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The GHQ (generalized health questionnaire) 12, which is scored from 0-36 to determine the psychiatric disorder. There are few similar questions and the respondent may not be interested to give enough time for interview, keeping this limitations in mind if the questionnaire is modified then how should I validate it? Thanks in advance.
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The GHQ should function as an appropriate tool for general status.
You might also want to include one question on general health. It has been found that the simple question of rating one's health on a scale from 1 for poor to 5 for excellent correlates highly with other measures such as subsequent medical services.
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It is well known that mammals like horses and dogs develop psychiatry conditions such as depression. What are the other mental health conditions do the animals develop?
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According to animal psychologists, animals can suffer from various mental disorders, though not in quite the same ways as humans. Apart from depression, they can develop other mental health conditions such as activity anorexia, thin sow syndrome, pica, OCD, addiction, stress, stereotypies, etc.
Have a look at this article: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11199284/
PMID: 11199284
PMCID: PMC6709740
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Most of the cohorts related to psychiatric disorders (Childhood and Adolescence Psychopathology) are present in Western countries (mainly UK, Sweden, Netherlands, Norway, and Finland). Why there are no well-known cohorts associated with Romanic or Slavic ethnicity? Are there any future efforts OR any limitations?
Thank you in advance.
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I think only the countries you mention above have historically kept the detailed birth records needed to conduct adoption studies, etc. Such records were not kept in the US, Slavic countries, etc.
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Hi everyone, I am looking for ways to quantify psychiatric comorbidity / comorbidity severity in our sample** (primary diagnosis of interest: major depression) more elaborately, rather than simply reporting the average number of present comorbid psychiatric conditions. Are you familiar with indices/scores I could calculate for each patient, that, for example, allow weighing different conditions differently (I would perhaps naively assume that personality disorders would receive a greater weight with respect to comorbidity severity than, let's say, a specific phobia). Data collection has already been completed, so unfortunately I'm unable to apply additional questionnaires/assessments. (Comorbid) Diagnoses have been established by SKID-interviews and I am hoping to find a way to build on those.
Any ideas are greatly appreciated, thanks so much in advance!
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While your data collection completed, now you need to use suitable software (like SPSS) to help you in running your data in order to get the results.
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I am writing a chapter on medico legal aspects of Epilepsy for a reference book.
I wish to collect your opinions and reasoning behind it to make a gentle reference while elaborating my point.
I am intending to elaborate my views on how epilepsy is a psychiatric disorder. Your opinions if befitting could be referred with due acknowledgement.
Please reinforce your opinions with sound reasoning or mentioning validating source of information.
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Do mental disorders affect epilepsy?
Epilepsy is a disease of the mind, but it does not affect it in terms of madness and hallucinations
Avoiding mental disorders and anxiety is important to reduce epileptic seizures
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Plenty of more or less useful EEG databases are available online. However, it is hard to find EEG data at baseline before intervention of any kind in psychiatric disorders. There are several studies in this topic in e.g. major depression (e.g. iSPOT or EMBARC), but there is nearly nothing on this topic available for free usage online. Can you help and provide databases or personal data on this topic. Not restricted to major depression but on any kind of psychiatric disorders?
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Quetiapine has pharmacological properties that cover almost the entire spectrum of currently known anti-psychotic, anti-depressive medications, among others. The dose of Quetiapine can be used to alter the pharmacological effect it has on the patient. Does this open possibilities for reaching a clinical diagnosis by the use of Quetiapine and its' response on the patient?
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Conclusions: The current study of quetiapine use in the province of Alberta provides confirmatory data of the increasing use of quetiapine for the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. Safe and rational prescribing practices must be encouraged in light of the modest advantages of quetiapine over no treatment as an adjunctive treatment of major depression, and the known harms of this medication.
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I know that CBT, for example, is an evidence-based treatment for MDD. What about supportive psychotherapy?
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yes, definitely
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We are inexperienced researchers and need help. We are interested in the phenomenology of pseudo hallucinations. We believe that clinicians can differentiate the experience of auditory hallucinations and pseudo hallucinations, possibly through features of dissociation. It is just hard to operationalise. Any advise would be great
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To big chalenge!
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Hi, I’m carrying out my master thesis on people who were sentenced to serve time in prison and who, during incarceration, present psychiatric decompensation. I’m interested in the official procedure that applies to this type of person. To do this, it seems important to compare different procedures based on national legislation. For example, here is a brief presentation of the procedure in Belgium:
In Belgium, a prisoner who, during their detention, is in a state of “dementia, mental disorder or mental retardation, making them incapable of controlling their actions” is placed in a “secured” psychiatric section to access therapeutic care under a law called the “Loi de Defense Sociale”.  In our country, the prisoner is first placed on the psychiatric wing of the prison and they are subject to an observation by a psychiatrist. If during the evaluation, the psychiatrist notices the presence of one of the aforementioned states, a request is made to the Minister of Justice to transfer them to an appropriate social protection establishment. Once this request has been accepted, the prisoner resides in one of the social protection establishments where they will again be evaluated and transferred to the service that best matches their needs. Then, the duration of the stay depends on the mental development of the prisoner and the possibility of their social rehabilitation. Once the prisoner's mental state has improved, the psychiatric hold is then lifted and they can continue to serve their sentence in prison. The time left to serve is decided by the “commission de Défense Sociale” who makes decisions relative to parole and release dates. The “commission de Défense Sociale” is composed of a magistrate, a lawyer and psychiatrist.
I would like to know the procedure for people who present psychiatric decompensation during a prison sentence in your country. I would very much appreciate if you could explain your country’s procedure in a few lines so that I can compare different judicial systems in my thesis.
Thank you in advance.
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In Spain there is a comprehensive programme of action for people deprived of their liberty with mental illnesses
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Needs to be fairly short and accessible. Preferably relating to MH in children but that's not essential.
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Hi,
Maybe this questionnaire can help.
Best wishes
Yaakov
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Thank you for your feedback Apetogbo,
Best regards.
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Thank you Whyeda,
Best regards.
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In  inpatient treatment of psychiatric disorders multiple variables account to the effect of treatment. The patient time spent receiving milieu therapy is one big and complex variable. The ward staffs skills are a part of this and we assume that increased level of milieu therapy skills among staff members would increase treatment effects. Unfortunately few studies target this topic.  I hope others have experiences regarding this topic?
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We are about to submit a paper describing the development of a selv-evaluation instrument for cognitive milieu therapy. Your references are helpful. Thank you Béatrice!
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US, 65, male, conservative, veteran, university professor. He may well surprise the world. He can be compared to Theodore Roosevelt who believed the US had a great future and believed in a strong nation that considered its self interests. Time will tell.
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Thank you once more Christopher. Best regards.
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Thank you for your answer Jaime Cuauhtemoc Negrete. I would thank you even more if you would leave your country of origin, age and sex, so I can better contextualise your answer.
Best regrads.
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Lets take the hypotension or hypertension in the same anxiety disorder in different patients. The disease its the same for the both patients psychiatrically, but the cardiovascular is different. Is there an endocrinal explanation, or is it more like the signaling of the spectrum of apparatus joined with the somatical design of the act ?
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The spectrum etc. is the undifiend binding of act and feeling or signal to response, the ideea is not to put cardiovascular first but as an imperment response to anxiety, there the pathology turnaround makes the patient more complex like if you say the signal of fear neads to convert into an body problem. This is just a hypothetical model, the icd conversion may help and must be used properly. Thank you for pinpointong.
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Hi,
I'm interested in studies from the last 5-6 years which describe stages of accepting mental illness. Clear stages of coping from after the diagnosis or the emerge of symptoms, until the person accept the illness and live with it.
Thanks,
Michal.
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The first and most crucial step is surely Insight.   People have got to recognize they have a mental illness before they can deal with it.
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Which are the advantages of psychoanalytical nosography of clinical structures (neuroses, psychoses, perversions) over international classifications of mental disorders (DSM; IDC)?
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Hi, I would like to share a Brazilian paper that discusses this subject: "A soberania da clínica: além do diagnóstico em psiquiatria e psicanálise" [The sovereignty of the clinic: beyond the diagnosis in psychiatry and psychoanalysis].  http://pepsic.bvsalud.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1415-71282015000200008
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As aripiprazole is a partial D2 agonist, one may hypothesize that it may be an effective agent for the management of psychostimulant-addicted patients. The literature published to date is inconclusive. I am using this in my practice.
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For substance dependence, including to psychostimulants, one should consider medications which reduce the psycho-behavioral and/or somatic dependency on the drug on pharmacodynamical level, mainly in relation to the present developed increase of the sensetization of dopaminergic and noradrenergic receptors (via increased AMPA receptors number, connected to sodium-NA2+ channels), thus here are some suggestions: lamogrigine (sodium-channel blocker, glutamate release blocker; flupethixol (D1/D2 antagonist, 5HT2A), perhaps also zuclopenthixol (D1/D2, alpha-1, H1, 5HT2A antagonist); baclofen (GABA-B agonist); valproate (indirect GABA increase, 5HT1A agonistic properties); perhaps also GABA-ergic drugs such as gabapentin, pregabalin, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine and topiramate; and, naturally, benzodiazepines, eg diazepam; magnesium and zinc. 
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"Toward New Approaches to Psychotic Disorders: The NIMH Research Domain Criteria Project"
Schizophrenia Bulletin vol. 36 no. 6 pp. 1061–1062, 2010 doi:10.1093/schbul/sbq108
Bruce N. Cuthbert* and Thomas R. Insel
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Most of the psychiatry textbooks don't have detailed material on Isight
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Thanks Anthony for your view...
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The basis for specifically distorted schematic faces might be subtle parieto-occipital dysfunction, apparently regressing early in dementia and HIV infection.
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I think no one has understood the question. 
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Dear Prof. Brand
Is it possible me and Mrs Keshavarsi participate in sleep in child psychiatric disorders project?
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Dear Prof. Brand
Thanks; for sleep project?
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when Lorazepam is contraindicated or Lorazepam is in effective in organic catatonic state...does a dose of Tofisopam show some hope?
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We do not have tofisopam in the US, but the literature permits some predictions.  Lorazepam might be contraindicated for a catatonic patient suffering from renal failure, so that hepatically metabolized benzodiazepines potentially including tofisopam might be a safer choice.  The fact that it is not sedating suggests to me that it might not have much effect on catatonia.  The benzodiazepine receptor agonist that is only sedating, but not anxiolytic, epileptolytic, and antispasmodic, zolpidem is very effective for catatonia.  While that prompts my predictions that tofixopam would not help much,  it would be interesting to know whether it does. 
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Hi,
I'm interested in narrative studies from the last 5-6 years which have specifically researched the subjective experience of being in psychiatric hospitalization, or the experiences regarding the treatment and settings of psychiatric hospitals.
Thanks,
Michal.
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 Stenhouse RC. ‘Safe enough in here?’ patients' expectations and experiences of feeling safe in an acute psychiatric inpatient ward. J Clin Nurs. 2013;22(21-22):3109-19.
Fenton K, Larkin M, Boden ZV, Thompson J, Hickman G, Newton E. The experiential impact of hospitalisation in early psychosis: service-user accounts of inpatient environments. Health Place. 2014;30(Nov):234-41.
Quirk A, Lelliott P, Seale C. Risk management by patients on psychiatric wards in London: An ethnographic study. Health Risk Soc. 2005;7(1):85-91.
Johansson IM, Skärsäter I, Danielson E. The meaning of care on a locked acute psychiatric ward: Patients’ experiences. Nord J Psychiatry. 2009;63(6):501-7.
Larsen IB, Terkelsen TB. Coercion in a locked psychiatric ward: Perspectives of patients and staff. Nurs Ethics. 2013;21(4):426-36.
 Stenhouse RC. ‘They all said you could come and speak to us’: patients' expectations and experiences of help on an acute psychiatric inpatient ward. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 2011;18(1):74-80.
Kowlessar OA, Corbett, KP. The lived experience of mental health service users in a UK community rehabilitation scheme. Int J Ther Rehab. 2009;16(2):85-95.
Petersen K, Hounsgaard L, Borg T, Nielsen CV. User involvement in mental health rehabilitation: a struggle for self-determination and recognition. Scand J Occup Ther. 2012;19(1):59-67.
Skorpen A, Anderssen N, Oeye C, Bjelland AK. The smoking‐room as psychiatric patients' sanctuary: a place for resistance. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 2008;15(9):728-36.
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Abnormal brain oscillations have been related to some of the underlying mechanisms of psychiatric disorders including unipolar depression and bipolar disorder.  Adverse life events are well-known factors that can trigger or worsen the symptoms of depression. Are adverse life events related to abnormal brain oscillations? If yes, how?
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Dear Béatrice. Thank you for the paper suggested.
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What are these tests?
Psychiatric illnesses like depression, schizophrenia, obsessive compulsive, mania and many other labels are life long illnesses. We used to attribute it to genetic factors and neurotransmitters imbalance and start treatment which mostly is lifelong. How and what are your trials to uncover an underlying primary cause?
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I support your opinion. 
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While suicides and suicide attempts (i.e., deliberate acts with intent to die) are fairly prevalent among heroin users the literature and experience indicated that comparatively few, if any, used their drug of choice as a lethal means. Many "chronically suicidal" heroin users often threaten to take their lives by a heroin O/D but while these folks have high risk they seem to be low on intent. Means such as prescription drugs, firearms, etc. were more frequently used by those who became acutely suicidal.. In the past 6 months I've encountered several cases where the heroin user acted in a manner indicating an actual suicide attempt not an O/D. Some left notes or texts, some took steps suggesting they wanted to avoid rescue, all took IV bolus doses. From what I can determine all were active users who had not lost tolerance because of jail or hospitalization and used heroin from a customary source and not laced with fentanyl. All were men in 20s or 30s with histories of drug use dating to their teens but only graduating to heroin within a few years. 
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Thank you for that helpful clarification, Tony. Is there any evidence that some males choose a violent suicide because they see this as a more masculine choice than to use "non-violent" means? Best wishes Paul
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Do you have any reference about the "syndrom of munchausen by procuration" in case of young mothers and her baby ?
Thanks,
O. Moyano
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Bonjour: Munchausen Syndrome by proxy en anglais.
Il y a une littérature assez étendue sur les bases de données US (Medline et PubMed):
"Procedures, placement, and risks of further abuse
after Munchausen syndrome by proxy,
non-accidental poisoning, and non-accidental
suVocation": P Davis, R J McClure, K Rolfe, N Chessman, S Pearson, J R Sibert, R Meadow. 1998.
Meadow a publié pas mal sur le sujet, cela porte d'ailleurs son nom également "Meadow Syndrom".
"À propos du syndrome de Münchhausen, du Münchhausen par procuration et de ses descriptions cliniques" Gasman, Rouyer & al. 2002, Annales Médico-Psychologiques.
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In literature most of the researchs about treatment response using DSM-IV or DSM5 criterias, CGI-I, PTSD-I scores but none of seperate treatment response negative or positive as binary. 
In depression trials, researchers use Beck Depression Inventory or HAM-D score %50 reduction for negative or positive treatment response. Is it ok to use PTSD-I score %50 reduction for treatment response?
Thank you for your answers. 
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Dear Miraç,
In addition to Lewis' great suggestion, response to treatment could be measured using the self-reported PTSD symptom severity (Impact of Event Scale-Revised). Another option could be the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale.
Please see attached for some articles that could be of interest to you.
Best wishes,
Julio
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How culture shapes the development of abnormal personality functioning?
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Here's one recent discussion: Diversity, culture, and personality disorders. By Rebeta, James L.
Beck, Aaron T. (Ed); Davis, Denise D. (Ed); Freeman, Arthur (Ed). (2015). Cognitive therapy of personality disorders, 3rd ed., (pp. 140-151). New York, NY, US: Guilford Press, xvii, 506 pp.
Personality and its disorder must be considered in light of relevant cultural perspectives if we wish to ensure that treatment is ethically framed and effectively delivered. Ascoli and colleagues (2011) aptly state that "the diagnosis of a Personality Disorder, as well as the very definition of what constitutes a 'normal personality' is entirely a cultural and social construct" (p. 53). They further contend, "Culture plays a role in the definition of the self, in the expectations on the orientation of the person (towards the individual or the social group) and in the definition of how a normal personality is constructed and expresses itself. The very difference between what is considered a normal or an abnormal personality depends on culture" (p. 53). This contextualization for anyone considered to have a personality disorder poses an even greater challenge than mere recommendation to attend to aspects of "diversity" in the patient-therapist relationship. Treatment for various symptoms or diagnoses of personality disorder is rarely discussed with emphasis on, or explanation of, any cultural limitations or influence. This chapter attempts to address these issues with further discussion of the assessment of culture and its meaning, how it can be used to inform the diagnosis of personality disorders and treatment planning, and ways to apply cognitive-behavioral interventions within a cultural framework. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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ANK3 gene was found to be changed in some psychological disorders such as bipolar disorders, depression and schizophrenia. I need any article that confirms this fact.  
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Ankyrin 3 is an immunologically distinct gene product from ankyrins 1 and 2, and was originally found at the axonal initial segment and nodes of Ranvier of neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Diseases associated with ANK3 include mental retardation, autosomal recessive, intellectual disability-hypotonia-spasticity-sleep disorder syndrome. Among its related pathways are Transport to the Golgi and subsequent modification and Developmen of brain and peripheral nervous system.
These are the articles which support the facts related to your query
 1. Two variants in Ankyrin 3 (ANK3) are independent genetic risk factors for bipolar disorder. (PMID: 19088739) Schulze T.G. … McMahon F.J.(Mol. Psychiatry 2009)
2. Collaborative genome-wide association analysis supports a role for ANK3 and CACNA1C in bipolar disorder. (PMID: 18711365) Ferreira M.A. … Craddock N.(Nat. Genet. 2008)
3. Chromosomal localization of the ankyrinG gene (ANK3/Ank3) to human 10q21 and mouse 10. (PMID: 7665168) Kapfhamer D. … Burmeister M.(Genomics 1995)
4. Association of a risk allele of ANK3 with cognitive performance and cortical thickness in patients with first-episode psychosis. (PMID: 24016415) Cassidy C. … Joober R.(J Psychiatry Neurosci 2014)
5. Cognitive effects of the ANK3 risk variants in patients with bipolar disorder and healthy individuals. (PMID: 24655771) Hori H. … Kunugi H.(J Affect Disord 2014)
6. Analysis of ANK3 and CACNA1C variants identified in bipolar disorder whole genome sequence data. (PMID: 24716743) Fiorentino A. … Gurling H.M.(Bipolar Disord 2014)
7. ANK3 gene expression in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. (PMID: 24809399) Wirgenes K.V. … Djurovic S.(Br J Psychiatry 2014)
8. Genetic association of LMAN2L gene in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and its interaction with ANK3 gene polymorphism. (PMID: 24914473) Lim C.H. … Mohamed Z.(Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry 2014)
9. Cis-acting regulation of brain-specific ANK3 gene expression by a genetic variant associated with bipolar disorder. (PMID: 22850628) Rueckert E.H. … Sklar P.(Mol. Psychiatry 2013)
10. Homozygous and heterozygous disruptions of ANK3: at the crossroads of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. (PMID: 23390136) Iqbal Z. … Rooms L.(Hum. Mol. Genet. 2013)
11. Family-based association of an ANK3 haplotype with bipolar disorder in Latino populations. (PMID: 23715300) Gonzalez S.D. … Escamilla M.(Transl Psychiatry 2013)
12. Independent Modulation of Engagement and Connectivity of the Facial Network During Affect Processing by CACNA1C and ANK3 Risk Genes for Bipolar Disorder. (PMID: 24108394) Dima D. … Frangou S.(JAMA Psychiatry 2013)
13. Sequencing of the ANKYRIN 3 gene (ANK3) encoding ankyrin G in bipolar disorder reveals a non-conservative amino acid change in a short isoform of ankyrin G. (PMID: 22328486) Dedman A. … Gurling H.(Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 2012)
14. Bipolar disorder ANK3 risk variant effect on sustained attention is replicated in a large healthy population. (PMID: 22498896) Hatzimanolis A. … Stefanis N.C.(Psychiatr. Genet. 2012)
15. ANK3 and CACNA1C--missing genetic link for bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder in two German case-control samples. (PMID: 22647524) Kloiber S. … Lucae S.(J Psychiatr Res 2012)
16. Mutations of ANK3 identified by exome sequencing are associated with autism susceptibility. (PMID: 22865819) Bi C. … Sun Z.S.(Hum. Mutat. 2012)
17. ANK3 as a risk gene for schizophrenia: new data in Han Chinese and meta analysis. (PMID: 23109352) Yuan A. … Yu S.(Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 2012)
18. The cognitive impact of the ANK3 risk variant for bipolar disorder: initial evidence of selectivity to signal detection during sustained attention. (PMID: 21304963) Ruberto G. … Frangou S.(PLoS ONE 2011)
19. Association of ANK3 with bipolar disorder confirmed in East Asia. (PMID: 21438140) Takata A. … Kato T.(Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 2011)
20. The CACNA1C and ANK3 risk alleles impact on affective personality traits and 21. startle reactivity but not on cognition or gating in healthy males. (PMID: 21676128) Roussos P. … Bitsios P.(Bipolar Disord 2011)
22. ANK3, CACNA1C and ZNF804A gene variants in bipolar disorders and psychosis subphenotype. (PMID: 21767209) Lett T.A. … MA1ller D.J.(World J. Biol. Psychiatry 2011)
23. Association analysis of ANK3 gene variants in nordic bipolar disorder and schizophrenia case-control samples. (PMID: 21972176) Tesli M. … Andreassen O.A.(Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet. 2011)
24. No association between bipolar disorder risk polymorphisms in ANK3 and CACNA1C and common migraine. (PMID: 21395576) WAPber-BingAPl C. … Collier D.A.(Headache 2011)
25. Evidence for cis-acting regulation of ANK3 and CACNA1C gene expression. (PMID: 20636642) Quinn E.M. … Morris D.W.(Bipolar Disord 2010)
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PTSD (post traumatic stress disorder) is a psychological disorder after a person is exposed to trauma (directly or indirectly). It is characterized by intrusive thoughts, flashbacks of the event, night mares, sleep disturbances, avoidance, negative emotions and beliefs, lasting for one month.
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Yes, survivors of mild to moderate burns can also develop PTSD. The severity of the trauma (in this case, extension and depth of burns) is a predictor, but other peri-traumatic variables, especially perceived threat, plus posttraumatic variables such as social support, are important predictors, as are pre-traumatic factors such as gender, pre-traumatic psychiatric morbidity, etc.
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There is evidence of rich input and output connectivity between claustrum and cerebral cortex. Cerebral cortex is responsible for a wide range of higher functions including information processing.
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The attached makes a case for Brodmann areas 24/25 being involved in depression and its rapid amelioration by intranasal ketamine.
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In patients with schizophrenia, after several times of relapse, the patients' response to previous antipsychotic medication seems to become poor or take longer time to achieve response. Is there any hypothesis to explain this phenomenon ? 
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of applications of neuroscience discoveries and and how they promise major paradigm shifts in how we can study, understand, diagnose and treat mental illness. As a related issue, I would appreciate any reference to study of how a chemical treatment has corrected an identified brain system impairment. I don't know of such a study. Also know have read only a small portion of the monumental literature.
I would suggest you start by confronting the lack of any operational foundation for
"treatment resistance"- the fact of a treatment that is failing to reduce symptoms
might be labeled more realistically as an "ineffective agent"
a more rewarding search would be for treatment interventions- suggest that
one reason for turning to mystification concepts like "treatment resistance"
research is the almost universal focus on symptom reductions as evidence for
improving health- symptoms consist of observed behavior pathologies and self-report of
distorted thinking - reduction  of these symptoms are taken as evidence for
improvement in biological health- before recent advances in brain imaging technology,
behavior and thinking were the main sources for conclusions about brain biology
and therapy effectiveness- in the branch of biology known as neuroscience, there
have emerged hundreds of studies of neuroplasticity- along with other findings
about what some brain structures and systems are designed to do, they found
that the brain can make durable changes in its  own internal biology -
neuroplasticity refers to physical biochemical changes which are always
involved as part of any learning experience- these developments have opened
the door to implications of general systems theory- behavior pathologies are
sometimes symptoms of brain system malfunctions- treating behavior problems
as if they are independent pieces of a lego set will generate a lot of confused
thinking as well as interventions that produce so many adverse effects- we do
keep finding unexplained issues like a medicine that is supposed to improve
neurological activity, produces movement disorders and, more recently,
major endocrine disruptions-
Very helpful if more awareness and application of neuroscience findings-
recommend a couple of useful reads that bear on the issues you presented-
Dr. Jeffrey Schwartz' project in the UCLA Psychiatry department, with his
team designed and applied a psychotherapy protocol for treating OCD, drawing
on neuroscience findings in neuroplasticity- they applied psychotherapy
interventions that have a history  of effectiveness for healthy changes in behavior
- they also included learning experiences that corrected impairments in brain
structures implicated in OCD behavior and thinking- to assess corrections
in brain biology, they did not lmit themselves to inferences, but observed
  • brain changes with (f)MRIs-his book is The Mind and the Brain
My Kindle Neuroplastiicity-Biology of Psychotherapy provides an overview
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In 2006 the UN adopted the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CDPcD); This suggests a profound change of look-interventionist welfare, one integrator preventive model. Of the most relevant and has caused more debate articles is the 12th referring to the legal capacity of persons with disabilities; This is particularly relevant in relation to involuntary placement of persons with severe psychiatric disorders. This presents a review of the relationship between psychiatric disorders and psychosocial disabilities, some reforms have been conducted in various countries with regard to their models of mental health disorders that are considered most disabling globally and some strategies for weigh the level of disability that may occur; as well as the situation in Mexico of these and the existing debate between some rights and involuntary detention of these patients.
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Best Mario
You make an excellent Point of the psychiatrist´s `double Agency` and indeed a quite peculiar one. Coercive psychiatric care is, at least to me, easier to accept when it is based on the patient-psychiatrist relationship, i.e. when the life, health and function of the patient is at risk. The minute coercive psychiatric care is based on assessment of the patient being potential risk to society, I find it more or less outrageous.
Especially considering all research that show that severe mental disorder (e.g. psychosis) is small potato in comparison to substance abuse etc. The fact that a severe mental illness is a necessary condition to be locked up TO PREVENT bad things (e.g. violent crime) is in my opinion nothing but wrong (morally, legally, scientificallly).
Nevertheless this is the case in a majority/all European countries and it leds to stigma of an already vulnerable Group in our society.
Until further notice, Pontus
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Expressed emotionality has been defined in respect of family members with psychiatric disorders. However, people who face different behavioral and psychosocial problems may also have family members with high expressed emotionality. Are there any studies regarding that? And what about EE on a continuum of any illness like schizophrenia or bipolar ?
Are there any scales (studies) to assess Expressed Emotionality (EE) in healthy individuals, who may be at risk of developing a psychiatric disorder ?
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.What are the educational programs can be used with the problem of fear of school?
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Parental engagement in the child's learning and schooling can minimize the problem of child's fear of school. Look for the report titled 'Parental engagement in learning and schooling: Lessons from research'  by the Australian Research Alliance for Children & Youth (ARACY).
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Many old and new treatments for psychiatric disorders involve vestibular stimulation. These include swings and roundabouts; emetics and anti-emetics (eg chlorpromazine); ECT, which I think works by resetting the vestibular system; immersion of head in cold water (equivalent to bilateral cold caloric test). So would someone like to take some psychotics to an amusement park and see if they are helped by a roller coaster ride?
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Okay, that one takes the cake. Good luck w/ the approvals for that.
However, you are right that this is one of the oldest applications of vestibular stimuli. There is a fellow in Britain who writes interesting vestibular history papers. His name slips my mind but if you open my recent publication list and get me email, I will look him up from work for you.
My view is that some of the best evidence for the "calming" effects of vestibular stimuli on psychiatric folks are somewhat confounded with the "sopite syndrome." In other words, it needs to be understood whether the "resetting" is motion-sickness-related. I can send you more on this if you email me separately.
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In this study I have always been perceived that AIP was the main findings, however when looking at the results again I am not sure if there is an error in the findings or I have been blinded (most likely the latter) to think that AIP has been the main finding of this study but in actual fact PCTis,  where his main finding as far as the results of the urine tests. In his results he states that 4 were positive PBG and 270 positive porphyrins, his final conclusion was that his study found 7 with AIP and 4 with PCT. I hope this makes sense. I am using this study in my thesis.  I have enclosed a copy of the article. Thanks Karen
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1) There were a total of 1774 patients in the survey
2) 4 patients had raised urinary porphobilinogen levels (call it group PBL)
3) 270 patients had raised urinary porphyrin levels (call it group POR)
4) 4 patients had both raised (call it group BOTH)
5) 1774-278=1496 did not have raised levels (call it group NONE)
6) In the 278 patients with raised levels, 7 had AIP (clinically) and 2 had PCT (clinically), but we are not told from which of the above groups each of them came from.
7) we are told that 268 patients from group POR did not have PCT, so presumably 2 did have PCT (as opposed  to AIP)
8) 268 in group POR had alcohol problems, and the authors give three reasons as to why this group had  raised porphyrin levels
So, this survey shows that porphyria is rare  in psychiatric inpatients with a point prevalence of 9/1774 (0.5%) in this survey. The chance of porphyria when there was a positive test result was 9/278 (3.2%, which is the sensitivity of the test ), and the chance of not having porphyria if the test was negative was 1496/1496 (100%, ie the specificity of the test). This survey showed that other factors can raise urinary porphyrin levels.
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i am looking for a good dissociation questionnaire, other than the DES. i would like something that had been validated and has been cited often.
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The most robust objective diagnostic measure of dissociative disorders is the multidimensional inventory of dissociation (MID).
Dell, P. F. (2006). The multidimensional inventory of dissociation (MID): A comprehensive measure of pathological dissociation. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 7(2), 77-106.
Members of the International Society for the Study of Trauma and Dissociation can download it directly from the members’ area at: http://www.isst-d.org/
It is freely available upon request—without charge—to all mental health professionals from Dr. Paul F. Dell. PFDell@aol.com
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I have thought of 8 session Relapse Prevention module and Motivational Interviewing module already.
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You might want to check out this book:  Cognitive-Behavioural Integrated Treatment (C-BIT): A Treatment Manual for Substance Misuse in People with Severe Mental Health Problems
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Homocysteine and severity of psychiatric disorders.
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There has been a recent review of this debatable question by Singh & others. It seems that at least a reasonable correlation with depression is there.
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I need to know more about this distinction and the discussion going on about these two 'types' of psychopathology.
I also need to know more about the person who first made this distinction in psychopathology.
Thank you!
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I am interested in:
  • synthesis of evidence for the elements that make up the model
  • research on the introduction of S-V as a form of psychoeducation
  • development of multimedia methods of explaining the model
  • patient outcomes as a result of being exposed to S-V psychoeducation 
I have found the patient acceptability for the model to be very high, but I foresee problems in being able to demonstrate patient outcomes - other than knowledge acquisition.
Thanks in advance,
Richard.
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Many are now calling it resilience research used in different context - veterans health, mass disasters, children and women's health i nthe context of early trauma, aging, HIV, etc
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In the studies that concern associations between DUP and various outcome categories, the participants are always treated, they just differ in the duration of illness before receiving the first treatment. From a purely scientific point of view, it seems to me that treatment is an intervening variable that cannot be controlled and therefore the measured results are distorted. Do you know any study where a treated and a truly untreated samples are compared?
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I'm looking for some articles on the level of insight individuals with personality disorders have.
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I would suggest the work of Rudi Vermote (KU Leuven), a psychoanalytic approach to personality disorders and insight/mentalisation. He did his PhD on this topic and published several articles on this subject.
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This refers to The Adolescent Depression knowledge Questionnaire with authors Hart, S.R, et.al
How may I receive permission to use the scale?
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Hello Mary
You probably have found the answer by now, but I didn't know if you were aware that the authors were members of ResearchGate; if you have not yet gained permission, it might be worth contacting them:
Hart, S. R., Kastelic, E. A., Wilcox, H. C., Beaudry, M. B., Musci, R. J., Heley, K. M., ... & Swartz, K. L. (2014). Achieving Depression Literacy: The Adolescent Depression Knowledge Questionnaire (ADKQ). School Mental Health, 6(3), 213-223.
Good luck and very best wishes
Mary
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There seems to be quite a bit of short-term research, but I wonder if anyone out there is doing long-term research – 20-year or 10-year incidence of serious psychiatric disorders.
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Béatrice – thank you very much for your help. My malaria maven down the corridor is interested in conducting some research into this, and my own interest is in the potential role of mefloquine in triggering a psychotic episode in vulnerable people – probably teens and early twenties – similar to the effect of cannabis. It's a tricky design, because the exposed group will have travelled abroad, making selection of controls an issue.
Lars - good to hear from you! I hope all is well.
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I included psychiatric ADRs following surgery on the web site www.april.org.uk and was astonished at the amount of feed back from the public.
 
Suicides including that of James the son of Clare Milford-Haven just around 10 days after his surgery. My daughter's sudden onset of psychosis 7 days after her wisdom teeth were removed were not the only stories of post operative psychiatric disturbance recorded. 
 
A lady doctor contacted me as her son also became paranoid just 7 days after surgery. A man who had surgery and was given co-amoxiclav became paranoid and under section was given anti-psychotics he felt he did not need as he was recovering. He feels the anti-psychotic medication damaged his brain and recovery is slow...None of these people had a previous history of psychiatric illness. a case of co-amoxiclav induced psychosis was reported in a letter and spoken of at our conference by anaesthetist Dr Anita Holdcroft in 2008.
 
My daughter had previously suffered a sudden onset of psychosis following taking sulphasalazine...when I asked her anaesthetist if there are guidelines given to anaesthetists, about which drugs or anaesthetic agents to avoid for patients known to be vulnerable to psychiatric ADRs - I was told this was not covered in the medical education he received.
I have followed up with the Royal College of Anaesthetists and find there is poor communication in the gathering of ADR information following surgery and linked to anaesthetics...The MHRA have refused to reinstate the Yellow Card reporting forms specifically for anaesthetists. The system for reporting and collating information does not seem to have improved since guidelines following the D of H Inquiry into Dental Anaesthesia in 2000 (A Conscious Decision).
 
The Report published July 2000  recommended the RCA should collect ADR information. A Professor at the Royal College of Anaesthetists, I knew personally, stated he could not inform the membership as he "Did not have the resources". I asked him to try and he stated " Well it is only a recommendation”.
The Report  by the Chief Medical Officer and Chief Dental Officer recommended' the following:
 
It is recommended that the extent of morbidity associated with general anaesthesia and conscious sedation is recorded and analysed by the Royal College of Anaesthetists and the Society for the Advancement of Anaesthesia in Dentistry respectively. In addition it is recommended that the General Dental Council’s guidance more specifically addresses the need for dentists to comply with the need to report to the appropriate bodies adverse events and reactions, as a matter of good professional practice.
Surely this 'good professional practice' applies to the need to report and collate ADR information on drugs prescribed or used during, before or following surgery? 
 
Full report is archived here: 
 
My concern is there is little attention paid to this directive and my research recently finds it is not clear how anaesthetists or GPs record ADRs following surgery or if there is any effort to rectify this lack of data collection. Furthermore medical education should include the understanding of drugs that affect mental capacity and trigger psychiatric disturbance and the need to understand pharmacogenetics and how some people are vulnerable to psychiatric ADRs.
Coroners do not have to record on death certificates if a person recently had surgery.
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There is a risk of secondary psychosis from many conditions that accompany surgery (anticipatory stress, anaesthetics, dehydration, fever, anemia, anoxia, postoperative pain, analgesics, insomnia, sensory and social isolation, disability, anorexia,,,,,,,,).Do you find that surgeons, dentists, anaesthetists are not sufficiently aware of this?
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Dear public,
I have the Manifestations, Causes, and Treatment of Schizophrenia Questionnaire test. But all of the questions are shortened, and it doesn't come with scoring instructions. I have permission to use the test through psychINFO but at this point it is unusable since I don't have enough information. I have contacted Furnham but I have not gotten a reply. Does anyone know where I can find the scoring instructions?
Thank you,
Erinn Szarek
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Dear Erinn, 
I have tried to locate that you want to have without success. Here is a link with an online schizophrenia test along with scoring instructions in case it helps you. 
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Beck depression inventory
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Thank you Beatrice
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There is environmental factors that influence children with ADHD?
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You might be interested in the following article: Harold, G. T. et al. Biological and rearing mother influences on child ADHD symptoms: revisiting the developmental interface between nature and nurture. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 54, 1038–1046 (2013).
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We are currently reviewing research findings about meta-cognitive beliefs (beliefs about cognitive processes that measured by Meta-cognitive Questionnaire and its variations). If you could share with us any unpublished data of meta-cognitive beliefs involving patients diagnosed with psychiatric disorders, we would appreciate a lot!
Thank you very much!
Best Wishes,
Kira Sun
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The phrasing of this seems to question the validity of client beliefs (though this may be only my perception), which concerns me.  I've encountered a wide variety of these over my years in practice, and they are sometimes more helpful for clients and their families than psychiatry's 'medical model' is.  No unpublished data available though.
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Support groups may be led by professionals or leaderless.  Groups may be divided by eating disorders or everyone together.  Support groups may be coed. Any information would be helpful.
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Hi Joann,
These resources may be of interest to you:
  • Comparative efficacy of spirituality, cognitive, and emotional support groups for treating eating disorder inpatients by P. S. Richards, M. E. Berrett, R. K. Hardman, & D. L. Eggett
  • Group Therapy for Adolescents Living With an Eating Disorder: A Scoping Review by Jessica Downey
  • Brief Group Psychotherapy for Eating Disorders: Inpatient Protocols edited by Kate Tchanturia
  • Group Therapies for the Treatment of Bulimia Nervosa by Lindsay T. Murn
Best wishes,
Stephen
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our institution does not conduct/record psychiatric ratings scales during routine clinical work. If I was to get 2 psychiatrists to read a chart independently, and try to assign CGI-S (severity) and CGI-I (improvement) scores as well as functioning scores like GAF/CGAS based on history notes at admission and discharge - would these be valid outcome measures for research purposes?
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Yep, I published an article doing a retrospective review of my psychology case notes. Its obviously not a perfect method - but it can be done. It describes the details in the article. Hope that helps.
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Greeting!
Could you please suggest any additional expected predictor of suicide among hospitalized psychiatric patients to be investigated for a future research?
This is the initial list:
1- being young,
2- male gender.
3- high level of education.
4- history of prior suicide attempts.
5- presence of depressive symptoms.
6- presence of active psychotic symptoms.
7- good insight to illness
Kind regards,,,
Ahmad.
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From my experiences doing epidemiological research studies in different countries (Japan and US),  the predictors are culture dependent.  Because each culture/country has different tendencies in terms of frequencies across age groups, gender differences, reasons for attempt, method of attempt, religious affiliations etc.  I'd be careful to generalize findings from other cultures.  Good luck with your research!
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Causation determinations
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Mol Psychiatry. 2012 Jan;17(1):11-21. doi: 10.1038/mp.2011.70. Epub 2011 Jun 14.
Levels of explanation in psychiatric and substance use disorders: implications for the development of an etiologically based nosology.
Kendler KS
Abstract
The soft medical model for psychiatric illness, which was operationalized in DSM-III, defines psychiatric disorders as syndromes with shared symptoms, signs, course of illness and response to treatment. Many in our field want to move to a hard medical model based on etiological mechanisms. This essay explores the feasibility of this move and asks whether psychiatric disorders have the needed single clear level of explanation for an etiologically based nosology. I propose seven criteria for a good explanation: (i) strength, (ii) causal confidence, (iii) generalizability, (iv) specificity, (v) manipulability, (vi) proximity and (vii) generativity. Applying them to cystic fibrosis, a gene-level approach to etiology performs well across the board. By contrast, a detailed review of alcohol dependence and a briefer review of major depression suggests that psychiatric disorders have multiple explanatory perspectives no one of which can be privileged over others using scientific data alone. Therefore, a move toward an etiologically based diagnostic system cannot assume that one level of explanation will stand out as the obvious candidate on which to base the nosology. This leaves two options. Either a hard medical model will be implemented that will require a consensus about a preferred level of explanation which must reflect value judgments as well as science. To take this approach, we need to agree on what we most want from our explanations. Alternatively, we will need to move away from the traditional hard medical model that requires that we ground our diagnoses in single biological essences, and focus instead on fuzzy, cross-level mechanisms, which may more realistically capture the true nature of psychiatric disorders.
PMID: 21670729 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] PMCID: PMC3215837
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I am looking for US graduate programs and I beginning my search by finding potential research mentors. My research interests specifically encompass identity and interpersonal problems associated with borderline personality disorder.  
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I would suggest you look into the Personality Disorders Institute & it's associated psychology training programs at Weill Cornell Medical College and the psychology programs at the University of Washington.  The former is lead by O. Kernberg and the latter has M. Linehan on its faculty.
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Is there any evidence or personal clinical experience regarding the efficacy of antidepressants for depressive disorder and anxiety disorder in patients with carbon monoxide intoxication?
When a patient has previous history of depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder and later attempted suicide with subsequent carbon monoxide intoxication, is there any literature discussing the efficacy of antidepressants before or after the intoxication? Would the original antidepressant before the intoxication still be the best choice?
Would CO intoxication-induded Parkinsonism of the patient influence the choice of antidepressant?
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Once I had a patient who attempted suicide with carbon monoxide. She was with her baby, as how could the baby survive without her? She lived and was charged with homocide. I helped to get her hospitalized and eventually she was monitored as a psychiatric out-patient. This and other cases are discussed in my book, "Transforming Depression : Healing the Soul through Creativity." The 3rd edition (2002) is the most up to date. 
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I am looking at what the impact would be on timeliness and quality of discharge if nurses were able to make discharge decisions in the absence of a Consultant Psychiatrist. Any expereinces of thoughts on the subject would be appreciated.
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Hi,
This is an interesting question, Doctors take decision for discharge, but that will be supported by the Nurse. I have done a discharge protocol for staff nurses during discharge, which shows the discharge programe was so effective, but the decision was taken by the consultant. 
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We are launching now in Cambridge MA with sites planned in Montreal and London in 2014. --Devin Hosea -- devin@alumni.princeton.edu -- for more detailed info than web synopsis below. Would very much appreciate comments from the ADDICTION MEDICINE and MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY communities. Thanks!
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Robert, we have moved the website to www.predicticare.com, and my full time affiliation is now with PredictiCare, the non-profit arm of which runs the Virtual Hospital for Addiction using PredictiCare software.  I look forward to your comments.
Devin Hosea, PredictiCare, Inc, 760 Chapel St., New Haven, CT 06510 USA - +1 609 558 8808  devin@predicticare.com
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If anyone has any papers or knowledge regarding any novel interventions that have suggested it is a preventative rather than remedial measure for combat stress or memories of traumatic events, I would be very grateful :)
Thanks
Holly
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R. Leckey Harrison, I will refrain from correcting mistakes in your understanding save to state that Benson learned about TM from his graduate student, Robert Keith Wallace, who was a TM teacher, and that breathing concentration prevents transcending. There is a big difference between the PTSD results achievable with TM and the results achievable through methods of concentration and contemplation.
But we don't have to agree on all this now. Research is in progress which should show clearly the superiority of transcending as an intervention for PTSD over all other methods, mental or otherwise, as a result of TM's proven effectiveness at dissolving stress stored in the nervous system in general.
Again, since such facts are as yet little-iknown, there is no need for me to try to convince anyone now; I'm content to wait for the research to be published within the next few years.
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I am interested to find out if anyone is using this online tool that was developed here in WA. If so, what do you like about it and if this is new to you would you be willing to use it?
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I would be interested to offer an opinion on the GMSA but have not seen it.  
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Can anyone recommend literature on hepatits C and depression/psychiatric disorders as hcv-induced comorbidity?
regards!
chaim
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Thank you very much!
Chaim
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We are currently reviewing research findings regarding 'jumping to conclusions' bias (a data-gathering bias typically measured by the beads task and its variants). If you could share with us any unpublished data of the JTC bias involving patients with psychosis or other psychiatric disorders, we'd love to hear from you!
Thank you very much!
Regards,
Suzanne So
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A good example of the "jumping to conclusions" bias is shown by all those psychiatric researchers who find structural brain abnormalities in psychosis, and conclude that these must be the primary cause of the disease rather than the result.
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I am interested to conduct a baseline survey (and aimed to extend it), however to accomplish this task I haven't acquired any purposeful literature. If anyone ll provide me literature of self-regulation in relation with health regulation, that would be more appreciable.
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Well dear aging is nature but nature has no aging :)
In our Punajbi culture we used to say that Heart should be young, aging is useles!!
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By acute services I am referring to home treatment, crisis, respite and acute inpatients services.
By co-production, I am referring to services that have been co-designed and/or delivered with service users and/or people who have a lived experience of using this type of service.
Examples of co-production in mental health services tend to focus on primary and secondary care, so we have examples of Therapeutic Communities or third sector services that use the co-production model.
I am interested in any case studies, examples of services (I am based in the UK but am open to whatever is going on elsewhere), evaluations, research or other papers on this subject.
I am also interested in any work that has been done on improving the experience of service users who experience psychological distress and are admitted to acute services. In particular, presenting with self-harm, suicidal ideation, considered of danger to themselves or others - the types of presentations that are associated with personality disorders.  These types of presentations are often viewed as problematic in acute services as they are not purely biological and cannot be solely treated with medication.  Any work that has been done around improving services, treatment, staff confidence, reduction of stigma in this area would be very helpful.
As you can see, I'm quite open regarding ideas/papers that may inform this, as I am aware that work regarding co-production and improving the experience of service users who experience psychological distress in Acute services is not abundantly available at the moment!
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Hi Tamar,
I'm coming in a bit late here, but thought this might be useful:
The Maudsley hospital has a specialist day service for people with a diagnosis of personality disorder:
I also know there is a crisis house in South London and Maudsley Trust.
This is a co-produced piece of research into service user views of alternatives to inpatient care:
There is also the literature on the harm minimisation approach for self harm, which I know is being implemented in some inpatient services, e.g:
I am really interested self harm and crisis services, and also co-production, so would love to hear more about what you are up to!
With best wishes,
Karen
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Parents of children with ASD are frequently asking me about oxygen therapy for their children. I need some evidences about the topic. Do you agree using Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for autism? is there any evidence about it?
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No. There is no scientific evidence that it can. This is yet another pseudoscientific "cure" for autism that gives false hope to vulnerable, desperate parents.
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Suicidology is a comparatively new field of inquiry but it appears to have acquired, as Kuhn (The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 1962) would say, a paradigm. This concept proposes that in any field there is a set of widely shared assumptions. The paradigm defines the field and shapes the rules of the game. The paradigm determines what gets studied, the methods, and how the findings are interpreted. It defines the needs addressed. A paradigm supplies "all the answers" to researchers' and practitioners' questions. A paradigm is self-sustaining. Its tenets are defended and change is resisted. What I call the "mental illness model" seems, to some degree, to serve this purpose in suicidology. Mental illness is the prevailing risk factor for suicide. The psychological autopsy, which has been called "the gold standard," consistently finds clear signs of mental illness in 90% of suicide victims. It is argued that the other 10% also had mental illness but either the signs or the research were not strong enough to reveal the presence of a disorder. Suicide is, ipso facto, associated with mental illness because anyone felt to be suicidal by providers, police, or ER physicians has a high probability of having their risk assessed by a psychiatrist and a very good chance of at least a short stay in an inpatient psychiatric setting. Inevitably those determined to be suicidal to any degree acquire a psychiatric diagnosis. Better and/or more accessible mental health treatment is regularly touted as best way to prevent suicide at every age. However, perhaps a "paradigm shift" is gaining momentum as the theoretical models of Joiner and O'Connor, which do not assign priority to mental illness, take hold. What do you think?
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Dear Tony
Thanks for bringing up this critical question and domain of discussion. While I believe this discussion has certainly been on the agenda for a long time, it's only now becoming more 'hot', and (at least in Australia), seeping into different government hands within the mental health folio's. There are two issues: What the emerging evidence is telling us - re mental illness being prevalent in fact, in less than (up to) 90% of suicide cases; and, whether such science actually gets translated into theoretically informed policy and/or practice efforts.
We recently did a study - below - entitled: Beyond psychopathology: Pathways to suicide in mentally well young adult males [as part of an Australian Research Council Discovery Project (2008-2011)].
The goal of this study was to investigate suicide risk factors among adult males in Australia (25-44 age) with no psychiatric diagnosis. The psychological autopsy (interviews with the next-of-kin of the suicide victims) was used together with analysis of coronial, police and medical files and compared with a control group of sudden death victims. The study investigated whether there are any differences in the contributing risk factors, their relative influences etc, in order to develop and implement targeted suicide prevention initiatives beyond those based on a medical/psychiatric treatment paradigm.
Articles are still being published I believe, but here is one below worth reading - which concludes by not only confirming the cultural differences in diagnosis and conceptualization of mental illness, but also the different employed methods for measurement of mental illness (which has a huge impact - especially since historically due to the predominant 'mental illness' model, we tend to 'search' for mental illness biased in the very questions we ask - rather than hearing the 'story' or experience of the individual). Plus, use of the psych autopsy method - based on interviewing of the NOK may is also known to be biased re this issue - simply due to the 'required need' to have an explanation attached to the suicide (not in all, but numerous cases). and several other issues.
... MILNER A, SVETICIC J, DE LEO D: Suicide in the absence of mental disorder? A review Psychological Autopsy studies across countries. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 2012; ePub(ePub): ePub.
Another excellent recent article which may be of some use... especially for informing government policy and practice... and hopefully historical changes in our interpretations of this 'behaviour'.
Health and Psychosocial Service Use among Suicides without Psychiatric Illness
Yik Wa Law, Paul W. C. Wong and Paul S. F. Yip
With Joiner's and O'Connor's (welcomed) models however, must come useful and evidence based 'treatment' (also currently gaining momentum) which take a multifaceted approach to treatment - so that we not only 'interpret' the behavior as multifaceted, but such a model informs directly (and testable) treatment responses. I still think we need to direct much more NRG to this space (of investigation and response) since it is very slow to impact policy and societal deeply ingrained stigma. Japan is an excellent example of a suicide prevention action from a multifaceted perspective, with government mandated responses to SP from all sectors (health, mental health, transport, finance, drug and alcohol, workplace etc); and scientifically proven positive impacts.  Let us not forget that even if mental illness is a major factor in many cases, the issues experienced by the person as a result of the mental illness have been shown over and over again to be of high importance (e.g. discrimination re job opportunities; unemployment, stigma, isolation etc etc).
Yes Tony, I think we need a paradigm shift towards a more multifaceted understanding of suicide; which I believe is slowly coming; so that we target and impact 'all' those who are suicidal; with still due attention to those who's mental illness remains a major contributing factor.
WR
jacinta
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Nitrofurantoin (NF)-induced adverse effects have been reported frequently, although NF seems to be a first line treatment for lower urinary infections according to the last E.U. and U.S. guidelines. However its use in psychiatric patients should be reviewed with a great caution. In these cases the use of penicillin is therefore sometimes more appropriate, although the total antibiotic consumption rises. Because of NF use, a dose adjustment because of its adverse events (hallucinations) is also possible and cooperation with clinical pharmacist is beneficial in these cases. What do you think?
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This is true Dr.stuhec
Nitrofurantoin should be avoided in geriatric patients in general not only in psychiatric patients.
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Antipsychotic polypharmacy refers to the co-prescription of more than one antipsychotic drug for an individual patient. According to the many studies consumption of clozapine in patients with chronic schizophrenia is still low (about 25 %) and antipsychotic polypharmacy prevalence before clozapine use is very high, although the evidence usually does not support its use. How to manage patients with chronic schizophrenia with higher clozapine consumption?
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Hi Matec,
Polypharmacy in psychosis is ill-adviced. It is associated with high rates of morbidity and increase in mortality. Clozapine mono therapy should probably be used more often. Also, note a recent study on the American Journal of Psychiatry by Petrifies et al. regarding the concurrent use of clozapine and electroconvulsive therapy for clozapine-resistant schizophrenia where excellent results were found (Petrides G, Malur C, Braga RJ, Bailine SH, Schooler NR, Malhotra AK, Kane JM,
Sanghani S, Goldberg TE, John M, Mendelowitz A. Electroconvulsive therapy
augmentation in clozapine-resistant schizophrenia: a prospective, randomized
study. Am J Psychiatry. 2015 Jan;172(1):52-8. doi:
10.1176/appi.ajp.2014.13060787. Epub 2014 Oct 31. PubMed PMID: 25157964)
Best regards,
Fidel
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There are vast number of (bio/ electro/ chemical/ optical) sensors available in the market for measuring contaminants in drinking water to various diseases.
Is there any sensor available (or under development) to provide advance warning like your depression level is going to be very high after few hours and there is a chance that either you are going to shout at home or  you may commit suicide. So either control yourself or take rest. 
Is there any information available about sensor for measuring depression. 
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Dear Béatrice,
Your point is well taken. But not everyone with a major life stressor will develop a depressive disorder or anxiety disorder, as people with resilience will just cope with the stressor. This study is preliminary, but anything that can help to predict who will indeed develop anxiety and depression after a major life stressor can conceivably help to prevent the conversion to disorder.