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Public Private Partnership - Science topic

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We are planning to have a pilot study on PPP management of of irrigation project. Can anyone give details of such successful project particularly in developing counties where irrigation is in state sector and much incentivized. What kind tariff structure is adopted to make it viable and win-win for both the parties.
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It can be difficult to find the right balance between user fees (per gallon fees for water) and access fees (fees based upon land value uplift). But this balance is essential to ensure water conservation (from the per-gallon fee) and full utilization of valuable infrastructure (from the land value access fee). And, if the right balance is achieved, payments are equitable because beneficiaries are paying in proportion to the benefits received.
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Hi everyone,
I am doing research and want my survey to be answered by a specific population like people having experience with " PPP projects and Six Sigma" though I don't feel like I have a big population for these two in my research country.
I am going to have structural equation modeling but am now confused about the sampling technique should it be probabilistic, stratified, or convenient.
And why can't be purposive (when we have a restricted or specific targeted population), is it always necessary to use it with qualitative only?
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Public Private Partnerships is newly popularising concept in both developed and developing countries context in terms of executing the developmental projects successfully.
Regarding the selection of the sample size of the given population of the Universe will determine the selection of the sampling techniques.
If the population size is greater ten thousands that the researchers could choose Cocharan formula for homogeneous population of the given characteristics.
If possible, the researchers can identify the possibilities of selecting startification, categories of the different respondents from the total populations
The selection of the sampling techniques will determine the propabiilities of the respondents based on the characteristics.
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I would very much appreciate thoughts about drivers and barriers for development of ESCOs in Africa. Maybe this particular question should be firstly considered on the more limited markets. Eventually assessing of the situation with drivers and barriers should be done on the level of the regions or even on the level of particular countries. Furthermore, maybe it will be promptly bundled with several more questions including one as Whether SuperEsco may assist in overcoming key barriers?
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Thank You again, Milan, your offer is precious, I'll search who or what institution in Africa may be in a position to come up with meaningful ideas or more (!) to make renewable energy an efficient approach.
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I have recently been conducting experiments on platelet aggregation in rats using optical turbidimetry. Use ADP as a platelet activator. However, the aggregation rate is only 20 to 30 percent. I tried different concentrations and inducers, but they didn't make much difference.
Here's how I did it
1、Blood was collected from rat abdominal aorta by vacuum vasculature and sodium citrate was anticoagulant. Then centrifuge at 260g for 10min
2、Drain the supernatant(PRP) into another clean EP tube and let stand at room temperature for 30min
3、The remaining blood was centrifuged at 3200rpm for 10min to obtain PPP
4、Set the transmittance of PPP to 100%. Add 300μ PRP into a colorimetric cup, preheat it at 37℃ for 1 min, then add ADP (10μM), stir continuously, and measure the change of absorbance within 5 min
Despite looking at the literature, I still can't figure out what the problem is. Thanks for your advice in advance.
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Dear Fang Yafei!
You should add calcium chloride or calcium gluconate. It can resolve your problem.
Sincerely yours,
Artem
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Have you used a service by a PPPs in the health sector? If so what has been your experience versus service provided by a public hospital/health facility?
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Hello
In Spain we have both, Nederland no, you have to pay insurence
Best regards
Ph.D. Ingrid del Valle García Carreno
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I'm using GAMP software, and I want to know changes in configuration file to run for ionconstrained single-frequency PPP instead of dual-frequency?
for example,
inpfrq=1 instead of 2
..........................
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Try these settings:
inpfrq = 1 % the number of processing frequencies
ionoopt = 3 %(0:off 1:brdc 2:IF12 3:UC1 4:UC12 5:ion-tec)
ionopnoise = 1 %(0: static 1: random walk 2: random walk (new) 3:white noise)
ionconstraint = 1 %(0:off 1:on)
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If anyone is interesting to share your experience with me on application of Public Private Partnership Extension approaches for technology dissemination, input supply change, information management, Agricultural development project. please response
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Since most public extension systems have suffered drastic budget cuts over the past decades (a tendency likely to continue), the principal advantages include a broader outreach and impact through third-party privately financed extension agents. However, in many cases, if not in most, the messages and recommendations delivered by privately funded extension agents or initiatives tend to be geared, or even dominated, by business interests of the involved companies. And, unfortunately, these interests are often not aligned with the needs of protecting human and environmental health, which should be universal common goods. For the effective long-term protection of the common goods, public funding will likely remain the principal pillar.
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A reviewer of a paper I am submitting argued that repression of the enzymes of the PPP pathway may be the cause for a negative effect on xylose assimilation by a Candida tropicalis observed with high concentration of other C source in the medium and by the high oxygen availability.
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Obviously, agreed with Deepti Agrawal. Depending on the strain, utilization of different carbon sources maybe (1) simultaneous or (2) sequential with more preference to one carbon source than the other/s, carbon catabolite repression. Fore instance, many studies on E. coli have confirmed that the presence of glucose in the medium represses consumption of other sugars including xylose. Therefore, you may search for some relevant papers regarding this issue specifically to Candida tropicalis or conduct additional experiments. Good luck!
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Taking a close look at the Sudanese real GDP per capita at 2017 PPP from WDI. it shows that since the first exportation of oil in 1999 even up to 2018, the real GDP has been on the increase even with the internal conflict that lead to the cessation of south Sudan in 2011. Does it mean the internal conflict doesn't affect their economy or there's a strong government polices..
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The issue is not the GDP, the issue is the distribution of the GDP. We have to look into development rather than growth
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Dear Researchers and Academics;
I work on the 100% renewable energy (power) Global Grid subjects. I am interested in the large power plants investments, which are the real world sector investments.
I try to investigate the real sector investment models such as the public capital investment models (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_capital), the public private partnership capital investment models (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public%E2%80%93private_partnership) and so forth.
I have an investment model in my mind that I would like to recommend to the research and organization community on this subject by presenting a research paper. However, I have to make myself sure and prove to me that my recommendation is the most fair (fairest) one. Hence, I try to learn and understand all of the real world sector investment models very well.
If you have ever worked on this subject, can you recommend me and send me some documents that will be helpful to me.
I would like to thank all of you who contribute to this question in advance.
Best Regards
Burak Omer Saracoglu
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Investment Models for UPSC Mains Exam : Money for investing in productive assets can be from Public Sources (Government), Private Sources (Corporate) or Combined Sources (Public Private Partnership or PPP). Thus one the basis of who invests in assets for increasing production, there are three major investment models.
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In the European Union (EU), before any PPP can be placed on the market or used, it must be Authorised in the EU country concerned. It means that each Member State can decide if Authorise the PPP: https://ec.europa.eu/food/plant/pesticides/authorisation_of_ppp_en
While, the active component against pests/plant diseases, contained in the PPP, that is called
“active substance”, have to be Approved or non-Approved at European level of the Standing Committee for Food Chain and Animal Health: https://ec.europa.eu/food/plant/pesticides/approval_active_substances_en
Therefore, there are two level: 1) European level for the active substances; 2) Member State level for the PPPs.
Question for discussion:
1) How is the procedure in your country: one or more levels? Please, give explanation and references.
2) Do you think that only one central procedure can ensure to speed up and harmonize the decisions? Please, give pros & cons.
3) Do you think that each country should have a legislation more harmonized for pesticide (and food/feed residues) with the Codex Alimentarius? Please, give pros & cons.
Thanks.
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Thanks. It is nice to read you after long time.
The Regulation 1107/2009 has been an effort to harmonize the system among all the countries of the European Union.
However, some grey zones still remain and I have tried to highlight them in the three questions for discussion.
For example, it is true that each MS has its peculiarities and different agricultures; however, it is also true that INSIDE each MS, there are peculiarities and a different agriculture and this is not an obstacle to have a unique national level. For example, in Spain there is only a national authorization and not several Autonomous communities authorizations, although they have very different climatic and agricultural condition (e.g. Galicia and Andalusia).
This means that it would be possible manage all the peculiarities and different agricultures at higher levels, with better harmonization and faster procedures.
Other question is the full harmonization of pesticide (and food/feed residues), for example with the Codex Alimentarius or other approaches, avoiding trade disputes.
There are rooms for many discussions, as also Jacques Drolet pointed out.
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I'm looking for information and documents concerning the rules of Public Private Partnership (PPP) in your country (within EU). Thank you!
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Dear Szymon,
I recommend you the site of World Bank Group Public-Private Partnership Legal Resource Center.
Here is the link:
Best regards,
Andrea
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I am writing a journal article on public-private partnership in space related projects. I need to some research question to research to write in my journal articles.
Hope everyone provide some resources
Thanks in advance
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Public Private sectors shearing are a very good thinking about country development because some time the individual are struck their limited resources so used the scare resources in efficient way with other partner advice.So it could be used in all type business fields
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If I want to understand the gender equality as an effect of GNI per capita, can FDI net inflow be an instrumental variable(IV) for GNI per capita (at PPP)?
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Naushad Khan
FDI is not a measure of capital generation for production, but a measure of foreign participation in capital. As a consequence, FDI includes financial movements that by no means increase the capital amount in the domestic economy. FDI might increase GDP (specially if it is greenfield investment) but it might not (specially if it is merger and acquisitions), FDI statistics usually aren't disclosed enough to say. There are several papers with empirical data about it. In the case of GNI (which relation with GDP is also disputable), I find difficult to use it as an instrumental variable. I'm just warning.
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To optimize the value of the latest S&T discoveries and innovation generated from Government-funded R&D Projects, it is only fitting to find ways how these "library" of knowledge can be translated and utilized in other Government undertakings such as Development-related Projects which pose more direct impact to the Filipino citizens.
What steps should be laid to mainstream and promote seamless interface of outputs between the S&T and the Development Sectors?
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HI,
It is true that every country invests really huge in S&T projects. the major reason is that these projects are written in such a way that they promise to deliver a lot to humanity. But, these promises (majority of the times) remain only on papers. In my opinion, the funding agencies must take stringent action on such projects, which do not meet their stated objectives. It will motivate the researchers to work on projects, which reach the population soon.
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Gustav Cassel (1992) argued that willingness to pay a certain price for foreign money must ultimately and essentially be due to the fact that this money possesses a purchasing power as against commodities and services in that country...….(Alan Taylor and Mark Taylor debate).
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@ Emmanuel, it seems so sure.
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Currently seeking research participants to take part in a semi structured interview, speaking about their experiences on PPP projects in the Caribbean. Participants identity will be hidden.
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Moh Abduh public private partnership contracts
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Causes of failures of Public–Private Partnership (PPP) mode project.
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Dear Koli,
Various authors demonstrate in their studies the influence of the institutional framework on public-private partnerships (Delhi et al., 2010), by means of regulatory instruments, referred to by Mahalingam et al. (2011) "institutional capacities": "legitimacy, trust and capacity". Through this grouping, a delimitation of the institutional environment is achieved and the institutional capacities favorable for PPP development are highlighted. "Legitimacy is the perception or generalized assumption that the actions of an entity are desirable, proper or appropriate, within a social system of norms, values, beliefs and definitions" (Suchman, 1995). The willingness of public and private actors to engage in PPP is encouraged by formal formal relationships. It is a PPP feature as private sector actors are involved in delivering services provided by the public sector. (Jooste et al., 2010). Mahalingam (2011) shows how governments can ensure legitimacy: - clear reasons for concluding public-private partnership agreements; - orienting the political will to encourage the formation of PPPs; - Government's formulation of effective communication strategies to ensure that all stakeholders are informed.
"Trust refers to the disposition and attitude of willingness to rely on the actions of other actors, under social and contractual obligations, with a perspective of collaboration." (Smyth & amp; Pryke, 2008). Sitkin (1995) and Zucker (1986) note the mutual consolidation of trust and formal relationships that influence cooperation in a partnership.
"The ability to undertake PPP will strengthen the capacity to structure and manage PPP projects, being essential for PPP development" (Mahalingam, 2011). It calls on the public partner, the adoption of new roles, the acquisition of experience and qualification in many areas, focusing on the directions of government policies, namely: • Building the capacity of the public sector to know the internal structure of PPP; providing professional training programs such as workshops; knowledge of the project; providing an orientation guide;
• ensuring risk-allocation procedures and funding for the efficient management of PPP projects; • increasing the potential of the private sector by conducting competitive bidding and cooperation. In order for a public-private partnership to be successful, it is important to have an appropriate and stable institutional framework that avoids unforeseen risks for private investors in partnership projects.
The conclusions are obvious.
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What could be my topic for masters in public health in relation with PPP and public health issues?
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Hello Nwabisa, I also think that a systematic review is a great idea. You can review already existing PPP programs in Africa (such as: Riders for Health, and/ or Queen ‘Mamohato Memorial Hospital and Clinics PPP ) or in LMICs in general.
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If Government has completed 1/3 work of development project and now Government intends to convert a whole project (including 1/3 of completed work) under public private partnership mode. Is it possible to convert under construction public project to PPP Mode and please also specify the modality for this?
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In Brazil it is possible as long as the limits of the project are redefined, with the specifications due for the opening of a partnership call. More or less like a public competition .
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In the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) online processing services, there are two algorithms for the solution: Double Difference (DD) and Precise Point Positioning (PPP).
My question: which one gives a precise solution in the following time periods:
1- At the duration between (1 - 3 hours).
2- At the duration more than 10 hours.
Thanks for your Interest...
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You're welcome Murtadha Sarhan ,
I'm pretty sure DD will achieve better results than PPP.
Generally each country has its densified network of continuous GNSS tracking stations with adjusted coordinates (or known coordinates), i.e., an official geodetic reference system.
IGS network stations are really scarce, when you want to work with a short baseline and reduce tracking time.
One suggestion is to track a vertex (Base) for a longer time (for example, 4 hours) and simultaneously track other vertices for 15 min (Semi kinematic Method - Stop and Go), with baselines smaller than 20 km. With this method you can achieve accuracy better of a few centimeters.
If the Base has known coordinates, then you can apply directly the DD method, but if it is not known (which happens in most cases), you should perform static relative processing with the closest stations of the geodetic network in your region.
It's a little complicated to explain everything with a few words, but I hope you have understood the main idea.
I suggest consulting the following book:
Satellite Geodesy, 2nd Ed. Günter Seeber
It covers very well all these methods of positioning.
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I am a doctoral candidate at Walden University.  My thesis entitled “Engaging External Stakeholder to Improve Public-Private Partnership Water Project Completion Rates" primarily focuses on the effective execution of external stakeholder PPP water project strategies.  I am requesting assistance in identifying a company who has successfully completed a PPP water project within the past 12 months.
Any assistance or relevant contacts you are able to provide would be extremely beneficial as I continue my research to substantiate my thesis.  The information you provide will enable me to contact an eligible company and/or individual representative directly and inquire about their possible participation. 
If you require additional details in reference to my ongoing research, please feel free to email me.  Thank you in advance for your time and consideration. 
John Kolman
Doctoral candidate at Walden University.
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Try (1) WRP Consulting engineers (pty)-South Africa, (2) Metito Utilities (3) Suez (4) HP Gauff (5) NALDEO Strategies-Didier Canon
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Background and Significance
"Creative thinking – regarding idea creativity – is not a mystical talent. It is a skill that can be practised and nurtured."
- Edward de Bono
The above shows how creativity is a skill that can be practised and increasingly crucial for the survival of the Organization in rapid and changing times. Either innovate or perish is the single mantra for the Companies of 21st Century.
To understand the Skill Development system, the Skill Development Model of India has been studied. Singapore has been ranked as the 2nd highly skilled country of the world in the year 2015-16. So for understanding the model of a highly trained state, Singapore's Vocational and Technical Education model is being studied.
Skill Development System in India – The need of the hour.
India has a huge advantage by having a young workforce between the age group of 15 to 59 years. As a result of the high demand for the skilled workforce in the world, the Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship was formed. It lays down the goals the results. The Ministry works in closely with the National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC). The sole purpose is to fill the gap between the skills demand and supply by boosting the skill development initiatives.
In India, the skill acquisition is by both formal and informal. Both the Public and Private Sector focus on providing formal training. The GOI is looking at the Public and Private Partnership (PPP model). The Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) are run by the government and is a significant channel of gaining Vocational training in the country.
The “Competency assessment of Workmen Employees - Skill Matrix” is being done at our FRP Plant. The format or Table below shows the skill levels held by individuals in the team and the gap between them.
Skill Matrix is one method of recording the existing skills of a team and any gaps where development is required.
It helps to review the Training needs at the Individual and team level. `
The Skill evaluation for the FRP Plant is given for reference in the next page. The department has been mapped for each worker for different Functional. Behavioural and General Skills and the desired Skill gap is evaluated. These gaps are further bridged by imparting proper and appropriate training. At Hindalco FRP Plant, the instruction is given utmost importance. Many of which are Hands-on training and some of them are Managerial and Leadership skill development training.
The Skill Matrix is one of the most simple, but highly effective tools available to assess the training needs of employees. The Skill matrix helps us in:
• Identifying the skills required, i.e. Functional & Behavioural for each job/position.
• Assess the current skill level of an employee holding the position or performing the job
• Identify gaps in skill within the team.
• Assess the training needs
• Build commitment to the development of new or desired skills.
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Dear Vijay
I am interested in this as a topic for a number of reasons, both from a creativity perspective and also from a skills perspective. I see in your original post /question that you say "...on the next page" which leads me to think that this post is actually an abstract from a paper /conference or similar(?) As such it is hard to see what it is you want to discuss /debate, or what question you are posing as this seems a statement of fact.
If you can ellaborate further what it is you are looking to discuss, in particular, then I am sure that the RG community will oblige.
Best Wishes
David
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Natural resources like streams, valleys, caves, forests etc abound in southeastern Nigeria. These ecotourist attractions are not developed and the contemporary use of these resources has many negative effects? Why has government of southeastern Nigeria not shown interest in developing these natural ecotourist attractions? Can Public-Private-partnership offer any hope in developing these attractions?
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It refers to cooperation agreements between the state and the private sector for the provision of public services. By combining the social function of the state and the profit motivation of the private sector, it provides rapid implementation of a large number of projects in the public interest. Corruption is the most discussed issue about this cooperation.
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what would be the potential for a private organization to run a country's entrepreneurship program? would it be more successful than government running the said program? assume that funding is not a problem, or that it is based on a PPP model, or that the program is funded according to the tax revenue it generates. would aspects of entrepreneurship, like marketing of entrepreneurship, governance of entrepreneurship, opportunities within entrepreneurship, resources for entrepreneurship and resource management, to list some, improve or not?
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Private companies can act in management of innovative enterprises or in Research & Technology management. In Brazil, the states have public organizations for this purpose, but in one of them, this organization is private, and has excellent performance. New laws in the country are aligned with increased private sector participation in R & D management.
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Why would a country that is struggling with return on infrastructure investment and a heavy current account deficit launch $1 billion road expressway (circa 3% of GDP), which project is publicised as a concession and yet demand risk is retained by the public? Bankability is on the back of the poor. We must ask, why are we in this situation?
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The Ugandan experience brings out the problem of epistemology of development. Whether or not development is facilitated by huge investments in current and capital projects is dependent on the state of economies in particular, on the relationships between and among the sectors. Development economists and political scientists need to investigate the implications of the investments on present and future governance programmes and how the latter in turn impact on political stability as a measure of the extent to which citizens participate in affairs that affect their social existence.
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The PPP wave is more crucial to Africa than any other continent. The state in Africa is just moulding from decades of imperial rule. At the same time, worldwide the state surge of the Second World War is ending, and the private frontier is burgeoning. Therefore, a young moulding state surrounded by a burgeoning private sector must embrace PPP – recall, the public of Africa demand ever improving service thanks to the globalisation of technology.
Yet, scholarship on PPP is shallow and confused. Phenomenological observations are wielded as generalised truths. Why? Infrastructure is the domain of PPP. Is it the problem? Is the exigency of transaction in infrastructure forcing out scholarship? Put differently, is the big money of infrastructure transactions the problem? Look at health and agriculture. They feature more rigorous scholarship (see paper below).
The need for structure in PPP is urgent. Africa should lead. How?
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Capacity - that's a challenge, Sand. However, we must start by detecting the false claims. Look out for the transaction hype. After, we need rigorous analysis knitting the state, society and the budding market. The universities are critical.
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I want to study PPP model infrastructure project. I want to study id it is model is profitable  public as well as for private institute. 
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Thanks for your answers
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How do we improve on the model?
Multiple user-fee-based PPP projects have failed (i.e. cross city tunnel in sydney, Adelaide-Darwin Rail), is it a problem with the model itself or purely poor judgement and human error. Other PPP models such as 'construction completion payments' or 'availability payments' seem to be more successful and risk adverse
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After three years, do you have stronger insight into the question? You might have realised that placing demand risk on the state poses many challenges of distributive justice. There are no deterministic answers. Rather, we must appreciate that PPP is a dynamical space. Actions must be incremental and reflexive:
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Hi,
I would like to know whether the World Bank has lent or advised Turkey on capital market development for infrastructure financing after 2008. I’m interested in particular in whether there has been Bank lending or policy advice to develop a legal framework for PPPs and to what extent the Bank has given advise on the Turkish Capital Markets Board’s recent Communique on the Principles of Real Estate Companies (2013) for infrastructure financing. Also, are there other laws on capital market development specifically for infrastructure financing that the Bank has advised on? I would be grateful for any help.
Nil
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Thank you.
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This puzzle aims to devise a severity index for grading student plagiarism. Plagiarism Periodic Puzzle consists of twelve rows that are the severity indices, and eleven columns, that include the plagiarism features. The plagiarism indices have a severity order ranging from one to twelve. Based on the value of each, the plagiarism features take a positive or negative score between +5 to -6. The larger the severity of a plagiarism code, the smaller the features’ score will be.
The severity index (SI) of a plagiarism type is equal to the sum of its features’ score. Therefore, it is necessary to form a periodic puzzle by taking into account all the plagiarism features.
Based on the severity index, how would you rate the plagiarism features?
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I think the focus of research and pracitce serves better when enculturing exceeds curing.
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GNSS Processing - PPP
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there is very good open source GAMP software . I am using it for multi-signals, Its free
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I need your help and cooperation to know better the difference between the law on concessions and public private partnerships in Eastern countries and Western ones.
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Conventional monetary policies, normally carried forward by central banks, mainly fixing short term interest rates, become ineffective when rates are close to zero and the economy can hardly be stimulated anymore, being stuck in a ‘liquidity trap’ (Krugman, 1998). Low rates should ease credit allocation through the banking system, making it cheaper, but in some circumstances the economy looks like a patient which is too ill to properly benefit from standard treatments.
Quantitative easing (QE), an unconventional monetary policy performed by central banks, modifies their balance sheet, with a short to long security swap. The balance sheet of any central bank is the fulcrum of its monetary policy, which QE reshapes with asset substitutions (i.e. selling short term bonds and buying riskier and longer termed assets) or balance sheet increases, so raising the monetary base.
The term structure of interest rates represents a key parameter of any monetary policy intervention; with QE, the term structure should flatten, due to the fact that the central bank swaps short with long termed bonds, and may also increase its risk profile, if low risk treasury bills are replaced by asset – backed securities.
QE increases inflation, but its impact on real (=deflated) rates is not so clear cut; long term real rates may incorporate lower risk premiums and so decrease.
If anybody has further explanations or tips, she or he is welcome!
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State owned enterprises normally perform commercial activities on behalf of government, could they be considered as a type of public private partnership?
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The question is who are the shareholders of the SOE?
For a private company, shareholders are individuals, groups or other companies and the private company must deliver shareholder value (I.e return on investment).
For an SOE, the shareholders are typically Ministers on behalf of government and so must deliver public value, which is a different proposition to shareholde value.
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Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) and Microcontrollers (µCs), what difference and what can orientate the choice of one instead of another?
Thanks
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I'm maybe a bit late :)
These days PLCs are most likely based on one or more μCs. So some μC is one of the blocks to build a PLC.
The PLC is simply more than the bare-metal μC:
  1. It's got some "bus system" (most likely not the traditional address/data bus but some serial bus)
  2. It's got output drivers as well as input circuitry adapting the "process world" signal levels to those of the μC and vice-versa.
  3. It's already got some bas8c software: hardware drivers. HAL (most likely), some basic operating system, execution time supervision, download intrface and alike.
  4. It may even sport "intelligent subsystems" with furter μCs - eg. some "communication processor" or some "servo control unit".
So PLCs are not some opponent of the μC but a "higher-order" system.
BTW: IIRC some Siemens S5 was based on one or more 8051 derivative(s).
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Different BSs are having varying transmit powers. So I want to know What is the probability that only one BS, two BSs , three BSs ...., are in the range of a User Equipment.
Please refer me if you have any reference paper or book to read.
Thanks in advance.
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@Javier and @Sudarshan thank you very-much for your valuable advice. 
This will help me in my research. 
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I am trying to compare different social assessment methods including social impact assessment (SIA), social return on investment and (SROI) and social life cycle assessment (S-LCA). If someone can help to provide some good papers to understand the critique of all these three methods.
Thanks
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We recently published an article in Health Promotion International which examined a bunch of SROI and SAA (Social Accounting and Audit) reports. There is a full literature review in that paper from which you can glean additional references:
Macaulay, B., Roy, M. J., Donaldson, C., Teasdale, S., & Kay, A. (2017). Conceptualizing the Health and Well-Being Impacts of Social Enterprise: A UK-Based Study. Health Promotion International. https://doi.org/10.1093/heapro/dax009
There is some nice critique of SROI and social impact analysis generally by Malin Arvidson and various colleagues, including by Fergus (Lyon) and Kelly (Hall):
Arvidson, M., & Lyon, F. (2014). Social Impact Measurement and Non-profit Organisations: Compliance, Resistance, and Promotion. VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 25(4), 869–886. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11266-013-9373-6
Arvidson, M., Lyon, F., McKay, S., & Moro, D. (2013). Valuing the Social? The Nature and Controversies of Measuring Social Return on Investment (SROI). Voluntary Sector Review, 4(1), 3–18.
Hall, K., & Arvidson, M. (2014). How Do We Know If Social Enterprise Works? Tools for Assessing Social Enterprise Performance. In S. Denny & F. Seddon (Eds.), Social Enterprise: Accountability and Evaluation around the World (pp. 141–159). Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.
I think my good friend Prof Barraket (above) also has a chapter in the latter book, so it might be a useful investment.
Hope this helps!
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I would like to know the practical applications of branching processes especially in the areas of operations and business management.
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I hope you find something in my article as attached. I will be very glad to have your feedback accordingly. Rgds
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I think that CSA is a suitable for developing technologies that will be used in cross-boader environments. Unfortunately CSA is offten utilized to avoid tax. Some companies without invention to avoid tax may avoid using CSA to avoid authorities' suspects, I' d like to know the histry of CSA and clarify the qualified usage of CSA.
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This micro pump is actually one of my project in my university. Need some opinion on it.
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Modern developments of microfluidic devices to handle small volumes of fluids have discovered numerous applications in areas of science and engineering. In automotive industries, the most potential application of micropump are accurate fuel injection system and cooling of electronic devices.
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How can we determine the aggressive earnings management? also, the discretionary accruals model is it refer just for the aggressive earnings management or not?
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Discretionary accruals measures the earnings management. high levels (negative or positive) of earnings management among the sample firms can be taken as aggressive earnings management.
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Mechanisms to pay for load following ancillary services 
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Dear Dr.
I agree with Dr.Jerry Decker
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In terms of allocation of resources in market and town planning, how can equity, efficiency and environmental sustainability relate. 
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When town planning is done purely by market forces, the outcome can be efficient, but there are externalities, both spatial and environmental.
If the job is done by planner, mistakes can be common and they will lead to some inefficiency in using space.
I think that the best way is regulated market, but it depends how perfect are its laws for an environment of a particular town.
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Public-Private Partnership (PPP) is now accepted as an effective and novel instrument for stimulating economic growth all over the world. In an emerging economy like China, the importance of PPP has gained greater momentum for increasing and sustaining the current pace of socio-economic development. The Chinese Government is also encouraging PPP as a mechanism for faster economic growth, especially in the infrastructural sectors. But, I am getting difficulty to obtain secondary data of above mentioned variables for last Ten 10 years.
Can someone help me to obtain secondary data related to PPP investment and different indicators of economic development in China?
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Dear Naveed,
I have no data but a general opinion to share with you.
At one time, Public-Private partnership was considered important for Urban Development. The United States had a program called UDAG—Urban Development Action Grant. When the Housing and Urban Development (HUD) agency’s secretary, Jack Kemp, came on board during the 1980s under the Regan Administration, he did not fund the project, leading to its death. The reason was that it did not generate the impact on the local economic base that was expected in terms of job creation, and recapture of fund for secondary impacts.
UDAG was operated under a “But For” condition. If the project was not financially feasible under private market conditions, a gap in financing existed, and the public sector will pick up the slack. I can see that this kind a financing will be popular in undeveloped countries, given their sparse sources of funds.
PPP as you called it is again contemplated under the Trump administration for infrastructure investment. We have to wait and see if it will work.
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In one of my projects, I want to test the impact of financial development on environmental quality. I have checked that most articles used real domestic credit to private sector as a ratio of GDP. But I could not get data on domestic credit to private sector. Therefore, I must search for other proxy variable and need your help.
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Hi,
IMF introduces a broad based financial development index:, see https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/wp/2016/wp1605.pdf
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I'm currently working on my masters thesis about cost overrun in construction projects, and I would like to refer to a specific project (preferably in the UK). So I need to collect data about a specific case study, and I'm finding difficulty in asking for prices and what actually happened during tendering and construction. Thank you in advance for your help and time. 
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Dear Dima
Edinburgh trams immediately comes to mind. There should be newspaper articles (e.g. the use of material not suitable) but I am not aware of academic research. Potentially the Scottish Government or the Edinburgh City Council might be of help as well as Lothian Buses (Transport for Edinburgh).
Kind Regards
Roland
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Insurance companies have their contribution in GDP. how to measure their performance? I am working in a paper of how the insurance affect GDP?
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Dear Muawya,
You should consider different types of insurance to find different multipliers of insurance premium to GDP. Please, look at insurance premium, not at insurers' net profits. In most cases you will find the negative multipliers -- the lower the insurance premium, the higher is the growth of GDP. This is applicable to social insurance premium, marine insurance etc. Thus, do not use DEA and other similar methods, look how insurance makes cheaper the inputs, not how profits increase outputs.
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they said that engaging the private sector in waste management, the sanitation situation of urban cities in the developing world would appreciate. However, for several decades of embracing this public-private partnership model in sanitation management, it appears nothing significantly has occurred with respect to the sanitation situation. Where is the economy, effectiveness and efficiency? Is it illusory? what really goes wrong with PPPs in the developing world??
I chanced upon this article and could be very influential in this discourse
"Decades of public-private partnership in solid waste management: A literature analysis of key lessons drawn from Ghana and India" Management of Environmental Quality, An International Journal, Vol. 28 Iss: 1, pp.78 - 93
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You need to also factor in issues related to corruption because some of these PPP agreements are basically avenues of handing over public utilities to coronies to enrich themselves and Monitoring of implementation is often weak or nonexistent.
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What will be the impact of public traffic management for logistics service providers?
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The impact is crucial, so much so that "public traffic managers" and "logistic service providers" should collaborate to produce a joint design proposal for the total system configuration.  Problems arise in such systems when different sub-systems are designed separately, and then "thrown together" after design decisions have been completed.  This is both foolish and dangerous.  Any part of a system whose impact on the whole will effect functionality, should be included in developing the design for the systems parameters and operations.
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This is question one--> 1) What are the 3 pathways involved in the degradation of Glucose to pyruvate they are also considered the glycolytic pathways (Give the full names)? 
·         Embden-Meyerhof pathway  (EMP)
·         Pentose phosphate pathway (PPP)
·         Entner-Duodoroff pathway (EDP)
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Have you considered reading a Biochemistry (and Microbiology) text book?
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For the protection of ecosystem services exist several approaches, like the PES (Payment for Ecosystem Services), PPP (a kind of Public Private Partnership for green infrastructure) and Ecosystem Resilience Grants (ERG). Are there any other new financing approaches for the protection of ecosystems (beside the wellknown economical and political instruments of environmental liability like fines) ? Further: can somebody provide me with some information about Ecosystem Resilience Grants (ERG)? I would like to know in detail the type of financing approach.
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While PEP is incentive approach and PPP is an organizational approach, ERG is just grants provided for any investments in any project on ecosystem resilience. So ERG is a financing of projects by Government or private entities. You might consider other tools that communities use for financing ecosystem services projects like Ecotourism, comanagement frameworks for wildlife refuges, and microfinancing. 
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Does anyone have references on engaging with stakeholders in ppp projects?
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Edwards, P., & Bowen, P. (2003). Risk perception and communication in public-private partnerships. Public-Private Partnerships–Managing Risks and Opportunities.
Koppenjan, J. (2008). 10. Public–private partnership and mega-projects. Decision-making on mega-projects, 189.
Chung, D., Hensher, D. A., & Rose, J. M. (2010). Toward the betterment of risk allocation: Investigating risk perceptions of Australian stakeholder groups to public–private-partnership tollroad projects. Research in Transportation Economics, 30(1), 43-58.
Yang, J., Shen, G. Q., Ho, M., Drew, D. S., & Xue, X. (2011). Stakeholder management in construction: An empirical study to address research gaps in previous studies. International Journal of Project Management, 29(7), 900-910.
Atkin, B., & Skitmore, M. (2008). Editorial: stakeholder management in construction. Construction Management and Economics, 26(6), 549-552.
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I'm conducting some research using the Penn-World-Tables and I'm trying to construct an aggregated "World real GDP" variable using the country-level series. I am mindful that I may need to impute some missing values and was considering following the World Bank's approach to doing this (see link). I want to use the PWT data instead of the World Bank data as it appears more complete and I understand that generally calculating real GDP using chain-weighting is preferable to fixed-price weighting.
However, I am unclear on whether it is methodologically consistent to sum the real chained GDP of different countries to get an aggregated world series in the same units. My understanding is that chained series should not be treated as the simple sum of their parts in the same way as fixed-price series (see NY Fed link for example). This means it is incorrect to sum up chained sector outputs in a given country to get total chained GDP for that country. However, does this also mean it is incorrect to sum up chained country GDPs to get total world GDP?
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Hi,
"the world real GDP" is not just one objective number like the distance between moon and earth. The world real GDP is a summary statistics created to capture the production of various goods in various countries. Therefore, there is no one perfect way how to calculate it, because it depends on the purpose. For some purposes you might want to sum the real PPP GDP, whereas for other purposes you do not want adjustment for the PPP. Example: you want to explain countries' contribution to international trade. One of the explanatory variables would be GDP. In this particular case, GDP not adjusted for the PPP would be more relevant explanatory variable then GDP adjusted for PPP.
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How has the factors affected the following phases of PPP framework; PPP Enabling Environment; PPP Project Preparation Process; Bankable Feasibility Study; and Risk Identification and Allocation. 
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The following links might give you good reading PPP framework for assessing infrastructure development:
1. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.iatssr.2012.11.001 (a paper published by sciencedirect)
2. https://www.oecd.org/dac/evaluation/IOBstudy378publicprivatepartnershipsindevelopingcountries.pdf (A systematic literature review on PPP in developing countries by OECD)
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I have one position processed using Static in RTKLIB and list of coordinates processed using Kinematic and PPP Kinematic. Can I use standard deviation to find which method between PPP Kinematic and Kinematic that give nearest value to the true value?
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I've read few papers mentioning that PPP Kinematic too can be used for moving receiver processing with few decimeters accuracy. Is this mode acceptable in giving truth value since the commonly used is Kinematic?
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I am working on the study that Pension Funds invest in PPP projects,but I can't find some cases about Canada and Australia. 
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OK,thank you  for your advice, I have found some papers, one  more question, I just want to know how the pension funds invest in PPPs, does it invest in projects directly or invest some infrastructure fund for PPPs. 
You know the PPPs is more and more popular in China, but the source of the PPP projects' capital, the pension funds may be the appropriate investor, but in which way is a problem worth thinking, the pension funds is different  from other funds, it sets higher requirements to preserve or increase the value. so I try to select some feasible ways from Canada and Australia.
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it seems that PPP is easier to establish in adaptation/mitigation projects focusing on waste management, renewable energy etc but I have found it difficult to link PPP in adaptation projects such as those on food security/sustainable natural resource management.
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Good day Dagmawi, the role of PPP partnership is very important for implementing sustainability programs, specially those than can be geared to helping populations to meet their basic needs, which requires systematic planning.
You may find the ideas in these paper interesting as food for thoughts Ithink:
a) the paper below can help you see where PPP partnership can be placed to help with the decarbonization of the atmostphere:
The Carbonisation and Decarbonisation of the Atmosphere: Systematically Linking Sustainable Development, Decarbonisation, and Adaptation Programs Using Qualitative Comparative Means
b) The paper below make the case of the need for  public/private sector
pro-sustainability partnership especially to meet basic needs:
The Urgent Need to Start Building the Basic Foundations of Global Sustainability
Hope you find the ideas useful.
Respectfully yours;
Lucio
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Please give some information about BOT and suggest some related articles.
What subjects do you recommend for a research paper to working on this topic? 
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Dear Mohsen Mazaheri Asad 
The book that I mentioned in last comment, is available in Persian language.
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HEALTHCARE PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS AND INFRASTRUCTURAL SUPPLY CHAIN SUSTAINABILITY
1.      Purpose  The research question of this paper is to examine how infrastructural investments, coordinated with their underlying supply chains (SCs) and fostered by Public Private Partnerships (PPP), can enhance systemic sustainability.
2.      Design/methodology/approach  This research paper starts from literature gaps about sustainable supply chains. An empirical case of healthcare infrastructural supply chains is then examined and generalized according to an inductive approach.
3.      Findings  Provided that sustainable SCs naturally rely on sound and lasting infrastructures, PPP can promote integrated and long-lasting SCs. Financial and economic sustainability can precede social and environmental resilience. Public subsidies are necessary, but sustainability reduces their burden for taxpayers.
4.      Research limitations/implications   PPP healthcare supply chains represent a peculiar case, which may need adjustments to be generalized. Environmental concerns need further analysis.
5.      Practical implications  Increasing awareness of sustainability drivers can improve resilience and flexibility of public healthcare supply chains, to the benefit of patients and taxpayers.
6.      Social implications   Sustainable healthcare SCs provide better cares, outreaching more patients.
7.      Originality/value   This study simultaneously addresses the theoretical nature of infrastructural SC and considers their sustainability within a PPP multi-stakeholder context.
If You want to co-author this paper send me a mail: roberto.morovisconti@morovisconti.it
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It is interesting topic of research. My e-mail address : arjun_pangannavar@yahoo.in.
Let me know your conditions, if any.
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The use of PFI for infrastructural development and provisions has gained much attention in many countries due to current economic condition that has limited available funds to various governments. At the same time, sustainability agenda is being driven by the quest to save this planet from destruction and to conserve the limited natural resources. How can output specification in PFI be used to drive and engender sustainability? 
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Interesting discussion!. In my opinion output specification is important document in advising the client requirements and hence should advocate inclusion of sustainability.  
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Last few years, we are hearing for the public-private partnership with various national programmes and the services provided by the health institution. But evaluation is also important to know how effective this PPP Model
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If you want an overall look of the project financing as a financial instrument in Italian health sector, you can read the document at this link: http://static.luiss.it/siti/media/1/20100901-Lepore%20modello%20pdf.pdf
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Answer will help in recommending the way forward for PPP development and practice in Nigeria
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Both the two models have advantage and disadvantage and there one size fit for all model. So it is better to see deeply before we decide the PPP model for developing countries. However, to express my stand the concession model is fair to share the risks.
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This research was done in Malaysia by the above authors I think it was in 2014.
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 Please find the attached file as requested.
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What is the value for money in traditional infrastructure public procurement, and by comparing both PPP and the traditional procurement, what method can we ascertain value for money in case of both.
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thanku for the answers. i got a clarity now.
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I'm wondering which perspective it is better to apply in my PhD thesis.
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I propose new indexes to make better decisions. You can read about it in my articles.
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PPP: Public Private Partnership.
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Thanks dear Aon Waqas Awan and N.A. Bello.
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in ppp contracts there are some field that need to be optimized, such as concession period, private or public sector etc.
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 PPPs are typically principal-agent relationships, so that, rather than a single optimization, there may be several (at least two ) optimizations going one at once. The real problem is thus  to find a contract structure with optimal characteristics, in the sense that it serves best the collective welfare through an appropriate structure of incentives for the two parties. I used this approach  in the attached paper on concessions, which also looks at the added complication of risk sharing, itself a key characteristic of PPPs. .  
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Readiness theory is the ability of the organizations to adopt new ideas
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Khaled,
As (like Stefan) I too am unfamiliar with this theory, could you suggest some texts/articles on readiness theory that I might read prior to considering your question? 
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My colleague is writing a paper on assessing suitability of regions across various criteria from the point of view of multinational, planning FDI, and state, planning strategic investment thought PPP.
She has collected extensive panel data on various economic, social, and quasi-economic/social variables, characterizing regions of Russia. She plans to use some MCDA method. Have you heard about any papers, written on this topic?
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There you can find a lot of papers for strategic investments, but not only TOPSIS can be used. For example, you can use AHP or ANP developed by T.L. Saaty.
The ELCTRE family methods are used to this aim also. For instance, Norese MF. 2006. ELECTRE III as a support for participatory decision-making on the localisation of waste-treatment plants, Land Use Policy 23(1): 76-85. Each of this method has some shortcomings and advantages.
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I need your help and cooperation to know better the difference between the law on concessions and public private partnerships in Eastern countries and Western ones.
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I am waiting in your answers
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I assume that the public and private sector do not have a common perception on the critical success factors for PPP projects. This implies that the two parties could share different views on PPP project success. You can find more details under the attached link.
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In India, PPP is a substitute for govt operations in areas where the govt has withered away either by deliberate intention or by the inefficiency of that wing of govt. However, since the user had been used to almost free access of whatever skeleton service that wing of govt was providing, there is a general reluctance by the user to pay for the service which the private party charges. Besides there is lack of authentic data collection before the project is taken up. That makes a number of assumptions on which the PPP was based invalid. Then pvt party loses interest and abandon project or makes unsustainable claim. So ultimately, it boils down to the ultra price sensitivity of Indians either as a user or as a contractor.
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There is a lot of emphasis on recent policies for PPP Housing; However, despite emphasis, very few PPPs have come forth.
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Yes, there is a lot of emphasis on recent policies for PPP Housing; However, despite emphasis, very few PPPs have come forth.
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Can anyone recommend publications concerning the following issues: PPP projects effectiveness, idea how to identify stakeholders targets, how to evaluate the degree of meeting stakeholders targets through the realisation PPP projects, etc.
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The transition to green urban mobility will require vast amounts of finance. However, in times of global financial crisis public finance resources are scarce. Thus, cities will depend on innovative finance and the private sector. But how can local authorities mobilize and leverage private finance?
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to have private sector invest on green urban mobility you have to make their investment worthwhile...
-he have to be positive in terms of brand image (so he will divert a part of his marketing budget to the green mobility project, if he can manage to acquire some positive visibility from it (like his logo on all the bike/car/stations/etc)
-he also can invest if public power grant him something worthy, special autorisation , attached contract, tax incentive, etc....
-and at last you can use Sponsorship to gather fund, but i doubt that this can be a serious part of the project funding
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It’s clear that some industries are more willing to accept the PPP contracts along-side PFI. Road and Transportation, Innovative Projects and High Technology projects are more needed these types of projects. What makes these projects to look at PPP contracts?
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I don't think it is the industries making the choice, but governments - and hence, it is these industries which governments want ?need to invest into, and hence - try to create incentives for private investors - to contribute to large investment projects. These will be potentially all public sector industries, infrastructure and large facilities of critical national interest.
Usually the PPPs differ not so much by the sector, but by the type of Stakeholders - assembled as part of the PPP, and very often stakeholder management substitute for effective management of the partnership.
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The policy document unveiled at the Indian Science Congress, titled `Science, Technology and Innovation Policy`, indicated the government`s awareness of the trendy i-word. - Prof Sumit Bhaduri
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Looked up the work of Ludwik Flek. It has important implications for research today.
What needs to be discussed is the "targetted nature of ongoing research" being done in 'assemblyline manner" where the product mostly has economical value and the corporatisation of science breeds bureacratic overlordship.
Needless to say there would be places/situations where this does not hold true.