Science topic

Protein Biosynthesis - Science topic

The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
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Publications related to Protein Biosynthesis (10,000)
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Circular RNA (circRNA) is a novel RNA molecule characterized by covalently closed loop structure. Since its discovery, researchers have shown that circRNA is not “splicing noise” but a participant of various pathophysiological processes through unique mechanisms. circIPO7, which was identified as an independent prognostic factor in gastric cancer (...
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The quickly accumulating ribosome profiling data is an insightful resource for studying the critical details of translation regulation under various biological contexts. Rocaglamide A (RocA), an antitumor heterotricyclic natural compound, has been shown to inhibit translation initiation of a large group of mRNA species by clamping eIF4A onto poly-p...
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Excessive protein synthesis upon enhanced cell proliferation frequently results in an increase of unfolded or misfolded proteins. During hematopoietic regeneration, to replenish the hematopoietic system, hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are activated and undergo a rapid proliferation. But how the activated HSCs respond to the proliferation pressure...
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Post-transcriptional regulation of p53, by the microRNA miR-125b and the RNA-binding protein HuR, controls p53 expression under genotoxic stress. p53 mRNA translation is repressed by miR-125b, tightly regulating its basal level of expression. The repression is relieved upon DNA damage by a decrease in miR-125b level, contributing to pulsatile expre...
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The programmed cell death protein 4 (PDCD4), a well-known tumor suppressor, inhibits translation initiation and cap-dependent translation by inhibiting the helicase activity of EIF4A. The EIF4A tends to target mRNAs with a structured 5′-UTR. In addition, PDCD4 can also prevent tumorigenesis by inhibiting tumor promoter-induced neoplastic transforma...
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Aberrant translation, a characteristic feature of cancer, is regulated by the complex and sophisticated RNA binding proteins (RBPs) in the canonical translation machinery. N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modifications are the most abundant internal modifications in mRNAs mediated by methyltransferase-like 3 (METTL3). METTL3 is commonly aberrantly expresse...
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The molecular causes of deteriorating oocyte quality during aging are poorly defined. Since oocyte developmental competence relies on post-transcriptional regulations, we tested whether defective mRNA translation contributes to this decline in quality. Disruption in ribosome loading on maternal transcripts is present in old oocytes. Using a candida...
Preprint
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mRNA translation is the ubiquitous cellular process of reading messenger-RNA strands into functional proteins. Over the past decade, large strides in microscopy techniques have allowed observation of mRNA translation at a single-molecule resolution for self-consistent time-series measurements in live cells. Dubbed Nascent chain tracking (NCT), thes...
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Recently, the mRNA platform has become the method of choice in vaccine development to find new ways to fight infectious diseases. However, this approach has shortcomings, namely that mRNA vaccines require special storage conditions, which makes them less accessible. This instability is due to the fact that the five-prime and three-prime ends of the...
Preprint
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A complex interplay between mRNA translation and cellular respiration has been recently unveiled, but its regulation in humans is poorly characterized in either health or disease. Cancer cells radically reshape both biosynthetic and bioenergetic pathways to sustain their aberrant growth rates. In this regard, we have shown that the molecular chaper...
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Methanotrophs oxidize most of the methane (CH 4) produced in natural and anthropogenic ecosystems. Often living close to soil surfaces, these microorganisms must frequently adjust to temperature change. While many environmental studies have addressed temperature effects on CH 4 oxidation and methanotrophic communities, there is little knowledge abo...
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Aminoacyl- and peptidyl-tRNA are specific biomolecules involved in many biological processes, from ribosomal protein synthesis to the synthesis of peptidoglycan precursors. Here, we report a post-synthetic approach based on traceless Staudinger ligation for the synthesis of a stable amide bond to access aminoacyl- or peptidyl-di-nucleotide. A serie...
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Over two decades of preclinical and clinical experience have confirmed that gene therapy-activated matrices are potent tools for sustained gene modulation at the implantation area. Matrices activated with messenger RNA (mRNA) are the latest development in the area, and they promise an ideal combination of efficiency and safety. Indeed, implanted mR...
Preprint
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Purpose: To evaluate a new class of blood-based biomarkers, anti-frameshift peptide antibodies, for predicting both tumor responses and adverse immune events to immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapies in advanced lung cancer patients. Experimental Design: Serum samples were obtained from 74 lung cancer patients prior to palliative PD-(L)1 thera...
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The origin of the FtsZ/tubulin protein family was extremely relevant for life since these proteins are present in nearly all organisms, carrying out essential functions such as cell division or forming a major part of the cytoskeleton in eukaryotes. Therefore, investigating the early evolution of the FtsZ/tubulin protein family could reveal crucial...
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The rate of a chemical reaction can be sensitive to the isotope composition of the reactants, which provides also for the sensitivity of such “spin-sensitive” reactions to the external magnetic field. Here we demonstrate the effect of the external magnetic field on the enzymatic DNA synthesis together with the effect of the spin-bearing magnesium i...
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The collision sensor Hel2 specifically recognizes colliding ribosomes and ubiquitinates the ribosomal protein uS10, leading to noncanonical subunit dissociation by the ribosome-associated quality control trigger (RQT) complex. Although uS10 ubiquitination is essential for rescuing stalled ribosomes, its function and recognition steps are not fully...
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Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is a slow-growing, intracellular pathogen that exhibits a high GC-rich genome. Several factors, including the GC content of the genome, influence the evolution of specific codon usage biases in genomes. As a result, the Mtb genome exhibits strong biases for amino acid usage and codon usage. Codon usage of mRNAs affe...
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Upon oxidative stress, mammalian cells rapidly reprogram their translation. This is accompanied by the formation of stress granules (SGs), cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein condensates containing untranslated mRNA molecules, RNA-binding proteins, 40S ribosomal subunits, and a set of translation initiation factors. Here we show that arsenite-induced str...
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Rare CD4 T cells that contain HIV under antiretroviral therapy represent an important barrier to HIV cure 1–3 , but the infeasibility of isolating and characterizing these cells in their natural state has led to uncertainty about whether they possess distinctive attributes that HIV cure-directed therapies might exploit. Here we address this challen...
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Upstream open reading frames (uORFs) are typically defined as translation sites located within the 5' untranslated region upstream of the main protein coding sequence (CDS) of messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Although uORFs are prevalent in eukaryotic mRNAs and modulate the translation of downstream CDSs, a comprehensive resource for uORFs is currently lack...
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The transcription factor p53 exerts its tumour suppressive effect through transcriptional activation of numerous target genes controlling cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, cellular senescence and DNA repair. In addition, there is evidence that p53 influences the translation of specific mRNAs, including translational inhibition of ribosomal protein synt...
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The search for fundamental determinants of bio-molecular chirality is a hot topic in biology, clarifying the meaning of evolution and the enigma of life’s origin. The question of origin may be resolved assuming that non-biological and biological entities obey nature’s universal laws grounded on space-time symmetry (STS) and space-time relativity (S...
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The synthesis of most proteins begins at AUG codons, yet a small number of non-AUG initiated proteoforms are also known. Here we analyse a large number of publicly available Ribo-seq datasets to identify novel, previously uncharacterised non-AUG proteoforms using Trips-Viz implementation of a novel algorithm for detecting translated ORFs. In parall...
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During translation, mRNAs 'compete' for shared resources. Under stress conditions, during viral infection and also in high-throughput heterologous gene expression, these resources may become scarce, e.g. the pool of free ribosomes is starved, and then the competition may have a dramatic effect on the global dynamics of translation in the cell. We m...
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The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that regulates multiple processes, including gene transcription, protein synthesis, ribosome biogenesis, autophagy, cell metabolism, and cell growth [...]
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Dysregulation of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) activity drives neuromuscular junction (NMJ) structural instability during aging; however, downstream targets mediating this effect have not been elucidated. Here, we investigate the roles of two mTORC1 phosphorylation targets for mRNA translation, ribosome protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and eukaryotic translati...
Preprint
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The mTOR pathway is a global regulator of protein biosynthesis and cellular homeostasis. Understanding the differences in mTOR pathway activity between cell types is important for elucidating the role of mTOR in physiological and pathophysiological processes. The non-linear structure of the pathway, with multiple feedback loops and inputs complicat...
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Abundant heterogeneous immune cells infiltrate lesions in chronic inflammatory diseases and characterization of these cells is needed to distinguish disease-promoting from bystander immune cells. Here, we investigate the landscape of non-communicable inflammatory skin diseases (ncISD) by spatial transcriptomics resulting in a large repository of 62...
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Background JUNB transcription factor contributes to the formation of the ubiquitous transcriptional complex AP-1 involved in the control of many physiological and disease-associated functions. The roles of JUNB in the control of cell division and tumorigenic processes are acknowledged but still unclear. Results Here, we report the results of combi...
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Translation modulates the timing and amplification of gene expression after transcription. Brain development requires uniquely complex gene expression patterns, but large-scale measurements of translation directly in the prenatal brain are lacking. We measure the reactants, synthesis and products of mRNA translation spanning mouse neocortex neuroge...
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Advanced prostate malignancies are a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in men, in large part due to our incomplete understanding of cellular drivers of disease progression. We investigate prostate cancer cell dynamics at single-cell resolution from disease onset to the development of androgen independence in an in vivo murine model. We observe...
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Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain a substantial global health problem and the leading cause of death worldwide. Although many conventional small-molecule treatments are available to support the cardiac function of the patient with CVD, they are not effective as a cure. Among potential targets for gene therapy are severe cardiac and peripheral is...
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Control of mRNA translation is key for stress responses. Translation initiation is usually rate-limiting and, in eukaryotes, involves mRNA scanning by the small ribosomal subunit. Despite its importance, many aspects of translation in vivo have not been explored fully, especially at the transcriptome-wide level. A recent method termed translation-c...
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DNA damage causes PARP1 activation in the nucleus to set up the machinery responsible for the DNA damage response. Here, we report that, in contrast to cytoplasmic PARPs, the synthesis of poly(ADP-ribose) by PARP1 opposes the formation of cytoplasmic mRNA-rich granules after arsenite exposure by reducing polysome dissociation. However, when mRNA-ri...
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The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) coordinates mRNA translation and processing of secreted and endomembrane proteins. ER-associated degradation (ERAD) prevents the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER, but the physiological regulation of this process remains poorly characterized. Here, in a genetic screen using an ERAD model substrate in Caenor...
Preprint
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In their recent work, Rosenberg et al. studied the dependence between the identity of synonymous codons and the distribution of the backbone dihedral angles of the translated amino acids. It has been shown that the use of synonymous codons is highly relevant in multiple biological processes including, among others, mRNA splicing, translational rate...
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Soybean [ Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is an excellent source of protein. Understanding the genetic basis of protein content (PC) will accelerate breeding efforts to increase soybean quality. In the present study, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was applied to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for PC in soybean using 264 re-sequenced soybean a...
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Respiratory diseases are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, coupled with the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. mRNA lipid nanoparticle (LNP) vaccines have been developed, but their intramuscular delivery limits pulmonary bioavailability. Inhalation of nanoparticle therapeutics offers localized drug de...
Preprint
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β-catenin (β-cat) malfunction is a significant risk factor for intellectual disability (ID). However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly defined. We identify a novel role for truncated β-cat that significantly impacts learning. N-terminally truncated β-cat is generated endogenously in neurons by high activity stimulating calcium-dependent calpain...
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RNase Y is a crucial component of genetic translation, acting as the key enzyme initiating mRNA decay in many Gram-positive bacteria. The N-terminal domain of Bacillus subtilis RNase Y (Nter-BsRNaseY) is thought to interact with various protein partners within a degradosome complex. Bioinformatics and biophysical analysis have previously shown that...
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Objective Rapid transmission and reproduction of RNA viruses prepare conducive conditions to have a high rate of mutations in their genetic sequence. The viral mutations make adapt the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in the host environment and help the evolution of the virus then also caused a high mortality rate by the virus that...
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In Staphylococcus aureus, the SaeRS two-component system is essential for the bacterium’s hemolytic activity and virulence. The Newman strain of S. aureus contains a variant of SaeS sensor kinase, SaeS L18P. Previously, we showed that, in the strain Newman, SaeS L18P is degraded by the membrane-bound protease FtsH. Intriguingly, the knockout mutati...
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Musashi 2 (MSI2) is an RNA-binding protein that regulates mRNA translation of numerous intracellular targets and plays an important role in the development of cancer. However, the prognostic value of MSI2 in various cancers remains controversial. Herein, we conducted this meta-analysis including 21 studies with 2640 patients searched from PubMed, W...
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Neuronal DNA modifications differ from those in other cells, including methylation outside CpG context and abundant 5-hydroxymethylation whose relevance for neuronal identities are unclear. Striatal projection neurons expressing D1 or D2 dopamine receptors allow addressing this question, as they share many characteristics but differ in their gene e...
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Advances in understanding miRNAs as endogenous posttranscriptional regulatory units have projected them as novel therapeutics for several untreatable diseases. miRNAs are endogenous non-coding small single-stranded RNA molecules (20–24 nucleotides) with specific gene regulatory functions like repression of mRNA translation by degrading mRNAs. Emerg...
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PCIF1 (phosphorylated CTD interacting factor 1) is the first reported RNA N6,2′-O-dimethyladenosine (m ⁶ Am) methyltransferase. However, the pathological significance of PCIF1 and m ⁶ Am modification remains unknown. Here we find that both PCIF1 expression and m ⁶ Am modification are significantly elevated in gastric cancer tissues. Increased PCIF1...
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Translational regulation is of paramount importance for proteome remodeling during stem cell differentiation at both the global and the transcript-specific levels. In this study, we characterized translational remodeling during hepatogenic differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by polysome profiling. We demonstrate that protein s...
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N4-acetylcytidine (ac4C) is an mRNA modification catalyzed by the enzyme N-acetyltransferase 10 (NAT10), with position-dependent effects on mRNA translation. This protocol details a procedure to map ac4C at base resolution using NaBH4-induced reduction of ac4C and conversion to thymidine followed by sequencing (RedaC:T-seq). Total RNA is ribodeplet...
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Funkcjonowanie wszystkich żywych komórek jest zależne od precyzyjnego dostrojenia ekspresji genów i biosyntezy białek. Rybosomy, maszyny molekularne stanowiące centra translacji, były kiedyś uważane za niezmienną siłę napędową produkcji białek. Jednak badania z ostatnich lat wskazują, że rybosomy biorą aktywny udział w regulacji procesu translacji,...
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Elucidation of ways to regulate the expression of candidate cancer genes will contribute to the development of methods for cancer diagnosis and therapy. The aim of the present study was to show the role of piRNAs as efficient regulators of mRNA translation of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) candidate genes. We used bioinformatic methods to study th...
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The ability to investigate tissues and organs through an integrated systems biology approach has been thought to be unobtainable in the field of structural biology, where the techniques mainly focus on a particular biomacromolecule of interest. Here we report the use of cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) to define the composition of a raw human kid...
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LIM and SH3 protein 1 was originally identified as a structural cytoskeletal protein with scaffolding function. However, recent data suggest additional roles in cell signaling and gene expression, especially in tumor cells. These novel functions are primarily regulated by the site-specific phosphorylation of LASP1. This review will focus on specifi...
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Background Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Dysregulation of mRNA translation can contribute to the development and progression of cancer whilst also having an impact on the prognosis of different types of malignancies. Eukaryotic translation initiation factors (eIFs) have been reported to serve a key role in...
Article
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The endoplasmic reticulum (ER), a eukaryotic organelle, is the major site of protein biosynthesis. The disturbance of ER function by biotic or abiotic stress triggers the accumulation of misfolded or unfolded proteins in the ER. The unfolded protein response (UPR) is the best-studied ER stress response. This transcriptional regulatory system senses...
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RIG-I/DDX58 plays a key role in host innate immunity. However, its therapeutic potential for inflammation-related cancers remains to be explored. Here we identify frameshift germline mutations of RIG-I occurring in patients with colon cancer. Accordingly, Rig-ifs/fs mice bearing a frameshift mutant Rig-i exhibit increased susceptibility to colitis-...
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Protein biosynthesis in mitochondria is tightly coupled with assembly of inner membrane complexes and therefore must be coordinated with cytosolic translation of the mRNAs corresponding to the subunits which are encoded in the nucleus. Molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of mitochondrial translation remain unclear despite recent advances...
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Amino acids are building blocks for protein biosynthesis in each living cell. However, due to their reactivity and the similarity between several amino acids, they may also be involved in harmful reactions or in noncognate interactions and thus may be toxic. Bacillus subtilis can deal with otherwise toxic histidine by overexpressing the bipartite a...
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Environmental contaminant exposures occur due to the widespread use of synthetic chemicals. Tributyltin (TBT), dibutyltin (DBT), and pentachlorophenol (PCP) are each used in a variety of applications, including antifouling paints and stabilizers in certain plastics. Each of these compounds has been found in human blood, as well as other tissues, an...
Preprint
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Roughly half of animal mRNAs contain upstream Open Reading Frames (uORFs). These uORFs represent an impediment to translation of the main ORF since ribosomes usually bind the mRNA cap at the 5' end and then scan for ORFs in a 5'-to-3' fashion. One way for ribosomes to bypass uORFs is via leaky scanning, whereby the ribosome disregards the uORF star...