Questions related to Punishment
Hello, everyone, I have two questions in my mind, and they are two different questions.
My first question is:
1) Can I use the data of different years for publication, even though there are papers with the same topic?
My second question is:
2) I attended a seminar previously and interacted with other participants. During the interactions, the participants raised some opinions, however, the participants did not have the data of the year. Can I collect the data of the year and publish the paper by myself? Will it constitute academic punishment?
Once again, the above two questions are related to two different scenarios and not related to each other.
when make a study of corporate frauds and crimes , one notices always that corruption takes place when when one faces threat of punishment due to non compliance’s of laws .In india Satyam , Enron or ILFS are examples of corporate crimes arising out of non compliance’s .
We all know that it is considered academic fraud to publish faked results. What is the punishment for this?
Where to report author or publication?
The study seeks to investigate Greek culture of behavior and religious beliefs in order to show that Oedipus in the play Oedipus Rex by Sophocles had sinned against the cannons of gods and embedded religious beliefs and practices and , therefore, his case was not a deterministic 'ways' of God, rather an act of crime and punishment.
During an article review process recently, I went through a bad experience of research publications by some authors. These authors copied and pasted a published work with their name. It is just robbery and editors must check its plagiarism in start and in case of such blunder, there should be a mechanism in place to report such errors. It is not only a crime, but also a waste of time for editors and reviewers. I personally feel that such authors should be punished such as blacklisted by renowned journals and their respective institutions.
For example: Better Education, Guaranteed Employment, Security in the cities and social actions for the poorest or with physical or mental disabilities.
Article 27 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation provides the following:
"If a person commits an intentional crime that by negligence leads to unintentional consequences, which by law require more severe punishment, then such a crime as a whole is considered intentional".
The most clear example of such a crime is Part 4 Article 111 of the Code: Part 1 provides for a person, intentionally causing grave bodily injury to be punished with up to 8 years of imprisonment. Under Part 4 the same crime, that by negligence leads to death of a victim, is punished by up to 15 years of imprisonment.
I came across "preterintenzionale" mens rea in the Italian criminal doctrine: Article 584 of the Italian Criminal Code provides for liability of a person negligently causing death in committing battery. It's not clear to me whether it is introduced in the Italian Code as a general rule.
In German criminal law there are similar offences (Article 176 as an example), but there is no general rule, as in Russia. The same goes with French "le doi indetermine".
To put it in the context of my research. There is Article 124 of the Russian Criminal Code - not providing a patient with needed medical assistance, that negligently leads to medium\grave bodily harm or death. This composition might constitute intentionally denying medical attention which leads to inadvertent detrimental effects.
Researchers are split: some state that this is a case of double mens rea and it should be considered an intentional crime. Some state that double mens rea requires committing an intentional criminal offence that leads to negligent harm, and denying medical care is not a crime in itself, becoming one only in case of harm occuring.
The problem is, that every major scholar cites as an example only crimes such as Article 111: where the occurrence of socially dangerous consequences is provided as qualifying composition of the same Article, i.e. only when it is explicitly envisioned as such by the legislator.
I, on the other hand, think that there is a case for the Article 124 being a double mens rea crime, because of its relation to the Article 125 - "Endangerment" (leaving a person in danger if this danger is imposed by a perpetrator or if they have a duty of care to the victim). This crime is for sure intentional, and If it leads to relevant consequences it might be qualified under Article 124, and be as a whole intentional under Article 27.
I'd very grateful for your input, and much obliged if you provided relevant research.
Some internal audit reports concluded that, most of the repeated audit findings were due to silly mistakes, careless attitude and incompetencies. Hence, given the guidelines, SOPs and ample training, the repeated mistakes still exist in a firm. Why this situation happens? What are the causes of staff making repeated mistakes in their daily routine job? How to overcome this situation other than proper training, punishment or taking other diciplinary action?
This study deals with one of the common punitive punishments in the Mamluk rule community, which is the prison; which illustrates the actual image of the general situation at that time. The study dealt with the types of prisons and their names, as prisons were divided into several sections according to the kind of crime: the first section: political prisons, the second section: is concerned with criminals and the third section: regional jails. The study also reveals the causes and obligations of the prison, in addition to the prison administration, which was followed in its administration to the Sultan in some cases and others in other cases, without the direct supervision of the prisoners 'rulers, which made the prisoners subject to the most severe physical punishments, so this study came to shed light on Prisons and this group in that era, which is called prisoners. Keywords: Egyptian Prisons, Mamluk Dynasty
Philosophy of law (or legal philosophy) is concerned with providing a general philosophical analysis of law and legal institutions. Issues in the field range from abstract conceptual questions about the nature of law and legal systems to normative questions about the relationship between law and morality and the justification for various legal institutions.
Topics in legal philosophy tend to be more abstract than related topics in political philosophy and applied ethics. For example, whereas the question of how properly to interpret the U.S. Constitution belongs to democratic theory (and hence falls under the heading of political philosophy), the analysis of legal interpretation falls under the heading of legal philosophy. Likewise, whereas the question of whether capital punishment is morally permissible falls under the heading of applied ethics, the question of whether the institution of punishment can be justified falls under the heading of legal philosophy.
There are roughly three categories into which the topics of legal philosophy fall: analytic jurisprudence, normative jurisprudence, and critical theories of law. Analytic jurisprudence involves providing an analysis of the essence of law so as to understand what differentiates it from other systems of norms, such as ethics. Normative jurisprudence involves the examination of normative, evaluative, and otherwise prescriptive issues about the law, such as restrictions on freedom, obligations to obey the law, and the grounds for punishment. Finally, critical theories of law, such as critical legal studies and feminist jurisprudence, challenge more traditional forms of legal philosophy. That is my opinion however I am one person, what is yours?
Following to our discussion about co-operation morality in exams, all comments agreed that co-operation in far distance education is cheating.
Fine, now what would you do as a teacher if a week student scores very high marks, and you are 100% sure that he/she cheated in the online exam? or someone else did the exam instead of him/her? cheating online without evidence?
I believe that as long as teachers have no evidence, then they can not punish or deny the students scores even if they are 100% sure that there is a cheating case.
Very common these days. Graduate students after securing the funding, focus more on part time work and not at all on research. For supervisor which mild nature, it become hard to take any action against the students. What is the best approach in such scenarios?
Ecological framework suggests that poor family socieconomic status and
school social capital have negative influences on young children’s proper development,
social well-being, and primary school attainment. Using representative sample (young
children) aged 5–12 from northwestern primary schools this study examines whether or
not family (origin of family, lower socioeconomic status, limited resources), and poor
school social capital (language problem, poor social relation with classmate and
teacher, and teacher punishment in classroom) are significantly related to primary
school attainment (late enrollment and irregular class attendance) in tri-ethnic (e.g.,
Santal, Oraon & Hindu) children in rural Bangladesh. Applying binary logistic regression
results indicate that late enrollement and irregular class attendance are significantly
associated with their poor family SES and school social factors. Of the predicting
factors, ethnic identity is positively related to late enrollment and irregular class
attendance, but lower family income is negatively related to late primary school
enrollment. In addition, landlessness and teacher’s punishment are negatively linked
to irregular class attendance among the ethnic children in rural Bangladesh. Despite
some limitations: randomization and causal or interaction effects of family and school
factors by ethnic identity on children’s primary school attainment, the findings may
have social policy implications in tri-ethnic children’s primary school attainment,
improving ethnic identity status, family SES, and school social capital.
How would you situate the question of imprisonment inside a “political-philosophy debate” ? This question of imprisonment and its justifications implies state’s obligations, in my point of view the general trend today is to ignore the obligation of punish and to exaggerate the obligation of care...any suggestions?
Some universities and colleges implemented the so-called "DFW" policy for faculty evaluation. In other words, a faculty member, who registers a high percentage of students who receive a grade of D, F, or W for his or her class, is subject to disadvantage in his or her annual evaluation (possibly for tenure and promotion review too). I believe that university and college administrators implement such a policy as they hope that such a policy helps student retention.
However, such a policy is controversial because the policy is likely to result in forced grade inflation, which may violate academic freedom. Is it okay for university administrators to punish their faculty members for giving too many (?) Ds and Fs? What about academic rigorousness?
What is your opinion on DFW policy?
I have been recently reading some research articles based on violence against women. There I found 3 terms : 'Domestic violence', 'Spousal violence', and 'Intimate partner violence'.
But, I couldn't understand the main and broad difference among them.
I want to work on 'how only husbands (present or previous) are beating or punishing their wives physically, sexually, and emotionally (i.e. husband to wife, just one direction)'. In that case, which term will be matched the best?
People are being tracked with their data in every possible manner.
This has led to nations/states using data to discriminate, bully, and condemn citizens and used as a means to pre-judge, punish and cutoff citizens from access to all of the benefits of citizenship. China currently uses a "Social Scoring system ", a manipulative and coercive attack on society to force homogenization and brainwashed acceptance of standards set by corrupt people who are in power.
This, in turn, makes the discriminated people become prisoners against their will and for arbitrary purposes with no rational or legal process. It also makes them to be slaves, economically and physically.
Is it just for other humanity to sit idle and observe this form of Hitlerism, or should all forms of Social Scoring be called out as violations 9f human rights.
For the record, I clearly view this as as an animalistic manipulation against human rights and condemn China and all others who use a social scoring system to abuse humanity. It is shameful, globally illegal and a violation of human rights.
According to theory of motivations, people would get motivated to work for recognition and reward. They have a like for work. This behavior is known as proactive behavior.
Some people have a dislike for work. Punishment only can motivate the people. This behavior is known as reactive behavior.
When you teach kids, you know that a very important part of learning (education) is to stablish limits, but only a few or you become an authoritarian father. Then you kill intrisic motivation.
Excessive control is against freedom, creativity, open mind, development... what happens today with the standards in science, with the script that we alll must follow to avoid punishment (APA rules, peer review rules, journals specific rules, ethics commitees rules, rules to fill forms in projects or to grants, rules and continuos supervision to develop a thesis, statistical power rules...). Is now science better than ever or just an script, an habit where criticism, different perspectives or just thinking by yourself (to select a topic of research...) is impossible. Is science an automatism with the sense or mind lost? who analyze science scripts and their effects? In what evidence are they supported? just more regulations against researchers autonomy and ability?
what do you think about the modern definition of rape law (according to which 'no means no' that makes every nonconsensual sexual act a punishable offense)?
Can you indicate the case from practice which confirms that modernization of rape law is absolutely necessary and old definition cannot cover all socially dangerous action that harms sexual autonomy?
I'm trying to use Agent Base Modelling to show how the effective the different behavioural change mechanisms in the China Social Credit System are at influencing society. These mechanisms are surveillance, rewards and punishment and gamification (scores are made public).
Could anyone point me in the direction of which models would be good to look at in order to build something like this?
Any recommendations or suggestions would be appreciated as I am now currently learning how I do this.
I am wondering whether there is any ontological and epistemological conflict of using Weber's 'social stratification' and Foucault's 'discipline and punish' to explore domination and control of wage labor. Can I use it in a study? Thank you.
I would like to know if academics punish “misquoting sources.” How do journal editors or reviewers detect such academic behaviors?
What is your attitude toward “misrepresenting source ideas or main points” without acknowledging it? In some cases, no one, but source owners are aware of it. However, misrepresentation may not violate publication ethics.
For the sociologists and anthropologists again:
We all know that gossip can be very destructive to relationships at home and at work, yet it persists and even flourishes.
Accusations without evidence are thrown around with abandon, in the shadows, destroying people's credibility and lives. The victim is usually denied a right of reply. The principle used is: 'if enough people whisper it, then it must be true'
But is there any positive social value to gossip? eg: early alert of bad people in one's environment?
Is gossip a stealth weapon in our social environment?
Should we have a social sanction for people who spread gossip and what should the punishment be?
If we consider complicated environments, an animal's brain is bombarded with different stimuli per second, many of them are weak and null (non associated with reward and punishment).
In sensory system as feed forward neural system, how such weak signals (lets call them a kind of 'noise') is filtered in order to obtain high efficient attention to important signals? My idea as a model suggests the role of back-propagation signal in this process.
Do you have any idea or do you know any related paper?
Please, be kind and indicate the exact article of the criminal code of your country and share if there are some serious commentaries towards this issue (title, author, etc.)
The UN Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) is trying to provide a healthy environment, education, food, security and hope for the Palestinians in Gaza, West Bank, Jordan and Lebonan since 1949. Founded by an UN resolution. Of course they need some funds to accomplish their duities and US was the major funder untill Trump administration. I don't want to accuse just to Trump but his role is critical in this stage. Israel (we can say Netanyahu goverment) might request from US to do it, but it is not rational when a negotiator try to mediate between two, can't be bias behalf of one's. And a crucial UN agency can't be punish to perform their misson.What will be conclusions of this decision? May contribute to reach a peace as allegedly by Trump or collapse all benefits?
Please share your opinion about this case to contribute my study.
Thanks from now
I am constrained to deviate from my normal line of questions due to the distressing news that a 15 year old girl committed suicide due to the fear of being punished by her mother. Cases of murder, murder-suicide, rape and gang-rape are now common across the globe; across income and racial groups; among celebrities, the poor, the successful, academics, top business people; just name. Is it possible for society to stem the tide; what measures can individuals take
Hello! I am planning on conducting a study on lay perceptions and stereotypes of violent offenders. I was thinking of using a Likert-type scale. Does anybody know if there is a scale or a questionnaire for lay perceptions and stereotypes that I could use? I have come across with ones that are mainly targeted for the offenders themselves, not for the general public. I am not looking for scales that measure public opinions of punishments either, just a scale that would work for questions that address what individuals think violent offenders are like.
Chaining, beating and even starving are usually given to children as a means of punishing them to stop doing wrong and I want to find out if any of these truly serve the purpose.
I'm primarily interested in longitudinal, multinational studies with statistically rigorous data analysis methods that study populations diverse enough to control for the influence of multi-generational cultural norms that differ significantly between contemporary western societies and older, more traditional societies. I'm also interested in the general stance against punitive consequences for inappropriate behavior and not just corporal punishment.
The general practice I have observed is that a student, caught for the first time, cheating in an examination has the examination paper in the subject in question cancelled. In addition the student offender is given a ‘Z’ grade which is a punishment for life meted to him/ her. Does this practice not suggest the student cannot reform? The student’s examination paper is cancelled and he/ she has to rewrite the paper. He/ she is also given a ‘Z’ for cheating in an examination, Doesn’t this practice amount to punishing the student twice? Considering the roles of Tertiary education in the lives of students in the 21st Century, should the award of ‘Z’ grade be encouraged?
Education, School discipline, Grading, Tertiary institutions
Basically I want to find out public attitudes towards punishment of sexual offenders. I have two scales to measure general attitudes, 6 vignettes which takes into account how the type of offence, age of the offender and gender of the public impacts the level of severity of punishment. I know this sounds very complicated but is it best for me to perform a multiple regression with my 4 IVs or Factorial ANOVAs and a multiple regression for the originl scales? Any help appreciated!!
Revenue recognition (@ income recognition) of financial products of Malaysian Islamic banks is based on the 'Effective Profit Rate Method' (especially for products with fixed rate such as Al Ijarah Thumma Al Bay @ lease). This method is an adoption of the well known 'Effective Interest Rate Method', where the word 'interest' is replaced with 'profit'. Do you think the method is a fair technique to the customer of IFIs? If the customer would like to make a prepayment (full settlement before the end of contract period), would the method resulted in a 'kind' of punishment to the customer for early settlement?
I am writing with regard to one of the special retroactive case in criminal law, particulary, when new law lightened maximum punishment of crime but severed minimum e.g according to old law sentence for manslaughter was from 2 years to 7, but after amending it becomes 3-5 i.e maximum sentence becomes lighter but the minimum on the contrarty. what law (new or old) should be used against person? or both of them (2 - from old and 5 - from new)? how it is decided in your country? I would be glad if you help and give me appropriate information(case, essay, etc.)
Generally, it is seen that people hesitate to do work when they are forced to do something. However, on the part of oraganisation that work may be very important to be done in the stipulated time. What can be the best way out to get it done?
First, I am looking for information about criminal and/or religious trials where Hudud or Hodood punishments could have been imposed, to be able to draw conclusions about the percentage of cases where such punishments are imposed versus the cases where the courts opt for other forms of punishment.
Second, I am looking for information about the actual application of the Hudud punishments, i.e. where and when was the judgment executed and a person's hand was cut off, or a person was flogged or stoned, versus cases where the judgment was pronounced but not executed.
Finally, for cases where Hudud punishments were imposed (and executed), I would like to find out whether the court followed Islamic law correctly, including the very strict requirements on evidence, or was motivated more by public opinion and external pressure, i.e. I am looking for the reasoning or motivation of such judgments to see whether the judges provide solid justification for their decisions.
Sources in Arabic are fine but for Urdu and other languages, I would need summaries in English, French, German, Spanish, or Italian.