Science topic

Public Opinion - Science topic

Public Opinion is the attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.
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public opinion polls
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Sir, public opinion polls is one of the technique of qualitative and also quantatative research. Accuracy of that type of technique depends on the quality of sample. It also depends on the nature of the issue of research. In the case of societal issues related to political, economic and cultural the technique more or less accurate. Moreover, in the case of public policy issues, the technique gives more or less accurate result. However in the case of developing countries, majority of the people suffering from their basic livelihoods; so they are not able to gives their opinion from their cognitive knowledge in many cases. Degree of cognitive knowledge depends on quality of education (formal and informal), values of that society and their livelihood status. Due to such problems accuracy of public opinion polls in developing countries always should not be accurate. But till public opinion polls is one of the best technique of research in every nature of states.
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How can we understand the nature of the hidden roles of the multimedia in creating cultural and societal participants and their impact on global public opinion?
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Overall, whereas the user can deal with information according to personal preparations and social controls, and in light of his stored knowledge that allows accepting or rejecting this information, and in the event that it is accepted, the user allows it to enter the knowledge repository to interact with it, as indicated by the information processing theory, which emphasizes that the media help attention due to the simple and uncomplicated models they present in order to achieve the ability to perceive, interpret and remember, and make the user perform cognitive operations on them and keep them in his memory, which facilitates the assimilation of news and press topics with complex details.
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Hello,
Do you know of any available public opinion data from Europe (or OECD countries) that asks about opinions on women's place in society? Gender Quotas? Perception of women in the work place? Women's performance in leadership positions?
I am looking for this kind of data for my Master's thesis and am working to construct my own panel dataset with it.
I would appreciate any tips and advice.
Thank you!
Teresa Taylor
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Kindly refer this article :
Replication Data for: Gender Attitudes and Public Opinion Towards Electoral Gender Quotas in Brazil
This repository contains replication files for the analysis reported in Batista Pereira and Porto. "Gender Attitudes and Public Opinion Towards Electoral Gender Quotas in Brazil" Political Psychology: In press. The data used come from the 2014 of the AmericasBarometer Survey in Brazil, available from: https://www.vanderbilt.edu/lapop/raw-data.php. The codes require MPlus for data analysis. (2020-02-24)
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And if so, which types of media are central to this issue?
Please reply.
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Whether new Internet media, including social networks, constitute an important factor in shaping the general public opinion depends mainly on the information policy of these new media and on the specific interests of Internet users using these portals and the possibility of active participation of users of these portals in the creation of posts, comments, banners, information contained in created posts, etc.
Best wishes,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Are there any studies (large or small) that show the impact of fake news (or real news) on people's opinions towards a specific subject? Sort of like an experiment with control groups that exposes people (or users) to information, and measures their views before and after said exposure?
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are there any research papers/articles/etc that examines the differences of what various media says about a particular topic.. and compares it to local/public opinion, which may differ from what is being said in the media?
For example:
News: People in X city support Oranges
People in X City: Most of us actually support Apples
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thanks a lot Florian!
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As you all know, this pandemic has taken a major toll on the entire global community. In some societies, people do abide by COVID protective measures. Yet, in other societies people are resistant (or do not want to abide).What sort of messaging and media material or campaigns would convince the public to abide by the measures? Let's please discuss this!
Ideas I have:
  • Campaign that shows the scary side of advanced COVID cases
  • Strict law enforcement, and making public displays of arresting those who do not abide by measures
What ideas do you have?
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Melissa Lux Try to evoke examples of individuals who are opposed to wearing masks, and who have changed their resistance after being infected with COVID-19 or one of their relatives.
But if he remains on his opposition, you should run!
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So for example, we have the following polls:
First poll: People who said they like orange juice for breakfast are as follows: Texas (50%), NY (25%), North Carolina (20%), and Florida (5%)
Second poll: People who said they prefer netflix to watch movies are as follows: Texas (10%), NY (70%), (North Carolina (15%), and Florida (5%)
How can we aggregate these polls to say that, for instance, the average person in Texas is likely to be interested in orange juice for breakfast, but likely does not like netflix for movies.
So aggregating data sources to reflect them onto an individual
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you just need to collect all the data about these respondents in one table and build a single model that will allow you to answer your questions in a consistent way
As a method of the research we used Automated system-cognitive analysis (ASC-analysis), which is a new innovative method of artificial intelligence: it also has its own software tool – an intelligent system called "Eidos" (open source software).
The Eidos-X++ system differs from other artificial intelligence systems in the following parameters:
- was developed in a universal setting, independent of the subject area. Therefore, it is universal and can be applied in many subject areas (http://lc.kubagro.ru/aidos/index.htm);
- is in full open free access (http://lc.kubagro.ru/aidos/_Aidos-X.htm), and with the relevant source texts (http://lc.kubagro.ru/__AIDOS-X.txt);
- is one of the first domestic systems of artificial intelligence of the personal level, i.e. it does not take special training in the field of technologies of artificial intelligence from the user (there is an act of introduction of system "Eidos" of 1987) (http://lc.kubagro.ru/aidos/aidos02/PR-4.htm);
- provides stable identification in a comparable form of strengh and direction of cause-effect relationships in incomplete noisy interdependent (nonlinear) data of very large dimension of numerical and non-numerical nature, measured in different types of scales (nominal, ordinal and numerical) and in different units of measurement (i.e. does not impose strict requirements to the data that can not be performed, and processes the data that is);
- contains a large number of local (supplied with the installation) and cloud educational and scientific applications (currently 31 and 200, respectively) (http://lc.kubagro.ru/aidos/Presentation_Aidos-online.pdf);
- provides multilingual interface support in 44 languages. Language databases are included in the installation and can be replenished automatically;
- supports on-line environment of knowledge accumulation and is widely used all over the world (http://aidos.byethost5.com/map5.php);
- the most time-consuming computationally, the operations of the synthesis models and implements recognition by using graphic processing unit (GPU) that some tasks can only support up to the solution of these tasks is several thousand times that really provides intelligent processing of big data, big information and big knowledge;
- provides transformation of the initial empirical data into information, and its knowledge and solution using this knowledge of classification problems, decision support and research of the subject area by studying its system-cognitive model, generating a very large number of tabular and graphical output forms (development of cognitive graphics), many of which have no analogues in other systems (examples of forms can be found in: http://lc.kubagro.ru/aidos/aidos18_LLS/aidos18_LLS.pdf);
- well imitates the human style of thinking: gives the results of the analysis, understandable to experts on the basis of their experience, intuition and professional competence.
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i am looking for a questionnaire that i can adapt to focus on seasonal affective disorder to collect data to establish the general publics opinion on SAD
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We have studied attitudes towards mental ill health:
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We often perceive that policymakers (and sometimes other practitioners too) understand problems and solutions to policy issues in a way that's very different to that of people 'on the ground'. This is problematic and I have the feeling that there must be literature discussing this gap or disconnect. But I cannot find a good lead to start discovering such literature.
Can you think of a paper that discusses this disconnect?
It doesn't have to be in the sustainability or environmental domains, it can be elsewhere in political science etc.
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Brilliant Akhmad Solikin Akhmad Solikin, I hadn't made that connection. But it makes all sense: this disconnect can lead to a principal-agent problem (related to moral hazard), where policymakers are the agents deciding on behalf of the principal (society), but with misaligned priorities. Christoph Schulze, sounds fantastic. Looking forward to hear more about your results. I suspect there must be more Q literature looking at this classification of respondents (policymakers vs the rest). Will keep digging... Thanks also Promila Kapoor-Vijay and Andreas. Andreas Vassilopoulos, What sort of literature are you looking at?
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What would be the cheapest option for getting survey responses?
I looked at Google Surveys (limited countries), Poll fish and Qualtrics (a tad bit expensive), and Survey Monkey (sample is too small/expensive).
Any ideas?
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I don't know if you're an advanced or intermediate user, but for common surveys, tools like SurveyMonkey work quite well and they're not very expensive.
Good luck!
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More good science is needed. Some have sampling data that indicates increased macro- and micro-nutrients in grain produced with regenerative ag practices (not organic) vs. convention production. Tangentially, a study on beef production (pasture vs. grainfed) which may have relation to soil health as well as forage, begins to compare the nutrient content of the beef. https://www.green-acres.org/download/a-nutritional-survey-of-commercially-available-grass-finished-beef/
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Thats an excellent question and warrants to be discussed at length. Whether nutrient density of crops is a function of nutrient supply levels of soil that is soil fertility status or soil health. How does the nutrient export from the field take place as an ultimate result of nutrient density of crops. Usually we advocate a healthy soil supports a higher nutrient density of crops over a period of time. ...
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Some believe in some things or matters as facts while others consider it mere opinions. How can those who consider them facts understand them as opinion/s and how can those who claim things or matters as opinions understand something as fact/s?
Is reconciliation possible and how?
I know some may consider it obsolete and clear but many indeed fail to understand the root differences and similarities that ultimately leads to tension and conflict.
Appreciate your insights in advance.
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But is the real idea really expressed? Perhaps and often the speaker does notmanage to communicate the real idea but a weaker version of it. Often is such expression misunderstood and that is another idea.
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Professor and author Carol Martin has had an ongoing fascination, exploring the theatre of the real, where the most authentic and accurate stories are those told from multiple narratives and perspectives, not ones that are merely accepted as commonplace. She cites David Hare's Via Delorosa (1998 premiere) which was a one-person play / travelogue of Hare's journey (1997) through Israel and Palestine dealing with the Israeli–Palestinian conflict.
Where Martin noticed discrepancies in his piece was the lack of multiple viewpoints and narratives: "Significantly, Hare says little about radical Islam in relation to the Palestinians" (Theatre of the Real, 112). She goes on to say, "The devastating effect of Britain's own colonial past in the Middle East is absent in Via Dolorosa" (112).
Martin was not taking a side, she was simply pointing to the fact if artists are to tell a somewhat accurate story, even if from their viewpoint and lens, other perspectives need to be included.
Another example of using multiple perspectives was last night on "Saturday Night Live," where ensemble member Pete Davidson tacked the issue of separating the "art" from the "artist" when it comes to controversy. If we are to accept one narrative of the person we might respect and admire for their body of work, we need to acknowledge the other ones.
Are you able to separate the "art" from the "artist"?
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Art is artists' manifestation of soul which depicts their inner nature. Therefore, good artists exist simply in what they create which makes art an inseparable part of artist. As such, when it comes to choosing between art and artist, I take side with Marcel Duchamp , who states, “I don't believe in art. I believe in artists.”
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I think new citation of my own published work surely inspire me to publish more and more works. What is your opinion about it?
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yes! and if you want to increase your citations by others you can cite your publications in your papers of course if it suits the context.
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How important online discussions (forums, social media, microblogging etc.) are in the process of shaping the public agenda and political participation? We have already know that media coverage affects peoples' perception about particular socio-political issues. Thanks to the media outlets one can deepen knowledge, fulfill the information gap and look "beyond the box" . Nevertheless, users comments are no less important. Interesting here is to what extent users' comments/opinions (malicious, substantive etc.) can affect the degree of political views and participation (particularly voting act) of other users? Does offended comments have more impact on that ? Does the spiral of silence still applicable? I'd love to know your opinions on that matter!
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The point is that comments on social media do affect political attitudes and behavior, for good or worse. Especially nowadays, when people do not read books anymore. In fact, most of them read 4-5 lines on Facebook or 1-2 lines on Twitter.
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Sometimes during preparing for a specific research, the results which obtained may be unsatisfactory or negative, what will you do in such case?
Please, share us your sincerely opinions
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Dear Dr. Mohammed,
It would be frustrating. I will try to modify the research idea or publish the negative results as they are. Negative results may help other researchers not to try again in the same way.
Regards
Rama
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Identifying the best and comprehensive tool for analyzing data and factors is an important issue in recent years. As an expert, please write your comment in this context including the name of tool and also significant reasons for your selection.
Best regards.
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Different software had different strengths and weakness.
I'm not sure I think R is necessary "the best" or that you can do everything there. R does a lot, but not everything in it is really great. For example, the mixed models package lme4 has some notable issues and shouldn't be considered as the "definitive source" in the way that SAS PROC MiXED is. Its EFA program is rather dubious but lavaan has really taken off and is under very active development.
All programs have their areas of strength and lack thereof. SPSS is good at data management and cleaning and they've implemented a number of things recently. However, last time I looked its factor analysis suite is rather out of date compared to what is considered good practice. For instance, to my knowledge it can't handle ordinal data using an ordinal estimator. Stata has quite a lot of useful things implemented, such as a pretty fully featured generalized structural equations facility that can fit many different models but you'd need to do some work to handle EFA in that framework.
Regarding CEFA, sadly Michael Browne passed away in fall of 2018. He was a true gentleman and is sorely missed by those of us who knew him. The real work he did is represented in how thoroughly he documented the EFA literature both with his articles and as implemented in CEFA, which can be used to benchmark newer programs.
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Hello everyone,
My research group is interested in finding suppliers of deuterated polymers for use as an internal standard in analytical polymer decomposition method.
We are already aware of two: Polymer Source, Inc. in Canada and Polymer Standards Service in the USA.
Does anyone have advice or recommend another supplier?
Thank you in advance!
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You could ask "Polymer Source Inc." in Canada. They offer at least deuterated monomers: www.polymersource.ca
Another possibility is to look up the pages of DEUNET. This is a network from neutron research facilities dedicated to deutration. See:
A member of DEUNET is the Juelich research center (FZJ) in Germany. They probably can provide some deuterated polymers.
In addition the company PSS does custon synthesis also of deuterated polymer:
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Dear RG colleagues,
The majority of researchers in my country publish their works on journals. In my opinion the publications of research results at high-level conferences are more credible!! Can I have your suggestions??
Best Regards
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The multiplication of conferences today is a fact, as is the elevation of costs for participating in them. Assessing the quality of a conference is a much harder task than it is find the quality of a journal. We always must exercise care in choosing either conferences or journals. For journals you can consult https://beallslist.weebly.com/ or https://predatoryjournals.com/journals/. If a journal is listed on these sites, you had better not to submit a paper to them. Open-access is a very common way to get money from authors for publishing papers, but beware of the risks, several open-access journals are predatory (exceptions exist, of course). I have always published papers in conferences and journals. The turnaround for a journal is always much longer, but the resulting paper is always better. Good publication houses for journals are IEEE, ACM. Selected journals of Springer and Elsevier are very good. Regard for a journal its impact index expressed by rates such as JCR. The higher the value, the more cited are these journal papers.
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I have pre and post test repeated measures (public opinion) on same sample. Data is in Likert scale. Is there any way to apply chi square on data ?
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What is the goal of the analysis? A chi square will basically test the proportions. If, however, you want to know whether there is a difference between the pre- and post-test, then the chi square might not be the best choice of statistic.
For Likert scales, a repeated-measures t-test may be used to determine a change between the pre- and post-test. Now, some statisticians would consider a Likert scale to be rank-ordered and not interval. In such a case, they may argue a t-test is inappropriate. If you concur, then use the Wilcoxon rank-sums test, instead. These analyses are standard with most statistical software, but are also easy to compute using something like Excel, too.
I hope this is useful!
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I'm initiated a study on public opinion in Europe during the Napoleon era. I notice a close interaction between the Confederation of the Rhine, Austria, Prussia and Russia around 1808-1813. I'm looking for archival and bibliographic references and, if possible, trying to discuss this concept of public opinion in the earlier 19th century.
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Dear Gerlad,
Please try to find an old book by Eugene Tarle "Napoleon’s Invasion of Russia 1812", Oxford University Press, 1942, 1971 -- the author was one of the best experts on that period working in French and other archives and the references of that book should have something about public opinion, including newspapers, pamphlets, proclamations, publicly revealed personal letters etc.
Kind regards,
Igor Gurkov
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For several years, there are commercially-operating companies that collect data collected, for example, from social media portals.
This data contains information collected from posts, entries, comments, recordings, etc. posted by millions of users of social media portals.
Data is collected and processed in Big Data database systems. Sentiment analysis carried out on these data allows you to generate reports that are used in business, for example in marketing.
From these reports, the clients of the above-mentioned technology companies learn, for example, about how the recognition of their brand changes over time, what opinions about the products and services offered, etc., dominate.
But if the Big Data database resources analyzed in this way are mainly information collected from social media portals, do the generated reports have the advantages of objectivity?
Considering the current resources of the Internet, are the majority of comments on products, services, companies, institutions, etc. being entered on various websites at the moment? Are comments posted on social media portals?
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My view, public social media comments/posts/self absorbed photos etc.. does point a researcher in a very general direction. The question, is understanding the trend, demographic, and potential to take action. All reports demand rigorous context.
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I am interested in finding reliable and already empirically tested instrument/questionnaire (Cronbach alpha under 0.7), with which it would be possible to do empirical research on attitudes of public opinion towards specific country, and its foreign policy.
The idea is to investigate the perception and/or "public image" of a specific state within the IR.
The results should imply outcomes such as the ones from Pew Research Centre: http://www.pewglobal.org/2017/06/26/u-s-image-suffers-as-publics-around-world-question-trumps-leadership/
I express my gratitude for all dedicated answers.
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Why are you looking for an instrument with a Cronbach's alpha under 0.7? It suggests a weak instrument. By the way Cronbach's alpha are of little value to predict the reliability or validity of an instrument. It is actually internal consistency and not reliability.
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Can any one name existing and under planning use cases of BlockChain Technology?
Like
1) Electronic voting in literature it is available but does it really exist
2) Banking Gross Settlement  like RTGS
3) Cross border payments
4) Supply Chain
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Dear @Saeed and @Ahmed are making copy/paste plagiarism!!! Here are their original resource.
@Saeed:
What is "BLOCKCHAIN" Technology ?
@Ahmed:
Don't know what's Blockchain technology? Let us explain
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Good Day Everyone,
I am currently doing a literature review on the roles Mainstream Media and Alternative Media in shaping public opinion. Are there any recommendation of such journal articles from the year 2012- now? All journal articles are preferably be in English. Thanks!
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Hello Nicholas,
Along the same theme as the previous Gentlemen who have offered a response, I would suggest that you also consider factors influencing continuance intention in the online/social media context. Here are a few articles that may assist you.
Chang, Y. P. & Zhu, D. H. (2012). The role of perceived social capital and flow experience in building users’ continuance intention to social networking sites in china. Computers in Human Behavior, 28 (3), 995-1001. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2012.01.001
Hsu, C.L., Yu, C.C. & Wu, C.C. (2014). Exploring the continuance intention of social network websites: an empirical research. Information Systems and e-Business Management 12 (2), 139-163. doi:10.1007/s10257-013-0214-3
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Hsu, M.H., Tien, S.W., Lin, H.C. & Chang C.M. (2015). Understanding the roles of cultural differences and socio-economic status in social media continuance intention. Information Technology and People 28 (1), 224-241. doi:10.1108/ITP-01-2014-0007
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Yoon, C. & Rolland, E. (2015). Understanding continuance use in social networking services. The Journal of Computer Information Systems 55 (2), 1-8. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/iew/1647821314?accountid=10675
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Both the information and the omission of information can influence the behavior of people after reading a news item in a media outlet.
In the case of fatal accidents due to external causes, it is evident that news about traffic accidents with color photographs, impact much more than news about accidental falls, choking or suicides that barely occupy a few lines.
This treatment of the information does not seem to accompany to transmit to the public opinion a message of prevention and warning about the accidents, unless they are of traffic.
After this reality, the media should consider a responsibility that makes them rethink their deontological codes?
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Data may, or may not, be peer-reviewed prior to publication. Governments are inconsistent regarding the protection or consistency of data collection, management and file maintenance.
Once in Accra, Ghana at the largest teaching hospital, over 12,000 medical records were fouled by an overflowing septic system and ruined. The same year my students discovered that over 5 years of national death certificates were NEVER entered into the mortality data base because the Ministry of Health eliminated the clerical position of the person who entered the data. I have dozens of other illustrations from many places, including the USA and UK.
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Any difference between outcome, output and result?
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In public policy, 'output' is usually used to refer to an immediate, tangible yield (the 'product'). In turn, this may or may not result in certain 'outcomes', which however are not necessarily under direct control of the policy process. Finally, outcomes can have (and be measured in terms of) 'impacts'.
Hypothetical example: government may publish a report on healthy school meals, following a lengthy consultation; the report is the output of said process. This then leads to schools changing their meals offering ('the outcome'); in turn, this may end up showing improved obesity rates etc. among pupils ('the impact').
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Many universities raise this nicely written slogan "XYZ University is an equal employment opportunity/affirmative action employer and intends to recruit, hire, train & promote without regard to race, color, gender, age, religion, national & ethnic origin, disability, marital status, or sexual orientation ".
Scientists usually seek truth but most of them shun from talking honestly about what is actually going on in many universities which is utter discrimination practiced either "guardedly" or "bluntly".
In many parts of the world, unfairness is done “from what texts are read, to who is admitted, employed, and promoted, to who does research & who is denied, to what knowledge is valued & what is dismissed or ignored”. In 3rd world countries, the situation worsens to nepotism according to political affiliation or to belonging to a certain secretive group or to being an inhabitant in a particular city or to being a son or daughter of an influential person or a family.
Isn't time to confront this disastrous policy of discrimination at a global scale? The continuation of implicit & explicit discrimination will eventually lead to the downfall of academic institutions whatever resilience is "assumed" to be.
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In higher learning institutions like Universities, people must be recruited, hired, trained & promoted on merit without discrimination with regard to race, color, gender, age, religion, national & ethnic origin, disability, marital status, or sexual orientation.
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There has been an increasing attempt towards highlighting the impact of social media in the outcome of an election. However, it really needs to be understood that impacting the outcome of the election and spreading awareness about the political parties and leaders are two different aspects which normally people consider same. It is much difficult to gauge the impact of social media on the outcome of the election for the simple reason that there are other factors, including offline campaigning, which play a crucial role in the final outcome. Question is, does their exist a mechanism by which one can measure the impact of social media on the outcome of an election?
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Hi Armit,
as you say, the interactions between social media and voting behavior are complex and also a clear differentiation between online and offline phenomena is quite impossible since social media have become a part of daily life. I think in order to measure effects it makes sense to differentiate between social media campaigning and the effects of individual networks and so-called echo chambers. Also, I would assume there are different mechanisms how social media affects voting, i.e. via promoting/ hindering political interests and via motivating/ suppressing voting behaviors.
Good luck with your research, Felix
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I have recently read the book The Retreat of Western Liberalism (2017), written by the Financial Times columnist Edward Luce. The author coincides with the growing group of analysts and scholars concerned about the prospects of liberal democracy around the world.
Adding to the rise of populism in many West’s countries, at least 25 democracies have failed since the turn of the millennium, the work underlines. In January, Francis Fukuyama –who claimed in 1989 that Western liberal democracy was “the final form of human government”- told Luce that “it is an open question whether this is a market correction in democracy or a global depression”.
The work highlights the “dramatic” shift of global economic power to Asia and the inadequate responses to the impact it has had on Western economies.  
“The backlash of the West’s middle classes, who are the biggest losers in a global economy that has been rapidly converging (…) has been brewing since the early 1990s. In Britain we call them the ‘left-behinds’. In France, they are the ‘couches moyennes’. In America, they are the ‘squeezed middle’. A better term is the ‘precariat’ – those whose lives are dominated by economic insecurity. Their weight of numbers is growing. So, too, is their impatience. Barrington Moore, the American sociologist, famously said, ‘No bourgeoisie, no democracy.’ In the coming years we will find out if he was right.”
Following Theresa May's unexpectedly poor performance in the British parliamentary election in June, Luce published an article in the Financial Times about “The Anglo-American democracy problem” (FT, June 14.). He argues that populism has been more successful in the UK and the US than in other industrialized nations due to the fact that both have become the more unequal OECD’s countries –measuring through the Gini index- excluding Chile and Mexico. According to the analyst, the main culprit of this situation is the zeal with which both have implemented the economic policies launched in the Reagan-Thatcher era of the early 1980s.
In the cited book, the author claims that “at some point during the 2008 global financial crisis, the Washington Consensus died. [It] prescribed open trading systems, free movement of capital and central bank monetary discipline. Countries that swallowed the prescription suffered terribly” during the 1990s. “The destabilizing effects of the hot money that flooded into those economies and then out again was almost instant. Most of the world has since chosen China’s more pragmatic path of opening slowly and on its own terms (…) Call it the Beijing Consensus.”
The writer stresses how the global gatherings in Davos look every year a little more puzzled about what is happening in the world outside. “Buzz terms, such as resiliency, global governance, multi-stakeholder collaboration and digital public square, are the answer to every problem, regardless of its nature.” Their “lexicon betrays a worldview that is inherently wary of public opinion. Democracy is never a cure (…) Democracies must listen more to multinational companies. Pursuing national economic self-interest is always a bad thing.” In other words, “Davos is not fan club for democracy.”
The book cites the former US Secretary of the Treasury in the Clinton administration, Lawrence Summers, once a champion of the Washington Consensus, who complained in 2008 of “the development of stateless elites whose allegiance is to global economic success and their own prosperity rather than the interests of the nation where they are headquartered”.
The “crux of the West’s crisis”, concludes the analyst, is that “our societies are split between the will of the people and the rule of the experts”. The election of Trump and Britain’s exit from Europe would be “a reassertion of the popular will”, but in the way the Dutch political scientist Cas Mudde has defined Western populism: an “illiberal democratic response to undemocratic liberalism”.
As the work notes, many of these paradoxes were advanced a decade ago by Dani Rodrik’s “Globalization Trilemma”, which I try to summarize below (see link to Rodrik’s blog article [2007] and his book The Gloablization Paradox, 2011).
The trilemma states that “democracy, national sovereignty and global economic integration are mutually incompatible: we can combine any two of the three, but never have all three simultaneously and in full”.
“Deep economic integration requires that we eliminate all transaction costs traders and financiers face in their cross-border dealings. Nation-states are a fundamental source of such transaction costs.” They generate sovereignty risk and are the main cause of the malfunctioning of the global financial system.
The tension between democracy and globalization is not an automatic consequence of the fact that the latter constrains national sovereignty. Through democratic delegation, external constraints can even enhance democracy. But in many circumstances external rules do not satisfy the conditions of democratic delegation.
Since global democracy is not a realistic solution today, nation states should be “responsive only to the needs of the international economy”, at the expense of other domestic objectives. A historical example is the nineteenth century gold standard. “The collapse of the Argentine convertibility experiment of the 1990s provides a contemporary illustration of its inherent incompatibility with democracy”, says Rodrik.
The alternative is “a limited version of globalization, which is what the post-war Bretton Woods regime was about (with its capital controls and limited trade liberalization). It has unfortunately become a victim of its own success.”
So “any reform of the international economic system must face up to this trilemma. If we want more globalization, we must either give up some democracy or some national sovereignty.”
--What are your thoughts about all these paradoxes?
--Do you have any ideas about possible solutions or alternatives?
--What are your views about the prospects of democracy and globalization in the coming years?
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I think if countries respect each other's sovereignty, there will be a line drawn as to how much globalization can be tolerated by each one. That's my humble view.
Many thanks,
Debra
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Hello:
Could you please advise some seminal papers theorizing about or empirically testing the effect of public opinion on domestic policy-making in democracies?
Many thanks,
Best
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Dear Herbert, thanks for this valuable information. Indeed some, especially the proponents of Lipmann-Almond consensus, put forth the arguments that you have stated against the assumption that the public influences policy making in democracies. I have not read a piece by Schattschneider, thank you for your contribution, I will definitely read it.
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Measurement tool is unipolar 5 points Likert scale, Question: In your opinion, how influential is each of the following factors (i.e. appearance, price, performance … so on (nominal data)) in consumer decision-making when buying a product? (Answer options: Not influential, slightly influential … so on). Aim: determination of hierarchical rank between different factors (e.g. X>Y>Z (X=2Y, X=3Z)), to conclude factor X is the most important factor and X=2Y in consumer decision-making when buying a product. If you can suggest a similar study example also ı will be really thankful.
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Yusuf,
You are correct that your response variable is ordinal in nature, and you are correct that there is not always clear guidance on how to handle Likert item data.
* * *
The way you wrote your question, it sounds like you want to convert your ordinal scale to a numeric scale.
This can be done by deciding the relative distance of the ordinal categories. For example, NI, SI, I, VI could be coded as -3, -1, 1, and 3. Once you've done that it's easy to sum up the scores for each factor, and rank the factors. But note that the numeric coding is done by intuition. For these categories perhaps the coding could be -2, 0, 1, 2 so that VI is as far from SI as SI is from NI. The way to determine this is by asking yourself questions like, "If half of the responses were VI and half were SI, should that be a higher, lower, or same ranking, as if all the responses were I."
In any case, in converting ordinal data to numeric, you are adding additional information that isn't included in the original data.
One of the big problems with treating ordinal data as numeric is that people do not explicitly acknowlege that they are doing this. If they code a Likert item 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, they assume that the responses are all equidistant and can be treated as numeric, which is wrong.
* * *
You can add statisics to your rankings by performing pairwise tests for each pair of factors. For a numeric response, you might use Mann-Whitney. For ordinal response you might use Cochran–Armitage test.
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I recently read the following in an issue of Current History:
A regional survey conducted by Vanderbilt University in 2008 found that 66 percent of Guatemalans, 49 percent of Salvadorans, and 47 percent of Hondurans believed that their police were implicated in criminal activities.
--From "The Root Causes of the Central American Crisis," p. 47. Printed in the Feb 2015 issue of Current History.
I then took a look at the Corruption Perceptions Index (which is established, in part, from public opinion) to see how public perception did/did not match up with the public opinion data from Vanderbilt University.  This then led me to the question I pose to you here:
What forms public perception in Central America and how does it differ from country to country in the region and other larger regions?
Obviously I am interested in El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala and how these three countries compare to one another, but I'd also be interested in knowing how they compare to Central America, Latin America, and other regions of the world.
Thanks in advance for any insight you can provide or recommendations for further reading/relevant resources.
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I'm not very familiar with Latinobarometro but I know that the sample design and data collection of LAPOP surveys is of great quality. Have you read the LAPOP reports for those countries? They will answer your question in detail.  Good luck!
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Hi all, this is a research question I have in my mind and I will like to seek opinions on it.
I want to know whether citizens will lose trust in government when they see low performance or gain trust when the see high performance. (Or whether they don't care.) And to see whether there is a greater effect caused (amt of low trust vs amt of high trust based on the respective performance)
I received opinions thatI cannot link subjective perceptions to objective data. Anyone know why is that so?
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Nicholas is correct - it is Perceived rather than actual Performance that is the key to public trust (or lack thereof).  No one has adequately defined what Performance the public is really looking for!  It's not necessarily "total honesty" or reliability, or none of the other conventional virtues - instead it seems to be a mix that reflects the "current public mood."  That "public mood" is quite variable, fluctuating as different priorities "flit across the public mind" with each change is public circumstances.  So, public officials that earn and keep public trust combine clever opportunism and political entrepreneurship - they are quite prepared to lead of follow the public mood, as long as in doing so, they can pursue their objectives.  As you can see, this is a demanding role, which is why public trust is "hard to earn!"
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The question specifically refers to this query: Does the DM establish his preferences from the very beginning or at the end of the model processing data, which is, following a top down, intermediate or bottom up approach?
MCDM is without a doubt an activity with a good deal of subjectivity in certain criteria (for instance, those related with uncertainty, such as data on public opinion or working with an estimated demand), but also with reliable and exact data on others (for instance, tested and approved values for equipment performance). In addition, criteria in type, areas, or fields are usually unknown and must be established, as well as limited in number, mostly for practical restrictions imposed by the MCDM model and work load. To complete the scenario, the DM makes subjective appreciations such as determining weights for criteria, establishing acceptance thresholds, determining preferential type of distances, etc.
Consequently, subjectivity is unavoidable.
The question is: Should subjectivity in the mentioned areas exerted at the very beginning of the process, that is affecting actual values (the top down approach), or is it preferable to run the model with the initial reliable data and apply judgment at the end (the bottom up approach)?
I prefer the second because once reliable or approximate data is processed, there is a result expressed as a ranking, which can be examined, tested, and changed by the DM as per his preferences and judgment and know how.
The DM is in condition to apply his common sense, perception and expertise to modify what he considers is not acceptable for whatever reasons, or that could be improved.  Assume for instance that selecting equipment the ranking is D>A>B>C. This is a purely mathematical approach, and then the DM can say, “OK the best equipment selected by the model is D, but in my opinion I would reverse the ranking and select equipment A. Why? Because I have worked with equipment A and I know it is reliable, sturdy, and with reasonable maintenance costs, while equipment D incorporates a new technology that I don’t know if it has been sufficiently tested”.
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Dear  Chakradhan
I am answering your third letter
Comment on:
Assume for instance that selecting equipment the ranking is D>A>B>C. This is a purely mathematical approach, and then the DM can say, “OK the best equipment selected by the model is D, but in my opinion I would reverse the ranking and select equipment A. Why? Because I have worked with equipment A and I know it is reliable, sturdy, and with reasonable maintenance costs, while equipment D incorporates a new technology that I don’t know if it has been sufficiently tested”.
My view of the above statement is that your MCDM should have a criteria regarding reliability/ sturdiness and maintenance costs.
Exactly.
This should be the conclusion of the DM. Consequently he must go back to the initial problem and modify it adding these three criteria.
Running the model again it could be for instance that the ranking does not change and if this is the case it means that his first result agrees with his preferences. Also it could be that the scores of the alternatives changed, and if now for instance D is very close to A this is not a good signal, and a new analysis by the DM is in order.
As a bottom line the DM must act as a feedback mechanism and then modifying or not initial information according to results.
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I teach and research in the area of Indigenous studies. Repeatedly I have conversations with individuals from all walks of life about Indigenous issues. These conversations occur after they ask what I do for a living, as is typical in the US and Canada. Almost invariably, I then find myself embroiled in a long and heated discussion about the indigenous topic du jour or am quizzed on my knowledge: "What do you mean, you don't know the word for (fill in the blank) in Arawak/Ojibwe/Navajo/Mohawk/"Indian?" I have become hesitant to tell people what I teach and will sometimes say, truthfully, "I'm an anthropologist." It recently struck me that I am not quizzed or confronted when I claim anthropology as my field but Indigenous studies leaves me open for all kinds of conversations, most of which I don't enjoy. So what is the difference? Why is Indigenous studies as a field open for critique by non-specialists while other fields are not? What about your fields, colleagues? Are you questioned, quizzed, subjected to opinions that are often ill-informed? Or does your field get a "pass?" I am considering an article/opinion piece on this topic but am not sure if there is really anything to this, other than my personal experience. 
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Sometimes I receive wonderful feedback on my research findings from non-specialists. They are able to see a particular issue from a different perspective and even provide pointers to help me further develop my argument[s]. However, I dislike individuals who criticize just for criticism sake. They waste your time and try to ignore them as much as possible.
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Is there any international research that measures public attitudes towards FDI? 
And especially the role of the media, creating them?
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Thanks, excellent reads! I’m also interested in international datasets, comparative public surveys like e.g. Pew Research (http://www.pewglobal.org/category/datasets/).
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Opinion leaders can be used in information dissemination in remote communities. I would like to find out the areas they have been used and with what success.
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Thank you. Will have a look at these.
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In spite of the good  intentions of the CRO in the public sector,  sh/e is quite often coerced to submission through orchestrated blackmail , insults, and sometimes physical threats especially in the developing world. What is the situation in the DCs and how can the CRO be more operationally functional?
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While working as Quality Manager and dealing with risk assessment, I have learnt quite a few lessons. Your question is very substantial. First of all, determine the role of the CRO as a team member as an outsider is unlikely to receive cooperation from anybody let alone the senior management. The story of developing countries is different. However in the developed world, or international corporations, it is expected that risk management is part of the overall strategy in the long run. In this pretext, the second question is to determine if the corporation is pursuing a short-term or a long-term strategy; for example if it is out there to earn a lot of profit and get away with it leaving the consumers/customers high and dry, then you may think of departing your ways as a conscientious professional. 'The Impulse Society'  by Paul Roberts provides a lot of insight into such situations and the mindset of individuals who basically run these corporations.
Hope it will be of some use.
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I am researching the role of the Holocaust within a distinct timeframe and population subgroup. It occurred to me that if I posit a set of question, the results may differ on account of a variable defined by my stated question: what is difference between public memory and public opinion.
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The public opinion refers to what people think about an issue in a given time. Public memory could refer to memory that people have about  a particular event. There would be a public memory that could be part of the public opinion, although there are phenomena of public opinion not reflect public memory, being immediate, about current events.
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I believe that some major flaws in the peer-review process are involved with anonymity. I believe our current review process opens up areas for abuse in the part of the reviewers in two main ways:
A) By knowing who the authors of a study are, the reviewers can be biased. especially if the authors are in direct competition with the reviewer's lab. Also, knowing the identity of the authors can make it harder for first time grad-students to get their work published as these people may be unfairly targeted as inexperienced based not on the merits of their science (and the models they propose) but based on their scientific status.
B) By remaining anonymous these reviewers can be far more critical to one's work without necessarily being constructive as they do not have to fear criticism from the wider scientific community for being, perhaps, too one-sided/biased.
I believe that a fair review process would be one that fosters diplomacy at all levels. This can be accomplished by either allowing both the authors of a study and the reviewers to be anonymous so that a review can focus solely on the science, or by eliminating the anonymity status from the reviewers so that the authors and the scientific community know who is reviewing what, which would prevent unfair and biased reviews.
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Every activity / decision to pursue a decided task would have scope for improvement. Though I have experienced Instances of abuse of authority that antonymous reviews have shown, largely I have got good insights to improve upon. It is thus important to learn from the experience and correct the system for better and resilient outcome.
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What percentage of people in the UK support stem cell research?
Does the UK's population support scientists in the UK?
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Hii Sophia
you can answer your question by survey in social media.
I think many people in the world will support researcher to develope knowledge and sciences, but stem cell research are still problematic thing cause of the ethic research especially for using embrionic stem cell as source.
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I am teaching a political communication & Media Lobbying course to undergraduate students. Can anybody suggest me a good handbook on this course which covers both political communication and media lobbying.
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Hi Muhammad, 
i think this book gives you a good intro about media lobbying, with united states as example:
"The Irony of Democracy: An Uncommon Introduction to American Politics".
not the whole book, but some chapters are really good.
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I would like to know if there are researchers conducting studies on public opinion on regional integration - whether in the European Union or in other regions.
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impact of ethnic conflicts on regional integration process
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Name of the types, please!
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See Pralle's book "Branching Out, Digging In.  It has the best overview of all types of agenda setting.
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There are a few institutes that provide their summaries and reports about surveys, but I need data sets (just like the ones provided by Arab Barometer or WVS) for Lebanon and Palestine. I am looking for political attitudes and values. 
Thank you all in advance!
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I am looking for empirical studies in public opinión and foreign policy in European and Asian countries.
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In particular, I am interested in perceived legitimacy of CSOs
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The best dataset is ICCS 2009 of IEA. It is free: http://rms.iea-dpc.org
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This should be related to shifts in public opinion due to excessive coverage on any issue.
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this need Experimental study
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I observe that different political parties often use conflicting information/data to back up their position. Usually this data is information that would not stand up in a peer reviewed journal. Rarely do UK politicians refer to a scientific peer reviewed journal. Often the mainstream political party’s become the servants of public opinion and re-shape their policies to match the populist view.
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Gary: on the contrary, I am rather confident that politicians, policy makers and high level decision makers do NOT base many policies on research evidence. It is rather the wallet that talks, and their own agendas. This is my experience from Swedish health care. As a health services researcher, I also feel that we may be focusing too much on trying to affect clinician behaviour, while we need to increase research on organisational and policy makers' behaviour. And we need to be much better at disseminating and implementing research findings to policy makers and political decision makers, in digested formats. To their defence, they can maybe not be expected to read and interpret primary research but need it "served on a platter". The whole idea of systematic reviews would be particularily important in this context, since I think a lot of individual studies get unwarranted attention and are used for specific purposes, hidden agendas, etc. Basing decisions on systematic reviews would decrease this bias and would help make some sense in areas where data are conflicting.
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I would like to know if there are researchers conducting studies on nationalist sentiment of the public involving public opinion surveys?
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Dear Professor Brian Silver, thank you for your answer. It will be very helpful to my study.
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Types, please.
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There are different types including Black, White and Grey.
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Opinion dynamics seeks to model both exchange and processing of information in a population of individuals. However, I haven't found evidence that validates the predictions of these models in real populations.
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Using one my model I have predicted successfully the very unexpected rejection of the 2005 French referendum on the project of European Constitution. I even have alert before hand on the danger of holding referendum about the European construction few years before. A piece from the conclusion of a 2004 paper:
"Applying our results to the European Union leads to the conclusion that it would berathermisleadingtoinitiatelargepublicdebatesinmostoftheinvolvedcountries. Indeed, even starting from a huge initial majority of people in favor of the European Union, an open and free debate would lead to the creation of huge majority hostile to the European Union. This provides a strong ground to legitimize the on-going reluctance of most European governments to hold referendum on associated issues. "
From: S. Galam, « The dynamics of minority opinion in democratic debate », Physica A 336 (2004) 56-62
Using another model I have predicted the repetitive occurrence of hung elections at fifty/fifty in 2004 and indeed it did occurred. From the 2004 conclusion:
"Accordingly the associated “hanging chad elections” syndrome could become of a common occurrence in the near future."
From: S. Galam, « Contrarian deterministic effect: the hung elections scenario », Physica A 333 (2004) 453-460
But of course those predictions do not validate the models of opinion dynamics as proved models but instead validate the approach behind them. I refer to my book "Sociophysics, A Physicist's Modeling of Psycho-political Phenomena" published by Springer in 2012 in which I discuss lengthy those questions.
One paper in French is attached. Unfortunately the system does not allow more attachments