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Psychedelics - Science topic

For people interested in psychedelic/hallucinogen research
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For my masters in psychology I'm investigating some potential crossover effects between 12-step facilitation and the use of psychedelic drugs for the treatment of substance abuse. I'm looking to recruit those who currently attend 12-step meetings, and those who attend but have also used a psychedelic to aid in their recovery. I intend to compare the two groups on certain measures related to their recovery journey.
I have asked permission on various threads on Reddit specifically related to 12-step facilitation, alcohol abuse and drug abuse but have been denied access on all occasions. I have also tried to target In the Rooms, a social media site dedicated to those in recovery, but was also turned away. Understandably, these online spaces want to create a safe and welcoming place for people to share their experiences, not one filled with survey links. Also, as 12-step attendance promotes total abstinence from all drugs, I'm sure the subject nature of my study is probably very off-putting to a lot of the gatekeepers of these communities. I created a facebook page and boosted a post for a week but with little to no pickup as it was impossible to target the 12-step population given the filters at my disposal, besides choosing countries with the highest number of 12-step fellowships.
I have had more success recruiting psychedelic users who also attend 12-step through sub-reddits related to psychedelics, as well as with some assistance from the a group dedicated to the combination of the two called Psychedelics in Recovery.
However, if anyone has any experience recruiting from the traditional 12-step population and is willing to share some useful advice I would be extremely grateful.
Please note that I can't afford to pay anyone for their participation.
Thanks.
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Ciaran
This is difficult for lots of reasons, epsecially for researchers, and common when researchers try to access a private or covert population group. It is also difficult not to create bias through the access by either accessing a biased sample or creating a Hawthorne effect. It is also important to avoid the criticism of non-participatory research of lack of continuity of relationship and interest only in the research. I find demonstrating and enacting genuine interest in social action can overcome this.
I do research this population but use co-productive methods, maintain contact and rely on intermediaries to create trust and to reach out to reluctant sections of the community. You need to cultivate relationships with your local groups, service providers or an intermediary who can introduce you. The important element is building the relationship and trust with the community and demonstrating personal interest as well as research interest.
I recommend taking a co-productive approach and build a relationship with mutual aid groups in recovery such as Faces and Voices in Recovery or your local SMART group. Your local 3rd sector service providers may also help as they will be inclusive of recovery champions who may be useful intermediaries. Your supervisor should also help if it is their field.
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I have been looking for good measurement tools to assess people's reasons/motivations for using psychedelics but have not had any luck finding validated or reliable measures... does anyone have suggestions or leads?
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Home > Mental Health Worksheets:
Motivation Worksheet- Substance Use Motivation Scale
I attach our paper:
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Hi all,
I am a student at the University of Bolton studying Psychology, Psychotherapy and Counselling, I am entering my third year in September. I will be doing my dissertation on psychedelics usage for mental health conditions.
Are there any qualitative questionnaires that people have come across for this use?
Thanks
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Good luck,
Psychedelic perceptions: mental health service user attitudes to ...
May 11, 2021 · Survey design. A questionnaire was designed based on previous studies [56, 57] to investigate the attitudes of mental health service users to psychedelics and psilocybin with....
Validation of the revised Mystical Experience Questionnaire in ...
These findings support the use of the MEQ30 as an efficient measure of individual mystical experiences. A method to score a “complete mystical experience” that was used in previous.....
The Mystical Experience Questionnaire (30 Questions) - Trippingly
Dec 24, 2020 · Factor 1: Mystical. Freedom from the limitations of your personal self and feeling a unity or bond with what was felt to be greater than your personal self. Experience of pure being....
Development of the Psychological Insight Questionnaire among a …
Jan 09, 2021 · To examine this feature of the psychedelic experience more precisely, the Challenging Experience Questionnaire (CEQ; Barrett et al., 2016) was created based on the....
...and perhaps they: Johns Hopkins Opens New Center for Psychedelic Research, might be of assistance.
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I am currently in the last steps of planning my PhD thesis, which focuses on some aspects of psychedelics. The first part of the project is a survey composed of multiple demographic questions, as well as information and scales about the participants' psychedelic experience.
Since the survey will be available without incentives (given the illegal nature of the topic), and could be a bit lengthy compared to other questionnaires, I am expecting some incomplete answers (most likely due to participant fatigue). Nevertheless, I have done pretty much everything to minimize this (survey as short as possible, estimated completion time, progress line, concise questions, limited open-ended questions etc.)
In my ethics application, I have written that given the illegal and stigmatized nature of the topic, incomplete answers will be treated as a voluntary withdrawal from the study, and the incomplete responses will be deleted as to maximize participant autonomy and privacy. Is this a good way to approach this? If not, what would you recommend?
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If there are few incomplete responses, you can replace them with the mean of the nearest two items or mean of the total of that item. However if the incomplete response are more, better is to drop the item/question as it will impact your results.
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Reality is likely a frame-stack, light particles hit the eye at different times but all these individual frames impact the receptors after one another and are stacked together.
High frequency variable focus cameras can pick up a 3D image with a single lens.
This means it is not so strange to still see in 3D with one eye closed.
Frames on salvinorin A can shake and bend vigorously.
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Hi,
A few of these references and cross-references be of help to you:
Iglesias JE, Insausti R, Lerma-Usabiaga G, et al. A probabilistic atlas of the human thalamic nuclei combining ex vivo MRI and histology. Neuroimage. 2018;183:314-326. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2018.08.012
Calvey T, Howells FM. An introduction to psychedelic neuroscience. Prog Brain Res. 2018;242:1-23. doi:10.1016/bs.pbr.2018.09.013
Duerler P, Brem S, Fraga-González G, et al. Psilocybin Induces Aberrant Prediction Error Processing of Tactile Mismatch Responses-A Simultaneous EEG-FMRI Study. Cereb Cortex. 2021;32(1):186-196. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhab202
Books: Barnard, George William;Richards, William -A Sacred knowledge: psychedelics and religious experiences. 2016.
Dr Peter Silverstone-The Promise of Psychedelics: Science-Based Hope for Better Mental Heath. Ingenium Books.2022
Tao LinTrip: Psychedelics, Alienation, and Change. Vintage Books. 2018
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This week's blog post is about a surprising recent trend in mental health treatment: psychedelic drugs are making a comeback. Far from the trippy image of the 1960s, these medications are now the subject of serious scientific study and have been featured in the pages of Good Housekeeping magazine. Yet they still carry risks. Here's a post on the current status of these treatments: https://sites.google.com/view/two-minds/blog
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Caution and control over experimental research is warranted until we know more about how various people will respond to doses of psychedelics.
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I am curious about whether or not there are potential benefits to psilocybin when relating to substance abuse and addiction treatment? Due to certain factors there has been a limited amount of research but I would love to learn more about this topic.
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Hi,
There are some investigative use in Depression and Anxiety:Also in Addiction.
Johnson MW, Griffiths RR. Potential Therapeutic Effects of Psilocybin. Neurotherapeutics. 2017 Jul;14(3):734-740. doi: 10.1007/s13311-017-0542-y
Nutt D. Psychedelic drugs-a new era in
psychiatry?
. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2019;21(2):139-147. doi: 10.31887/DCNS.2019.21.2/dnutt
Kvam TM, Stewart LH, Andreassen OA. Psychedelic drugs in the treatment of anxiety, depression and addiction. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2018 Nov 12;138(18). English, Norwegian. doi: 10.4045/tidsskr.17.1110
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Hello,
I am trying to find an online EEG dataset of people during psychedelics. Do you know any such dataset?
Thanks
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Hi,
i don't think Ethics committees approve such studies.
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Altered states of consciousness (ASC) induced by meditation, psychedelic drugs, or impending death are quite a fascinating but challenging field of investigation. By exploring the mechanisms behind essential phenomena in ASC from a unique perspective, we find out that ASC are a story about perception in nature: The interaction between two sources of stimulation to perception, the shutting down of perception, the filtering mechanism of perception and the delusions of perception.
At the meantime, we discover the correlation between Buddhism and ASC: the essence of Buddhist Vipassana is enhanced awareness in ASC.
Thereupon we introduce time dimension and reveal the science behind Buddhism.
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Dear Reza,
What I follow is Theravada Buddhism, therefore Vipassana after Samadhi is necessary for enlightenment.
Best,
Wenge
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Altered states of consciousness (ASC) induced by meditation, psychedelic drugs, or impending death are quite a fascinating and important field of investigation. This paper argues that ASC essentially have nothing to do with consciousness, but a story about perception. Furthermore, by introducing time dimension, we reveal the science behind Buddhism from a psychological perspective.
Our study starts from summarizing four essential phenomena (hallucinations, paranormal phenomena, mystical experiences and enhanced awareness) in ASC on the basis of empirical materials of Aldous Huxley, Timothy Leary and others.
Then we propose an original model for hallucinations as a breakthrough: When false internal stimulations and external objective stimulations affect perception together, the changes in their relative strength will result in the consistence, breakdown and re-consistence of the five senses, leading to three basic states of hallucinations (one can distinguish reality from fantasy, one cannot distinguish reality from fantasy, and reality and fantasy are totally reversed).
As an implication of this model, the third state of hallucinations suggests a novel hypothesis to interpret extrasensory perception (ESP): the essence of ESP is that false internal stimulations are mistaken as external objective stimulations which enter through sensory organs, while real external objective stimulations are mistaken as perceptions which do not result from sensory organs when one is in deep hallucinations. Moreover, in the second state of hallucinations, the inconsistence of the five senses can also explain various marvelous psychedelic phenomena in ASC in combination with the amplifying function of enhanced awareness discussed later and the mechanism of out-of-body experiences. Thus, we arrive at a conclusion that paranormal phenomena are simply illusions that happen along with deep hallucinations.
Mystical experiences occur in Samatha. Based on the experiential description, it can be inferred that the essence of Samatha is perception shutting down to activate a new mode of apperceiving, one totally different from the usual five sense mode of perception. Hallucinations also disappear because perception shuts down.
Enhanced awareness is highly significant in ASC and could be explained by a perception-filtering model in light of Henri Bergson’s innovative idea: In ordinary conditions, perception has a natural threshold for its sensitivity for the purpose of biological survival; but in ASC, awareness becomes more sensitive because the perception-filtering function gets weakened to allow the influx of more details, resulting in various unusual capabilities, one of which is Buddhist Vipassana.
Finally, we develop a universal framework comprising two dimensions (three mechanisms and three stages) to study ASC. By figuring out the complex relationship among them, we reveal the mystery between Buddhist tranquility and insight: Enhanced awareness after Samatha is the path to attain enlightenment.
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I rewrite the paper to make it more clear, accurate and unified. You can read my new paper at
Deleted research item The research item mentioned here has been deleted
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Recent research in cognitive neuroscience shows that the dopaminergic neurotransmission is correlated to creativity (both to the genesis of creative ideas and their elaboration). However, a direct stimulation of the dopaminergic neurotransmission is risky due to side-effects and an eventual blockade of creativity (and cognitive function in general).
Stimulation with psychedelics could provide some increase in creativity, but in larger doses it is also risky (due to e. .g. psychosis, loss of touch with reality, blockage of thought). The exception of the psychedelic 2-CB could provide an alternative (no 5-HT1A agonism). In this vein, it seems that the agonism at 5-HT2A receptors by 2-CB could enhance creativity safely (in moderate doses).
Therefore, can one assert that coffee (not only caffeine) can act in a similar way to 2-CB and in fact enhance creativity (by potentiating glutamatergic neurotransmission)?
Both coffee and 2-CB share the following characteristics required for creativity: an increase of associations and an increase of visual/conceptual acuity (a prerequisite for the gathering of the building blocks/details needed for the associations of ideas/images).
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If enhanced glutamatergic neurotransmission is the goal I wonder if the addition of l-theanine would be worth considering too. L-theanine and caffeine are found together in green tea.
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I'm looking for any research done on psychedelic assisted group psychotherapy. The research papers out there seem to be a challenge to access.
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Is it currently possible in the UK to carry out research studies on the interaction between animals and psychedelics? If yes, which drugs are allowed? Around the end of the year I'll start an MRes in Animal Behaviour, which belongs to a Neuroscience department; my previous undergrad dissertation was a summary of 8,000 words about the history of altered states of consciousness through different points of view (psychological, ethnic and anthropological, chemical etc.) so it would be amazing to continue my path through this line and maybe find some tangible feedbacks.
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Dear Michael Uebel,
That is why it s a shame, what will we learn form these experiments? Humans and animals are so different, how can we generalize the results to humans? It is just deceiving ourselves, doing pseudoscience. Sorry but it is true.
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The claustrum has remained one of the most enigmatic structures in the brain for several centuries. It is a thin, irregular sheet of gray matter, with one located on each side of the brain. It lies under the inner surface of the neocortex, below the general region of the insula, and above the outer surface of the putamen, with fiber tracts on each side: the extreme and external capsules. It has a small size, a very peculiar location and shape, and it is therefore probably very difficult to study it´s connections. It has the highest density of 5-HT2A receptors in the brain, and therefore it might be previously unrecognized, but also very important target of antipsychotics and psychedelics.
What is the exact function and role of the claustrum in the brain?
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Psilocybin is a naturally occurring psychedelic prodrug compound produced by more than 200 species of mushroom.
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This kind of research requires coordination between the DEA, NIDA, and FDA as this is a Class I controlled substance. Your state may also have specific requirements for Class I research too. Benchtop animal studies will be easier than human studies. There are also stringent storage and record keeping requirements for accountability. Good luck.
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Have any studies been done where someone on LSD or other psychedelic/hallucinogen - Has had a conversation with someone having a Psychotic Break?
Any type of 'connection' or interesting conversations, results, etc.?
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Unsure why I'm just seeing this now...
I'm asking if someone on LSD has talked to someone else having a psychotic break.
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I'm trying to define impact of substituted cathinones on depression. To my surprise, majority of my patients who use substituted cathinones are also using many other substances, but I have no detailed data about patients' other drugs usage except for the names of substances. I have detailed data on how often they take the cathinones though, therefore I want to divide the substances into 2 or 3 groups based on these substances' impact on depression for analytical reasons. I don't want to miss any approach during analyzing.
The full list I asked them about contains alcohol, marihuana, amphetamine, meth, MDMA, cocaine, ketamine, LSD/DMT/psylocybine and 2C phenethylamines and "others".
I thought about dividing them into stimulants, depressants and psychedelics, which seems the most reasonable fragmentation to do. Any thoughts?
Thank you!
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Hello, Gnieuwko,
Dividing by effect class is probably how most authors have written about them.  Since we know as much as we do about the pharmacodynamics of these drugs, it might be interesting to try sorting them according to their effects on transmitters and receptors.  For example, ketamine and their analogs are NMDA antagonists, and some are dopamine agonists, and even more likely to both briefly help depression, but then to aggravate it if psychosis is precipitated..  Cocaine and the amphetamines are re-uptake inhibitors of all the monoamines with short duration of action; they cause euphoria briefly, followed by potentially profound depression.  Approaching the so-called hallucinogens in that way, comparing and contrasting their pharmacodynamics  might be fun.  I'll look forward to your efforts.
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Hi,
I've seen several studies that used the HRS with different drugs but can't seem to find the items themselves.
I could find only the version in Portuguese.
Anyone knows where I might find them in English (or hebrew)?
Thanks!
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I already know about their use to treat anxiety, depression addiction, i'm looking for anything else about their use to treat anorexia nervosa or bulimia. Thanks
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We have a publication in press. It will be out very soon. Its focus is on aya and ED. I will post to research gate as soon as it is out!
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I am curious about the phenomenology of psychedelics states as experienced by individuals with endogenous psychosis. I would be interested in knowing what influence the normalization of psychotic states (as in chronic schizophrenia) would have on the interpretation and integration of psychedelic experiences. 
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Perhaps you'll find something useful in Sacred Knowledge: Psychedelics and Religious Experiences Hardcover – December 8, 2015
by William Richards (Author). Columbia University Press
Sacred Knowledge is the first well-documented, sophisticated account of the effect of psychedelics on biological processes, human consciousness, and revelatory religious experiences. Based on nearly three decades of legal research with volunteers, William A. Richards argues that, if used responsibly and legally, psychedelics have the potential to assuage suffering and constructively affect the quality of human life.
Richards's analysis contributes to social and political debates over the responsible integration of psychedelic substances into modern society. His book serves as an invaluable resource for readers who, whether spontaneously or with the facilitation of psychedelics, have encountered meaningful, inspiring, or even disturbing states of consciousness and seek clarity about their experiences. Testing the limits of language and conceptual frameworks, Richards makes the most of experiential phenomena that stretch our conception of reality, advancing new frontiers in the study of belief, spiritual awakening, psychiatric treatment, and social well-being. His findings enrich humanities and scientific scholarship, expanding work in philosophy, anthropology, theology, and religious studies and bringing depth to research in mental health, psychotherapy, and psychopharmacology.
Also Walter Pahnke's classic article may be helpful, The Contribution of the
Psychology of Religion to the Therapeutic Use of the Psychedelic Substances at http://www.psilosophy.info/resources/1967_Pahnke_2132_1.pdf
The classic Religious Aspects of Psychedelic Drugs by Walter Houston Clark is online sy http://scholarship.law.berkeley.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2829&context=californialawreview
Also Clark's The Psychedelics and Religion at https://erowid.org/entheogens/writings/clark_psychedelics.shtml
You may also find relevant discussion in the exhaustive Handbook of the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, Second Edition 2nd Edition
by Raymond F. Paloutzian PhD (Editor), Crystal L. Park PhD (Editor), Guilford Press
"Paloutzian and Park have done it again! This second edition matches the quality of its predecessor in providing a comprehensive review of current research. Chapters have been revised and others added that cast the net even farther over interdisciplinary and cross-cultural waters. Scholars and students will benefit greatly from having this valuable reference in hand; clinicians and those working in religious settings should not be without it."--W. Paul Williamson, PhD, Department of Psychology, Henderson State University
"The volume captures the intense fascination with religion and spirituality shared by authors from diverse psychological subdisciplines, as well as the complexity of the issues we face in creating a cohesive scientific agenda. The chapters are thoughtful, informed, and provocative, and they demonstrate how disciplinary perspectives shape definitions, what we search for, and what we find."--Susan Folkman, PhD, Professor of Medicine Emeritus, University of California, San Francisco
"The second edition of the Handbook brings this exciting, evolving field fully up to date, with chapters from a 'who's who' of leading scholars. All serious researchers, teachers, and clinicians who are engaged with the psychology of religion and spirituality must have this volume on their shelves. It also will be of great value as a graduate course text. I know my own copy will become well worn."--Thomas G. Plante, PhD, ABPP, Augustin Cardinal Bea, S.J., University Professor and Director, Spirituality and Health Institute, Santa Clara University
"This comprehensive, up-to-date volume offers compelling concepts and evidence on a broad spectrum of topics. As a text, it would be ideal in graduate courses in psychology, religious studies, and public health. The coverage of links between spirituality, religion, and health and disease issues is especially exciting."--Carl E. Thoresen, PhD, Professor Emeritus of Education, Psychology, and Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University
"A vital contribution to a vibrant and growing field of study. Paloutzian and Park have once again organized leading scholars to provide the latest research findings across major areas of both historical and contemporary relevance. Those steeped in the field will appreciate the synthetic focus on key issues, the interdisciplinary sophistication, and the attention to diversity. Newcomers to the psychology of religion and spirituality will find the chapters accessible, with a helpful overview of each area. This is an excellent text for graduate courses and an essential resource for researchers."--Steven J. Sandage, PhD, Albert and Jesse Danielsen Professor of Psychology and Theology at Boston University and the Danielsen Institute
"We're living in a time of great interest in how religion arises in human minds and then comes to influence them in profound ways. This handbook is both timely and comprehensive, bringing together an illustrious group of psychologists to explore all major aspects of the psychology of religion. An important resource for advanced students."--Ara Norenzayan, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia, Canada
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“participants rated the vividness of colour experiences and selected specific colours in response to a set of graphemes (letters/sounds like ‘S’, ‘U’, ‘OO’) and sounds in L SD and placebo conditions. Participants also independently completed measures of absorption and visual imagery” (Terhune et al. 2016). Is that a good measure for “experience of drug-induced synaesthesia-like experiences”. LSD volunteers are not reliable because they’re in no uncertain terms behaving unpredictably. The evidence suggests they are in a disorganised, creative, and free roaming state of consciousness (Kaelenso et al. 2014) to use any type of self-assessment would be fraught with subjectivity and miscommunication through their own sensitivity to emotional states and others, this is related to atypical experiences under the effect of psychedelic drugs. I don’t think it is feasible to test highly sensitive individuals, in lucid dream-like states of mind under controlled experimental conditions without controlling for said conditions, we would ideally need a condition control group as well as a placebo control condition group, although in my opinion a placebo control isn’t necessary because we are aware the drugs are having a distinct effect and do not need confirmation that these effects are not being caused by placebo effects. What we need to account for is the set and setting, the old idiom of many experienced users of psychedelic drugs, including but not limited to culturally relevant rituals, such as you may refer to in shamanic practices. Although these rituals are highly relevant in western societies too, referring to Free-Masonry practices where ritual is highly relevant in inducing specific states of consciousness.  
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I would like to relate Huston Smith's observation that classic placebo-controlled studies are ineffective, I would even say irrelevant, in psychedelic research since it quickly becomes apparent to all involved, subjects and researchers alike, who got the placebo and who got the psychedelic agent (he made such a comment after having been involved with the original Good Friday experiment). Moreover, such studies stem from the ethos of reductionist-materialist scientific practices - which are of value in clearly materialistic sciences like chemistry, for instance - in which the fantasy of "objective" science can be approximated. Ultimately all data obtained from experimentation must be interpreted by human beings, who are subjects. As I say this approach has practical value within the parameters of the Newtonian scientific worldview, which has been of enormous value in consensual reality; but becomes irrelevant, even ridiculous, to one who is in a psychedelic state. Not only are their rational communicative capabilities impaired - the observation of an outside observer - but their valuation of participating in such a study becomes laughable in their alternative/expanded state of reference. The research of Claudio Naranjo or Stanislav Grof, for instance, is more relevant. Here, a highly trained scientific observer of those in psychedelic states apply a qualitative analysis, which can really only be conducted after acquiring a significant corpus of experience and acknowledging that subjects can evaluate subjects only within a tentative theoretical framework - the ideal of true science in any case, where theory must be endlessly revised to match observation. Also, as Mr. Marks observed, synaesthesia is a fairly infrequent feature of psychedelic states.  Further, experiments meant to observe particular outcomes in psychedelic states cannot be crafted by design due to the highly individualistic nature of the entheogenic experience. I should mention my bias: I am a psychologist focusing on consciousness studies, which can only be a qualitative interpretation. This does not preclude rational and scientific study, but it does preclude the reductionist gold standard of objectivity and unswervingly reproducible outcomes.
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hi, im looking for any document about psychoactive plants or roots here in america before 1521, if u have some text where i could find information i'll be grateful
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Much of the online information is unfortunately second or third hand distillations of more reliable information, or just plain junk. Books are still your most reliable source of good and thorough information about this topic. 
The best general, popular, and encyclopedic coverage as an introduction is: 
Richard Evans Schultes, Albert Hoffman, and Christian Rätsch, 1998 Plants of the Gods: Their Sacred, Healing. and Hallucinogenic Powers (Revised and Expanded Edition). Healing Arts Press, Rochester, Vermont.
You can search online under Richard Evans Schultes and find some stuff that is not complete garbage. He is the grand old man of hallucinogenic plant research (especially in the New World), the"father" of ethnobotany, a really nice guy, forrner Harvard professor, and someone who was very interested in serious scholarship about hallucinogens, their effects, and uses. 
If you are interested in a popular book covering psilocybin and other hallucinogenic mushrooms, try: 
Riedlinger, Thomas L (ed.), 1990. TheSacred Mushroom Seeker: Tributes to R. Gordon Wasson. Park Street Press, Rochester, Vermont. 
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I think Merleau-Ponty's "brute world" is a sphere similar to the phenomenology of the psychedelic experience.
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I wrote a thesis on Merleau-Ponty years ago and always understood that the brute world refers to unreflective experience. In an important sense, as Artur points out and Csaba explores in the paper he wrote with his colleagues, Merleau-Ponty's philosophy with it's emphasis on the lived body provides an ideal framework through which to explore psychedelic experience. Whether psychedelic experience is best viewed as part of the brute world, however, is another very interesting matter to consider.  Merleau-Ponty uses the term "brute world" to indicate the sense in which unreflected experience is fundamental and unadulterated by reflection. This makes brute experience a clean platform upon which to start interpreting our encounter with the world. Psychedelic experience, however, does not provide such a clean  platform. Psychedelic experience, a sometimes disturbed reshuffling of the ordinary, while providing a possible source of creative insight and pleasure, is an experience, like reflection, artificially adulterated by factors that overflow brute experience. Exploring this further could easily be the subject of further research. How a phenomenological or a computational linguistics approach would inherently bias the results and lead to different kinds of data and different kinds of insight is yet another interesting question
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I'm looking for Chilean researchers interested in psychedelic research for sharing ideas and research projects.
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Great, Matias, you thought you already knew Cláudio Naranjo. If by any chance I get to know of other names I will let you know. Best regards! Alfredo
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I am currently elaborating a lineage explanation of a modern human behavioural trait: psychedelic pharmacophagy (or the beneficial ingestion of "mind-manifesting" substances).
The purpose is to show how small changes in biological and cultural mechanisms can take us from ancestral ape's rudimentary capacities for tolerating and sometimes exploiting secondary metabolites to modern humans' capacity to instrumentalize psychedelics in order to enhance cognition and social  bonding. In other words, I want to explain the origins of such an evolutionary novelty by making plausible certain trajectory of change through phenotypic space.
For this purpose, I would like to examine articles that have tried to do something similar, i.e. elaborate a lineage explanation of a behavioral trait (and not a physiological or morphological one like, say, the eyes) in order to have some examples to use as paradigmatic input.
Any advice and suggestions will be greatly appreciated.
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Thank you, Michael, very interesting reply; dear Jose Manuel, surely you know Terence McKenna's proposals regarding the genesis of the human mind based on consumption of psychostimulants (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terence_McKenna). One of my colleagues, the neurophysiologist Rafael Castro (jrafacastro@gmail.com) would certainly be very interested in speaking with you about possible collaboration.
On the evolution of human behavior, and adding some physiological and neurobiological references, perhaps you might be interested in a crazy proposal that I posted in May on "Advances in Anthropology" (Love is the cause of human evolution), because in it I make a brief comment about the human proclivity to pharmacological and non-pharmacological addictions that might fit well with your work on the psychedelic pharmacophagy, good luck.
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What kind of therapeutic processes are responsble for psychedelic therapy's positive outcomes? Emotional abreaction? Increased self-awareness? Maximized access to subconscious/repressed material? Transpersonal experiences?
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There is some really interesting and promising research being conducted using MDMA for PTSD, as well as LSD and psilocybin for anxiety. I suggest taking a look at MAPS (maps.org) and mdmaptsd.org.
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I'm gathering research data on psychedelic experience for my Masters dissertation. I'd like to link the ayahuasca experience with Eugene Gendlin's experiential theory and the embodiment paradigm. Any suggestions, comments, etc.?
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Why is sex never counted or studied as an altered state of consciousness? The description and transition between everyday reality to erotic reality (Davis) is no different from any other altered state of consciousness!
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Hi Sandra,
I have also been interested as to why sex, and sexual play has not been more thouroghly researched as a natural form of altering consciousness. One article I did find to be of interest is -
_ Zussman, (1998) Shifts of Consciousness in Consensual S/M, Bondage and Fetish Play. Anthropology of Consciousness, 9, 15-38.
Perhaps you've already read it, I found it to be interesting, and Zussman is one of the only researchers that I have found (so far) that deals with the topic.