allah, who is above all defects flung at him a stone which struck him on his head, penetrated his body and passed out through his lower body and left him dead. It was on this occasion that Allah, the exalted, caused to descend the following verses:
"A questioner questioned about the punishment to fall. For the disbelievers there is nothing to avert it, from Allah the Lord of the Ascent.”(70:1-3)
Sunni references:
(1) Tafsir al-Tha’labi, by Is’haq al-Tha’labi, commentary of verse 70:1-3 from two chain of narrators.
(2) Noor al-Absar, by Shablanji, p4
(3) al-Fusool al-Muhimmah, by Ibn Sabbagh al-Maliki al-Makki, p25
(4) al-Sirah al-Halabiyah, by Noor al-Din al-Halabi, v2, p214
(5) Arjah al-Matalib
(6) Nazhat al-Mujalis from al-Qurtubi
The Events That Imam ‘Ali (as) Reminded The Tradition
Imam ‘Ali (as), in person, reminded others who witnessed the event of Ghadir and the tradition of the Messenger of Allah; these are some of the events:
- On the day of Shura (Election Day for Uthman)
- During the days of Uthman’s rule
- The Day of Rahbah (year 35) where 24 companions stood up and swore that they attended and heard the tradition of the Prophet (S) first hand, of whom were the warriors of Badr.
- The Day of Jamal (the War of Camel, year 36) where he reminded Talha.
- The Day of the Riders where 9 witnesses testified.
About the Battle of Camel, al-Hakim and Ahmad Ibn Hanbal and others recorded that:
We were in the camp of ‘Ali on the day of Battle of Camel, where ‘Ali sent for Talha to talk to him (before the beginning of war). Talha came forward, and ‘Ali told him: I adjure you by Allah! Didn’t you hear the Messenger of Allah (S) when he said: `Whoever I am his MAWLA, this ‘Ali is his MAWLA. O God, love whoever loves him, and be hostile to whoever is hostile to him’?”Talha replied: "Yes.”‘Ali said: "Then why do you want to fight me?”
Sunni reference:
- al-Mustadrak, by al-Hakim, v3, pp 169,371
- Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, on the authority of Ilyas al-Dhabbi
- Muruj al-Dhahab, by al-Mas’udi, v4, p321
- Majma’ al-Zawa’id, by al-Haythami, v9, p107
Ahmad Ibn Hanbal recorded in his Musnad that:
Abu Tufayl narrated that He (‘Ali) gathered the people in the plain of Rahbah (on year 35 AH) and adjured in the name of Allah every Muslim male present there who had heard the proclamation of al-Ghadir from the Messenger of Allah (S) to stand up and testify what they had heard from the Messenger on the Day of Ghadir.
Thereupon thirty (30) stood up and gave evidence that the Prophet grasped ‘Ali’s hand and said to the audience: "He (‘Ali) has superior authority over those who believe me to have superiority over their lives. O Allah! Love him who loves him and hate him who hates him.”
Abu Tufayl says that it was in a state of great mental agitation that he left the plain of Rahbah, the Muslim masses had not complied with the tradition. He therefore called on Zaid Ibn Arqam and told him what he heard from ‘Ali. Zaid told him not to entertain any doubt about it for he himself had heard the Messenger of Allah uttering those words.
Sunni reference: Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v4, p370 also:
Abd al-Rahman Ibn Abu Laylah said: I witnessed ‘Ali administering an oath to the people in the plain of Rahbah. ‘Ali said: "I adjure those of you in the name of Allah who heard the Messenger of Allah on the day of Ghadir saying `’Ali is the Mawla of whom I am Mawla’ to stand up and to testify. He who was not an eyewitness doesn’t need to stand up.”Thereupon twelve (12) such companions who had participated in the Battle of Badr stood up. The occasion is still fresh in my memory.
Sunni references:
- Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v1, p119, see also v5, p366
- Khasa’is, by al-Nisa’i, pp 21,103, narrated similar to above on the authority of three others: Umayah Ibn Sa’d, Zaid Ibn yathigh, and Sa’id Ibn Wahab.
It is also recorded that:
When ‘Ali said to Anas: "Why don’t you stand up and testify what you heard from the Messenger of Allah on the day of Ghadir?”He answered, "O Amir al-Mumineen! I have grown old and do not remember.”Thereupon ‘Ali said: "May Allah mark you with a white spot (of leprosy; Alphosis) unconcealable with your turban, if you are intentionally withholding the truth.”And before Anas got up from his place he bore a large white spot on his face, Thereafter Anas used to say, "I am under the curse of the righteous servant of Allah."
Sunni references:
(1) al-Ma’arif, by Ibn Qutaybah, p14, in the account of Anas among disabled persons.
(2) Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v1, p199, where he testifies to the above anecdote, as he says: "All stood up except three persons who came under the curse of ‘Ali."
(3) Hilyatul Awliya’, by Abu Nu’aym, v5, p27
A More Detailed Speech Of Prophet At The Pond Of Khum
Messenger of Allah said:
"Praise belongs to Allah. We ask Him for help, and we believe in Him, and to Him we trust. We seek refuge to Him from the evil of our souls and the sins of our deeds. Verily there is no guide for the one whom Allah leaves in stray, and there is non who leads astray the one whom Allah has guided."
"O People! Know that Gabriel came down to me several times bringing me an order from the Lord, the Merciful, that I should stop at this place and inform you. Behold! It is as if the time approached when I shall be called away (by Allah) and I shall answer that call."
"O Folk! Don’t you witness that there is no deity but Allah, Muhammad is His servant and His Apostle, Paradise is truth, Hell is truth, is truth, resurrection is truth, and that the Hour shall certainly arrive, and Allah shall raise people from the graves?"
People replied: "Yes, we believe in them."
He continued: "O People! Do you hear my voice (clearly)?”
They said: Yes".
The Prophet said: "Behold! I am leaving among you two precious and weighty Symbols that if you adhere to both of them, you shall never go astray after me. Each of these two surpasses the other in its grandeur."
A person asked: "O Messenger of Allah, what are those two precious things?"
The Prophet replied: "One of them is the Book of Allah and the other one is my select progeny (Itrat), that is family (Ahlul-Bayt). Beware of how you behave them when I am gone from amongst you, for Allah, the Merciful, has informed me that these two (i.e., Qur’an and Ahlul-Bayt) never separate from each other until they reach me in Heaven at the Pool (of al-Kawthar). I remind you, in the name of Allah, about my Ahlul-Bayt. I remind you, in the name of Allah, about my Ahlul-Bayt. Once more! I remind you, in the name of Allah, about my Ahlul-Bayt.”
"Behold! I am your predecessor at the Pool (of Paradise) and I shall be a witness against you. Thus be careful how you treat these two precious things after me. Do not precede these two for you will perish, and do not stay away from them for you will perish."
"O People! Don’t you know that I have more authority upon you than yourself?”People cried and said: "Yes, O Messenger of Allah.”Then prophet repeated: "O Folk! Do I not have more right over the believers than what they have over themselves?”People said again "Yes, O Messenger of Allah.”Then Prophet said: "O People! Surely God is my Master, Whoever and I am the master of all believers.”Then he grasped the hand of ‘Ali and raised it and said: I am his master, ‘Ali is his master (repeating three times). O God! Love those who love him. Be hostile to those who are hostile to him. Help those who help him. Forsake those who forsake him. And keep the truth with him wherever he turns (i.e., make him the axis of the truth)."
"‘Ali, the son of Abu Talib, is my brother, my executor (Wasi), and my successor (Caliph), and the leader (Imam) after me. His position to me is the same as the position of Haroon (Aaron) to Moses, except that there shall be no prophet after me. He is your master after Allah and His Messenger."
"O Folk! Verily Allah has appointed him to be your Imam and ruler. of him is obligatory for all Immigrants (Muhajirin) and Helpers (Ansar) and those who follow them in virtue, and on the dwellers of the cities and the nomads, the Arabs and the non-Arabs, freeman and the slave, the young and the old, the great and the small, the white and the black.”
"His commands should be obeyed, and his word is binding and his order is obligatory on everyone who believes in one God. Cursed is the man who disobeys him, and blessed is the one who follows him, and he who believes in him is a true believer. His WILAYAH (belief in his mastery) has been made obligatory by Allah, the Powerful, the Exalted."
“O Folk! Study the Qur’an. Reflect on its clear verses and do not presume the meaning of the ambiguous verses. For, by Allah, nobody can properly explain them to you its warnings and its meanings except me and this man (i.e., ‘Ali) whose hand I am lifting up in front of myself."
"O People! This is the last time that I shall stand in this assembly. Listen to me and obey and submit to the command of Lord. Allah, He is your Lord and God. After Him, His prophet, who is addressing you, is your master. Then after me, this ‘Ali is your master and your leader (Imam) according to Allah’s command. Then after him leadership will continue through some selected individuals in my descendants till the day you meet Allah and His Prophet."
"Behold! Certainly you shall meet your Lord and He will ask you about your deeds. Beware! Do not become infidels after me by striking the necks of one another. Lo! It is incumbent upon those who are present to inform what I said to those who are absent for perhaps the informed one might comprehend it (understand it) better than some of the present audience. Behold! Haven’t I conveyed the Message of Allah to you? Behold! Haven’t I conveyed the Message of Allah to you?”People replied: "Yes.”The Prophet said: "O God! Bear witness."
References:
- A’alam al-Wara, pp 132-133
- Tadhkirat al-Khawas al-Ummah, Sibt Ibn al-Jawzi al-Hanafi, pp 28-33
- al-Sirah al-Halabiyyah, by Noor al-Din al-Halabi, v3, p273
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Any recommended literatures/ journals/ books on biodiversity teaching?
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@Arvind Singh
You have provided sufficient and useful literature on teaching bio-diversity conservation. 
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Are there any research articles that talk about the "Teaching Methods" of Quranic recitation/memorization? Or are there any informative websites that explicitly talk about this?
Usullay the teaching method can vary from one country to another, would you agree?
Thank you in advance.
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How many authors have translated the Quran in the world
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Translating the Untranslatable: A Survey of English Translations of the Quran
by A.R. Kidwai