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Questions related to Psycholinguistics
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Dear colleagues,
I would like to know what are the differences between a language learning mindset and self-efficacy in language learning. What resources do you recommend that explain such notions in detail? Also, are there any other similar notions?
Thank you
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Self-efficacy essentially means confidence that "I can succeed at this."
A learning mindset, or learning goals, about language or anything else, includes self-efficacy, but also adaptive attributions, and self-regulation. It means that the learner understands that knowledge is not simple and may take extended work to understand, and that knowledge may change over time with new discoveries.
The linked conceptual model summarizes this, as it contrasts with performance goals, and provides a citation to the foundational work of Chin and Brewer.
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I'm interested in psycholinguistics and I want to know more about it.
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For suggested books to learn more about psycholinguistics and metalinguistic awareness, you could check out the following.
Conrad, S., Hartig, A., & Santelmann, L. (Eds.). (2020). The Cambridge introduction to applied linguistics. Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108658089
Gass, S. M., Behney, J., & Plonsky, L. (2020). Second language acquisition: An introductory course (5th ed.). https://www.routledge.com/Second-Language-Acquisition-An-Introductory-Course/Gass-Behney-Plonsky/p/book/9781138743427
Padilla, A. M., Chen, X., & Lake, J. (Eds.). (2020). Positive psychology and learning a second or third language. Frontiers Media SA. https://doi.org/10.3389/978-2-88966-279-1
Roehr-Brackin, K. (2018). Metalinguistic awareness and second language acquisition. Routledge. https://www.routledge.com/Metalinguistic-Awareness-and-Second-Language-Acquisition/Roehr-Brackin/p/book/9781138958876
Good luck,
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Hello!
I’m looking for native speakers of English who live in an English-speaking country and who don’t speak any Romance language (Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, French…).
My PhD research is in the field of language and cognition. More specifically, I’m looking into how speakers of different languages lexicalize motion events.
I’ve designed a video description task with 15 short video clips. The platform is mobile-friendly, and this survey will take no longer than 15 minutes of your time. And it’s pretty straightforward: the participants answer a few questions about themselves and then watch and describe what they see in the clips.
If meet the requirements and would like to take part, just follow the link below. https://survey.phonic.ai/624d5e0a269545d4b2d0e359
Thank you a lot for your help! Renan Ferreira Universidade Federal de Pelotas (Brazil)
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Thank you. And thanks for adding that English should be the only mother tongue.
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For an upcoming study, I am in search of a quick Spanish placement test that can be made by L2 learners (preferably online) to determine their L2 Spanish proficiency level.
Ideally, the test would not be longer than 10 minutes and can be used for free, but please also contact me with recommendations for longer or paid tests. These could still be a useful starting point for us.
Thank you in advance!
Lieke
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Hi, Lieke!
Regarding your question about a quick Spanish placement test, I recommend that you search the following link: https://www.tiatula.com/spanish-placement-tests/
Best luck!
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Hello everyone,
I am adopting and adapting a survey which have 5 scales (commitment control, emotion control, ect) to measure self-regulation of language learning (a certain skill), the aim of the survey as I mentioned to measure the high and low self-regulation capacity among participants.
How can I use the questionnaire to generate more interesting findings? other than just the low and high self-regulation? can you inspire me with some creative ideas?
I was thinking to see gender differences among groups, and to add a part about socio-economic status.
Please inspire me with new ideas without having to make major changes to the survey. Let me know also the name of the tests required for the specific idea.
Thank you.
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Dear Samaher, your research would need to start from the research question(s) that you want to answer - and not from the research instruments you are using. The instrument itself is only a way to gather data that can help you to answer your question(s). So the simplest idea to help you would be to turn your research back on its feet: Start with want you want to find out about (which usually derives from what is already know/not yet known in your area of research) - and only then pick the scales that are appropriate to measure the student characteristics that you are interested in.
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A number of models for speech production are introduced in psycholinguistics (Fromkin, 1971; Garrett, 1975; Levelt, 1989; Dell, 1986) which one of these models do you support and why? Do you believe that one day humans will be able to fully and closely examine mental processes?!
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In a new project I want to capture emotions in texts written by students during their studies.
I assume that the majority of these texts are factual and contain few emotions.
  • Am I wrong, do student texts contain emotions from a semantic or psycholinguistic point of view?
  • Is there any literature on semantic, psycholinguistic text analyses or sentiment analyses of student texts written during their studies?
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Is there evidence of sensory-motor activation during visual word recognition?
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Here are two more PowerPoints related to embodiment and lexical processing. These PowerPoints are based on our two vocabulary books, in which we develop a methodology which is driven by the source, not the target, of the metaphor. We call our book, VOCABULARY PLUS: A SOURCE-BASED APPROACH.
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Dear mood inductioners,
One potential issue I have with the standard Velten Statements is that those used for positive and negative conditions focus on the self (e.g., "When I talk no one really listens"), whereas those used for the neutral condition refer to objective facts (e.g.,New York City is in New York state).
The reason I'm concerned is that I consider examining the influence of Velten Mood induction procedure on mind wandering/daydreaming. It would be difficult then to know whether it is the valence of the Velten statements or the self-focus that drives the effect?
So my question is, does anyone know of a list of neutral Velten sentences that refer to the self (something like "If I think about it, things tend to even out for me" or "Some of my relationships are just pretty average")?
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We developed and tested such list with neutral self-referential statements ourselves ( ), but it is worth pointing out that we did not distinguish between different operationalizations of a neutral states, including minimal affective, in-the-middle, deactivated, typical, or indifferent states ).
However, we did not detect any significant advantage of Velten MIPs compared to using verbal instructions to enter the targeted mood. Might have been because we combined each MIP with film clips and music so those MIPs might have reduced any effect of the other MIPs. Therefore, I am inclined to use the simpler instructions to enter the targeted state without Velten statements in the future, but if anyone is interested the neutral self-referential ones are listed in the aforementioned article.
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I had a few students help me with a simple but time-consuming task. The data they helped with will be used in a scientific paper. The students are part of the Student Research Program (SRP) at my institution and they received a class credit for their work with me. Should I include these students as co-authors on the manuscript?
I also had a student volunteer help me on the same research project. The student did not get a class credit for their help. Should the student be a co-author on the paper?
Thank you in advance for your opinions/suggestions.
Monika Polczynska
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Co-authorship is not a form of reimbursement (in laboratories and research institutes, all co-authors receive a salary or grants, nevertheless...). If a persons has made a creative contributions, then they are a co-authors. If the work is technical - for example, reprinting a text, or measurements (without processing etc.), then - no. There is another form for highline such participation: acknowledgment.
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From the functions that the hemispheres of the brain does,Do you think these functions or tasks (writing , reading arithmetic reasoning) are further segmented into different parts of the left hemisphere?
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Yes they are.
You will find the latest synthesis on this issue in this paper:
Michaud, A. (2019). The Mechanics of Conceptual Thinking. Creative Education, 10, 353-406. https://doi.org/10.4236/ce.2019.102028
Republished recently upon invitation with more references added by the editors here:
Michaud, André (2020) Advancement on the Mechanics of Conceptual Thinking. In: Dr. Sachin Kumar Jain & Dr. Alina Georgeta Mag, Editors. New Horizons in Education and Social Studies Vol. 6,, Chapter 4. West Bengal, India: Book Publisher International. 2020
French, Spanish and German translations available here:
Neurolinguistics - Conceptual Thinking - Early Mastery of the Reading Skill.
Best Regards, André
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This is not a question:
We used an emotion-evaluated corpus consisting of 10 000 English sentences from 7 genres. We applied a specific phonemic decomposition based on the phonetic transcripts. The result of the applied principle component regression showed that the phonemic content is very strongly related (r = 0.96) with the ratings of emotional valence (positive-negative emotion), provided by readers. We designed an online experiment that aims at evaluating are the discovered dependencies valid out of the corpus and how... all this depends on the native language of the reader.
We will be grateful, dear colleagues, if you find time to assist this emotional sound-symbolic statistical analysis by participating in the online experiment here:
It will, unfortunately, take you about 20 minutes.
The experiment is horrible - reading eight texts and deciding how to group them depending on your feelings. The texts are one page long!
But we have no other possibility than to ask colleagues for scientific assistance.
Now - the question is this one:
Could you, please, find 20 minutes to participate?
Thank you in advance!
Velina Slavova
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I would love to know the results when you publish the study.
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I'm making a research on semantics tranparency in chinese , in need of somone who majored in psycholinguistics or expreimrntal psychology ,we can cooperate in my research.Idon't have any technique in psychological experiment,but really wanna learn something about it .If you can tell me something about it or cooperate in research ,please let me konw ,thanks a lot.
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In order to help you, we need to have much more detailed information on your research. "Semantic transparency in Chinese" is, at the same time, vague and complex. What do you mean by "semantic transparency" since semantics deal with language meaning, and in Chinese with the plural meaning of words? Sociolinguistics would be helpful if your research is cored on key Chinese words and dual characters systems, while experimental psychology seems far away from this approach.
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Can anyone let me know the factor which influence ability phoneme for children? based on journal research
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There are three conditions that make phonemes easy for children to learn. 1. positioned in the front, not back, of the mouth, 2. total articulation rather than partial articulation, and 3. muscles developed from nursing, etc. This means that /m/ is learned earlier than /n/, which is learned earlier than /ng/ (front of the mouth so baby can see and touch the articulation). It also explains why /t/ is learned before /f/, or /s/ (total articulation). The first word that a child learns is often "mama." (total articulartion in the front of the moth, using nursing muscles, followed by a back vowel (for contrast). Here is a PowerPoint about "Phonetics," and one about "Phonology."
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Hello,
I believe the "sentence processing" is a topic discussed in Psycholinguistics (I am not a Linguist, so please bear with me) .
In Psycholinguistics, what are the general steps in how a sentence is processed by human?
For example, from what I gather from google search, the general procedures in human sentence processing seem to be in the following order:
1. Syntactic analysis of a sentence
2. Shallow semantic processing of the sentence
3. Deep (?) semantic processing of the sentence
....
Is there any paper that talks about such procedures?
Thank you,
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Thank you so much, Mr.Nilsen, I just had an overview, it perturbs the logic succinctly.
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I am looking at second language development for children  through play activities. I can see a a lot of second language use through the child's monologue with herself while playing but need to find research on the subject.
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Play is an extremely important aspect of children's development, and adult development as well. Associated with play is laughter (mainly a public phenomienon), and smililng (mainly an individual phenomenon). Here is a PowerPoint about "Play," one about "Laughter and Smiling," and one about "Humor and Education." Enjoy:
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I am also looking for some psycholinguists who will willingly help with my research.
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Alleen Nilsen and I have written two books on the subject: A SOURCE BASED APPROACH TO VOCABULARY INSTRUCTION, VOLUME 1 & 2. Here is a link to that book:
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I've been reading a journal entitled 'Automatic Expansion of the MRC Psycholinguistic Database Imageability Ratings ' and would like to use the expanded dataset for my research. Does anyone know where can I get the dataset from?
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Conferencias
  • 04/11/2020. 18:00-19:00 h (Zona horaria / Fuso-horário: UTC-3)
    • Conferencia 1: ¿Escribo siempre igual? Efectos de las tareas en la organización temporal durante la escritura. Dr.(c) Ángel Valenzuela (UTal y UAut, Chile)
  • 18/11/2020. 18:00-19:00 h (Zona horaria / Fuso-horário: UTC-3)
    • Conferencia 2: ¿Cómo se revisa un trabajo final de grado? Operacionalización de eventos de revisión en tesis de licenciatura utilizando técnicas de registro ocular y de teclado. Dra. (c) Sofía Zamora (PUCV, Chile)
  • 02/12/2020. 18:00-19:00 h (Zona horaria / Fuso-horário: UTC-3)
    • Palestra 3: A investigação dos processos de revisão on-line: um estudo com alunos universitários. Dra. Erica Rodrigues (PUC-Rio, Brasil)
  • 09/12/2020. 18:00-19:00 h (Zona horaria / Fuso-horário: UTC-3)
    • Conferencia 4: ¿Qué revelan los gráficos de un keylogger sobre los procesos de escritura? Dr. Luis Aguirre (UNCuyo, UDA, Argentina)
Organización / Organização: Red Latinoamericana de Investigación Experimental en Escritura (ReLIE-Escritura)
Coorganización / Co-organização: Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Argentina; Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro - PUC-Rio, Brasil; Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Chile; Centro de investigación en ciencias cognitivas -CICC- de la Universidad de Talca.
Enlace al Zoom del evento / Link para o Zoom do evento: https://puc-rio.zoom.us/j/96696763126?pwd=d2RZc1RjLzdxQ3BUUUpxS0EyNjBhQT09
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Interesante instancia para conversar sobre escritura, experimentos, transición laboratorio-sala de clases, estadística, y más.
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Hello,
Is the syntax-first model of sentence processing widely accepted, or is it facing more opponents as time goes by?
I know that a study in frontal-temporal network of human brain has supported the validity of the syntax-first model a while ago, but I am wondering whether the syntax-first model is something that is widely accepted in the sentence processing community.
Thank you,
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The syntax-first processing theory has a great deal of behavioral and electrophysiological support. So, you could say that it is one of the major approaches for explaining sentence comprehension. However, it is not the only view. There is a family of models, collectively known as constraint-based models, that pose an alternative view (see Fuster, 1995). In brief, these models propose that syntactic and semantic processes interact during sentence comprehension, rather than syntactic structure first and semantics second.
These models are called "constraint" models because they argue for a probabilistic constraint satisfaction where syntactic knowledge is just one of several constraints on comprehension. For instance, in this approach, it could be that syntax guides the direction of processing when syntactic cues are sufficient for comprehension. However, situations have been found where semantic knowledge influences, and even overrides, syntax.
Here are some papers to check out:
Kim & Osterhout (2005). The independence of combinatory semantic processing: Evidence from event-related potentials.
Kuperberg et al. (2003). Electrophysiological distinctions in processing conceptual relationships within simple sentences.
Hoeks et al. (2004). Seeing words in context: the interaction of lexical and sentence level information during reading.
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Dear Colleagues,
My team is planning to conduct a modified version of a scientific survey that was published by a different group a few years ago. We are going to significantly modify the survey and use it to investigate a different clinical population. We will, however, keep some of the questions used in the original survey. How should we best approach this without risking plagiarism?
We will say in future publications that will follow our survey that it is a modified version of a different survey. Which of the options below should we also pursuit:
(1) mention that our survey is a modified version of another survey already in the survey itself,
(2) paraphrase the questions that we will borrow from the original survey?
I will greatly appreciate your suggestions.
Thank you,
Monika Polczynska
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Request the pertinent permission from its Author or Authors and then make it reliable, validate it, etc. Pisometrically in its new modification and with its own "ad hoc" Normative Groups.
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Dear Colleagues,
Could you please direct me to studies on the impact of the third language (L3) on the neural organization of the first (L1) or the second language (L2)?
Thank you,
Monika Polczynska
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This is really an interesting question that I want to follow. Besides, may you see studies by Best and colleagues in West Sydney University.
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If the achievement is affected by the I.Q then why do some Developmental Disorders (DD) show low achievement in spite of high I.Q?
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Achievement in each activity is determined by at least four groups of factors: 1. abilities; 2. personality traits; 3. motivational factors and 4. physical, physiological, pedagogical-cultural, and social factors. To date, a sufficient number of unambiguous facts have been collected in educational psychology, on the basis of which it can be claimed that achievement in school learning is the result of the combined effect of abilities, personality traits (character traits and temperament traits) and motivation. These determinants explain about 75% of the total success variance (each participating with about 25%). The remaining 25% of the variance is attributed to a large number of other factors: most often physiological factors (such as gender and age), social factors (socioeconomic status, pedagogical and cultural level of the family), then educational factors (forms/types of learning and teaching) and many others factors. This claim is not incorrect, but it is insufficiently elaborated. Namely, at different levels of education and in schools of different profiles, the share of certain factors is somewhat modified. As far as I. Q. is concerned, the participation is around r=+0.50 or slightly lower, for example in higher education, because students as a group are already selected by intelligence. In developmental disorders, achievement largely depends on personality characteristics
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Grateful for tips on published official estimates, research papers, etc. which attempt to estimate what proportion of the world's bilinguals are mono-literate. Many thanks if anyone has anything.  
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Following.
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Hi,
It's a common practice in psycholinguistic research to infer from online processing about linguistic representation. I'm particularly interested in bi- and multilingual speakers. A good example may be syntactic priming which is interpreted as evidence of shared syntactic representations in bilinguals. Could you recommend me any paper on (over)interpretation of processing data in terms of representation?
Thank you!
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In psycholinguistic norming studies 15-20 raters per word per scale are somehow rule of the thumb. However, I cannot find the psychometric explanation or justification for this, although. Does anyone have the reference considering this question?
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Hi, Milica. Thee is a huge amount of literature and many tools for sample size and power determination. Google "number of cases needed to estimate a parameter." My first hit is a good one: http://sphweb.bumc.bu.edu/otlt/MPH-Modules/BS/BS704_Power/BS704_Power_print.html
The rule of thumb of 10 cases per parameter is still a pretty good one though, I think. Here is a link that mentions it: https://www.statisticssolutions.com/sample-size-formula/
Incidentally, 15-20 raters "per word per scale" would seem to require a very large number of raters ... and a complicated inter-rater reliability analysis, especially if each rater rated multiple words and you needed to deal with with-in rater variability as well. There are lots of human internet rater services. Maybe you are using one. Good ones probably use advanced analytics to pool rater results, allowing for rater agreemeet variability and other factors.
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Mixed Reality (MR) is a concept not yet consolidated. I have read and heard distinct definitions of the term: sometimes it fuses itself with the concept of Augmented Reality (AR), others, with Virtual Reality (VR) synchronized with the real world, as a room-scale VR experience.
What is, indeed, the best definition for Mixed Reality?
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There is not a single, "best" definition of MR. In fact, my colleagues and I investigated this question for a paper presented at this year's CHI conference. Based on expert interviews and a literature review, what we found were 6 distinct and widely used working definitions:
  • MR according to Milgram's continuum
  • MR as a synonym for AR
  • MR as a type of collaboration
  • MR as a combination of AR & VR
  • MR as an alignment of environments
  • MR as a "stronger" version of AR
These can be classified based on a conceptual framework (some would call it a taxonomy) with 7 dimensions:
  • number of environments
  • number of users
  • level of immersion
  • level of virtuality
  • degree of interaction
  • input
  • output
Hope this helps! :)
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Ah, the mien of the mignonette and milfoil of the spent occasionalism and blessedness of the Emperean boon of exultation and inner most pacification has transmogrified. Let's strive with zeloso to be theophilanthropist along with enormousness and immeasurability in adoration to the cosmos runner and creator after all the compliant benediction, earnest supplication and lamenting Kotow before the invisibly existent maker of the vast expanse of constellation. May we savvy the Neplus ultra and pinnacle of the eonic transpired month. May this blissfully mixed occasion of heightened mirthfulness and gayness be longed earnestly for all that you are in dote with.
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follow indeed
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I'm searching for a task which can be used for the abstract words in an fMRI study in block design. Any suggestion?
--> I know for concrete words, topicality judgments works well, but not for abstract.
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The abstract consists of 4 questions? Abstract is in imperfectum.
What did I do?
By means of what did I do this? (fMRI, block design))
What was the result?
To what is this result needed?
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Fellow researchers,
I'm on a lookout for any research into the priming potential of morphemes. Say, -ism which can (potntially) activate semantic frames of medicalisation? Any hint at studies along these lines would be much appreciated!
It does not need to specifically talk about derivational morphemes, the example above is just to illustrate what I'm after.
Thanks again!
Łukasz
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Since morphemes such as '-ism', 'un-', 'bi-' stand for semantic concepts, albeit somewhat ambiguously, e.g. 'un-' can mean 'not', or 'reverse (an action)', you should look at Laurence Urdang's two books Prefixes and Other Word-Initial Elements of English and Suffixes and Other Word-Final Elements of English. Both were published by the Gale Research Company, the latter in 1983 and the former in 1984. Both are out of print but secondhand copies are available from ABE Books Secondhand, or possibly from your university library.
Prefixes lists 2860 elements, Suffixes, 1545.
In addition, you could examine C.K. Ogden's 1930 Basic English (Cambridge: The Orthological Institute) which provides a core vocabulary of 850 words. These words overlap to a degree with the 200 concepts listed by Morris Swadesh (1950 and 1971) and Cliff Goddard's Natural Semantic Metalanguage (Google Cliff Goddard or NSM).
Since many artificial languages e.g. Esperanto, Eh May Gee Chah (by Hankes) and Nobel (by Randic) start with a core vocabulary and elements which can modify that vocabulary, it would be worth researching these, too.
For further information, e-mail: I.C.Maun@exeter.ac.uk
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I think part of speech has a close relation with syntactic position. But I don't have any proof on this issue, especially proofs from neurolinguistic and psycholinguistic study. Can anybody help me with this?
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For psycholinguistic proofs on part of speech and syntactic position, you can see
1. Cognitive bases of phono-grammar in Russian and Arabic
or
The three-level phono-grammar order and its derivational connecting link: the
elements of language system (on the material of Arabic)
Abstract The paper deals with the progressive levels of phono-grammar and the role of word formation connecting different levels of the Arabic language. The clear selection of minimally significant language elements solves the problem of the linguistic science back-development and contributes to resolving the controversial issues while defining criteria for singling out parts of speech. The phonetic changes of basic elements at the word formation level provide the root with morphonological markers influencing the word declension; as a result the word formation serves as the link connecting all language levels. All these reveal the essence of the progressive inflected language categorization system – the phono-grammar. Key words: root, phono-grammar, elements of language system, parts of speech, morphonology, Arabic
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Hi everyone! We are currently studying the learnability of the english resultative construction by spanish native speakers who learnt english as a foreign language. The resultative construction is of particular interest since it has no equivalent counterpart in spanish, unlike the depictive construction, which is present in both languages. Therefore, we aim to compare the speaker's comprehension of resultative and depictive english sentences, and to analyze the influence of variables such as english proficiency, age of exposure, frequency of use, immersion experience etc.
We have already conducted a pilot study where we assessed sentence comprehension by asking the subjects to choose the sentence that best described the item's meaning, in a multiple choice format. However, we were wondering what would be the best psycholinguistic experimental task to evaluate sentence comprehension. We noted that acceptability judgements of grammatical and ungrammatical sentences are widely used to study syntax structures. Therefore, I wanted to ask psycholinguistic researchers what would be best experimental paradigm to study the comprehension of these structures. In addition: would it be more appropiate to administer different tasks and then compare the results? And what would be the best tasks in that case?
Thank you so much for your kind attention!
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If you are doing a contrastive research on linguistic transfer (English-Spanish), I would recommend typical translation tasks. You will definitely have a large percentage of interference errors, but it is the only (according to my experience) indicator of learnability of structures. I wouldn't go for any communicative-type tasks. Interesting reasearch!
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Hi,
I have a question about statistical analysis, specifically ANOVA and the paired sample t-test.
I’m currently preparing an experiment, in which I will measure RTs in a task that involves pictures and sentences. The participants will read a sentence and then see a picture. Their task will be to decide whether the object in the picture was mentioned in the sentence. There will be four picture-sentence combinations and I will create four lists so that each group will see only one of the possible combinations. Hence, this will be a 2 (sentence type 1 or 2) x 2 (picture type match or mismatch) x 4 (lists) design. In this setup, picture type and sentence type are the within-subjects variables and list is a between-subject variable.
Ostensibly, this is a multi-factorial design, but effectively I’m only interested in the match x mismatch interaction (i.e. whether participants are faster in matching conditions). List is a dummy variable and I won’t be analyzing how sentence type or picture type affects the variance of the data. I only want to compare two means: mean RT in matching conditions and mean RT in the mismatching conditions.
Can this be done simply with a paired sample t-test or do I still need to run a mixed design ANOVA? If both are possible, would there be any advantage of doing a full ANOVA over a paired sample t-test? Most of the similar research that I’ve read up on uses mixed design ANOVA and I’m curious if there’s a good reason do to that.
I do realize that running multiple t-tests significantly increases the probability of type I error, but is not clear to me whether the same thing happens in this type of design, since only two means are effectively compared.
I’d really appreciate if anyone could clear this up for me.
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As I understand, you have 2x2, 'doubly' repeated measures (within-subject), i.e. each subject will receive 4 sentence-picture combinations (i guess, in randomized sequences; e.g., for 1 subj.: 1-3-4-2), for a 2nd subj.: 2-4-3-1, etc.):
1) sentence type1 - picture matched
2) sentence type1 - picture mismatched
3) sentence type2 - picture matched
4) sentence type2 - picture mismatched
You further have 4 lists corresponding to a between-subject or group variable.
I would run the mixed design (2x2 within, 4 between) ANOVA. You expect only 1 main effect: picture type (matched vs. mismatched) and no effect of list type, nor of sentence type, nor any interaction (pictureXsentence, pictureXlist, sentenceXlist, pictureXsentenceXlist). I guess you expect the RT to be sign. faster for matched type than for mismatched type. The advantage of running the mixed design is that it replicates 'similar research' and that, if you only have 1 sign. main effect (that of picture type,) your conclusions are better founded. You take the risk of finding another sign. main effect or a 2-way or 3-way interaction, which would be puzzling or complicating.
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Hi everyone! I'm designing an acceptability judgment task (AJT) - Likert Scale - and I'd like to keep the number of filler items as low as possible, as the number of experimental sentences is already high (3 x 2 design, 8 sentences per condition). Therefore, I wanted to ask what if there was any consensus about the minimum acceptable number of fillers in an AJT paradigm (and could you provide a reference?).
In addition, I've read that a minimum of 3 sentences per experimental condition is reccomended in AJT, while 8-12 sentences per condition is required for self-paced reading. In your opinion, what would be the ideal number of items in an AJT task (and also, could you provide a reference, if possible?).
Thank you so much for your kind attention.
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As someone who's used AJT's in the past, I'd say that the number of filler items required depends very much on the saliency of what you intend to investigate. If, say, you want to study the acceptability of multiple WH-words in one utterance (e.g. who did what to whom?), this is very salient. As soon as participants become aware that this is the focus of your study, they may pay more attention to this particular construction than they'd normally do. So in order to elicit 'natural' AJ's, you would need a substantial set of filler sentences. If, say, you want to investigate the acceptability of non-subjects in sentence initial position, these may not be particularly striking at all, and you hardly need to use any filler sentences at all.
A separate issue is the number of sentences per condition. Personally, I think 3 as a minimum per condition is way too low - unless you expect all items in a condition to elicit near-identical scores because (a) items in a condition are very homogeneous -which is hard to achieve if your stimuli are sentences- and (b) all participants show near identical responses. But then again, as I come from a cognitive/usage-based background, my default expectation is one of variation (e.g. related to frequency of words and word combinations, variation between participants etc).
Good luck!
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Dear Colleagues,
Are you familiar with neuroimaging studies or/and do you have any predictions about executive control in implicit/informal versus explicit/formal second language learning? Which type of language learning requires more executive control?
I will greatly appreciate your opinions/suggestions.
All the best,
Monika
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Dear Monika,
Results in some recent meta-analyses (e.g., by Shaofeng Li) have shown that executive control plays a more significant role in explicit/formal than in implicit/naturalistic L2 learning (SLA). Regarding implicit and explicit brain networks, a similar pattern can be detected, e.g., in the paper by Jing Yang & Ping Li (2012). Brain networks of explicit and implicit learning. PloS One, 7(8), e42993.
Hope this above information helps a bit,
Best,
Edward
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Hi
What criteria can be used to diagnose a rumor in psycholinguistics? What are the characteristics of psychology to identify rumors? For example, what styles are used to write rumors? What psychological features are used to stimulate people about the subject of rumor?
Please comment on this and guide me.
Thanks & Regards
Jahanbakhsh
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thanks for your response. Yes, I have analyzed a large amount of rumors and I have considered features such as uncertainty and anxiety and ambiguity and …, The tips you mentioned were helpful. What is the best way to study the psychological characteristics and sociology of rumors?
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Language/Discoure Understanding is a matter of language/discourse meaning seek and meaning demonstration. In language/discourse meaning treatment-based studies, Linguistics offers two basic sub-branches: Semantics and Pragmatics from Cognitive Science where Psychology, Psycholinguistics and Linguistics compete. Yet, sometimes if not often, there is not a clear cut between the two sub-branches and scholars happen to take one for the other or simply reject one. The problem is more complex when the target language/discourse of the study is a specialized one.
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Dear Dilu,
In principle, there should be no confusion between semantics and pragmatics, which are not exclusive, i.e. semantics is in need of pragmatics and vice versa. Without pragmatics, semantics is decontextualized language that does not make real sense. And without semantics, pragmatics will not have the fodder on which it bases its own meaningful communicative substance. Semantics is the study of the knowledge encoded in the vocabulary of the language and in its patterns for building elaborate constructions and meanings. Pragmatics is the interaction of semantic knowledge with our knowledge of the world to produce meaningful communication in contexts of use. Psychology and socio-cultural considerations definitely impact and interact with pragmatics in the way we express ourselves in our respective languages and cultures.
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Interdisciplinarity is known to be a promising feature in the interpreting field. researchers have long been adressing and encouraging synergies between interpreting studies and other neighboring disciplines such as psycholinguistics, cogitive science, neurolinguistics and applied linguistics etc. but little is known, when it comes to borrowing from other fiels for didactic purposes.
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Dear Hamza,
I have come across some papers that enumerate principles to be followed in interdisciplinary researches. I cannot quite recollect the authors now. But you are looking for this I can later find that out.
If you are looking for didactic advantages in an educational setting in early schooling, I believe it will have adverse effects on clarity of thought. But, at a later stage, interdisciplinary method of teaching might bring in a width of knowledge and allow mobility for the students between disciplines more smoothly.
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Without any previous research to go on, I'm wondering what are some generally accepted generic weakly informative priors in psycholinguistic research. In particular, for trial level analyses of accuracy and reaction time in typical psycholinguistic tasks (e.g., LDT, SCT).
I should also add that I'm interested in computing a Bayes Factor, which I believe affects the choice of prior.
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Psycholinguistics, is basically psychology of language. In this science, and sub discipline of philosophy, we look at, and analyse,psychological and neuro biological factors that enable us as language speaking humans to acquire, apply and understand language.  There are many related disciplines and therefore research in the field of psycholinguistics is interdisciplinary. The subdisciplines include cognitive science, neuroscience, philosophy and psychology. How does the brain process language? What is universal grammar? Do we have a language acquisition device? Or do we use cognition to acquire a language?  if you were on Mars, how would you communicate? Do dolphins have a language? what constitutes a language? Is there a critical period for language acquisition? If so, who determines it?
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I am doing a research and the question is “does students’ perceptions of the (non)-native-like status of teachers’ accent significantly predict their teachers’ credibility evaluations?”
I want to know regarding the procedure for answering this question, what questionnaire to use for this purpose to be filled by students in an EFL setting?
By the way for evaluation of teacher's credibility I have decided to use mccroskey teacher credibility questionnaire.
I really appreciate your kind help and reply in advance.
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I would write it this way: I am doing a research project and the question is "Do students' perceptions of the (non)-native-like status of a teacher's accent significantly predict their teacher's credibility evaluations?”
I assume the reference is to an individual teacher, not a group of teachers. If it is more than one teacher, however, the apostrophe would stay after the 's'.
Thanks for being so open about grammar corrections. Glad you found the correct questionnaire, too. Good luck with the project!
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I need this paper, many thanks in advance
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I am co-author of a new book called, The Language of Branding (Routledge 2018), which covers this topic. You can find the book on Amazon.
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I am looking for literature dealing with similies as figurative/metaphoric elements. Can research on similies be beneficial for metaphor research? If yes, how?
Psycholinguistic insight is especially welcome.
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Thank you all very much!
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Dear Colleagues,
Based on a Pubmed search it looks like there have not been too many publications on the organization of nouns versus adjectives in the brain. If you have conducted or are familiar with studies investigating the two language aspects in either healthy or aphasic populations, please kindly share them with me.
Thank you so much.
Pleasant regards,
Monika
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Dear Monika,
I quote here the few pages pages that may be of interest to you of a book published in 1999, now available in eBook formats where I synthesize conclusions that can be reached regarding the function of adjective and nouns in the neocortex verbal areas, that may add to the references provided by Joachim.
They are planned to be part of a paper to be issued sometime coming winter or spring:
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What is an Adjective?
The word “adjective” is the name given to the static characteristics of objects, which are the qualities that we associate with objects, that is, colors, shapes... white, black, round, long, tall, small, etc.
Within the neurolinguistic context that we are exploring, adjectives are, for all intents and purposes, the most important elements of all existing languages since they directly name the non verbal characteristics. They thus constitute the lowest level of the hierarchical infrastructure of links of our neurolinguistic model of reality. In other words, they are the "bridge" between the thinking mode by words association and the thinking mode by images association.
They also describe the characteristics of abstract concepts that also are non verbal, and therefore constitute the lowest level of interconnection between the neurolinguistic model and the virtual world of abstract concepts.
It is also from adjectives that a great number of verbs and adverbs are derived, and for good cause, since these verbs and adverbs exist only to allow us to think and speak about these characteristics.
When we describe something, we metaphorically bring out the list of its qualities, meaning the list of characteristics which are specific to it and which allow us to distinguish it from all other things.
Grammatically speaking, an adjective is defined as a word that is joined to a noun to express a quality of the being or object named.
Adjectival Locutions
When we are forced to use many words instead of only one to describe a characteristic, we automatically use what linguists call a "locution".
At the grammatical level, an adjectival locution can be defined as a group of words equivalent to an adjective. This includes locutions that usage has standardized as well as adjectival locutions that we could make on the spur of the moment when we think of the subtleties of characteristics of objects or of abstract concepts that we are "observing".
The later type is very important, because we do not necessary always have at our disposal the exact word which should be used to describe something which we have never thought about previously, or even to describe something that we already know, but the exact word for which momentarily escapes us.
Combinations of words that we assemble "on the fly", so to speak, to describe shades of meaning which we think of for the first time often are our only tool to even think about these particular subtleties as we are trying to be a little more specific about some aspect of what we are describing.
We consequently use adjectival locutions each time that existing adjectives do not allow us to clearly describe a particular subtlety of a characteristic that we observe and want to express.
What is a Name?
We have previously talked about the descriptions of characteristics of objects, and of lists of "qualities" of objects. A "name" simply is the "title" of such a list.
A name is the word which we use to identify, to "name", the list of characteristics that belongs to the set of characteristics that we associate with an object, an action, a feeling, a quality, an idea, an abstract concept, etc..., and that allows us to identify it. In short, anything that we care to think about.
Consequently, any word can become a name as soon as we attempt to understand the idea that is expressed by this word, that is, as soon as we attempt to identify the set of characteristics that we have associated to it. For mutual intelligibility in communications, of course, the idea expressed by a word is deemed to usually match the definition given in dictionaries.
However, what we must understand of the idea expressed by a name, in relation to the context of the moment, always depends on the specific list of static and dynamic characteristics that become attached to that name in the context within which it is used.
The extent of the meaning of a name strictly depends on the context in which it is used as we speak, write or even when simply thinking. Consequently, no matter what dictionaries may say, the same words used in exactly the same manner, but in different contexts, may mean entirely different things, which could have absolutely nothing to do with the formal meaning of the words. The overall context of their use always determines the precise meaning of words, at the moment of their use.
No “Nomial” Locutions
We have seen that for adjectives, there exists adjectival locutions, and we will see that for other important types of words, such as verbs and adverbs, there also exists locutions. So why shouldn't there exist locutions for names?
What is the definition of a word, in fact, if not the description of that word? We could even go so far as to say that a word is the summary of its own definition. When we think of a new concept, or a new shade of meaning, or of a specific subtlety of a characteristic of an object, there may not even exist a name that could directly describe what we want to emphasize.
In these cases, we have no choice but to think of it using the "definition", so to speak. A striking example of this occurs regarding the expression "indexation infrastructure associative by inclusion", which we could maybe now simplify by naming it “neurolinguistic structure”.
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Abstracted from "The Neurolinguistic Foundation of Intelligence": https://www.smashwords.com/books/view/156882
Hope this helps.
Best Regards
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It seems like in every psychometric experiment I read about, such as in http://lera.ucsd.edu/papers/mandarin-time-3D.pdf ,
response times for incorrect answers are simply removed without any explanation. I am fine following suit, but only if I can provide some adequate justification for doing so.
Can someone point me to a journal article or book that could provide the reasoning for this?
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Hi David,
I think your question could be narrowed down to "Why do we often exclude incorrect responses when analyzing response times in psycholinguistics experiments?".
Psycholinguists often use tasks with strong time constraints (let's say, for example, to respond as quickly as possible to whether a sentence is true or not by clicking on a button) in order to study the effect of some variables (let's say, for example, the kind of verb involved in the sentence, or the presence/absence of a certain adverb, or whatever) on the mean reponse time of a given number of subjects. It is more or less explicitly assumed that the longer the response time, the harder the decision to make and, often, the more complex the cognitive process leading to that choice.
As Stephen said, in this kind of experimental set-up, most often the response times for incorrect answers are not to be considered since, simply, only a correct answer allows to assume that the sentence was completely and correctly processed by the subject. The response times for incorrect answers could be influenced by other (and often non controlled for) factors.
As far as I know, there is no reference justifying this choice, since its relevance depends on every single experiment set-up and question of interest.
Best,
Lionel
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Dear Sandra,
When we talk about homophones; don't you think that we are talking semantics or phonetics rather than morphology or psycholinguistics?
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Dear Ali, In Macedonia' s literature homophones are elaborated in the part that cope with lexical issue. But, one angle of dealing with homophones can be semantics too. It depends on the aspect from which you are approaching,
Kind regrads,
V. Janusheva
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Dear Colleagues,
Hopefully this is quite a simple question:
I'm going to be running some masked semantic congruence priming studies, and am looking for suitable stimuli. Put simply, semantic congruence studies typically show that a target word (e.g., HAWK) is  semantically categorised (e.g., Is this an animal?) faster when preceded by a category-congruent/semantically-related prime word (e.g., eagle) compared to when preceded by a semantically unrelated word (e.g., knee).
The first thing I want to do is to replicate the classic finding using a larger set of stimuli. I will need at least 90 target words, each with a semantically-related prime-word. In line with previous studies (e.g., Quinn & Kinoshita, 2008), a lot of my stimuli will be drawn from McRae et al.'s set of feature norms (which is particularly useful for identifying members of the 'animal' category that have high semantic feature overlap; e.g., cat-dog; sheep-goat; etc.). But to reach 90 targets (each with a semantically similar prime), I will probably need to find a similar, but more dense database.
Ideally, I'm after an easy userface where I can simply input a target word (e.g., hand) that belongs to a category I'm using for the categorisation task (e.g., is this a body-part?) and it provides a list of the most semantically similar words from that category (e.g., if the category is 'body parts' it might output 'head, ankle, shin, foot, etc.). I'm aware there are a few solutions out there - whether it be measures semantic feature overlap or co-occurrence (e.g., wordnet, COALS, LSA, HAL) but I'd favour something with an interface that is easy to use, or even just a large datafile similar to McRae's 2005 set.
Thanks a lot!
Ryan
Quinn, W.M. and Kinoshita, S. (2008) Congruence effect in semantic categorization with masked primes with narrow and broad categories. Journal of Memory and Language, 58, 286–306.
McRae, K., Cree, G. S., Seidenberg, M. S., & McNorgan, C. (2005). Semantic feature production norms for a large set of living and nonliving things. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers, 37, 547–559.
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Hi Ryan,
if you're looking for an easy to use interface in which you input a word (or multiple words) and it returns the closest N semantic neighbors, then I really recommend using snaut. Additionally, if you already have a list of words, the program can tell you how close they are to one another, or even compare the whole list of primes to the respective targets. I found it very useful, also for finding the semantic neighbors I missed when coming up with a list of stimuli.
Here's the link to the website with the interface and all the resources: http://meshugga.ugent.be/snaut-english/
Hope it helps!
PS: I have to thank researcher Giorgio Arcara for suggesting snaut to me in the first place, check him out for some some cool studies on language processing!
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I need researchers who are interested in linguistics, psycholinguistics etc. as advisory editor in my forthcoming book "Psycholinguistics and Cognition in Language Processing".
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Dear Y. Nazaralian,
Hello. I am a professor of English language and literature from India. Applied Linguistics and Discourse Analysis are my favourite subjects and I think I can contribute my expertise to your book as one of its editors. If interested, you can contact me by writing an email to maheshdey@gmail.com.
Best wishes and thanks.
Sincerely,
Dr. Mahesh K. Dey
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Is it like you provide a certain score to the different answers expected for each sentence fragment and then calculate the score later based on the response given by the participants. Please suggest if this is the way to go about it or is there any way!
I'll be eternally grateful for this help.
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 Thanks a lot Karsten ! 
The link of the paper you sent is really very informative and helpful! I think for my purposes, the acceptable word scoring method would be a good tool since there might be the case the participants may not exactly produce what is needed but something similar. In my case when given the type 1 NP, the participants can produce intransitive/transitive/ditransitive structures but when when given type 2 NP they can only produce the transitive/ditransitive structures. However, my interest lies in what kind of agreement are they producing. As in with which argument does the verb agree in the constructions they produce! So,  a little tweaking of the acceptable word scoring would work in my case i guess.
Please suggest if i am thinking in the right direction!
Once again,thank you for all the help.
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Dear fellows,
In ERP research, what is the difference between the late positive potential (LPP) and the late positive complex (LPC)? I see both terms in scientific papers and both seem to have the same maximum positive peak (between a 400 and 600 ms period). Can someone enlighten me please?
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 Dear Gasser Saleh,
There is an entire zoo of labels referring to late positive ERP components (often with a posterior scalp distribution).
To my knowledge, the label LPP is primarily used in the context of emotion-related ERP studies (e.g., https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3287021/). In contrast, the LPC (late positive component or late positive complex) that tends to have a parietal maximum has been observed in a large variety of contexts, often following - or even including - the P3b component thought to reflect working memory updating (or the P600 in language studies, which likely comprises multiple subcomponents). The LPC has been linked to memory, especially recognition and old-new effects, but has also been reported in language studies (especially when the authors found that a "P600" label would be inappropriate, e.g., because they wanted to reserve the P600 label for 'syntactic re-analyses'. (see also https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Late_positive_component
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Being a teacher and researcher, I have found my language learners so conscious of producing language in terms of writing skills. I may be due to the fear of committing errors in writing or a thinking process to make ideas coherent in the mind first than on the paper.
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I think that young people are VERY concerned about the possibility that they will be judged as less than perfect, in many parts of their lives, not just language learning.  This is why many language learners are reluctant to speak up in class.  This is true in L2, but some young people will not even ask questions in L1 classes, because "I doing want the other students to think I am dumb."
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We talk about "boundaries of intonation units" and that language is a "code". And if we go in the direction of "categorial perceptions" and "motor theories," could it be expected that speech pauses (rather hesitations than breath pauses) can draw attention to the listener and thus promote the performance of remembrance? At which point could one expect a discriminating point at the pause length in relation to the rate of articulation? Imagine a Morse Code, e.g. SOS: We say three times short, three times long, three times short, but nobody talks about the silence between the individual units, right? Someone in distress at sea might have a different frequency of all units including pauses than someone on a deserted island who has been sending this code for weeks or months. How does the receiver discriminate between the individual units (in these cases, of course, we hope that there is a receiver at all ;-) ) and how does he know that it is an SOS signal? Can this model-like idea be applied to the language? And does it make any sense to think about the long-term memory? Or does it only concern the short-term memory and what is actually stored in the brain are generated emotions?
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Hi, we wrote a whole series of papers which investigate this issue, looking at disfluent "er", repetition, and silence (in English).  In brief, "er" and silence increase recognition memory for words which follow disfluencies (Corley, MacGregor, and Donaldson, 2007; MacGregor, Corley, and Donaldson, 2010); repetitions do not (MacGregor, Corley, and Donaldson, 2009).  In the case of "er" and silence, there is an associated attenuation of an N400 ERP effect at the target word, suggesting that people's expectations about what they will hear have been affected.  Importantly, Collard, Corley, MacGregor and Donaldson (2008) use a P300 ERP paradigm to show that this altered expectation is accompanied by an attentional modulation (as you suggest above).
A synthetic view of these studies might be that disfluency is detected when the signal becomes "non-linguistic" (hence not repetitions), and acts as a signal that the speaker is unlikely to utter a predictable word (N400 modulation).  This causes the listener to heighten attention to the signal (reliance on bottom-up information; P300 modulation), resulting in a greater recognition memory for the subsequent (target) word.
Hope that helps!
--MC
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I am working on color categorization and terminology with bilingual speakers. The two languages follow different paths of categorization, and the system that each language uses overlaps in individual speech. I was wondering whether there was any other study concerning a similar topic. Thanks!
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Dear Fabio Gasparini,
Generally speaking, color naming , color semantics, color  categorization , and  shape of color space across different languages has long been an area of great interest in bilingual/multilingual studies. Prototypicality norms ( Rosch's model) have also been a matter of importance trying to examine how bilinguals tend to categories the tokens belonging to a given language type. I hope the following links shed more light on what you are looking for.
Best of luck,
R. Biria
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I mean how our ideas and the words in our minds come out from our mouth as an organized words. Is it really organized or we imagine that  because we understand each other and for someone didn't know any English, it looks like nothing. could we make animals talk if we connect the animals brain with a human brain and make the word come out from a human mouth?
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McNeill D., 2005, Gesture and thought. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press
McNeill D., 2012, How language began: gesture and speech in human evolution. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press
Arbib MA., 2012,  How the brain got language: the mirror system hypothesis. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press
Grice HP., 1989, Studies in the way of words. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Holler J, Beattie G., 2002, A micro-analytic investigation of how iconic gestures and speech represent core semantic features in talk, Semiotica 142, s. 31–69 (doi:10.1515/semi.2002.077)
Holler J, Beattie G., 2003, How iconic gestures and speech interact in the representation of meaning: are both aspects really integral to the process?, Semiotica 146, 81–116 (doi:10.1515/semi.2003.083)
Holler J, Tutton M, Wilkin K., 2011, Co-speech gestures in the process of meaning coordination. In Proc. 2nd GESPIN—Gesture and Speech in Interaction Conf., Bielefeld, 5–7 September 2011 See http://hdl.handle.net/11858/00-001M-0000-0012-1BB3-D
Levinson SC., 2000, Presumptive meanings: the theory of generalized conversational implicature. Cambridge, UK: MIT Press
Levinson SC. 2013. Recursion in pragmatics, Language 89, s. 149–162 (doi:10.1353/lan.2013.0005)
Levinson SC., 2006, On the human ‘interaction engine’. In Roots of human sociality: culture, cognition and interaction (eds Enfield NJ, Levinson SC, editors. ), s. 39–69 Oxford, UK: Berg
Levinson SC., 2003, Space in language and cognition: explorations in cognitive diversity. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press
Levinson S.C., Holler J.,2014, The origin of human multi-modal communication, Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B. Biological Sciences, DOI: 10.1098/rstb.2013.0302.
Liberman A.M., Cooper F.S., Shankweiler D.P., Studdert-kennedy M., 1967, Perception of the speech code, Psychological Review 74, s. 431-461.
Orzechowski S., Wacewicz S., Żywiczyński P., 2014, Orofacjal gestures in language evolution. The auditory feedback hypothesis [w:] red. E.S. Cartmill, S. Roberts, H. LYN, H. Cornish, Proceedings of the 10th International Conference (EVOLANG 10), Singapore, s. 221-227.
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We can think of language in multiple ways for purposes of analysis: for example, Will our study focus on spoken, written or performed language? 
Also in my recent teaching and research I wonder about:
1. tense
2. aspect of language
3. syntax
4. intonation
5. phonology
6. physics of speech
7. child language
8. language formation
9. mood+modality
Jim
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No. It can include "ser" and "estar".
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I am looking for a recent German normative data for the verbal fluency task. Would appreciate any help on the matter.
Thanks in advance  
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Dear Renato,
Thanks a lot, that is really helpful!
Katrina
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We define automatic or fluent as "done without thinking". The questions is done using that definition.
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We might have some posters that could be interesting, on cross-linguistic priming.
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Has anyone encountered an inhibitory repetition priming in L1 but not in L2, or vice versa?!
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Many  thanks  for  that!
I'll  certainly  look  at  those..
Regards  
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Is it a monolingual lexicon?
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I think it probably is.
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In advnce of syntactic studies, one must know if minimalism still the recommended mood of inquiry.
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Dear Bashir Najadat,
Notably, the theoretical development of linguistics through the efforts of Noam Chomsky cannot be denied.  His scholarly work on  Universal Grammar (U.G) culminated in minimalism. However, generative,  formal theories of language, while valuable and insightful, provide an idealized description of what language is and how it works.  It is simply the tip of the iceberg. As such, like professor Di Biase, I also believe that a systemic functional view of language can provide us with a more realistic account of language as a meaning making machine (Halliday, 1980). Under such a perspectivization, the in-built mechanisms of lexico-grammar target the contexts of situation and culture in order to actualize the metafunctions of language; namely, ideational, interpersonal, and textual metafunctions.
Best regards,
R. Biria 
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The grammatical formation or rules of invocations. Are there specific patterns ?
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Dear Muna h. hwayed,
Generally speaking, there are fixed patterns  used in all religions to make invocations to God . As you have rightly observed, it would be practical to learn about the repertoire of rules employed for this particular speech function.  From a discourse analysis point of view, you can utilize a religious text addressing invocations, and by applying a discourse analysis approach , you can find the patterns. For instance, the link  below can  provide you with a purposive content with clear examples of making invocations, which you may identify and explain the rules therein.
Best regards,
R. Biria
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Just as LFG, GPSG, DG and TAG ETC.
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The book _Natural Language Processing: A Paninian Perspective_ by Bharati et al. has a good overview of the issues.  You can find a review of it in the CL journal, Sept. 1995.
For languages with complex inflections and a relatively free word order, dependency grammars are usually better than methods designed for English. You might search for "Hindi dependency grammar".
For the "word hash" that Google translate generates from Latin, see slide 27 of htp://www.jfsowa.com/talks/nlu.pdf .
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to understand the context of a sentence is the major issue of NLP. i want to discuss its recent achievements or related work. 
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I think, depending on the type of context you are looking at, you will end up in very different areas of research. You have a least, 3 different types of context for a word. NLP, to my knowledge, is at best looking at 2 of them:
1) word-context, meaning words surrounding your target word
2) supra-sentential context: what has been encoded in sentences prior to the one you're looking at but which may bear on the meaning of your target word (that's where the terms of Dhanji above are coming into play)
3) conversational context: This refers to stuff where the primary locus of language is seen as the person-to-person face-to-face conversation where stuff that I'm saying will sometimes refer to stuff that you're saying and vice versa. Also important here is what is not being said at all or might be hinted at by the strategic use of pauses and `filler' non-words.  Other important issues here are common ground - what do I know that you know - which will determine how I shape my sentences and non-linguistic communication via gestures, body postures, etc..
As far as I know, only contexts 1) and 2) are touched upon by NLP. If you're looking at context 3, you're in the realm of pragmatics and conversation analysis, the former of which kind of is done by linguists, whereas the latter comes from sociology.
The methods there are very different from the one employed by NLP.
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Hello everyone! I'm considering to buy an Emotiv-epoc portable 14-channel (https://www.emotiv.com/epoc/) EEG to conduct syntax and semantics processing experiments in school-aged children. I'm particularly interested on LAN, N400 and P600 ERPs. I wanted to ask if someone had experience with this sort of equipment, and if there was any reason (beyond the loss of spatial resolution) to avoid its use for research. Manufacturers claim that published researched has compared P300 ERPs obtained with traditional research equipment and the Emotiv-EPOC and found no significant differences on ERP parameters (https://peerj.com/articles/38/). I would like to hear opinions from people who have already tried it, or from those who have clear technical reasons for not using it.
Thank you so much for your attention
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Thank you both, that was really helpful!
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Psycholinguistics, being a field of study that delves into the intricacies of the human brain operations, has shown a huge interest in studying the simultaneous rendering of the message of all its aspects. since this can be possible, can psycholinguistics improve the interpreter's performance in the black box too?
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Dear Hamza Ben,
Viewing psycholinguistic and cognitive intersections dominating simultaneous interpretation, as you have rightly observed, involves an admixture of neuro-cognitive mechanisms such as memory, lexicon, and bilingualism. As such, the bulk of related  research has fixated its focus on the role of working memory, levels of experience and expertise, language competence, as well as the strategies utilized during the translation process. For more information, I refer you to the following links, which hopefully satisfy the intent of your question.
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In work on stimulus equivalence formation associative pairs of stimuli are learned by one of several possible methods), such as A~B and B~C, where there is an overlap with one stimulus, B, serving in both pairs. In humans, on unreinforced tests, the novel associations BA, CB, AC, and CA can often then be demonstrated,(indicative of the formation of an equivalence class A≡B≡C) but not in other species. I characterise the nature of the relation between A and B, and B and C, in the trained relations, using the symbol "~" but much may depend upon how the participant interprets this relations. If it were interpreted as ">" only the novel association A>C could be derived from the serial relations A>B>C. These may be demonstrations of more complex relations arising from simpler associations, or alternatively that pre-existing "relational frames" that a human already possesses can be used to shape a particular apparently simple association the experimenter presents.
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Dear David,
very intresting question (when reading Jyh's answer I ask myself whether I actually understand the question correctly :)).
Anyway, you might find some hints when following Jan De Houwers work. For instance,:
Mitchell, C. J., De Houwer, J., & Lovibond, P. F. (2009). The propositional nature of human associative learning. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 32(02), 183-198.
On page 190 there is a section called 'Verbal Instructions'. And I also remember attending a talk of his where he was speaking about equivalence and consequence in associative learning.
Although this does not really answer your question how to 'assess' or 'determine' 'how'  the type of instruction influences actual learning, but maybe this is a start :)
Best, René
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The continuous sequence of images (for example the conversation between a deaf person using an interpreter to converse with someone who does not understand the signs) being converted to speech, where the system would serve as the image-to-speech converter.
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This is a good idea however it needs a lot of work, Firstly, we can employ computer vision to identify objects and in a simple case just convert object names into speech. In summary, the components of such a system are available namely; a module for object identification in images and speaking words module. Just integration is needed if not done somewhere.
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Can somebody help me in finding the bi-correlation of a time series or a signal especially using MATLAB? Please give specific suggestions considering I am a stranger to this concept.
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It seems that recently language acquisition research has further expanded its horizons to include L3 language acquisition. As there have been many studies showing differences between L1 acquisition and L2 acquisition, and evidence for even further differences in L3 acquisition are arising, my question now is: what counts as an L3 in terms of processing?
For a simultaneous bilingual who has relatively high proficiency in both languages, does the acquisition of a third language resemble that of L2 learning, or does the presence of two languages result in a more L3 acquisition-like process? Or neither or both?
Can L1, L2, L3 and so on be defined so as to disambiguate such intricacies and if so, how?
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Thank you for your responses.
I also agree that there the difference between simultaneous and sequential is not clear-cut. For that matter, a great many things regarding languages are not clear-cut, which I believe to be the fundamental flaw in attempting empirical research in applied linguistics. Nonetheless, I think research is necessary, but such blurred distinctions need to be taken into account.
In response to Yakobo Mutiti, I believe Vivian Cook suggested that taking a multicompetence approach, the input as well as resulting grammar knowledge would pass 'bilingually' through the LAD, allowing for a single bilingual grammar. However, as Chomsky's monolingual-centered theories and Cook's adaptations are still very opaque, I would like to return to my original question of how processing may be different.
In a sense, my question may be: is bilingualism cognitively the same for everyone, thus making acquisition of a third language the same across different 'types' of bilinguals?
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thanks for your help
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As an additional suggestion, I strongly encourage you to do some descriptive analysis of your data! Overall your sample is a bit small for use of inferential modeling alone, and it generally helps to see descriptive analysis even in cases where a sample is somewhat larger. Presenting some contingency tables to complement your ANOVA tables should do the trick. Also, if your outcome measures weren't continuous you will likely fare better with the McNemar test of significance for between-group comparison tests.
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We are seeking resources with data pertaining to psycholinguistic aspects of Vietnamese language. For example, do you know of studies or databases with information about lexical age of acquisition, word difficulty, word frequency, word imageability, syntactic complexity, or tonal processing?
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Dear Brooke,
There aren't many psycholinguistic data around for Vietnamese. John Ingram (together with T. Nguyen) investigated tonal processing in Vietnamese some time ago and more recently extended that work to Vietnamese - English bilinguals. Other than that, I am not aware of any work.
Vietnamese is an understudied language from a psycholinguistic point of view. 90% of all psycholinguistic studies published in the last 15 years are on no more than 10 different languages, most of them of Indo-European origin. It is time that we broaden our scope to other languages including Vietnamese.
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Hi. My names is Ana Paula Soares and I´m Assistant Professor at the School of Psychology, University of Minho, Portugal. My research interests are in the domain of Psycholinguistics (see http://escola.psi.uminho.pt/unidades/psicolinguistica/index.html) and right now we are interested in developing studies on the learning mechanisms involved in language acquisition particularly in children with impaired language acquisition trajectories using the artificial grammar learning paradigm. I´m very interested in your project, particularly on the tasks you are using and on the neurophysiological markers used. Can you send me more information about it?
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Hi Ana. We are studying small animal phobias. Basically, in the first stage of the project we expose the subjects to phobic and non phobic stimulus (videos or virtual reality of cockoroaches, lizards or spiders) in the magnetic resonance machine (two groups phobic and non phobic subjects). In a second phase we apply a cognitve-behavioral therapy program to the phobic persons, after which they are exposed again to phobic and non phobic stimulus in the machine. We hope to publish a paper shortly with the first outcomes. Best regards
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I am looking for literature discussing if some types of phonemes are more or less likely to undergo sound changes. 
It seems intuitively the case that some sounds like /m/, /n/ and /a/ are less likely to change during the process of language change than sounds with more complex or "marked" articulation.
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Your intuition seems plausible, but it's flawed.
There are phonemes that are considered common, based on their frequency in languages around the world (see http://wals.info/chapter/18 for a discussion of languages that lack common consonants, consonants in the classes of fricatives, bilabials, and nasals - like your examples of /m/ and /n/.). The hypothesis that common phonemes, or at least consonants, are easier to articulate (the Theoretical Issues section in this discussion: http://wals.info/chapter/1).
Vowels are harder to define, and more subject to change, but there are far more types of consonants than vowels (7 is considered a large vowel inventory while the average number of consonants is 22). Languages with small vowel inventories usually include /a/, along with /i/ and /u/ (http://wals.info/chapter/2).
But, if we accept the hypothesis that easier-to-articulate phonemes are less likely to change than phonemes that require complex articulation, we still have to remember that phonemes that are easy to articulate are members of a class of phonemes. As members of a class, what impediments would there be for one easily articulated phoneme to change into another? /m/ and /n/ are both common nasal phonemes with similar articulation, so what would prevent /m/ from changing into /n/?
Then there is the question of origin. Why do phonemes with complex articulation exist at all? The number of consonants in a language ranges from 6 to 120 or so; vowels from 2 to somewhere in the 20s. There is a general inverse correlation between vowels and consonants, languages that have few of one tend to have many of the other, but there is a strong tendency toward the "average" amounts or consonants in the 20s and vowels close to 10. But what reason is there for the outliers on the high end of either type of phoneme? If phonemes that are difficult to articulate tend to change more than those easier to articulate, there should be a trend where phonemes that are difficult to articulate disappear. But after many thousands of years of language use, they persist in many languages.
The sense that they "persist" is also a problem. The implication is that, the earlier you go back in human history, the more complex the inventory of phonemes was. What would be the reason for this? The alternative, though, is that languages developed phonemes that are more complex in articulation from an inventory of easier-to-articulate phonemes.
Complexity of articulation is also a difficult to define, as it often depends on what other phonemes exist in a language. If language users are comfortable with an articulation pattern based on one phoneme, minor variations on that pattern should be relatively easy to adopt.
But this isn't necessarily true, and has an impact on the hypothesis that ease of articulation should influence the presence of a phoneme (if a phoneme is more resistant to change, it is more likely to be present at any particular time of measurement). Languages tend to "skip" similar phonemes that other languages use. There is very little difference in articulation of an aspirated stop consonant and the non-aspirated version, so little that languages may contain both sounds but not consider them phonemic, but allophones. English has an aspirated /p/ and a non-aspirated /p/. The /p/ in "pit" is aspirated, the /p/ in "spit" isn't. So why doesn't English take the easy route and use these sounds that already exist as phonemes, and maintain them as comparatively easy to produce? Hindi does. But it has its own quirks.
The issue is complex, and I haven't investigated it, but have thought about it. There are real problems with the hypothesis. There's no reason for one easy-to-articulate phoneme to not change into another easy-to-articulate phoneme. Difficult to articulate phonemes should disappear over time - but they seemingly shouldn't exist in the first place. Languages don't use "easy" sound variations that already exist in the language as phonemes, while other languages do use them.
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I need an Oral Level Test to measure the levels of Spanish as a Foreign Language (SFL) of a group of participants in a research, before (initial level) and after (final level) the use of a particular tool that would improve it theoretically.  I already have an official test to measure their vocabulary, writing, grammar, and even pronunciation skills; but I still need another official test to measure their oral skills.  You can take for granted that the source of that test will be credited and cited in the bibliography.  Thank you very much in advance!  M.A. :)
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Language sampling is a good way to measure language. Using a standardized elicitation protocol, you ask the subject to tell the story of a wordless picture book such as Frog, Where Are You? (Mayer, 1969). You record their story and then transcribe the language sample into the software program. The software that I used is called SALT (Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts). You use the same story pre and post. This software uses a scoring method called the Narrative Scoring Scheme. Here is an article that explains it better than I am: Heilmann, Miller, Nockerts & Dunaway (2010). Properties of the Narrative Scoring Scheme Using Narrative Retells in Young School-Age Children, American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 19, 154-166. File is attached.