Protozoology – Science topic
Explore the latest articles, projects, and questions and answers in Protozoology, and find Protozoology experts.
All research related to Protozoology
these were samples taken from the large intestines
“I agree with previous contributors that more information is needed, particularly the host(s). In addition, to have an idea of the size is critical. Even so, in my opinion images 9 and 10 clearly show unsporulated Eimeria oocysts. From the other images I would say that the forms are not parasites except the image #2: in this case there is an oxyruid egg.”
Bloodstream trypomastigote is the nymphal stage of T. cruzi in mammals.
“you can read this links https://www.researchgate.net/topic/Protozoology2”
Hello all ! Would any of you be able to provide cDNA library of Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 under controlled circumstances? Or, are you aware of anyone who works on this parasite, that I could contact? Of course, i will afford the shipment of the material. Looking forward to hearing from you. Best
“https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov › NCBI › Literature › PubMed Central (PMC)”
I have been trying to culture Plasmodium falciparum (3D7 strain) in vitro (blood stage) since last 4 months, but have failed to do so. Following are the culture conditions maintained: Culture media: RPMI 1640 supplemented with hypoxanthene, albumax II and antibiotic-antimycotic mixture (pH 7.4). Culture conditions: Kept in CO2 incubator, maintained to 5% CO2 at 37 degree I change the media as well as replenish RBCs every 2nd day, keeping the hematocrit level to 1% in the T-75 culture flask. Despite of all these, the parasitemia levels are not rising above 1%. Can anyone tell me at which... more
Cutaneous myiasis diagnosis and treatment
“كان مقتل الملك غازي مؤامرة بريطانية بالاتفاق مع اهم شخصية عراقية ضمنت الوجود البريطاني في العراق وهو نوري السعيد”
I mean betwen intestine and liver genotypes respectively between different ALA genotypes from the same patient. Thanks, Vladimir
“https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov › NCBI › Literature › PubMed Central (PMC)”
It lives in the dental calculus, the infected gum disease and purulent tonsillar crypts. T. tenax could be involved in the degradation of periodontal tissue by secretion of various substances such as alkaline phosphatase, and the fibronectin cathepsine as vaginalis. Trichomonas tenax fulfills the requisite of a parasite, causing damage to different mammalian cells and behaving similarly to Trichomonas vaginalis when in contact with target cells in vitro.It has no cysts and is transmitted directly from vegetative form.It lives in the dental calculus, the infected gum disease and purulent... more
“Thank you Amer Abdul aziz”
I need to undertake protein expression protein using Eukaryotic expression system. However, when I have been reading different manuscripts I have found N or C-terminal histidine tags. This is not clear for me . So, would you help me what does it mean?
“Dear Zewdu N-terminal is amino acid end of peptide chain You can use these softwares EMBASY or BLAST ”
Hi I study lipid metabolism in protozoan parasites. I have created mutant parasites tbat are deficient of genes involved in sterol biosynthesis. I wanted to analyze the physiological alteration induced by such manipulation. I see that the mutant parasites accumulate much higher level of superoxide ( analyzed by Mitosox staining) in their mitochondria which could be an indication of oxidative stress. Surprisingly as I measured the superoxide dismutase activity I found that the mutants despite of having higher accumulation of superoxide, also had higher SOD activity as compared with the... more
“Dear collegue, it is well known that superoxide has a half-life time of about 2 µs. That means that even without any enzyme to dismutate superoxide it would be metabolized very quickly (and should not accumulate). There are some considerations from my side: - Is the method to determine superoxide exclusively sensitive to superoxide or perhaps also to hydrogen peroxide (which could accumulate due to the elevated SOD activity); did You conduct simple control experiments with H2O2? - Is MitoSOX loading and behavior in mitochondria of protozoa the same as in mitochondria of "higher animals" ...” more
Respected all Herewith i have the protozoan isolated from the carapace of L. vannamei in grow-out pond, Southeast coast of India. help me to identify this protozoan.....
“And what about being eggs of some invertebrate without having been fertilised? Are they strongly attached to the carapace?”
in vitro assement of drug resistance in p. f in 5 states of india.. i have only this information but its 2012 paper if any one have latest pls inform me or help me .. ? Thanks with regards
“From the malarial control programme point of view: One should attend your question as something to be carefully looked at on regional case by case basis. However from Global Malaria Programme (GMP) of the WHO point of view if your reference antimalarial being referred here are: Artemisinin and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) then the resistance at programme level is considered: When the malaria control programmes’ adopted antimalarial medicines with a parasitological cure rate of more than 95% start showing some level of parasite failure cure rate below 95% but still greater...” more
Archives of the journal “Parasite”, 8 years, about 400 PDFs from 2005 to 2012, are now online as open-access from http://www.parasite-journal.org. I hope this might help some of you; all aspects of parasitology are concerned by this journal. I have not seen many messages as this one in RG. I believe it is not in contradiction to Article 5 of the terms of RG, “Misuse of the Service” which states that “advertising for commercial products or services of all kinds” is not allowed. This is not commercial since all papers are open-access and freely available.
“Dear Dr. Justin Thank you very much for your initiative that contributes to the development of the work of researchers and provide scientific information to them Best regards Amjed K. Resen”
Is there a technique to remove free tachyzoite antigens from a suspension of Toxoplasma tachyzoites? I've tried washing in PBS, but the free antigen appears to be entering the pellet along with the tachyzoites. What is a better way to clean whole tachyzoites?
“Dear Milton, Could you inform to us what kind antigen you are expected ?”
This sample is from a passerine bird.
“Could be Haemoproteus columbae”
Collected from the coastal waters (benthic domain) of the Bay of Bengal, please help me identify the specimens. Anyone? Guess these are teatae amoeba!
“Hello Dola I think the both 1st and 2nd image are of empty dinoflagellate cysts and the 2nd one is possibly of Gonyaulax sp. A better angle of the other two could give a better idea. Good Luck Manasi”
And how can I make a titration of a known infective dose?
“We have been working with T. gondii for many years, therefore you will find in our papers some of the procedures for isolation, counting and culture of this parasite, either in mice and hámster macrophages or in kidney fibroblasts. Due to the objectives of our experiments, we do not like to work with cell lines.”
Please if you can help me with this doubt. Was collected in Vichayito (north of Peru) in a depth of 10m Between gravel and "conchuela" Turritella broderipiana adult is longer in shape and the base don´t have ribs. If you know about bibliography about it. Thanks in advance.
“I have two specimens, one like an adult of T. broderipiana with 10.5cm in size and other (in the photo) with 9.7cm in size... Thanks!”
Currently I am working on a drug sensitivity test on P. falciparum. In the mean time I just wanted to preserve the parasites in a deep freeze.
The companies address and the email of professors would be good.
Molecular biosystematics researchers Molecular Protozoological biosystematicians
“Dear Sajad, I recommend you to contact directly Prof. William Bourland from the USA or Dr. Gabriela Kuppers from Argentina. they will help. Andrey”
“Firstly I wan to thanks for your interest Mr. Linde. Yes I wanna measure the tilt polarfilaments which are inside the spore”
What is the nutrient/broth suitable for Cryptosporidium in water sample?
“I am also looking for the same approach. please update me if you got a specific protocol for that. Regards, ELJELANI”
We are performing in the Laboratory the PCR of the gp60 gene of Cryptosporidium. In many cases it does not work and some colleagues have told me that in some genes like this which, have a microsatellite región with a variable number of trinucleotide repeats (TCA, TCG, or TCT) coding for the amino acid serine, the TaqDNA polymerase skate giving multiple products with different sizes. We use a nested PCR protocol with primary PCR primers AL3531 and AL3535 and secondary primers AL3532 and AL3534 Does anyone can help me solve this to obtain one band?
“I used the exact same primers for the gp60 and have not experienced any issues with by products. However, I used HotStar master mix. You might want to dilute your DNA straight after extraction. ”
I detected it in drinking water. The image was viewed at magnification 100X.
“It looks like diatom in my eyes”
Does anyone know primers that can be used to amplify all Babesia species in canine blood DNA samples? I have tried RLB primers and all 18S primers with no luck so far.
“'RLBes work well with us, Haven't it work on positive control(s)?”
In the literature is reported that family Leidyanidae is diferenciated from family Gregarinidae because of the late pairing of gamonts (presyzygial association). But I can not understand what is the difference between this two types of association. It would be so great your help. Thanks in advance.
“Practically 'follow-up it'. 'Allah knows best, Praise be to Allah Lord of the worlds'”
I can't find this information in the literature.
“A complement-fixing (CF) antigen was prepared from amastigotes and trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi (Ernestina strain) grown in beef embryo cell cultures. However, no sequence of this strain has been worked up. Only differential centrifugation has shown 6 different fractions. ”
Is there any classification keys book of protozoa
“Dear Kiavash thank you very much..”
How make Toxocara larava from embryonated eggs of adult worm?
I have been culturing Acanthamoeba samples in medium containing yeast extract, peptone, sodium citrate, magnesium sulfate, potassium phosphate, Ferrous ammonium sulfate and sodium phosphate. The ph was 6.5 . I grew the sample in t-25 flasks at 30oC. They grew fine at this stage but when I transfered 2 ml of the culture into 20 ml of fresh media in 100 ml flasks at 30C and stirring at about 150 rpm they were very difficult to grow and a low concentration of Acanthamoeba was found . I have left the culture for up to 5 days and they dont seem to be growing well. Any advice? Cheers, Gaby
“Hi Gaby, I recommend you stop shaking Acanthamoeba cultures and try to grow with this conditions: 10 g yeast extract, 5 g D-glucose, 10 g protease peptone, 5 g NaCl, 3.57 mg Na2HPO4, 3.45 mg KH2PO4. In our lab, we supplement this medium with 2% Bactocasitone and our cultures grow well. Hope it helps! Irene”
Parasitic copepod identification tools or manual.
“I'm looking some tools about copepods parasites as Peroderma cylindricum,Nothobomolochus fradei, Mitropus oblongus and Clavellisa ilishae on Sardina pichardus? thank you for your coolaboration...”
I am planning to construct a cDNA library from sporozoites of Cysto-isospora suis using phage as a vector. There are many kits available in the market. Could anyone of you suggest the best kit available?
“You can use Superscript III Reverse Transciptase with random primers.”
I'd like to extract giardia DNA from stool for PCR reaction. I don't know if there are protocols for extraction from stool, or how it differs from extraction from blood.
“Dear Nora Bioneer’s AccuPrep Stool DNA Extraction Kit allows for the rapid extraction of genomic, bacterial, viral, and parasite DNA from fresh or frozen stool. In the presence of chaotropic salt, DNA is bound to glass fibers fixed in a column. Proteins and other contaminants are removed through washing stems, and the DNA isolated and eluted in the final elution step. ”
The host species was Microtus agrestis.The "cocoon structures" (fig 1) were attached on the wall of small intestine. After aplying the cover slide, the membranous cocoon was easily desintegrated and numerous strongylid-like eggs released (fig 2, 3 and 4).
“Dear Laura, Where're the eggs from: soil, root zone, stem, seeds of plants or water plants stolons ? It can be also egg of entomophagous nematode ( f.e. mycetophagous stage) in any case try to observe it for infected larvae. Andrzej”
Hi, I will challenge coccidiosis in broiler using cocidial inoculant. I will buy but ı can bot find. where can ı buy inoculant?
“You can isolate Eimeria species from the field. Like some said, collect intestinal content and cecal content from broiler chicks that have coccus”
In the 1940s and 1950s there have been cases of malaria in the south of the Atlantic Forest biome, however, never read anything about the Pampa biome.
“Malaria is going to be consider "erradicated" in Argentina soon. Endemic areas were no the NORTH WEST, near bolivia, not near the pampas. I assume you can read spanish, so check this: http://www.paho.org/arg/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1101:casos-malaria-bajaron-casi-60percent-ultima-decada-americas-segun-nuevo-informe-oms-&Itemid=268”
I want to use the pepsin-HCl tissue digestion method to isolate Toxoplasma gondii brazyzoites (and/or tachyzoites) from mouse tissue, particularly brain. However, the brain tissue has been preserved in ethanol, so I'm not sure if the method can still be used. All the protocols I have found use fresh (or frozen) tissue. I should make it clear that I do not expect to isolate viable T. gondii from ethanol preserved tissue - I just want to see if T. gondii is present in the tissue or not as PCR has given inconsistent results. Any insights would be great! Thank you.
“Hi Hudson, Thank you for you comment - perhaps if I am going to try pepsin digestion with ethanol preserved samples I will need to remove the ethanol first! Good to know. cheers, Amanda”
working on a project. Thank you
“Dear Evans Duah, I have attached hereby some links to researchs on schistosomiasis;Thanks”
I want to ask you about something. if I want to detect antigens of any parasites (for example Cryptosporidium) in faecal samples. what is solution or buffer that I will used to extract parasite antigens?if possible, I need to know this solution with composition and formulation.
“Thank you very much for your valuable information, about PBS yes i can use, but i need a detailed list of the chemicals and buffers that i can use. Thank you again”
HI; May any one tell me what's the best method to purify and quantify Leishmania amastigotes from spleen and or liver. We've tried parasite burden by limit dilution and it didn't work well.thank's
“The following is an extract from Wyllie and Fairlamb Acta Tropica 97 (2006) 364–369: "The spleens of infected animals were aseptically removed, weighed and homogenized in Dulbecco’s modified essential medium (D-MEM, Sigma) containing 10% (v/v) foetal calf serum, 20mM l-glutamine and 10mMsodium pyruvate. The homogenate was then centrifuged at 100×g for 5 min at 4 ◦C to remove large cell debris, supernatant collected and centrifuged at 2000×g for a further 10 min at 4 ◦C. The resulting pellet was resuspended in culture medium containing 0.05% (w/v)saponin and incubated at room temperature...” more
Hi I have a case with raised reddish lesion in her right leg near the foot that is inflamed with exudate discharge that likely to be cutaneous leishmaniasis. In history she eats antibiotics and her lesion became worse and three months ago she went to endemic area of leishmanasis, I personally took samples from different parts of the lesion mostly marginal part of that and stained with gimsa.And amastigotes are not seen, but there are many neutrophils are seen, I take the sample with Lancet and lesion is bleeding,In your opinion, what is the cause of that?
“thanks dear Dr.Bodour Assil, it is very helpful”
Key Morphological Differences exist between Human Plasmodium Species in Blood Smears (see link: http://www.tulane.edu/~wiser/protozoology/notes/pl_sp.pdf). Is it possible to differential ookinet, oocyst and sporozoite stages between P. falciparum, P. ovale, P. vivax, P. malariae? Any tentative study even with transmission electron micrograph?
“Dear Baber, your question is very valid and need to work on it, I will try to find of answer in collaboration with Johns Hopkins Malaria Research Institute faculty, if found will share. Good question. ”
what is best method to obtain good paramecium culture?
“It depends on how many cells you want to obtain. If the pupose of cultivation is immunocytochemistry or in situ hybridisation the best thing is to cultivate using the following medium. Boil lettuce to obtain yellow liquid (it must not be too dark), filter it trough a filter paper and boil again. Bring to room temberature and inoculate with Enterobacter aerogenes. Incubate overnight at 30C or at room temperature. Put paramecia in tubes and add the medium. Keep the tubes either at room temperature or in the range of 16-25C.I cultivate my ciliates adding medium every second or third day. If...” more
I want to asses substance activity in mice, but i want to know the period in which mice can be chronically infected without killing them
“It can survive for more than 30 weeks.”
the wolf scats (from isle royale) were collected since 2000, and frozen but have been thawed by other students in the previous years and stored in fridge 4-5 celsius.My project aims to identify helminth eggs. i performed volumetric dilution using distilled water, analysed 1ml under compound microscope and found no eggs, so i stored the faecal mixture under fridge conditions for a week. i returned to the mixture, took 1ml out and performed microscopy: found alot of the live organisms under x400 magnification. There were about 10 organisms per ml. is it possible that tiny cysts of ..some... more
“I would keep cryptosporidia spp in the frame. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC183134/ It can be pretty resistant though your freeze thawing should have reduced numbers”
Im looking for a simple detailed protocol how to make Exystation for Giardia cyst and how to culture it and how to make inoculum of 5×104 trophozoite?
“Dear Professors and Doctors, thank you all very much for your valuable information's, really very helpful”
I need to culture it. Babesiosis prevalent areas are far from my lab.
“dear researchers, i am glad to inform you that we are getting positive samples of babesiosis from field cases and we are trying to propagate them. thank you for your valuable support. is there any thing else that i should be careful while culturing ”
Such as Babesia, Theileria
“Dear link below may be useful”
Babesia caballi and Babesia equi (Theileria equi) isolation from RBCs
“Dear colleague , if you need the summary of my thesis 'exprimental Babesia bigemina infection in calves' issued 1980 by me, with best regards”
We want to compare pathogenesis of Theileria annulata in cattle and buffalo.
“Best is to allow infected ticks on cattle. Tick infection can be established through maintenance of Hyalomma tick colonies”
It is what is stated in a review by Flegr recently published in Trends in Parasitology?
“Yes. And other article of Flegr (et al 2014) is: Toxoplasmosis can be a sexually transmitted infection with serious clinical consequences. Not all routes of infection are created equal. Medical Hypotheses 83 (2014) 286–289”
I am getting ready to start a small project where I will be looking at the internal parasite of various rodents. I would like to look at both helminths and protozoa. I plan to collect cecal contents and intestinal mucosal scrapings, fix them and use them later to stain for protozoa. Does anyone have suggestions as to a good fixative to use, 10% formalin, SAF, etc.?
“We also used 10% Formalin as fixative for both helminths and protozoa such as Balantidium and Entamoeba. Worked just fine and is usully easy to get even at slightly remote field sites.”
In cyst or free living?
“Genus Paramecium cannot form cysts, so it lives in cold water being in anabiosis.”
In terms of new findings and new discoveries.
“Hi Negi, In Brazil have vaccines to reduce the risk of infection by parasites of dogs since here are many endemic regions. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3342354/”
I have the possibility to purchase an automated cell counter to facilitate the counting of parasites such as Trypanosoma and Leishmania. Can anyone who has used this approach suggest recommendations?
“Fabiano Cadioli, many thanks.”
In many scientific publications these concepts are named.
We are working on Babesia divergens cultivated in human red blod cells. Since we can not separate iRBC/RBC, it would be beneficial if we had defined stages in the cultures at least.
“We have similar difficulties with B. bovis, and have yet to develop a useful method despite trying many. Three possibilities for you to try are:  release of merozoites by multiple high-voltage electroporation pulses, with reinvasion of new target RBCs (Franssen, FFJ et al. 2003. Microbes and Infection 5: 365-372);  capture of iRBCs with lectin, covering with RBCs and allowing them to mature and reinvade for only a brief period before removal of the newly-infected cells (Ranford-Cartwright, LC et al. 2010. Mal. J. 9: 170); and  the converse approach to that of Ranford-Cartwright...” more
“Alas...I have found a online software for conversion of raw sequences obtained directly from DNA sequencer to PDB format.. Wish to share with all .... "PHYRE2" http://www.sbg.bio.ic.ac.uk/phyre2/html/page.cgi?id=index.. Thanks Atul pawar for your reply.... As you said this link takes up translated sequences , followed by ab initio modelling and generation of pdb files”
There are numerous species of parasitic protists which were described based upon cell morphology and host species in the beginning of the past century. Only scarce morphological description and no type collection materials are often available for those. Finding today a parasite with similar morphology (lots of them are similar at light microscopy level) in the same host, should I identify it as that old species? What to do if there are no traits for differentiation between a new isolate and an old insufficiently described species?
“Please, take a look to our paper : Molecular phylogenetic and zoospore ultrastructural analyses of Chytridium olla establish the limits of a monophyletic Chytridiales.”
I am doing research on the identification and differentiation of Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum.
“Respected Joanna: trichuriosis ande ascariosis are very common in Colombia. You are cordially invited to visit my country if you need to get these parasites. Fernanda Mo.”
I would like to know your opinions about the in vivo imaging system to study the effect of drugs on animal models of cutaneous Leishmanasis and Chagas disease.
“See also, for example, http://cvi.asm.org/content/15/12/1764.short. Either fluorescent (near-IR) and luminescent transgenic parasites can be used with PerkinElmer's (formerly Caliper) IVIS. Alfalfa-free food may be necessary, too, to reduce background fluorescence. Luminescence is know to penetrate from deeper tissue than fluorescence.”
I am searching for the apparatus required to carry out the flotac technique for the copromicroscopic diagnosis of parasites. I have searched online to no avail and have contacted the inventor (I am awaiting his reply), please advise me as to how I may source this equipment.
“Have you considered using simple and old McMaster slide? The methods is described in the link blow: http://cal.vet.upenn.edu/projects/parasit06/website/mcmaster.htm”
I have a mitochondrial DNA (approximately 6000 bp.) of a protozoa. Previously, I amplified approximately 500 bp. of cytb region. Now, I want to do the complete sequence of mitochondrial DNA. But, to combine the partial sequences (capillary sequence) is hard work. Are there other ways to sequence this region at one time?
“thak you Zhang”
do you know about the prevalence of Giardia in goats?
“We had one isolate from a goat in our phylogenetic genetic study (attached)”
If I want to study the effect of certain substances like chemicals or hormone substances on the parasite (Leishmania infantum) then I want t isolate mitochondria from the parasite and take measurement of different parameters at the mitochondrial level. What is the isolation method and steps of mitochondria from leishamania infantum parasite from culture on MEM Media? What are the available protocols that I can follow in isolation of leishmania infantum mitochondria as I tried to look for the available protocols but I did not find any as only available for leishmana tartonale and trypansoma... more
“Isolation steps and protocoals of mitchondria from leishmania infantum”
The hatching mechanism of the egg of Fasciola hepatica
“I found in the literature: Hatching mechanism of egg of Fasciola hepatica remains a subject of discussion. Three main hypotheses could be delimited: First, Thomas (1883) thought that the larvae actively left the egg. This process is accompanied by the thrusting of the operculum by means of muscular effort. Later, Rowan (1956, 1957) denied the role of muscular activity. He thought some environmental factors activate the hatching: (a) light intensity; (b) "hatching enzyme" a proteolytic enzyme (produced by the miracidium itself) which attacks the "cement" holding the...” more
Sometimes, when we thaw a relatively recent vial (~1 month old), many parasites are dead. We suspect something went wrong when the vial was made. Can the glycerol be too old? Do you use ice? how do you gradually cool vials to -80C?
“Dear Luis I must apologize for the mistake I had regarding the effect of glycerol on cryopreserved preparations of trypanosoma parasites. I confused the effect of this solute with sorbitol, which is a non-permeable solute and in consequence with a potential effect on tonicity. Since glycerol blocks glycolisis, the long slender bloodstream forms parasites will be sensible to this treatment and probably loss their viability, because they are not prepared to use other carbon sources than glucose. Instead, the short stumpy forms have just started to activate their mitochondrial fuctions and...” more
I want characterize the E.granulosus strains. I want know how to collect and preserve the parasite material from faeces of dogs. Would anyone please tell me or give the protocol how to do this procedure? Thanks.
“Thank you Sir.”
Current estimates seems to link the origins of plant viruses affecting crops to the early years of agriculture
“This does indeed help very much. Thank you. I will take a look and then perhaps come back to the topic with further questions”
I am working on aspartic proteases in Toxoplasma gondii and I wish to find the function of this protein in this parasite. I could get the recombinant protein produced from E. coli with GST fusion. It has high expression level, somehow it is insoluble, and it is not active when I am trying to do enzyme activity. Does anyone have some advice?
“Dear Dr. Tokuhisa, Thank you very much, I will try to do so. I am appreciate for that. Sincerely.”
I need a little Taenia solium DNA for PCR as a control. I am looking for a fragment of strobila, segment or cysticercus of this tapeworm from which I could isolate the DNA (or isolated DNA). If anyone has some, can you please reply?
“Dear Jose Fernadez , thank you for your kind answer! I am very interested. Could you write you e-mail. Jacek.”
What is this parasitic isopod from a marine fish?
“This question has been asked more than 3 months ago. My remarks: (1) It is surprising that Raja Kulanthaivel, who asked the question, did not participate anymore in the conversation! (2) I suspected it was Norileca indica (Cymothoidae) but I wanted a precise identification by a real isopod specialist. So I forwarded the photograph to Prof. Jean-Paul Trilles (Montpellier, France) who confirmed the identification. So, yes, it is Norileca indica. Congratulations to those who already identified it. (3) Going back to the profile of Raja Kulanthaivel, I noticed that he was a co-author of a paper...” more
Fresh specimen can be easily processed for SEM, but not samples which have been fixed either in alcohol or carnoys fixative
“thanks Souza Lima”
I want to extract DNA from the Schistosomas but have been unable to successfully extract them, could anybody suggest some methods?
“Collect from mesentric blood vessels or wash the mesentry in normal saline repeatedly and the flukes will be collected in the washings”