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# Quaternary - Science topic

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I am trying to draw Gibbs energy plot of a quaternary system. A Tetrahedron can be a key to the solution of this problem but I am unable to do this. A tetrahedron with colormap ca also help me.
If anyone know about any software that can help me drawing these graphs.
For sure you can create such 3D plot in GeoGebra - leading provider of dynamic mathematics software. It is important to know that GeoGebra is a free program.
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I am trying to thermodynamically model the quaternary system for SS304L Considering Fe-Cr-C-Ni configuration. I need to find out the equilibrium condition during solidification process depending upon the chemical potential of involved elements. It is difficult to visualize the combination of 4 ternary systems to yield one quaternary system for the equilibrium conditions. A Tetrahedron can be a key to the solution of this problem but I am unable to do this in "Thermocalc". My questions
1. Has anyone ever drawn a similar quaternary phase diagram?
2. What are the other possible solutions to see the equilibrium conditions of this system depending upon the common tangent to the Gibbs energy curves?
3. Utilizing the experimental CalPhaD database of this system how can I get the 1) equilibrium temperature during monotectic reaction at 0.02% carbon ( L --> L + Delta ferrite ), 2) equlibrium concentrations of Cr, C, and Ni?
Hello,
To answer the first question, you can now make some tetrahedrons using VRML files. (see the TC online help with the keyword "tetrahedron"). But to do so, you will have to fix the temperature.
You can also fix the composition of the metals within the alloy and plot the phases at equilibrium as a function of C amount and T. In 304, approximately :
7 X more Fe than Ni,
2 X more Cr than Ni.
You will obtain a diagram with x axis : Temperature in K and y axis C activity (refered to Graphite). You can predict the equilibria between liquid, alloy (bcc, fcc) and carbides. See Example 1
Under the same condition and fixing the carbon amount (here 0.04% mass.), you can also plot the composition of the ferrite (bcc phase, in mass fraction). See example 2.
Regards
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1.Multiplexer-based
2.Innovative and Combined techniques
3.Gate-based
5. Others
In my view, for a performance-based design, you may tend to combine existing methods.
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I have carried out quaternization of PVA for antimicrobial activity of the polymer. The sequence of reaction is PVA preparation followed by addition of KOH and then quaternary ammonium salt. Washed with anhydrous ethanol. First time at 0.1 g PVA the precipitates were formed. But at 1 g PVA, after 3 hrs of adding quaternary ammonium salt the curds were formed before the addition of ethanol. Molar ratio of PVA to QAS is 1:2.
Is it due to self-condensation?
Dear Noor Ul Ain, please have a look at the following recent review document and the references therein. My Regards
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I am having baseline issue when following the method outlined in a application note from Agilent. The application note references a method that utilizes a gradient in the attached image.
The whole application note can be found by searching for 5994-3791EN.
I do have a binary pump instead of the quaternary pump, but otherwise there is very little difference between my instrument's config and the reference method that would significantly effect afaik. If Agilent's newer software corrects for the baseline issues seen maybe that could be the answer.
I also have the older Agilent DAD from the 1100 series if that is relevant.
What could possibly be the root cause of the difference in baseline seen here?
The transition dip is seen at other gradients of these same two mobile phases.
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I would like to know your opinion about what are currently the greatest unsolved problems or opportunities for further research in palaeoclimatology.
How about: humans are the greatest challenge? The idea that a capitalistic economy based on consumerism is the "best"? That we need to have the latest smartphone, buy "fast" fashion, eat meat, follow influencer, follow celebrities...to be humans? Human greed is the greatest challenge to Climate Change. Failure to be capable of being able to cope with less things and enjoy Life for what it is. But we all fear Death, don't we? And we fill this fear with meaningless things. If we were Penguins, we would Live and Die because this is how it is. We would not need more than we need. And we could live in a much better World.
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Hi
Can any one help me, I have problem with this pollens, I think they are Cupressaceae( In particular Cupressus sempervirens and Juniperus), but I'm not sure about that. Because they are look like spores. In general, they are round and have a small cavity. The following figures shows some of them.
I'm researching about MIS2 (30,000-11,000 B.P) in the Central Zagros, specifically Kermanshah using wetland sediments. In the current era, the growth of Cupressaceae has not been observed in this region. And it can be strange that I see these pollens many times at the different depths . also at some depths they have high frequency, Which indicates that it is not migratory pollen brought by the wind.
thanks a lot.
Dear Mohsen,
Figs b,e,f,g,h no pollen, there are Testaceae. In Hungarian Upper part of the Serravallien layers are dominant.
Testaceae microplankton with large oval pylome (Amőba)
Best regards. Mária.
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Nowadays, it can be seen that the affiliation of the universities plays an important role to accept or reject a manuscript by a journal. It seems that the policy has entered the world of the science. Do you agree or disagree? Why?
Yes I attend the affiliation of article
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Is there a software or tool I can use to estimate the primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of protein using an FTIR spectra?
I do understand that you can use circular dichroism for this but I am looking for alternatives since we have access to FT-IR…
Dear Roger Davis thanks for the suggestion, I will take a look.
Kind regards,
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Hello: I have a question: With an identified active fault displacing young Quaternary deposits, what kind of analysis or methodologies are used for evaluating if that active fault has seismic or creep displacement?
Thanks!
Hi Sebastian,
You might want to check out McCalpin's textbook on Paleoseismology. It has sub-sections entitled "Distinguishing Creep Displacement from Episodic Displacement" in each of the three chapters dealing respectively with compressional, extensional and strike-slip regimes. They also refer to a number of useful papers which I'm sure will assist you further.
McCalpin, J.P. (ed) "Paleoseismology" International Geophysics Series Vol. 95. Academic Press (2009)
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Hi All,
Is this open access journal "Quaternary (ISSN 2571-550X)" by MDPI indeed a peer-reviewed journal and is it reputable? I cannot find relevant information about this journal accept for information provided by the publisher (MDPI). Also, there are other peer reviewed sources with a similar name which at a first glance causes some confusion about the reputation of Quaternary, e.g., Quaternary Science Reviews or Quaternary Research or Journal of Quaternary Science or Quaternary International. Any relevant feedback is welcome.
Thanks,
Ryan
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Did they survive after the Eemian and for how long? The actual question would be if they were still around in the Brörup interstadial (MIS 5c) and how much the Brörup fauna differed from the Eemian one (MIS 5e)? Vice versa, when did the mammoth-dominated fauna first appear in Central Europe after the Eemian? In MIS 5b or earlier? Thanks in advance, Micha
I only have information about the elephant (Palaeoloxodon antiquus) of Eemian in Minsk section. I'm sending it.
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The Problem started after replacing the HPLC Pump from Quaternary to Isocratic pump due to pump failure. The configuration was set as the previous set up as Modular 3D LC System and the license for 3D and Isoabsorbance plot is still valid as evident by the presence of spectra option in the toolbar. However, the isoabsorbance and 3D plots are missing in the dropdown menu for spectra as shown in the attached figure. Does anybody have a solution to this problem please?
Please select "FULL MENU" (from the ChemStation Menu) and you will see ALL options in the software.
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Geomorphology is not a science. Unlike physics and chemistry it has no empirical basis. No one measured stream sediments or mass wasting over a century, which should have been done in hundreds of locations, under all climates, topography, degree of degredation, etc. It is based solely on experts. In the Sierra Nevada, work like yours is typically off by 2 to 5 orders of magnitude from constraints imposed by field evidence. I'm a serious geomorphologist; been one since 1968, and it takes decades to get comprehensive results. Geomorphology is a belief system, like Christianity, and it's interesting to see how each evolved over time. OK, I'm old. Am finally going to publish a very abreviated, if lengthy paper, on history of Sierra Nevada uplift based on Late Cretaceous to Eocene sediment remnants and Oligocene to Quaternary volcanic remnants in the range. There are about 300 sites.
Jeffrey Paul Schaffer I strongly disagree. Geomorphology is not a belief system like Christianity. It is science.
Let me quote Tim Minchin here:
"Science adjusts its views based on what's observed. Faith is the denial of observation so that belief can be preserved."
What are the beliefs in Geomorphology that could not be overturned by observation?
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I am looking for a material like TPE used in OLEDs that has a high electron mobility to add to my Ternary system that can help enhance the PCE of the devices.
welcome,
You may select a material from those given there which is suitable for your application in solar cells.
Best wishes
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My intention is to study the stability of compounds made up of Li, Al, Ge and P with different compositions. For this purpose, I need to plot a quaternary phase diagram, but I couldn’t find suitable software. So would you please suggest me a software which could be used for this work. Preferable if it is free.
ThermoCalc
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Earth is here for more than four billion years, but there had been only 5 (including present) major glaciation periods. The usual effect attributed to milankovitch cycle had been acting continuously, is not it?
Does earth switch between Bistable "greenhouse" and "icehouse" modes that are self-sustaining, and disrupt only by biogeological events?
• Huronian glaciation coincided with onset of great oxygenation event. What caused it to end?
• What started Cryogenian glaciation? its end coincide with ediacaran biota rise, and later cambrian explosion, but what caused cryogenian glaciation to end?
• what caused andean-saharan glaciation to begin and end?
• Rise of oxygen producing land plant started Karoo Glaciation, what ended it?
• What started quaternary glaciation?
Milankovitch cyclicity in the solar radiation received by Earth is caused by the variation of Earth’ orbit due to the influence of the other planets on that orbit. Milankovitch cyclicity has undoubtedly been the control on glacial / interglacial cyclicity during the Late Cainozoic.
However, in order for Milankovitch variation in solar radiation to have that effect the configuration of the oceans and the continents needs to be favorable. If not ( eg during the Cretaceous) it will not give rise to glaciations.
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Several simple gradation parameters are obviously not a satisfactory description of particle size distribution. Is there a function with a few fitting parameters that can describe the particle size distribution generally? The wonderful thing about nature is that it has rules to follow although it is so complex. I know some excellent researches about this question, but these are mainly phenomenological analysis, and their physical basis is not rigorous.
Dear Mr. Liu,
there does not exist a philosopher´s stone neither for the Quaternary as the youngest era nor its particle size. I suggest a simple approach to be taken. Investigate your samples using all your techniques you can avail of yourself (from the settling tube, through the sieving method to the CAMSIZER) to cover the entire spectrum of grains. Have a look at their morphology and the clast orientation in the field or laquer peel; if this is not enough enter in the field of mineralogy etc.
The philosophical statement comes up at the very end not at the beginning. We are natural scientists not social scientists.
H.G.Dill
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I have completed the indirect dating methods like foraminiferal biostratigraphy and nannoplankton stratigraphy of Quaternary marine core sample.For direct dating of 1000 yr - 2.5 Ma marine core samples which method will be suitable?
According to your summary of the minerals involved, I can only recommend to direct your thoughts to the K-bearing mica and make use of K/Ar or Ar/Ar dating techniques.
Kind regards
H.G.Dill
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I'm interested in your opinion on what processes could be driving changes in this waterfall, at a decadal scale.
Local Maori recall migratory eels were once more abundant upstream of this waterfall and slot canyon. I'm wondering if fracturing process could have contributed to changes (in addition to an erosion, log jams, etc). This is an area of high tectonic activity. Located on New Zealand's North Island, on the east coast within 50 km of the Hikurangi fault with its slow slip and frequent earthquakes. The rock appears to be sandstone (Quaternary).
By my eye, the exit from the slot canyon looks to have edges that are too sharp to have formed by fluvial processes. Also the tilt angle of the slot. Where water enters the canyon we see more rounded edges.
I'm a biologist/hydrologist, so this isn't my area of expertise.
Thoughts welcome.
I've attached photos. But, you really need video to get a 3D perspective. Hopefully this video link works (skip to 10 seconds in).
If I understood correctly the process involved, the area presents geological faults related to the tectonic processes in this geological basin.
Over time, rock material reacomodations occur, often caused by non-tectonic stresses or by intraplate tectonics.
The largest expression of intraplate tectonics is currently called neotectonics. these processes are what sculpted and shaped these landscapes of his example.
I hope I have clarified my line of thought in relation to this landscape.
Best Regards
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With all of the sample preparation step, you still have significant matrix effect and need standard addition or matrix-matched standard. Would it be quicker if you pass the 1:1 water:acidified methanol thru an Oasis HLB to trap fat (pass thru) and add internal standard to correct for suppression? The IS is not that expensive if you add into the sample at the end.
There are at least two ways to minimize matrix effect in order to get accurate quanttification of the method (by LCMS or GCMS). First clean the sample until the matrix disappear without losing the analyte. This is hard because we don’t exactly what they are. Secondly, use matrix-mateched standard to compensate the effect. However, we may not be able to get blankmatrix that has the exact match. If you are lucky to have IS that is similar to the analyte (same RT and structure) be available and affordable, then you can have std in solvent with IS to quantify the analyte in any samples in the set with minimum matrix effect. It is scientifically sound to develop an extraction/cleanup method to eliminate sample matrix as much as possible to minimize coelution, improve peak shape, keep the insturment/column clean and still have good recovery. However, if you are looking for analytes with different polarity, it is a bit harder. One easy way is to use the very sensitive instrument and inject the small amount iof sample (dilution/small injection volume).
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Does anyone know where I could find reconstructed North Atlantic winter and summer insolation data over the past 50 000 years?
Or, find data from “Berger A. and Loutre M.F., 1991, Insolation values for the climate of the last 10 million of years. Quaternary Sciences Review, Vol. 10 No. 4 pp. 297-317” ?
An interface for generating various insolation datasets from the Laskar et al. (2004) solution is available at following link (accessed 14th April 2019):
The data for the Laskar et al. (2004) orbital solution are available on following website: http://vo.imcce.fr/insola/earth/online/earth/earth.html
Personally I do not see any good reason for using the older solutions.
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Please, i'm looking for a copy of a Book : "Principles of Alluvial Fan Morphology ( Dan Bowman )", can you help me to find it ??
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The sea level changed in the geological past for example Quaternary sea level change. Do the chemical composition of groundwater change in glacial and interglacial period?
Yes. In Florida, USA, due to destruction of wetlands there have been issues with sea water contaminating potable water as well as septic tank water getting into water tables. They are now working on reversing the trend by trying to restore wetlands to some extent as well as providing connectivity among bodies of fresh water.
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Erdelen, W. and Preu, C. 1990. Quaternary coastal and vegetation dynamics in the Palk Strait region, South Asia—the evidence and hypotheses. In (J. B. Thornes, Ed.) Vegetation and Erosion. London: John Wiley and Sons Ltd, pp. 491-520.
Tried looking for the book but could not find in any of the libraries near me.
Would appreciate if someone can help.
Thanking you,
Professor Preu was connected to the University of Augsburg, but died about 1991, shortly after this book chapter was published. Perhaps you can try to get a copy from the University? here is a link: https://bit.ly/2UqMp5B
Good luck!
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We have a problem with the multi channel gradient valve in a quaternary pump (Serial No. DE62976920) but before replacing it, I would like to know if anyone faced this problem before and could somehow solve it without replacing it.
Our problem is that channel A doesn't take the set volume, so we decided to use the rest of the channels and avoid channel A. However, even when channel A is set at 0%, it is still taking up volume, what ruins the set gradient. Did anyone tried to physically block the channel to prevent it from taking volume or any other more creative solution?
This is a very simple problem which is often caused by the solenoid valve getting stuck in channel 'A'. It often occurs when the HPLC pump has: (1) been sitting around unused for long periods; (2) When the system is left in water, buffer or other inappropriate liquids over time or (3) when the MCGV is just worn out ('A' is often the most used channel).
BTW: One of the first things to check are the four (4) solvent pickup frits. You are replacing them at regular intervals, right? You are keeping them clean too? If one of them gets restriction, then can create a vacuum on the valve resulting in internal leakage and poor performance. Be sure to flush down the entire HPLC with fully degassed liquid before doing any troubleshooting.
OK, Options:
(A) Replace the MCGV. Is has a lifetime and it may be that it is over (your pump is 13 years old). You could run a formal gradient mixing test to check the operation of each channel to be sure. (B) Fill a beaker with HPLC grade IPA/Water (50/50). Place ALL FOUR of the clean solvent pickups in it. Open the prime purge valve. Flush, one-at-a-time, each channel in 100% IPA. Make sure you account for the delay volume in the low pressure tubing and degasser too (that could be 30+ mls per line if you have a G1322A!). Do this for 'A', 'B' and so on. Flush 50-100 mls of IPA at 2 mL/min to waste, per channel. Stop, set 'A' to 100% again, flow 1 mL/min, let some IPA run through it, then set flow to 0. Leave it sit in IPA for 1 hour. Later, return and flush all channels out with your own mobile phases and test the valve again. What happens is the seal inside of the valve hydrates from the alcohol and sometime reforms back into shape. Plus the IPA rinse washes away any particulate matter. This often works to restore a MCGV that has been ignored, abused or contaminated. If it fails, buy a new valve.
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I have been working on ternary and quaternary Cu based chalcogenide nanocrystals. I have measured the UV-vis-NIR absorption spectrum to calculate the band gap. From literature I came to know that the well known method to calculate the band gap is to use the (αhν)2vs hν graph. Where "α" is the absorption coefficient.
How to calculate the absorption coefficient of colloidal nanocrystals from absorption spectra?
The absorption coefficient α is expressed from the Beer-Lambert law
α =2.303A/d
Where A is known as the absorbance, d is the thickness
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This equation is used to predict the glass transition temperature of systems with different components (miscibility and immiscibility). This equation have been used for binary and ternary systems. Can any one know how to extend this equation for quaternary systems?
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The Tajik Basin during the Neogene time, it was progressively deformed by folding and thrusting. But in the Quaternary the Tajik Basin suddenly started undergoing uplift and erosion process. A question here is why this happened and what is the consequences have this process ?
Dear Falih,
Sorry for the late replaying! Respected the question here is " The Tajik Basin, nowadays with which kind of faced and what tectonics changes and which questions remained unresolved that would be examined in the future to determine the exact geological age and sedimentation" !
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DES are often seen as green solvents, however, their chemistry and mechanism is still scarcely available. How do they posses lower melting and freezing tendencies in-comparisons to their original constituents? And what are their potential applications in industry?
As far as the lower melting and freezing tendencies of DESs are conecerned, DESs contain large, nonsymmetric ions that have low lattice energy and hence low melting points. They are usually obtained by the complexation of a quaternary ammonium salt with a metal salt or hydrogen bond donor (HBD). The charge delocalization occurring through hydrogen bonding between for example a halide ion and the hydrogen-donor moiety is responsible for the decrease in the melting point of the mixture relative to the melting points of the individual components. I find this article of ACS helpful on this issue: Thanks
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I am trying to draw the band diagram of quiternary material which will be used as a quantum well with quaternary barrier. Does anyone know any software that helps to draw this kind of band diagram?
I suggest that consider "mesh" and "plotyy" commands in MATLAB. Using them, the desired graph can be plotted.
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I'm in South Korea.
I want to buy TPQPOH ionomer to do the research of HEMFC.
Is there any place to buy TPQPOH?
Synthesis of TPQPOH is so complicated.
I believe Sigma Aldrich is the best trusted company to purchase lab chemicals worldwide.
This is their website/ Korea branch:
This is their contact info in Korea:
Hope this help
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I have been searching for some articles which may address the problem mentioned above. I could find some excellent papers dealing with origin of red beds in sand dunes but hardly any dealing with fluvial deposits of Holocene or Late Pleistocene.
Any help in this regard is welcomed.
Dr Jérôme Juilleret additions to the photo nicely highlight the depositional and post-depositional events of this sequence. Although the oxidation can be caused by several processes, in profiles such as this, it has been my experience in the western U.S., southern Italy, Jordan and Iran, that they occur under conditions of fluctuating water table, and their location in a profile is often linked to zones of lateral movement of ground water across a sedimentary profile due to the presence of zones of increased grain size. These more permeable units allow more rapid movement ground water. When these units occur at the top of the ground water table, oxidation also commonly occurs. The variable occurrence of these units in your profile more than likely record different levels of your water table
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1. Ferrocene (Fc) in reduction state could from host-guest complex with β-CD, while the oxidized Ferrocene (Fc+), as reported by many papers, could not stay in the cavity of β-CD due to the decreased affinity between them.
2. Benzimidazole could complex with β-CD under neutral condition, while under acid environment, the protonated benzimidazole escaped from the cavity.
Based on these facts, can I conclude that unfunctionalized β-CD could not complex with positively charged molecules, such as quaternary ammonium?
Has someone ever seen such host-guest system?
THANK YOU ALL FOR YOUR ATTENTION! :)
Beta-cyclodextrin can complex with quaternary ammonium type compounds through the hydrophobic interactions of its cavity, so amphiphilic QAC such as alkyl or benzyl derivatives are found to form complexes. Interaction is produced by the hydrophobic tail and cavity.
I am adding a review that you can find useful.
Good luck!
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I am trying to prepare calcium-magnesium alloys with other two elements in it to form a quaternary system by ball milling. I have used toluene as the working media. But everytime while drying samples, when toluene gets evarporated, it was cathing fire.
Try to do drying in an inert environment/atmosphere or if possible, in an oxygen-deficient (<15%) environment or take help from the near-by lab expert/colleague or your Prof./research guide, etc.
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I have a compaund with four quaternary amine salts (ion bromine). Molecular weight is large enough (7080 mol / g). Which method is best suited for maldi or ESI? Thank you!
I support Sigurður's answer. To determine the charge state, you should examine the isotope pattern (1 m/z unit between peaks for one charge, 0.5 for charge +2, etc.) with the complication of the presence of bromine, if any. I can't see if this determination is possible on the MALDI spectrum. In your case, if ESI gives the molecular ion @ +4, you may see C-13 isotope peaks with 0.25 m/z interval if your MS resolution is sufficient (R>5000, probably 10000 necessary). Using a spectrum simulator may be very helpful to visualize the shape of the isotope pattern, even if the resolution is not sufficient to observe separate separate peaks.
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i have ester and quaternary amonnium salt (bromine) in same compound. Haw can I hydrolise the ester groups?
The presence of quaternary amonnium salt (bromine), with an ester group in the same compound, is not expected to affect the hydrolysis reaction of the ester negatively if a strong acid is used as a catalyst "in small amount". After refluxing with water , the ester will give the parent carboxylic acid and an alcohol.
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Hi
Currently I am working on growth of epitaxial ternary and Quaternary III-V semiconductor alloys.
For my research it is needed to know the exact alloy composition using RBS.
Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai is also having RBS .
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Different aldehydes and aromatic amines that includes quaternary ammonium fragment have not reacted with each other.What can we do ?
Schiff base synthesis
There are many methods used to prepare the rules of Schiff and the most common method is amineatole condensation with carbonyl compounds (aldehydes and ketones). Often, acetic acid is used in a few concentrations as a catalyst. These compounds are prepared in two steps. In the first step, A stable called carbinolamine quickly loses the water molecule to form the amines. The process of removing water from the reaction was facilitated by the use of drying solvents ...
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In regions where Quaternary deposits and landforms are rare or absent, such as in steep mountainous terrain or other upland settings, we focused on prominent and continuous escarpments and strong lineaments in bedrock. But, what could be the clear evidence indicative of Quaternary movement of the fault?
Dear Mr. Shnizai,
apart from the cosmogenic methods used for dating geological processes during the most recent parts of earth history, there are biogenic ones using, e.g., lichens, pedological aspects , e.g., loess stratigraphy and last but not least human remains such as pottery or bones. They may be found within the fault structure itself or on both sides being displaced relative to each others.
With kind regards
H.G.Dill
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On the field, we measured pH and alkalinity. From these parameters, I back-calculated the concentration of dissolved CO2 in my samples. They vary between 12 and 23 mg/l (10-2 atm).
The lab also provides us with the concentrations of dissolved CO2 10 times higher than those calculated from field parameters (180-230 mg/l - 10-1 atm. I was expecting to have my samples degassed.
The samples come from a shallow semi-confined to confined Quaternary aquifer (depth of sampling between 25 and 60 m).
I cannot make any sense of it. Any thoughts would be greatly appreciated. Thanks
In the Eastern part of Denmark we are used to groundwater samples similar to that you describe. CO2 degas slowly even with moderate stirring. Soda water is a well known example. In Copenhagen we have tap water that has just been aerated for less than 1 h to remove the iron and it have enough CO2 in the tap to push the pH down to about 7.5. If you leave it in a glass for 2 days it will increase to pH 8.2.
The excess CO2 come from mineralisation of organic matter in the soil and further down in the underground. Once the water in underground the CO2 doesn't escape and the solubility increase with the higher pressure underground.
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I am interested in the comparison of historical sedimentation rates as well as mass accumulation rates in sedimentary basins in Quaternary, Pliocene and Miocene. Can anyone supply me with reference? Table would be nice. I suspect that Bengal Fan, Foaz Amazonas, some interior basins are high on the list? I searched but could not find a reference anywhere.
Dear Nazim,
Metivier and colleagues have published a phenomenal article in 1999 about mass accumulation rates in Asian Basins. You might find it interesting. Here's a link:
And I attach a pdf copy hereby.
Best wishes
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Deer taxonomy
no, only fragmentary materials are known, and to my knowledge, practically nothing was described, other than by Sickenberg 1975, and the only complete antler from Megalopolis that was preserved (but never depicted / described!), has recently been destroyed during the June 2017 earthquake on Lesvos, unfortunately (the museum was damaged).
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I am looking for any procedure or suggestion on an intramolecular cyclization of a tertiary amine and an aldehyde. The product should be the resulting hemi-aminal. What condition should I use? Do I need to use any Lewis acid (mono dentate) or H+ catalyst? Another confusion I have is, where should the counter anion for the quaternary ammonium come from? Can anyone suggest me? Thanks in advance.
@Dr. Lepage, Yes, the product is a six-member ring with the hemiaminal quaternary ion. So, that should compensate for some of the higher enthalpy, I guess. So far, I have tried heating it in different solvents (DCE, ACN, MeOH etc) but nothing happens. Tried with a Lewis acid, no progress. Will try with Bronsted acid, if no progress then will go forward with the de-methylation.
Thank you so much for your input. I really appreciate.
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For example the molecular ion of R4NCl and R4NBr or R4NOAc would have same or different retention time in LCMS or HPLC?
Hello Dr. Wahab, I should not share any of my research data, but I can answer all your questions. MS are same for two peaks. The peaks are very close - partially overlapped. I know amines can show multiple peaks - I have seen that many times. The sample was not overloaded (concentrations was low) and sample was prepared in 50% MeCN/H2O (same solvent system as the mobile phase).
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I am trying to use MS(materials studio) to calculate the properties of  solid solution with multiple elements. but the model is hard to obtain. Anyone can help me establish the model of a  solid solution, like FeNiCrCoAl. Or give me some examples about ternary or Quaternary solid solution using castep module. Thanks a lot.
Sorry when Ga0.75Al0.25 As was supposed to write 75 and 25 are not 0.25 and 0.75,And we can do this for all percentage and also for low percentage and we can also make default with CPA (Coherent potential approximation (CPA))
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As we know measuring order parameter for binary systems is easy using xrd where we have standard database for the binary systems. But for quinary and Quaternary alloys we don't have database. Can somebody help me how to measure order parameter for multi component systems..?
Could you tell me what do you mean with order parameter for binary systems and why this is easy to determine by XRD? Thanks in advance...
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A quaternary link contains four kinematic links. With the four links, we can form four binary links as shown in the picture attached. But the theory say only three. Why?
It takes two links to make the first joint.  Each additional link adds one joint.  If you imagine those same 4 links connected but not at the same point you will see that the 4 links have 3 connections or joints.
Your labels are not in the correct location.  The document refers to the four links that intersect at joint Q.
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Is ther documents or books about the historic geology of the word (from the precambrean to quaternary).?
Smaine:
Do have a look at this book to get a good insight about historical Gelogy principles:
Best
Syed
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Climate and civilization
this is not early Holocene and then the question: is agriculture synonymous with civilization?
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why alkynyl quaternary carbon peak appears in dept-135 spectra in CdCl3?
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Interested in the identification of dentition and bones of vertebrates.
Dear Bogdan,
Besides the books which be mentioned above by others, I want to recommend the Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Surely useful and up-to-date.
Regards,
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What are the techniques and methods to know If there are any separated sub-phases of amorphous ternary and quaternary systems and what are their compositional elements?
EDX may identify the elemental composition of any system. But, how can I make sure that there are no binary or ternary separated sub-phases have been formed from the quaternary systems? What are the compositional elements of these separated phases?
well, formation of binary or ternary phase in quaternary system is called phase separation. There are two kinds of phase separation, one is in large scale more than micrometre while another is in nanoscale. Generally for the latter its effect on the physical properties is not so significant especially this happens in a scale of 10nm or less. One way to identify this is elemental mapping, e.g., two dimensional scanning of EDX measurement. In this case, you need to be careful to the spot size of x-ray beam since it can change from 50nm to 50um. Another way is to map the refractive index of the film using FilmTex. For example, typical laser beam in FilmTex could be 5um, then you map the refractive index, you can consider the elemental distribution is uniform if you cannot see any large change in refractive index, but remember such a uniform distribution is only proofed in the um scale. For the distribution in nanoscale, you need a EDX in TEM where the beam can be focused in the nanoscale saying 5nm. You still need to scan the sample in large area although this is time-consuming and sometimes impractical..
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The adsorption of Pd(II) onto graphene oxide shows optimum pH at 6.0, whereas GO with quaternary ammonium salt shows optimum pH around 3-4.
Attachment for graphene oxide on Pd(II)
This is the explanation why Pd(II) adsorps at higher pH, suggestion taken from the reference you attached. Could you provide the later reference?
""It is reported that GO remains negatively charged in a wide pH range from 2 to 11.36 Therefore, with the increase of pH, the negative charge associated with GO increases. At lower pH values, the major interaction may be coordination between GO and metals. Due to the high availability of chloride anions, the main species of Au(III), Pd(II), and Pt(IV) in lower pH values are AuCl4 −, PdCl42−, andPtCl62−, respectively. Therefore, there is electrostatic repulsionbetween GO and metals, resulting in lower adsorption
capacities. Meanwhile, at higher pH values, because of thelower availability of chloride anions, the ionic species ofAu(III), Pd(II), and Pt(IV) are subject to hydration. As a result,
the electrostatic interaction between GO and metals increases,leading the increase in adsorption capacity.""
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The aim of that is to define stratigraphic surfaces and to predict clay distribution.
Every case is different. The objective is to establish how the sediments accumulated as a function of time. It isn't an exercise in classification or fitting terminology. It is commonly the case, within a limited volume, that specific systems tracts are poorly developed or absent altogether.
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We study an outcrop formed by Middle Miocene sands and clays, which are expected to be deformed during Quaternary. Thanks a lot for suggestions.
Michael,
Perhaps try this paper. References may provide better information although the authors tend to focus primarily in the Pacific Northwest of the US.
link: Deformation of Quaternary strata and its relationship to crustal
folds and faults, south-central Puget Lowland, Washington State
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Calcareous plant roots, stems and debris were found within quaternary fresh water limestone environment. Identification of these plants may reveal their environmental and climatic significance.
If you need to find the type of vegetation, you may go for isotopic analysis that can easily distinguish different types.
Also you can see the papers of Dr Seema Singh: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Seema_Singh27
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Was there tectonic activity in west africa craton during miopliocene quaternary period?
Another publication indicating noetectonics of the boredr of the west frican craton:
Geol. Mag. 151 (5), 2014, pp. 885–898. c Cambridge University Press 2013 885
doi:10.1017/S0016756813000939
Vertical movements along the northern border of the West African
Craton: the Reguibat Shield and adjacent basins
R. LEPRÊTRE∗†, J. BARBARAND∗, Y. MISSENARD∗, F. LEPARMENTIER‡
& D. FRIZON DE LAMOTTE‡§
Université Paris-Sud, UMR UPS-CNRS 8148 IDES, F- 91405 Orsay, France
‡TOTAL EP, Projets Nouveaux, place Jean Millier, F92 400 Paris-La Défense, France
§Département Géosciences et Environnement, Université de Cergy-Pontoise, Cergy-Pontoise, France
best regards
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I am interested in understanding the solar irradiance of Tropics during Bølling-Allerød period. I am not able to get the data/curve for the said period.
Thanx !
I'll do it definitely.
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I'm a current masters student and wanted to see if people are aware of knowledge gaps in ENSO activity in South America and/or palaeoclimatology reconstruction needed. I've looked in a lot of literature and seems to be a lot of modelling for ENSO activity not actual proxy evidence, is this true?
Dear Gareth,
You might find this book helpful. Sarah E. Metcalfe and David J. Nash (2012) Quaternary Environmental Change in the Tropics
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I am trying to find out the distance between the Storegga submarine landslide and the Stuoragurra fault, does anyone know the exact distance? Possibly with a reference to a paper?
Forgot to send you this link, if you want to try it out. Ask for GIS expert help. They will know how to do that:
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I aim on freezing the core then splitting it with a saw. However, freezing the core means that I may disrupt the sediment. So, I'm assuming it must be frozen quickly so water crystals don't grow large enough to disrupt the core. What is the correct temperature to do this, have you any advice/experience in this? Is -40'C enough?
Hi, I have CT and X-ray. I have already split the core using a technique which was emailed to me. I froze the core and cut it with a diamond tipped saw. The end product was a split core with a polished surface and no apparent sediment disturbance. Thank you.
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Some papers suggested that the formation of deserts (aridification) in Australia during Quaternary was driven by the global cooling, but without detailed interpretation. I want to know how and why and the references. Thanks.
Cremaschi, Mauro, and Andrea Zerboni. ‘Human Communities in a Drying Landscape: Holocene Climate Change and Cultural Response in the Central Sahara’. In Landscapes and Societies, edited by I. Peter Martini and Ward Chesworth, 67–89. Springer Netherlands, 2011. http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-90-481-9413-1_5.
There is a recent review paper here which probably contains the references you request:
Fitzsimmons, Kathryn E., Timothy J. Cohen, Paul P. Hesse, John Jansen, Gerald C. Nanson, Jan-Hendrik May, Timothy T. Barrows, et al. ‘Late Quaternary Palaeoenvironmental Change in the Australian Drylands’. Quaternary Science Reviews, Linking Southern Hemisphere records and past circulation patterns: the AUS-INTIMATE project, 74 (15 August 2013): 78–96. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2012.09.007.
There was a global cooling during the late Holocene, which has ended now we have entered the Anthropocene. The cooling occurred following the Holocene Thermal Maximum, which was mainly driven by orbitally related insolation forcing.
Renssen, H., H. Seppä, X. Crosta, H. Goosse, and D. M. Roche. ‘Global Characterization of the Holocene Thermal Maximum’. Quaternary Science Reviews 48 (10 August 2012): 7–19. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2012.05.022. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0277379112002168
Renssen et al. (2012) blame the aridification on changes to the local monsoon,  which also seems to have occurred in Saharan Africa around the same time. I don't think it is yet clear whether these monsoon changes were natural, or the result of humans using destructive new agricultural techniques such as slash and burn agriculture.
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I’m looking for data set or publications on paleoclimate (temperature, precipitation, vegetation distribution) in Europe between 90,000 BP and 50,000 BP
It is always a good idea to browse the NOAA database:
You can also use the search function
to find data for Europe/ the 90,000 to 50,000 BP time slice.
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We have a well accepted theory to explain the glacial-interglacial cycles during the Quaternary Ice Age. My question is, why did the Earth enter the ice age gradually?
Hello Shi-Yong Yu,
It looks to me like you are asking about the onset of the Quaternary glaciations in general, in which case I recommend you read Cane and Molnar (2001) (http://rainbow.ldgo.columbia.edu/papers/canemolnar.pdf). They concluded that the change resulted from diversion of West Pacific Warm Pool water following uplift of Halmahera. I think they are correct that the closure of the Indonesian Gateway was critical but their detailed model is inconsistent with Karas et al. (2009) (http://www.nature.com/ngeo/journal/v2/n6/full/ngeo520.html). The timing and nature of events recorded by Karas is more consistent with a change caused by the uplift of Timor in the Banda Arc, which caused major changes in the regional oceanography.
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Genevieve
click on: the second listing
click on: Find a Grotto
click on: Georgia
there are several listed in Georgia, Alabama,
Tennessee,
Cave exploration is not something you do alone.
For safety and a lot of other reasons, including
cold, wet, slippery , falls, Hypothermia, and
having fun, it is done in groups, and the groups
that are interested in what you are interested in.
The Networking is very important.
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Symbols or a legend used in geomorphological mapping varies significantly from map to map and place to place and they are not consistent. The legend and mapping symbols in geomorphological maps are likely to be chosen on the basis of purpose of the output, and hence the legend is not pretty standard with compared to that in other maps like geological. I am planning to compile a geomorphological map in an area where is largely covered with alluvial fills and fluvial erosional landforms. Is there any standard protocol or guideline or any good article on geomorphological mapping that could be useful for reading?
Dear Tilak,
I have worked a lot in this issue. I have compiled references since geomorphological mapping starts to be used in geomorphologic surveys, data collection and results presentation. I have some reviews but mostly were published in portuguese language. Indeed the last publication on this matter (I didn´t agree with all the ideas in the book) belongs to Jan Otto and Mike Smith (eds.) published by Elsevier "Geomorphological mapping: methods and applications".
But what I can say to you is that there are no standard symbols and legends apply by everybody. That was the aim of the Subcommission on Geomorphological Mapping of the IGU, that started its activity in 1962. Although the work done, namely the publication of the "Manual of Detailed Geomorphological Mapping", edited by Demek, in 1972, establish the modern concept of geomorphologic mapping and represents in our point of view a sort of revolution in the way how geomorphologic studies are done, the "Project of the Unified Key to the Detailed Geomorphological Map of the World" for maps at 1:25 000 and 1:50 000 scales, failed completely its pourpose. The Unified Key was not applied by the different country researcher and we can say that, nowadays, are the objectives of each work, the habits of each researcher and personal conotations about graphic symbols, that prevail.
In my opinion, we are quite far from the adoption of commum methodologies and legends in the survey of landforms, deposits and processes. On the contrary, it seems that the prevailing tendency it's for the diversification of legends and procedures.
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Becky Briant, Fiona Brock and Danielle Schreve are looking for fossiliferous Late Pleistocene sequences with independent age control to include in a new radiocarbon dating project in 2014 which will refine the pretreatments applied to plant macrofossil material in this time period. Have you worked or are you imminently planning to work on such a sequence? Do you have or can you get hold of large quantities (ideally c. 30+ kg [3+rubble sacks] of bulk sediment) of material that you would be interested in including in this project? Can you help? Please email b.briant@bbk.ac.uk for further details.
I'm working with a late-pleistocene archaeological site in Sudan. The ancient occupation level is composed within alluvial sediments (probably containing macrofossils). Currently I'm waiting for OSL dates (will be ready in November) so if You will be interested in, we can talk about cooperation. Taking samples is not a problem, but transport to Europe c.30kg load would generate some costs.
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I'm looking for the paper of Matsumoto (1924) in which the genus was established, the paper in which Palaeoloxodon raised up to rank of genus e and so on. Can you help me?
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Especially Betula, Pinus, Corylus, Quercus, Tilia, Ulmus, Alnus, Carpinus, Fagus. From where did each of them come when they successively reappear in the Holocene pollen records of Middle Europe?
From Iberia? Italy? The balkans? Anatolia? The levante? The Mediterranean region in general? East Europe? Central Asia? What is known about their refugia during the Last Glacial Maximum and migration paths thereafter?