Science topics: LawPenal LawPunishment
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Punishment - Science topic

The application of an unpleasant stimulus or penalty for the purpose of eliminating or correcting undesirable behavior.
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Corporal punishment, violent communication, humiliation...by parents and teachers.
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Most welcome sir
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Hello, everyone, I have two questions in my mind, and they are two different questions.
My first question is:
1) Can I use the data of different years for publication, even though there are papers with the same topic?
My second question is:
2) I attended a seminar previously and interacted with other participants. During the interactions, the participants raised some opinions, however, the participants did not have the data of the year. Can I collect the data of the year and publish the paper by myself? Will it constitute academic punishment?
Once again, the above two questions are related to two different scenarios and not related to each other.
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Thank for this interested question
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when make a study of corporate frauds and crimes , one notices always that corruption takes place when when one faces threat of punishment due to non compliance’s of laws .In india Satyam , Enron or ILFS are examples of corporate crimes arising out of non compliance’s .
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This article gives a broad overview of each of the four primary compliance risks in Vietnam: anti-corruption, regulatory compliance, employee fraud and corporate criminal liability. https://globalinvestigationsreview.com/review/the-asia-pacific-investigations-review/2020/article/vietnam-compliance-risks
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We all know that it is considered academic fraud to publish faked results. What is the punishment for this?
Where to report author or publication?
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write to the author and inform about the same.After then you can decide on based on author's reply.
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The study seeks to investigate Greek culture of behavior and religious beliefs in order to show that Oedipus in the play Oedipus Rex by Sophocles had sinned against the cannons of gods and embedded religious beliefs and practices and , therefore, his case was not a deterministic 'ways' of God, rather an act of crime and punishment.
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NO !!, because he did not know or was aware of what he was doing; what he suffered, according to Greek Mythology, was not a punishment, BUT A SELF PUNISHMENT, guided by the "SINO" or "FATUM" -classic protagonist of Greco-Latin mythologems- before the conscience, "a posteriori" of the infringed incest taboo, as a mere "toy" of the "gods" and without freedom to choose, as in all Classic Tragedy or, later, Romanticism.
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During an article review process recently, I went through a bad experience of research publications by some authors. These authors copied and pasted a published work with their name. It is just robbery and editors must check its plagiarism in start and in case of such blunder, there should be a mechanism in place to report such errors. It is not only a crime, but also a waste of time for editors and reviewers. I personally feel that such authors should be punished such as blacklisted by renowned journals and their respective institutions.
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I COMPLETELY AGREE !!: Plagiarism, besides being something dishonest and immoral, at least in my country and in the European Union -EU-, IS A CRIME !! (even political leaders and ministers have had to resign because they have been shown to have been kidnappers); is an execrable act that undermines and STEALS the most precious heritage of a Researcher and a Scientist: THEIR INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, which is loved as SOME CHILDREN OF THEIR INTELLECT ... therefore, in Spain and in the EU, it is persecuted and sanctioned (eg, students can be expelled if one is discovered), in addition serious, impactful and indexed magazines use "ad hoc" programs that detect them and the "author" who is caught and evidence of such unworthy conduct, his alleged and false "original" is dismissed and he is put on a "black list" of plagiarists available to other Magazines; They are also used by the Faculty for the Student Work. IN FRONT OF THE LACRA OF PLAGIARISM, ZERO TOLERANCE !!!
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Why concerned authorities are not closing such private institutions/ universities who are distributing graduation and post-graduation degrees and punish the teachers involved in such activities.No teacher should accept examinership of such universities and colleges
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$$$$ Corporate and political greed and lazy students.
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For example: Better Education, Guaranteed Employment, Security in the cities and social actions for the poorest or with physical or mental disabilities.
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The answers lie in the sovereignty in which the state can take the lives of subjects for wrongful acts. In the provision of public goods, the state priority is power-seeking instead of welfare and public goods that benefit society.
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Article 27 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation provides the following:
"If a person commits an intentional crime that by negligence leads to unintentional consequences, which by law require more severe punishment, then such a crime as a whole is considered intentional".
The most clear example of such a crime is Part 4 Article 111 of the Code: Part 1 provides for a person, intentionally causing grave bodily injury to be punished with up to 8 years of imprisonment. Under Part 4 the same crime, that by negligence leads to death of a victim, is punished by up to 15 years of imprisonment.
I came across "preterintenzionale" mens rea in the Italian criminal doctrine: Article 584 of the Italian Criminal Code provides for liability of a person negligently causing death in committing battery. It's not clear to me whether it is introduced in the Italian Code as a general rule.
In German criminal law there are similar offences (Article 176 as an example), but there is no general rule, as in Russia. The same goes with French "le doi indetermine".
To put it in the context of my research. There is Article 124 of the Russian Criminal Code - not providing a patient with needed medical assistance, that negligently leads to medium\grave bodily harm or death. This composition might constitute intentionally denying medical attention which leads to inadvertent detrimental effects.
Researchers are split: some state that this is a case of double mens rea and it should be considered an intentional crime. Some state that double mens rea requires committing an intentional criminal offence that leads to negligent harm, and denying medical care is not a crime in itself, becoming one only in case of harm occuring.
The problem is, that every major scholar cites as an example only crimes such as Article 111: where the occurrence of socially dangerous consequences is provided as qualifying composition of the same Article, i.e. only when it is explicitly envisioned as such by the legislator.
I, on the other hand, think that there is a case for the Article 124 being a double mens rea crime, because of its relation to the Article 125 - "Endangerment" (leaving a person in danger if this danger is imposed by a perpetrator or if they have a duty of care to the victim). This crime is for sure intentional, and If it leads to relevant consequences it might be qualified under Article 124, and be as a whole intentional under Article 27.
I'd very grateful for your input, and much obliged if you provided relevant research.
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Guilt is a fundamental principle of criminal responsibility that reveals the subjective attitude of a person to his socially harmful conduct (acts and omissions) and its consequences penalised by law. A person is considered innocent until proven guilty. Criminal law does not impose criminal responsibility for the conduct penalised by law if the guilt has not been established. Guilt defines the character and gravity of an act or omission, which qualifies as a crime.
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Some internal audit reports concluded that, most of the repeated audit findings were due to silly mistakes, careless attitude and incompetencies. Hence, given the guidelines, SOPs and ample training, the repeated mistakes still exist in a firm. Why this situation happens? What are the causes of staff making repeated mistakes in their daily routine job? How to overcome this situation other than proper training, punishment or taking other diciplinary action?
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After being trained (whether in workshops or on-the-spot- training), the employee who makes mistakes should be punished; meanwhile, the employee who is focused and have minimized number of insignificant mistakes should be rewarded. That is, the institution should follow a reward and punishment policy in this regard in order to overcome such a situation.
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This study deals with one of the common punitive punishments in the Mamluk rule community, which is the prison; which illustrates the actual image of the general situation at that time. The study dealt with the types of prisons and their names, as prisons were divided into several sections according to the kind of crime: the first section: political prisons, the second section: is concerned with criminals and the third section: regional jails. The study also reveals the causes and obligations of the prison, in addition to the prison administration, which was followed in its administration to the Sultan in some cases and others in other cases, without the direct supervision of the prisoners 'rulers, which made the prisoners subject to the most severe physical punishments, so this study came to shed light on Prisons and this group in that era, which is called prisoners. Keywords: Egyptian Prisons, Mamluk Dynasty
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Interesting. Do you have data on these prisons and those kept there? Are they actually prison buildings?
Also, see, The Treatment of Criminals in Ancient Egypt: Through the New KingdomAuthor(s): David LortonSource: Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, Jan., 1977, Vol. 20, No. 1, Special Issue on The Treatment of Criminals in the Ancient Near East (Jan., 1977), pp. 2-64Published by: BrillStable URL: https://www.jstor.org/stable/3632049
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Philosophy of law (or legal philosophy) is concerned with providing a general philosophical analysis of law and legal institutions. Issues in the field range from abstract conceptual questions about the nature of law and legal systems to normative questions about the relationship between law and morality and the justification for various legal institutions.
Topics in legal philosophy tend to be more abstract than related topics in political philosophy and applied ethics. For example, whereas the question of how properly to interpret the U.S. Constitution belongs to democratic theory (and hence falls under the heading of political philosophy), the analysis of legal interpretation falls under the heading of legal philosophy. Likewise, whereas the question of whether capital punishment is morally permissible falls under the heading of applied ethics, the question of whether the institution of punishment can be justified falls under the heading of legal philosophy.
There are roughly three categories into which the topics of legal philosophy fall: analytic jurisprudence, normative jurisprudence, and critical theories of law. Analytic jurisprudence involves providing an analysis of the essence of law so as to understand what differentiates it from other systems of norms, such as ethics. Normative jurisprudence involves the examination of normative, evaluative, and otherwise prescriptive issues about the law, such as restrictions on freedom, obligations to obey the law, and the grounds for punishment. Finally, critical theories of law, such as critical legal studies and feminist jurisprudence, challenge more traditional forms of legal philosophy. That is my opinion however I am one person, what is yours?
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The Criminal Law major is the philosophical department of excellence
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The punishment for crucifixion is found in the texts of religious heritage, but is it a religious or human basis?
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شكرا لكم جميعا
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Hi there,
Following to our discussion about co-operation morality in exams, all comments agreed that co-operation in far distance education is cheating.
Fine, now what would you do as a teacher if a week student scores very high marks, and you are 100% sure that he/she cheated in the online exam? or someone else did the exam instead of him/her? cheating online without evidence?
I believe that as long as teachers have no evidence, then they can not punish or deny the students scores even if they are 100% sure that there is a cheating case.
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I taught a face-to-face logic class for which I had a marking scheme that assigned certain percentages of the grade to assignments, tests, and the final exam. I also told students that if it was to their advantage, I would automatically count the final exam for 100%. There were always a couple of students who didn't put any effort in throughout the year, skipping assignments or tests (for which they then received a mark of 0), as well as many classes, but who managed to do a study blitz the week before the final and achieve a respectable mark; in one case, the highest mark in the class. (Identities were verified via photo student card and signatures at the final.)
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Very common these days. Graduate students after securing the funding, focus more on part time work and not at all on research. For supervisor which mild nature, it become hard to take any action against the students. What is the best approach in such scenarios?
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Firstly , supervisor should select students love and very interest in the research project.
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Ecological framework suggests that poor family socieconomic status and
school social capital have negative influences on young children’s proper development,
social well-being, and primary school attainment. Using representative sample (young
children) aged 5–12 from northwestern primary schools this study examines whether or
not family (origin of family, lower socioeconomic status, limited resources), and poor
school social capital (language problem, poor social relation with classmate and
teacher, and teacher punishment in classroom) are significantly related to primary
school attainment (late enrollment and irregular class attendance) in tri-ethnic (e.g.,
Santal, Oraon & Hindu) children in rural Bangladesh. Applying binary logistic regression
results indicate that late enrollement and irregular class attendance are significantly
associated with their poor family SES and school social factors. Of the predicting
factors, ethnic identity is positively related to late enrollment and irregular class
attendance, but lower family income is negatively related to late primary school
enrollment. In addition, landlessness and teacher’s punishment are negatively linked
to irregular class attendance among the ethnic children in rural Bangladesh. Despite
some limitations: randomization and causal or interaction effects of family and school
factors by ethnic identity on children’s primary school attainment, the findings may
have social policy implications in tri-ethnic children’s primary school attainment,
improving ethnic identity status, family SES, and school social capital.
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Very insightful. Following now.
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How would you situate the question of imprisonment inside a “political-philosophy debate” ? This question of imprisonment and its justifications implies state’s obligations, in my point of view the general trend today is to ignore the obligation of punish and to exaggerate the obligation of care...any suggestions?
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I might be slightly off the mark to what you are asking, but if I am on the right track, I suspect the move away from imprisonment as punishment is an acknowledgement of the fact that prisoners are Usually released back into the community and the experience of prison in its current state is well recognised as being detrimental to rehabilitation and reintegration. taking a more restorative and rehabilitative approach is more likely to reduce recidivism and improve outcomes. From a political point of view, it is a bit of a tightrope as much of the public vocalise their displeasure with shorter sentences and alternatives to prison Sentences, but it could be argued that governments are foregoing Possible savings in the form of resources and harm caused in order align with public sentiment. The philosophical part comes in when you consider that a governments job is to represent its public and act in accordance with the will of the majority, so even if harsher sentences and prison conditions are maintained instead of more holistic and generally more beneficial methods, the government could be acting more ethically by listening to the wider public despite less actually positive outcomes, is that what you meant?
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Why we unconditionally obey and bear the burden of the law that predefines acts and behaviours as crime and punishable?
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What is the laws are 'unjust' too? what establishes the just and the unjust law devide; if not an effective political power!
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Some universities and colleges implemented the so-called "DFW" policy for faculty evaluation. In other words, a faculty member, who registers a high percentage of students who receive a grade of D, F, or W for his or her class, is subject to disadvantage in his or her annual evaluation (possibly for tenure and promotion review too). I believe that university and college administrators implement such a policy as they hope that such a policy helps student retention.
However, such a policy is controversial because the policy is likely to result in forced grade inflation, which may violate academic freedom. Is it okay for university administrators to punish their faculty members for giving too many (?) Ds and Fs? What about academic rigorousness?
What is your opinion on DFW policy?
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Hello,
It can work on the other way. An instructor feels pressure and is forced to give A, B, or C grades for students who are not deserved for one of these grades to get a good evaluation. Also, shall an instructor be responsible for a student's withdrawal from his or her class?
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Hi,
I have been recently reading some research articles based on violence against women. There I found 3 terms : 'Domestic violence', 'Spousal violence', and 'Intimate partner violence'.
But, I couldn't understand the main and broad difference among them.
I want to work on 'how only husbands (present or previous) are beating or punishing their wives physically, sexually, and emotionally (i.e. husband to wife, just one direction)'. In that case, which term will be matched the best?
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If you are using literature primarily written in the United States or in many European countries as your reference point, then Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) would be term that fits best. It is the pattern of increasing violence used to create or maintain control over an intimate partner where the relationship is a current or former dating, co-habitating, or marital partner. This will be the term overwhelmingly used in psychological research for the last decade or more. Spousal Violence is a term that could be culture specific, you will not see it in western psychological research, is only referring to a married couple, and may incorporate common couple violence, which includes how couples argue and resolve conflicts. Being that it only incorporates married couples, it leaves out this same pattern of behavior that occurs in a very large percentage of the population, depending on dating, marital, divorce rates in the region. Domestic Violence is a term that was used to mean IPV several decades ago but is now recognized to be a term more broadly applicable to violence in the home regardless of the relationship between the individuals (i.e., siblings, elders, children, roommates) and does not refer to the pattern of controlling behaviors of true IPV. However, criminal justice research in the west does still occasionally use this term to refer to IPV.
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People are being tracked with their data in every possible manner.
This has led to nations/states using data to discriminate, bully, and condemn citizens and used as a means to pre-judge, punish and cutoff citizens from access to all of the benefits of citizenship. China currently uses a "Social Scoring system ", a manipulative and coercive attack on society to force homogenization and brainwashed acceptance of standards set by corrupt people who are in power.
This, in turn, makes the discriminated people become prisoners against their will and for arbitrary purposes with no rational or legal process. It also makes them to be slaves, economically and physically.
Is it just for other humanity to sit idle and observe this form of Hitlerism, or should all forms of Social Scoring be called out as violations 9f human rights.
For the record, I clearly view this as as an animalistic manipulation against human rights and condemn China and all others who use a social scoring system to abuse humanity. It is shameful, globally illegal and a violation of human rights.
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I do not find it to be a dying of whiteness. I find it to be an arrogance of elitism.
Society is damaged when humanists allow their ego to lull them into thinking that they are more worthy than any other human being, and they often use cloaks such as standardized intelligence tests, family pedigree, educational level to hide behind as they suggest that the world is filled with the "more worthy"( which seems to inevitability include themselves) and "others".
Elitism is not racial, although in general, due to racism in society, it is perhaps seen more in certain races. Athletic racism, educational racism, music racism- they all exist and each benefits different colored skin.
Elitism is different than a diminished "whiteness". Elitism is a non-racial attitude of self centered existence being given superiority to humanitarian equality.
Elitism is found in science, education, government, and virtually all aspects of society and it is more destructive than any other form of separation of classes of people.
The highest crimes have been committed by the most highly educated, pedigree'd people, and have inflicted death, destruction and war on innocent human beings that were non-deserving of such elitist destructive forces.
Elitism, not diminished "whiteness", is the destructive variable. It is a destructive ego trapped in an average human that is fearful of being viewed as anything short of exceptional. Some call it delusional.
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According to theory of motivations, people would get motivated to work for recognition and reward. They have a like for work. This behavior is known as proactive behavior.
Some people have a dislike for work. Punishment only can motivate the people. This behavior is known as reactive behavior.
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Empowerment need to continues trying
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When you teach kids, you know that a very important part of learning (education) is to stablish limits, but only a few or you become an authoritarian father. Then you kill intrisic motivation.
Excessive control is against freedom, creativity, open mind, development... what happens today with the standards in science, with the script that we alll must follow to avoid punishment (APA rules, peer review rules, journals specific rules, ethics commitees rules, rules to fill forms in projects or to grants, rules and continuos supervision to develop a thesis, statistical power rules...). Is now science better than ever or just an script, an habit where criticism, different perspectives or just thinking by yourself (to select a topic of research...) is impossible. Is science an automatism with the sense or mind lost? who analyze science scripts and their effects? In what evidence are they supported? just more regulations against researchers autonomy and ability?
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This was also a big discussion in Poland where most of the journals didn't fallow APA or any international standard rules. We were all eventually forced to publish in international journals by the government. The result is that we've got less publications, but our research is more internationally recognized. It also severely affected scholars that are not fluent in English.
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Does a person respect the law because of his love for him or does he fear punishment?
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The two together
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what do you think about the modern definition of rape law (according to which 'no means no' that makes every nonconsensual sexual act a punishable offense)?
Can you indicate the case from practice which confirms that modernization of rape law is absolutely necessary and old definition cannot cover all socially dangerous action that harms sexual autonomy?
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Rape as a criminal offense is punishable under national law. But our present day provides us with examples that show that this type of crime goes beyond national borders. An example of this is the actions of peacekeeping forces in the Republic of Congo where military or civilian members of peacekeepers commit crimes such as sexual exploitation of children and rape. For example, in a report by a New York Times reporter handed over by the Democratic Republic of Congo, where MONUC peacekeepers acted, it was reported: "At the corner of the tent, where she says a soldier has forced her, Helen, tender, fifth-class, with large eyes and skinny legs, remembers seeing a blue helmet. . . . In the same eastern post, another UN peacemaker, unable to communicate with the talking Swahili, a 13-year-old girl who passed past him, picked up a cookie and motioned for her to approach. Since Solange, the girl who told the incident the next day with tears in her eyes, reached for the cookie, the soldier reached for her. She also said she was raped. " That is why I think that the modernization of the law on rape is imperative.
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هل هناك فرق بين عقوبة الاغتصاب والزنى في الشريعة الإسلامية والقانون؟
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الاغتصاب جريمة يحاسب عليها القانون والشرع وتكون خارج ارادة المعتدى عليه ع العكس،من الزنا تكون بارادة الطرفين وتكون عقوبتها شرعا بالرجم
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I'm trying to use Agent Base Modelling to show how the effective the different behavioural change mechanisms in the China Social Credit System are at influencing society. These mechanisms are surveillance, rewards and punishment and gamification (scores are made public).
Could anyone point me in the direction of which models would be good to look at in order to build something like this?
Any recommendations or suggestions would be appreciated as I am now currently learning how I do this.
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Hi,
First of, You may try to combine reinforcement learning algorithm for reward and game theory for punishment together.
On the other hand, Anylogic is a nice tool for Agent based modeling and system analysis.
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I am wondering whether there is any ontological and epistemological conflict of using Weber's 'social stratification' and Foucault's 'discipline and punish' to explore domination and control of wage labor. Can I use it in a study? Thank you.
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Of course it will be very interest work on this issue.
I am also interesting to read after complete.
Becouse Foucault's "Discipline and punish" there is can be use problem of personality and relationship with Weber's 'social stratification' . How can be resolvable the problem of obscurity on this issue. İs it within these both metod, can be found some metodological argument....
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I would like to know if academics punish “misquoting sources.” How do journal editors or reviewers detect such academic behaviors?
What is your attitude toward “misrepresenting source ideas or main points” without acknowledging it? In some cases, no one, but source owners are aware of it. However, misrepresentation may not violate publication ethics.
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This is such an important question. In my own attempts to better understand this issue, I found the following source helpful:
Upon reviewing various academic misconduct definitions and policies, I also noticed that while some universities address misrepresentation in their academic misconduct policies (such as here: hnu.edu/student-life/student-handbook/academic-conduct/academic-conduct-definitions or here: secure.apa.uoit.ca/academic_integrity/module1/Module15.html), and some consider misrepresentation a form of plagiarism, others view misrepresentation as a separate (and often less problematic) issue that is challenging to identify and address. Thank you for asking this question and for eliciting such helpful responses in the meantime. I believe more focus is needed in this area.
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For the sociologists and anthropologists again:
We all know that gossip can be very destructive to relationships at home and at work, yet it persists and even flourishes.
Accusations without evidence are thrown around with abandon, in the shadows, destroying people's credibility and lives. The victim is usually denied a right of reply. The principle used is: 'if enough people whisper it, then it must be true'
But is there any positive social value to gossip? eg: early alert of bad people in one's environment?
Is gossip a stealth weapon in our social environment?
Should we have a social sanction for people who spread gossip and what should the punishment be?
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It appears that gossip is one of the micro themes that most interactants tend to use in personal conversations with those with whom they have an intimate relationship. Although gossip is considered unethical, for some unknown reason, it creates a secretive venue which the parties involved in the conversation seem to enjoy.
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Hello,
If we consider complicated environments, an animal's brain is bombarded with different stimuli per second, many of them are weak and null (non associated with reward and punishment).
In sensory system as feed forward neural system, how such weak signals (lets call them a kind of 'noise') is filtered in order to obtain high efficient attention to important signals? My idea as a model suggests the role of back-propagation signal in this process.
Do you have any idea or do you know any related paper?
Best wishes
Faramarz Faghihi
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Dear Faramarz! Feedbacks are a necessary component in the main task selection system, for example, with concentration. The system needs to match and evaluate multiple inputs in order to select the most important answer at the moment. Paradoxically, this requires both specific information and secondary information (“noise”).
Please read the manuscripts in the Attachment.
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Please, be kind and indicate the exact article of the criminal code of your country and share if there are some serious commentaries towards this issue (title, author, etc.)
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Antonio Iudici Thank you.
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The UN Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) is trying to provide a healthy environment, education, food, security and hope for the Palestinians in Gaza, West Bank, Jordan and Lebonan since 1949. Founded by an UN resolution. Of course they need some funds to accomplish their duities and US was the major funder untill Trump administration. I don't want to accuse just to Trump but his role is critical in this stage. Israel (we can say Netanyahu goverment) might request from US to do it, but it is not rational when a negotiator try to mediate between two, can't be bias behalf of one's. And a crucial UN agency can't be punish to perform their misson.What will be conclusions of this decision? May contribute to reach a peace as allegedly by Trump or collapse all benefits?
Please share your opinion about this case to contribute my study.
Thanks from now
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My profile is ok, what is not ok to you is the answer, is not the one you or many like to hear, but nevertheless is the true. If you are not prepared to get the answer because it does not fit your intended rhetoric then is no point to question something in a forum that you and all know is intended for Answers. Disliking my answer does not change the facts.
Adm. Z
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I am constrained to deviate from my normal line of questions due to the distressing news that a 15 year old girl committed suicide due to the fear of being punished by her mother. Cases of murder, murder-suicide, rape and gang-rape are now common across the globe; across income and racial groups; among celebrities, the poor, the successful, academics, top business people; just name. Is it possible for society to stem the tide; what measures can individuals take
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Very pertinent and worrying issue I must say. These drastic steps to end one's life must be checked immediately to value and utilise human life socially, economically and culturally.
At first the root causes are to be identified area and countrywise. As a whole the fast life and gradually increasing ease and luxury is taking a toll. From the very childhood, more and more expectations, lack of patience are making the 'would be' youth population vulnerable to end their life.
In addition, the grown up, aged and so called professional or successful people, at times, being fed up to cope up with life's speed and expectations choosing the final step.
Mass media impact, social networking and easy communication through digital world are making the situation even more grave.
Early detection of risk, care from near and dear ones and psychiatric counselling are pillars to combat this situation.
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Hello! I am planning on conducting a study on lay perceptions and stereotypes of violent offenders. I was thinking of using a Likert-type scale. Does anybody know if there is a scale or a questionnaire for lay perceptions and stereotypes that I could use? I have come across with ones that are mainly targeted for the offenders themselves, not for the general public. I am not looking for scales that measure public opinions of punishments either, just a scale that would work for questions that address what individuals think violent offenders are like.
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As a nature lover and a big fan of renewable energy, I found your research very interesting!
Unfortunately I am not able to generate my own questionnaire questions, as my study is not a PhD one, only a Masters level dissertation, therefore I need to find a good, already used questionnaire related to my field of study. However, I believe the scale you generated for your research offered me helpful tips for my future studies. Thank you!
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Why might someone believe that it is? What challenges does such a view face?
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From the very beginning of the society religion has played very important part in upholding of the morality. It is the group behavior and therefore it has remarkable influence on the society to behave morally.
The pillars on which the LAW is founded are natural justice and positive morality.
Positive morality is rules of conduct approved by public opinion of any community. They are the rules maintained and enforced in that community.
Thus there is a necessity to have Community with some principles based on morality which emerges from religious beliefs.
Aristotle has said that universal law consists of those unwritten rules which are recognized among the group of people- the society. Such groups and morality principles are all on account of religion- people are afraid of almighty God and to earn credit from him they are motivated to be moral. They have the fear that they will be otherwise driven out.
Natural law which is observed equally in all nations is established on divine prudence is changeable by the tacit consent of people.
When no law was existing, Common law was in force. What is right and what is wrong was based on the belief that if you do right God will be pleased else He will punish you. Thus the origin of morality is found in the religious communities.
I therefore feel religion is necessary in order to motivate people to behave morally.
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Chaining, beating and even starving are usually given to children as a means of punishing them to stop doing wrong and I want to find out if any of these truly serve the purpose.
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Does corporal punishment the best means to correct truancy and stubbornness in students?
It would be pretty much impossible to get ethical approval to undertake the needed study. So you will not find your answer in the published literature. Truancy is often related to problems elsewhere so you would need to think what it is you are hoping to correct: the symptom or the cause. If the students you refer to are yours perhaps you might ask what changes you could make in your approach?
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I'm primarily interested in longitudinal, multinational studies with statistically rigorous data analysis methods that study populations diverse enough to control for the influence of multi-generational cultural norms that differ significantly between contemporary western societies and older, more traditional societies.  I'm also interested in the general stance against punitive consequences for inappropriate behavior and not just corporal punishment.
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Hi, Chimezie,
Try to take a look at these articles and look at the reference list. You might have something there of your interest
Gershoff, E. T., & Bitensky, S. H. (2007). The case against corporal punishment of children: Converging evidence from social science research and international human rights law and implications for US public policy. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 13(4), 231.
Gershoff, E. T., & Bitensky, S. H. (2007). The case against corporal punishment of children: Converging evidence from social science research and international human rights law and implications for US public policy. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 13(4), 231.
Zolotor, A. J., & Puzia, M. E. (2010). Bans against corporal punishment: a systematic review of the laws, changes in attitudes and behaviours. Child Abuse Review, 19(4), 229-247.
Durrant, J., & Ensom, R. (2012). Physical punishment of children: lessons from 20 years of research. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 184(12), 1373-1377.
Qasem, F. S., Mustafa, A. A., Kazem, N. A., & Shah, N. M. (1998). Attitudes of Kuwaiti parents toward physical punishment of children. Child abuse & neglect, 22(12), 1189-1202.
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The general practice I have observed is that a student, caught for the first time, cheating in an examination has the examination paper in the subject in question cancelled. In addition the student offender is given a ‘Z’ grade which is a punishment for life meted to him/ her. Does this practice not suggest the student cannot reform? The student’s examination paper is cancelled and he/ she has to rewrite the paper. He/ she is also given a ‘Z’ for cheating in an examination, Doesn’t this practice amount to punishing the student twice? Considering the roles of Tertiary education in the lives of students in the 21st Century, should the award of ‘Z’ grade be encouraged?
Education, School discipline, Grading, Tertiary institutions
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Dear Dr. Denis,
At the time I studied in the U.K.  in the late 1970s & early 1980s, the university student who was caught cheating during an exam was expelled from the university instantly plus giving his/her name to all the other U.K. universities so as the student cannot join any of them.
I really admired that system because the punishment was only applied on very rare cases but it was severe enough to prevent thousands of students from the dishonesty shame.
After all, the university student will be a product who will go to a career in the market. If he/she is a crook, then the society & humanity will be harmed in many aspects. Neither you or I would like to see our children taught or medicated by a villain person.
Mind you, I have been working for 33 years in my country and the punishment is more "soft" than that : zero mark + expulsion for one semester. There are "abnormal" students who are ready to cheat according to this formula & they do not mind bearing the stigma  " if caught" because they think that time will heal the wounds & the case will soon be forgotten. 
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Basically I want to find out public attitudes towards punishment of sexual offenders. I have two scales to measure general attitudes, 6 vignettes which takes into account how the type of offence, age of the offender and gender of the public impacts the level of severity of punishment. I know this sounds very complicated but is it best for me to perform a multiple regression with my 4 IVs or Factorial ANOVAs and a multiple regression for the originl scales? Any help appreciated!!
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Use a (generalized) linear model, as Martin suggested. It allows using categorical as well as numerical predictors and further allwos you to investigate interactions between predictors, as Martin also mentioned.
What distribution family is adequate and whether or not you should transform your response depends on the statistical properties of your response and on the sample size. If the sample size is rather large and/or the assumption of a unimodal symmetric distribution is resonable, the normal distribution is usually ok.
I don't like data-driven model selection procedures (select "significant" predictors by p-value, R², AIC or some other statistic). The model should be set up on the basis of subject knowledge. Only when there is no subject-knowledge and a lot of possibly relevant predictors exist, one may try to identify a reasonably simple model based on the data. But then the same data cannot be used to estimate the significances. In such cases you may perform the model selection on a subset of the data and estimate the significances in the final model on another subset of the data. This requires having enough data, though.
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According to some educators students in schools or universities must be punished to make them achieve better .
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As a routine in my undergraduate language acquisition courses students [every student in class, wrote a question in English that our class would discuss at the end of the class time.  One day I was asked by one of my best students to describe my preferred method of punishment! This was for 19-22 year old undergraduates who seemed to regard punishment by teachers as normal.
My response was to problematize the question without judgement and encourage students to form their own opinions.
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Revenue recognition (@ income recognition) of financial products of Malaysian Islamic banks is based on the 'Effective Profit Rate Method' (especially for products with fixed rate such as Al Ijarah Thumma Al Bay @ lease). This method is an adoption of the well known 'Effective Interest Rate Method', where the word 'interest' is replaced with 'profit'. Do you think the method is a fair technique to the customer of IFIs? If the customer would like to make a prepayment (full settlement before the end of contract period), would the method resulted in a 'kind' of punishment to the customer for early settlement?
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From the IFI point of view, profit maximization is still one of the ultimate goals while upholding the Islamic laws. In my opinion, due to that main reason and  to be competitive, IFI will use EPRM to their customers.
Yes, i believe the customers will be unfairly treated IF the EPRM method are not properly explained to the customers. IFI's officers must explain to the customers about the implication of the EPRM methods (how does it work) especially in the case of early settlement and if there is any rebate given to the customers, it also should be highlighted. Consequently, the customers enter into the contract without any gharar (they fully understand the contract) and do not feel like being cheated or oppressed.   
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I am writing with regard to one of the special retroactive case in criminal law, particulary, when new law lightened maximum punishment of crime but severed minimum e.g according to old law sentence for manslaughter was from 2 years to 7, but after amending it becomes 3-5 i.e maximum sentence becomes lighter but the minimum on the contrarty. what law (new or old) should be used against person? or both of them (2 - from old and 5 - from new)? how it is decided in your country? I would be glad if you help and give me appropriate information(case, essay, etc.)
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We have an interesting situation here in Bosnia & Herzegovina. In war crimes cases, courts in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Republika Srpska and the Brcko District use the 1976 former Yugoslav Criminal code, while the state-level court mostly used the 2003 code. The European Court for Human Rights ruled that the Bosnian state court violated the rights of war criminals Maktouf and Damjanovic because they could have been given shorter jail sentences if the 1976 criminal code was used in their trials instead of the 2003 criminal code of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which was adopted after they committed their crimes.
Here are some links regarding this subject you might find useful:
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Generally, it is seen that people hesitate to do work when they are forced to do something. However, on the part of oraganisation that work may be very important to be done in the stipulated time. What can be the best way out to get it done?
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Tanu -
It seems to me that fear of punishment is a very short-sighted view.  It might possibly produce results in the short term, whether faster than more positive treatment will likely vary by circumstances.  Then what?  Not only is such treatment reprehensible, it is also doomed to long-term failure. I think it is also far too common, and a standard of small-minded managers who are all too common.  My thinking is that most organizations perform inadequately because those in 'authority' arrived at such a position for the wrong reasons: because organizational climates do not encourage those with the know-how and who emphasize accomplishment as much as those who play the power game.
So, many may try to bully to get what they want, but they likely do not know what is best to do in the first place. So even if fear of punishment may occasionally be the fastest way to handle a given task, it may be a task that is not in support of a good strategy anyway. 
It also seems a 'good' way to drive away talented people.  
So, even on the occasions where fear of punishment may provide the fastest results, that, I think, is unfortunately, a frequently used, losing position to take.
Best wishes - Jim
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Can anyone guide me on theoretical framework for research on corporal punishment in schools?
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Search the net for the Unicef publication titled Corporate Punishment in Schools: Longitudinal Evidence from Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam by Portela and Pells. That will be a good start for your literature review.
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I am currently working on corporal punishment in schools and its impacts on students learning can anyone of you guide me in this regard and if possible share some relevant literature with me.
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There's a new Springer Brief book out that might be useful:
Gershoff, Elizabeth, Purtell, Kelly M., and Holas Igor (eds) (2015). Corporal Punishment in U.S. Public Schools: Legal Precedents, Current Practices, and Future Policy.  
It includes a chapter by Gershoff et al, "School corporal punishment effects on children"
The Journal of Sociology and Social Anthropology did a special issue in 2014 on the dynamics of violence in South African schools that may some useful material. One of the articles in the issue focuses specifically on corporal punishment:
Mthanti, B. and Mncube, V. (2014). The social and economic impact of corporal punishment in South Africa Schools.  Journal of Sociology and Social Anthropology, v. 5, #1, pp. 71-80.
Some other recent research that might be relevant:
Downs, Jon (2015). Positive behavioral interventions and supports vs. corporal punishment: A literature review.  International Journal for Cross-Disciplinary Subjects in Education, v. 6, #1, pp. 2126-2132.
Ahmad, I., Said, H., and Kahn, F.(2013). Effects of corporal punishment on students' motivation and classroom learning. Review of European Studies, v.5, #4, pp. 130-134.
Ahmad, I., et al. (2014). Effet of self-efficacy on the relationship between corporal punishment and school dropout.  Review of European Studies, v6, #1, pp.196-200.
Breen, A., Daniels, K., Tomlinson, M. (2015). Children's experiences of corporal punishment: A qualitative study in an urban township of South Africa. Child Abuse and Neglect, v.48, pp. 131-139.
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First, I am looking for information about criminal and/or religious trials where Hudud or Hodood punishments could have been imposed, to be able to draw conclusions about the percentage of cases where such punishments are imposed versus the cases where the courts opt for other forms of punishment.
Second, I am looking for information about the actual application of the Hudud punishments, i.e. where and when was the judgment executed and a person's hand was cut off, or a person was flogged or stoned, versus cases where the judgment was pronounced but not executed.
Finally, for cases where Hudud punishments were imposed (and executed), I would like to find out whether the court followed Islamic law correctly, including the very strict requirements on evidence, or was motivated more by public opinion and external pressure, i.e. I am looking for the reasoning or motivation of such judgments to see whether the judges provide solid justification for their decisions.
Sources in Arabic are fine but for Urdu and other languages, I would need summaries in English, French, German, Spanish, or Italian.
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Appreciated colleague, let me you suggest these books
SCOLART, Deborah, L’islam, il reato, la pena. Dal fiqh alla codificazione, Roma, Istituto per l’Oriente, 2013, 424 pp.
PAPA, Massimo,  Afghanistan: Tradizione giuridica e ricostruzione dell'ordinamento tra Sari'a, consuetudini e diritto statale, Giappichelli Editore, 2006
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I'm interested in the mechanism dealing with different valence of monetary value information (reward\punishment)
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Just to add a few quick points to my predecessors:
In terms of neural mechanisms, reward will create anticipation and approach motivation mediated by the dopaminergic system, including structures commonly termed ventral striatum, whereas anticipation of punishment will mostly activate the fear-learning related mechanisms mediated by the amygdala. However, inhibition of behavior in humans due to negative reinforcement as well as punishment also involves anterior cingulate (or inferior frontal gyrus) and other regions of the striatum :
Please note that there is a difference between positive reinforcement (reward), negative reinforcement (avoiding punishment) and punishment (a negative outcome which leads to behavior inhibition)  in learning theory.
Inhibition of reward-seeking behavior as well as punishment is indeed mediated by the lateral habenula, as far as we know,
good luck - E
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Could this method be considered a good one for staff management?
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(क) उद्देश-लक्षण:-
पशु-चेतना (लक्षण):- आहार, निद्रा, मैथुन, भय, (मूल प्रकृति पर आरूढ़)
मनुष्य-चेतना (लक्षण):- पशु-चेतना + मननशीलता (मनुष्यत्व) = आहार, निद्रा , मैथुन, भय, मननशीलता
(ख) सिद्धान्त:- मनुष्यों में जितना मनुष्यत्व(मननशीलता) होगी उतनी दूरदर्शिता (दीर्घकालिक परिणाम देखने की क्षमता) होगी और जितनी दूरदर्शिता, उन पर पुरूस्कार (साम,दाम) या दंड (दंड, भेद) का उतना ही प्रभाव पड़ेगा।
(ग) उपसंहार:- मनुष्य की मूल-आत्यंतिक प्रवृत्ति मनन कर दीर्घकालिक परिणाम आंकलन कर कार्य करने की है। अब कितना दीर्घ या दूरदृष्टि, वह उसमें कितना मनुष्यत्व है उसपर निर्भर है ।
(घ) व्यवहारिक पक्ष:-
ऐसे में प्रबंधन शासक (संस्था) के सामने निम्न उपाय हैं :-
१) पुरूस्कार (साम,दाम) और दंड (दंड, भेद) ऐसे दे जिनके दीर्घकालिक परिणाम कर्मचारी अपनी मननशीलता अनुकूल देख पाएँ। इससे वह बिना किसी और बाह्य कारण के अपनी प्रवृत्ति अनुकूल कार्य के प्रति प्रेरित रहेगा।
या २) यदि कर्मचारी की मननशीलता अधिक है और शासक उतना दीर्घकालिक परिणाम वाले पुरूस्कार (साम,दाम) और दंड (दंड, भेद) न दे सकें, तो कर्मचारी की मननशीलता को कम करने के उपाय बाहुल्य में उपलब्ध हैं। निम्न लेख के दिए गए जाल (matrix) को बिछा कर:- http://bit.ly/1nIZkaS