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Propaganda - Science topic

Propaganda is the deliberate attempt to influence attitudes and beliefs for furthering one's cause or damaging an opponent's cause.
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Although this is not a new theme, the phenomena of "memory manipulation" and "politics of memory" always seem current to us. Even though they are different terms, they are close from a semantic point of view. Memory policies resort to manipulating memory using conditioning actions that, in some aspects, recall Skinner's reinforcement schemes. Authoritarian and totalitarian regimes have adopted this strategy in the iconography of classrooms and the contents of school textbooks. Thus, we can point to the school as a space where the propaganda of non-democratic political regimes intensified their politics of memory? Can the same phenomenon also be observed in democratic regimes?
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Dear Doctor,
if you still intend to participate in research on the contemporary perception of cultural heritage, access to the questionnaire has been opened http://dziedzictwokulturowe.pl -
The form has been entered into the program that allows you to select the place for filling in the questionnaire. I encourage you to cooperate.
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Totalitarianism and ideologies have often ensured that political, historical, philosophical, scientific, and artistic ideas conform to what the rulers consider correct. This has led to scientific impostures and rewritings of history, which are ethically questionable if not unacceptable. Illustration: Skulls from the collection of Samuel Morton, one of the American fathers of "scientific racism", illustrate his classification of humanity into five races (fruits, according to him, of five divine decisions), which today are outdated. Left to right: Black American woman and white man, Native Mexican man, Chinese woman and Malaysian man, PHOTOGRAPH BY ROBERT CLARK/ UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA MUSEUM OF ARCHEOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGY
This forum is intended as a platform for discussion and exchange on the topic where all examples and illustrations are welcome.
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The Euro-Atlantic world put a geopolitical price tag on Ukraine
The principle of force remains at the heart of international relations
Motives for its use may be different. From the point of view of realpolitik, Russia's motives in this case are just. The current Ukraine is an artificial formation, like most of the modern post-Soviet republics, including Azerbaijan. But this is not about the fact that artificiality does not give the right to life and independence. Again, from the point of view of real politics, all historical constructions are somehow artificial in nature. The categories of "who is older," "who is wiser," and "who deserves more" are useless unless "I can" and "I do" are backed up. Ukraine had 30 years to prove its right to sovereign existence in the geopolitical jungle. But instead of using the human, scientific and industrial infrastructural potential left over from the Soviet Empire and forming its statehood on this basis, Kyiv chose a simpler path - the identity of opposing itself to Russia. The form “I am a titular Orthodox Ukrainian, not an Orthodox Russian” is understandable. Many used such technologies, but the local "elites" did not fill it with content.
The Euro-Atlantic path of development is a form that also lacked content. Why? It is impossible to become a part of this supranational identity by jumping over the stage of forming one's own. You cannot go into the home of self-sufficient Americans, French, Germans, British and Dutch without understanding who you are and what contribution you can make to the family. Such elites will not allow you to be part of their core, but you are always welcome to use your ardent and suicidal desire to prove loyalty. The problem is not that Ukraine wanted to join the EU and NATO, but that it wanted to do it at any cost. And this price was clear from the very beginning - to contain Russia and be a constant threat and irritant for her. Unfortunately, it was not statesmen who were in power in Kyiv, but manipulators-compradors who solved two problems - to maintain power and steal more from the national wealth.
Was Moscow supposed to put up with this from the point of view of the school of realism? No. Nor should the States put up with Soviet missiles in Cuba (which President Kennedy called "our backyard"). Since 2000, Moscow has been proposing to start a multilateral process of developing a new European security architecture, but hears only "we are not conducting dialogues on equal terms with the losers in the Cold War." Immortal rules of realpolitik: if you want to be heard - force it, if you want to be equal - get it. The call to dialogue does not work, only the force that inspires fear works. This is the only way to achieve your goals in realpolitik. The Euro-Atlantic world has placed a geopolitical price tag on Ukraine. How else to explain the fact that no one is in a hurry to fight for a “dear and valuable” colleague who has been promised a place at the family table for decades, but is kept in a room for servants and guests. Russia immediately offered a place at the table in her family, but Ukraine prefers the golden spoons and forks of the euro table. This can be understood, but not constant threats and opposition. Nothing personal, just geopolitics!
This crisis should be a lesson for countries that prefer to become part of other teams at any cost, instead of building their own independent state with their work, intelligence and pragmatism. President George Washington said it best: “A nation that treats another nation with habitual hatred or habitual kindness is, in a way, a slave. Such a nation is a slave to its hostility or its good feelings, either of the two is enough to lead it away from its duty and interests.
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The bigger the lie the more it is believed.
I suggest, those who embrace propaganda need to believe it as it fits an underlying reality, which, although false, underpins their lives. National hopes, nationalistic delusions. The weaker a state, the more its citizens will believe their leader's claims.
Accepting the imbalance of the reality we embrace anyway, propaganda introduces what seems to be concrete, without uncertainty.
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Advertising is based on programmed planning and the power of content is based on personalization, methods, exaggeration, exaggeration and some lies, but not all advertising takes on a negative character. Some advertising is positive.
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After eight months in the COVID-19 pandemic and millions of infections, there are some that still think this is a conspiracy and go against the advice of the expert in the field just because their leader said so!. How can a literate society become so polarized and influence to such a degree that fail to see the obvious? Is it the lack of transparency, mistrust, or lack of correct information? Can such a society be healed? How would you rebuild trust?
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I think it is because they have a very small universe
of understanding or a great intention to profit from
incorrect decisions.
Best regards
Marlúbia
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Hi, I would like to focus my dissertation on the phenomenon of the public voting 'NO' to the Colombian peace treaties of 2016.
I have done some brainstorming:
Causes:
- Opposition campaign lead by popular ex-president Alvaro Uribe
- Cultural differences
- Historical background (suffering)
- People not interested in politics
- Media, propaganda coverage, fake news
- Difficulty in reading the peace accords
- The church involvement against the government
- Electoral victory of Alvaro Uribe
I was wondering if you had some theoretical knowledge I can link my research to? I would really appreciate some help narrowing down to have a more focused direction, thank you.
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Peace and reversing public distrust - antecedent crimes (...)
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Elaborate the types
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Perhaps a bizarre piece of what could be called propaganda: Heavy Metal Is Being Used as Propaganda in the Middle East, https://youtu.be/bSh5tm2Hmn0
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i want to know the definition of this term , its application to the research ,related question
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Perhaps a bizarre piece of "art in propaganda": Heavy Metal Is Being Used as Propaganda in the Middle East, https://youtu.be/bSh5tm2Hmn0
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The role of the internet in spreading propaganda among the politically conscious 3rd class citizens: a case study of Kibra slum!
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The kind of research questions you asked largely depends on the approach you intend to use for the study. For example, whether you plan to use qualitative or quantitative approach will determine how you frame your research questions.
The rule of the thumb is to:
1. Avoid too general questions
2. Focus on only what you intend to study
3. Make your questions as clear and concise as you possibly can
4. Think about what you intend to find out by the end of your research and ask questions about that.
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I wonder if there are studies of how an individual can shape collective behaviour and to what extent. What I mean is the opposite of social influence where a group member obeys collective behaviour, but vice versa how an individual (a politician, a journalist etc.) shapes group behaviour according to his preferences. For example, the capitol riot on 6.01.2021 in Washington and Trump's behaviour -- how Trump manipulated the crowd?
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Individuals change society for good and bad. Individuals get angry at the system and begin movements to change it. Revolutions start with a single person. Sometimes we know their names - Rosa Parks, Martin Luther King Jr, Gandhi, Hitler, Trump* - but mostly we don't.
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I am writing a research paper in which I will be analyzing propaganda narratives and conspiracy theories from the semiotics perspective. So, what kind of research design should be followed?
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Thank you for answering my question.
The most famous conspiracy theory in Japan is "The Great Prophecy of Nostradamus". Written by Ben Goto in 1973. Japan is not a Christian country. I can't find any English literature, but it's very famous in Japan. A religious group "Aum Shinrikyo" has teamed up with Japanese college students and intellectual elites to cause a terrorist attack. Tokyo Sarin ttack. Sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway. March 20, 1995. 14 dead. 6300 injured. Since then, conspiracy theory has become taboo in Japan, and the university management system has changed. Research on conspiracy theory has also been delayed.
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I need good recommendations for papers/articles on the translation problems of war-related texts/discourse. Thank you!
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I wonder if you’ve come across (Translating War Literature and Memory in France and Britain from the 1940s to the 1960s), 2019 by Angela Kershaw. I think it an excellent study which will also help you locate other valuable references.
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In what seemed to be a sudden period of time, I have watched people conduct themselves as though they have no concept of how to think critically or even use logic. Propaganda goes unquestioned and alternative views are met with hostility, if not rage. Much of it is based on falsity. Some of it is based on factual information that no longer applies. There seems to be a trend to go back to what we already overcame instead of move forward to continue overcoming problems that remain. Clear and obvious facts are ignored in the name of outrage culture. I want to understand from many directions what has happened to the American people.
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Considero que la clave para comprender está problemática está en la educación. Los programas educativos han sacrificado los contenidos en aras de la masificación y la homogeneización desatendiendo las variables culturales. La mal llamada eficiencia terminal, es un indicador cuantitativo que no puede calificar la calidad en la educación y si a eso se suma que el acceso a la educación se va cerrando a las mayorías, ahí tiene una de las causas que provocan lo que menciona.
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The major powers are locked in a global race for a vaccine that President Trump, Mr. Putin and China’s president, Xi Jinping, are treating as a proxy war for their personal leadership and competing national systems. The United States, with an effort called Operation Warp Speed, and China have poured billions into the pursuit, and health officials worry that Russia is trying to snatch a victory by cutting corners.
By skipping large-scale clinical trials, the Russian dash for a vaccine has raised widespread concern that it is circumventing vital steps — and potentially endangering people — in order to score global propaganda points.
Russia’s vaccine sped through early monkey and human trials with apparent success. But Moscow was cautioned just last week by the World Health Organization not to stray from the usual methods of testing a vaccine for safety and efficacy.
Beyond that, the United States, Canadian and British governments have all accused Russian state hackers of trying to steal vaccine research. Russian officials have denied the accusations, and say their vaccine is based on a design developed years ago by Russian scientists to counter the Ebola virus.
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Certainly, part of the control of superpowers is controlling the management of crises, so one of the most important issues that make countries strong in their political decisions are health and medical issues.
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Dear Colleagues,
I put up this question at RG in order to find out what is being studied about the effects on people of social media memes as they attempt to find reliable information regarding social media memes.
In my original data set about the addictive power of memes to shape memory storage and alter personality, I was mainly looking at political memes.
It may be also important to study the effects of memes upon people's ability to find verifiable information. So please post any studies that you are aware of so that we can compile these in one place. I hope this inspires some study because I already know the power of memes from my past work on rhetoric, communication theory, and meme addictive behavior.
Here are an initial couple of links to studies which I have not read as yet, but which may be of interest. Check the bibliographies or Works Citeds, as well.
Social Media Reigned by Information or Misinformation About COVID-19: A Phenomenological Study
Social Sciences & Humanities Open Online journal:
MIT Psychologists study:
Fighting COVID-19 misinformation on social media: Experimental evidence for a scalable accuracy nudge intervention
Peer-edited Polish Journal
SOMEBODY TO BLAME: ON THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE OTHER IN THE CONTEXT OF THE COVID-19 OUTBREAK
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Dear Colleagues,
This week on Public Broadcasting in the US, there was a documentary about InfoWars, one of the persistent purveyors of disinformation in the media. It is well to learn how this rhetoric works. First--going back to Aristotle--you assign a good ETHOS to a speaker, then you will follow any path in this person's arguments.
To take a "base audience" farther into believing more and worse sketchy logic, tie your outrageous claim to some other "outrage" the audience already believes. "It's just like the time that...happened...and did the mainstream media tell the truth then?"
A good example was that the InfoWars host claimed on many shows that the Sandy Hook massacre of school children was "fake" news. He even had a court battle with one of the grieving parents.
These same outrageous techniques of misinformation and lying are being applied daily to the problem of the corona virus. Memes are primary vectors of this spread of misinformation. They have no traceable source and are generated by data mining concerns tasked with "meme flooding' a huge audience. This audience, once addicted to sharing memes, will become more and more trapped in a misinformation bubble reinforced daily.
See this documentary if you have time.
LINK:
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Hello, I have a case study to examine of rather blatant propaganda - at least that is what it is considered in public parlance. I wonder if there are any accepted methods for quantifying propaganda and its effects?
The case study I have is contemporary and ongoing.
Thanks
Tom
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Observation and Focus groups.
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In fact, do politicians depend on research for decision-making in the field of spatial planning, or does the investigation serve only for politicians to have tools for political propaganda?
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Yes. Increasingly, the need for spatial planning is being recognized by the Political Class.
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Do you consider the Internet as a media that amplifies or promotes ideology, propaganda, violence, surveillance or control, or as a means to democratize society and empower citizens? Why?
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Technology is agnostic in the sense that it can be used for "good" and "bad", definitions of which will—more likely than not—vary across time, space, and circumstances. Because there is no easy answer to questions about ethics in technology (e.g., digital divide, information overload, intellectual property, privacy, security, work–life balance, etc.), and because people can hold deeply-held beliefs about why their particular moral choice is best, it is always essential to justify why we think a decision is right and another is wrong. Considering the (admittedly fast-growing) ethical predicaments of information and communication technology from a variety of different perspectives will profit all.
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Do you consider the Internet as a media that amplifies or promotes ideology, propaganda, violence, surveillance or control, or as a means to democratize society and empower citizens? Why?
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Dear Adasa Nkrumah,
Yes, the Internet is an environment for the development of new media, including news portals, social media portals and more.
On the basis of the above considerations and conclusions from the discussion on interesting issues discussed, I formulated the following thesis that ICT information technologies, the Internet of Things, social media posts, the use of smartphones for communication, etc. facilitates communication but can also change the social behavior standards of people in many aspects.
In addition, I propose the following research question in this area:
Can the impact of everyday use of smartphones by young people significantly modify and shape the social behavior of young people?
On the basis of the above considerations and conclusions from the discussion on interesting issues discussed, I formulated the following thesis that the impact of everyday use of smartphones by young people can significantly modify and shape the social behavior of young people. However, what will be the effects of this impact and changes in social behavior, methods of communication between people, i.e. whether they will be socially and psychophysically positive or rather negative effects, it depends on many factors, which include, among others, the following determinants:
- In what applications are they used as lubricants by young people?
- How much time on a daily scale do children and young people spend using smartphones for various purposes?
- Do children and young people use smartphones mainly for educational purposes, as a tool for finding information related to knowledge learned at school, or is the smartphone a source of entertainment?
- Do children and young people use smartphones, among others, to contact their peers through social media portals such as Instagram, Facebook, Messenger, Snapchat, Pinterest and others?
- Are children and young people already a significant market for the sale of products from various companies advertised on social networks?
- Can excessive use of smartphones by children and young people negatively affect their psychophysical development?
Below I have described the key determinants confirming the formulated research thesis. To the above discussion I would like to add the following conclusion formulated as a summary of my previous considerations on this topic: The positive or negative impact of smartphones on the social behavior and psychophysical health of children and young people can be large.
In recent years, young people use desktop computers less often and more often with laptops and mobile devices or mainly use mobile devices, primarily smartphones. Are these changes in the use of devices with Internet access, and the increasing use of smartphones, conducive to the use of Internet communication, including social media portals and the use of Internet information resources, make young people significantly use the Internet as a useful knowledge resource to the education process? Research shows that smartphones are equipped with new applications offering new types of information services, etc. Therefore, smartphones are less and less used for telephoning because the number of other functions and applications in the field of new Internet information services is increasing.
ICT information technologies, internet technologies and advanced processing technologies for large data sets collected in Big Data database systems, processed with the use of Business Intelligence analytical platforms, with access to the analytical system through smartphones and other devices. The Internet of Things is increasingly used in modern education. Therefore, the possibility of using smartphones as a tool supporting education is also an important issue. ICT information technologies and new media internet technologies, Industry 4.0 advanced data processing technologies, which are increasingly being implemented into educational processes and may also negatively impact pedagogical processes in schools. I also believe that the implementation of ICT information technologies, new media internet technologies, including social media portals and advanced data processing technology Industry 4.0 into educational processes can have a negative impact on the classical theory of children's mental development. Because in young children and adolescents, the process of adopting new concepts (thought process) in pre-school institutes extends from the perception of the senses (sight, hearing, touch), speech and direct manipulation of real objects (teaching resources), to create abstract concepts is the use of new information technologies ICT, Internet technologies and Industry 4.0 should be done under the full control of educators. Because in young children, the child must first "see the object in his head", he first had to "see it and touch with his hand" to learn, so devoting a significant amount of time to viewing various graphic and film spots, advertising on social media websites by children can cause negative effects in the psyche and in the child's psychosomatic development.
To answer the above questions, it is necessary to verify first of all the following question: Do children and young people use smartphones mainly for educational purposes as a tool for searching information related to knowledge learned at school, or rather a smartphone is a source of entertainment? Children and young people are increasingly using smartphones to, among others, contact their peers through social media portals such as Instagram, Facebook, Messenger, Snapchat, Pinterest and others. Many companies in the clothing, cosmetics, toy, perfumeries, etc. have already noticed that children and young people already constitute a significant market for the sale of products of various companies advertised on social networks. However, many studies show that excessive use of smartphones by children and young people can negatively affect their psychophysical development. Many potential negative aspects of the use of smartphones by children and young people have already been defined.
For example, too much time allocated to the use of smartphones by children and young people for entertainment purposes, e.g. to conduct discussions with peers through social media portals and to play computer games reduces the time spent on physical activity and can be an important factor increasing obesity and deterioration of physical and mental health. In addition, children recently watch a lot of movies and cartoons on social networks, including smartphones. If children spend a lot of time on watching movies and cartoons on social networks, including smartphones, this can have a negative impact on the child's psycho-physical development, including causing deterioration of vision if they spend a lot of time watching movies, posts, comments, advertising banners on social networks viewed on your smartphone.
In recent years, there have been more and more situations of addiction of children and young people to the use of smartphones. The problem of youth addiction to smartphones is growing in many countries. A very negative effect is the rapidly growing number of road accidents caused by the fact that while driving a car, motorbike, bicycle drivers use smartphones and more and more pedestrians fall under the cars entering the road while browsing messages on smartphones. Therefore, in some countries more restrictive legal regulations are introduced, including, first of all, a ban on entering the road while looking at the smartphone. In addition, special lighting systems are installed in the pavements to inform about changing lights at pedestrian crossings on the roadways. In this respect, the educational role of parents and teachers in schools is also crucial in considering the impact of long-term use of smartphones by children on children's development.
Therefore, if children or young people use smartphones to learn, as a tool supporting the processes of education, communication with peers from school and friends, and if they use new internet media devices from time to time, this may not be assessed positively. However, if it divides or teenagers use smartphones many hours a day, among others, browsing advertisements on social media portals and worthless memes and films, then it can have a destructive impact on the intellectual and psychological development of children and youth. In this situation, the use of smartphones by children and youth should be limited and controlled by parents, guardians and teachers.
Therefore, the use of smartphones by children and young people should be subject to parental control. The need for this control results from the growing number of different information services available on smartphones, the growing number of children and adolescents dependent on the use of smartphones, the increase in the number of cases of neglecting school duties, the increase in the percentage of children diagnosed with vision defects caused by too long browsing of content posted on the Internet and read on a smartphone etc.
Therefore, information and communication technologies cannot replace every form and method of learning in the educational process of young children and young people. Of course, full implementation of ICT information technologies, new media internet technologies, including social media portals and advanced data processing technology Industry 4.0 into teaching processes in schools cannot be ruled out. This process is already underway. However, it is necessary to bring this process under full control of educators, teachers and parents of children. Already, there is a lot of disturbing information from the media and from ongoing research on the effects of using new media internet technologies, including social media portals by children and young people. Children and teenagers mainly browse social media on smartphones. Many children spend too much time browsing social media portals on smartphones. The result is a reduction in the time spent on physical and sport activities, on learning, book readership decreases and the scale of diagnosed vision defects in adolescents in recent years. In this way, many problems arise that can affect the reduction of educational opportunities for children and adolescents. these problems should be solved systemically at all levels of the education system, i.e. from ministries of education to individual schools.
In addition, students and parents should be made aware of emerging threats through social campaigns in various media. Research shows that the process of implementing ICT information technologies, new media internet technologies, including social media portals and advanced data processing technologies, Industry 4.0 for teaching processes in schools has already begun. Of course, the use of ICT, Internet and Industry 4.0 technologies in education processes does not only generate negative aspects. Therefore, the central institutions of the education system should coordinate the development of these processes in such a way as to maximize the positive aspects of the implementation of ICT information technologies, new media internet technologies, including social media portals and advanced industry 4.0 data processing technology for teaching processes in schools. However, one should not forget about these negative aspects, about already diagnosed developing problems, which should be solved and educating teachers, students and parents about potential threats.
Activation for critical thinking of students is a particularly important determinant of effective education. Modern education instruments are important in this matter, thanks to which analytical techniques, brainstorming, debates, discussions, etc. used in the education process of pupils and students are developed. These techniques should also develop creativity, innovation and teamwork. In my opinion, activation of critical thinking of students and pupils, development of discussion skills in debates, development of creativity, innovation and teamwork of pupils and students correlates perfectly with the development of the concept of modern education 4.0. Currently, in the era of the technological revolution referred to as industry 4.0, new teaching concepts are emerging known as education 4.0.
On the other hand, dynamic development of social media portals on the Internet is currently underway. For young people using smartphones, social media portals are one of the main sources of information.
Probably the next stage in the development of social media portals will be the implementation of artificial intelligence into these portals and into search engines and creating applications such as interactive advisers on individual information websites. Social media portals are at some stages of education, in some education systems they are used to educate students on specific issues and according to the age of the students. But do they really help in the education process or are they just another teaching aid without a significant impact on the learning outcomes? Pupils and students use social media portals to exchange information useful for education. In addition, on Facebook, pupils and students create group profiles where they post joint didactic materials. In addition, they create survey forms for the needs of surveys, the results of which are used for written theses and final essays.
In connection with the above, another key question arises:
Should new online media be used in education processes? In my opinion, yes, new online media should be used in education processes. The issue of communication with the use of new online media is very important in the context of an effectively conducted education process. We currently communicate widely through various online media, including email. Some email inboxes that we use have anti-spam restrictions, which makes communication difficult. The development of communication through various internet media, also through social media portals, is an important issue in education. New media should be used effectively in the education process, but their technical specifications are not always fully suitable for the needs of communication development in the context of the implemented education process. However, whenever possible, new online media should be used in education, because young people use them widely and can be an excellent additional tool in the field of teaching instruments, e.g. for the effective search of necessary, current information.
In solutions regarding the use of smartphones as instruments used in didactics, the following should also be taken into account: During some lessons it may be for a certain period of time, in certain situations of didactic games or presentation of specific processes and lesson topics, the teacher may allow the use of devices such as virtual reality spheres and augmented reality. In addition, the teacher may also include other mobile devices such as laptops, tablets, smartphones, etc. in the education process. In specific situations, these devices would play the role of teaching instruments to support the teaching processes conducted by the teacher. However, if the use of laptops, tablets, smartphones, smartwatches, etc. during school lessons is not a teaching instrument, it is not part of the educational process, it should be prohibited during the lesson to use these devices. Using laptops, tablets, smartphones, smartwatches and other mobile devices enabling browsing the Internet resources during the lesson may interfere with students' active participation in the lesson and the teacher may be distracted in conducting the lesson. On the other hand, during some lessons it may be for a certain period of time, in certain situations of searching for information on the Internet, the teacher may allow the use of these devices if laptops, tablets, smartphones, etc. would act as didactic instruments enabling finding the necessary information.
On the other hand, thanks to information technologies, new online media and Industry 4.0 technologies, the logistics of information and communication between institutions and enterprises is being improved. The improvement of communication between individuals, institutions and enterprises is achieved through the use of new online information and communication media in combination with the Internet of Things technology. The current development of mobile devices, mainly smartphones and their applications for international communication and information transfer makes it possible to improve information logistics. Therefore, the use of online new media technologies and advanced information processing technologies, i.e. industry 4.0 typical for the current technological revolution, can significantly increase the efficiency of communication processes between cooperating members of national and international working teams in institutions and enterprises.
In connection with the above, there are also many positive applications of smartphones, including those used to support the development of science. Smartphones facilitate communication between scientists and facilitate the search for scientific information that can be useful for conducting scientific research. Smarfons are increasingly replacing laptops and other computers. In a situation where scientists, teachers, students and students would smartly search and read publications published e.g. on the Research Gate website, this is a perfect, positive example of using a smartphone as a tool supporting the processes of education and science development.
It is worth adding the following issue to these considerations. At present, smartphones dominate in the use of communication and the use of various information services. In addition, some Internet users also use tablets and smatwatches. Google glasses with Internet access a few years ago were to be an innovative hit that would revolutionize the mobile Internet, but they did not get adopted on a larger scale. Perhaps no significant demand has arisen for this type of device yet. Perhaps this will change in the future. Perhaps the era of this type of mobile devices will appear in the future when the next generations of compatible devices will appear and 5G Internet will become more widespread.
According to the above, in my opinion the impact of everyday use of smartphones by young people can significantly modify and shape the social behavior of young people. However, what will be the effects of this impact and changes in social behavior, ways of communication between people, i.e. whether they will be socially and psychophysically positive or rather negative effects, it depends on many factors that I described above.
In accordance with the above, in my opinion, ICT information technologies, the Internet of Things, social media posts, using smartphones for communication, etc. facilitates communication, but can also change the social behavior standards of people in many aspects.
Best wishes.
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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On the one hand, when there is a US spreading propaganda that brings so-called democracy, human rights and peace to the world, on the other hand, the same state has a policy of using democracy as an excuse to intervene and occupy countries, disregarding human rights, and devoting enough budget to overarming the hungry people in the world many times. In addition, this so-called angel of goodness can be very good friends with anti-democratic regimes in the world. While he is supposed to value the right to life, he can convince people in his own country to die with an electric chair or poisonous needle. Furthermore, in this state, close to fifty million people are fed from soup houses and are homeless. What do you think of this hypocritical state, which was introduced in the Academy books as the apostle of democracy and goodness?
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There is good intentions of the people of the USA, but the country is unfortunately "ruled" at the moment by a politician-in-training who is a complete failure. Due to the relative wealth in the country education has been pushed aside in favour of "creating wealth" as the main objective. Very few people are aware that they live on planet Earth and that there are other countries besides themselves. In view of this don't expect to get any democracy lessons from there.
Another unfortunate phenomenon is that the military actually run the country in complete secrecy doing whatever they want all around the globe financing gangs to fight against other less desirable gangs with the politicians kept in complete ignorance (in the dark). Therefore, don't expect anything good coming out of this mess.
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This because table sugar is extracted naturally from sugar cane or sugar beets and hydrolyzed to glucose and fructose and never could reach the body cells in its origin form. The hydrolysis process occurs in mouth, stomach and small intestine which the products of sucrose in body may be in a similar manner to that of honey and bread. In other words, sucrose is a carbohydrate that occurs naturally in every fruit and vegetable. But, why there is no similar propaganda to the not natural synthesized chemical candy such as aspartame and so on.
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Hi there,
I think this one question is actually a combination of various different questions and assumptions.
The fact that sugar is extracted from "natural sources" such as sugar beets and sugar cane does not mean that it "good", just because of its natural origin. Likewise, you cannot say that "artificial" sweeteners are "bad", just because they are "artifical". You probably also would not say that cocain is a good thing, just because it can be extracted from plants....
In my opinion the problem is that in the modern Western diet, people consume extremely high amounts of fat and sugar. There is also an increasing use of high-fructose-corn syrup and similar products. If you buy, for example, a modern joghurt with fruit (flavour), it contains > 10% sugar. If you look at "sweets" for kids, they often contain 30% - 50% of sugar. Therefore, the "density" of sugar much higher that in fruits or vegetables.
It is probably difficult to eat so many fruits and vegetables to get similar amounts of sugar. But if you would, for example by eating huge amounts of honey and dates every day, this also would not be good for your health. At least in Europe, nutritionists warn people that also intake of too much "natural sugar" (milk products, fruit juices) can cause health problems.
You also mentioned sweeteners such as aspartam and asked why nobody is complaining about them. First of all, these products are much sweeter than sucrose or fructose, so there are much smaller amounts used. Second, there are people in both Europe and the US who warn customers not to use such products.
In summary, I would say that eating huge amounts of sugar is not good for your health, no matter if it comes from fruit, vegetables or modern "convenince foods". The peoblem seems to be that modern food is just unnaturally high in sugar and people, therefore, consume much lager amounts of sure than decades ago.
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In a recent "KVK (Subject Matter Specialist) selection", some of the delegates advised me not to use any political term like "Doubling farmers income in India" in any kind of interview. Yes, it is first proposed by our Honourable Prime Minister. Afterwards, is is one of the major mandates of ICAR. All the seminars and symposiums arranged in India after that on agriculture and allied sectors, their major thematic area also how the income of farmers can be increased and "agrarian distress" can be reduced. In this situation, I can't understand how this quote can be a political term or propaganda. Please give your opinion too regarding this...
Thank You.
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Obviously it's not directly the political term but it is used to show the improvement in the Agriculture by different means. And to go for it is not bad I think.
As you have emphasised on professionals working on it that is common because all the policies always be defined by the ministers with the guidance of professionals.
So we should follow them accordingly.
Thanks for sharing
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What are aspects to make the newly established journal better?
e..g.
Editorial board
SCI index, Impact factor
propaganda
Hope to receive more advice. Thank you!
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Invite top people in the field to submit papers, publish high quality papers, provide an extensive and detailed peer review, and have a solid editorial board. And most of all, be very patient.
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While doing research on slum upgrading I came across some papers that explicitly or implicitly connect modernist aesthetics, or philosophy with slum upgrading. These papers claim that both slum dwellers are attracted to this aesthetics as it symbolizes the "dream of progress", and the state promote these for political propaganda and community control.
I am looking for more information about this and I would appreciate if someone can lead me into papers/books that connect modernism (aesthetics and philosophy) to development, slums, urban poor or so on.
Thank you
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Dear Jose Rafael Nunez Collado, this is an interesting question that has been (and still is) part of my own research. I am attaching an article that I co-authored about this subject which was published in 2012 in the Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography.
Also, Marshall Berman's classic "All that is solid..." greatly shows how the urban upgrading in New York, led by Robert Moses, was inspired by philosophies of modernity; it also shows how marginalized city residents embraced its 'dream of progress' while at the same time suffering from it.
Finally, this 2010 book is also very insightful: Rethinking the Informal City: Critical Perspectives from Latin America, Edited by Felipe Hernández, Peter Kellett and Lea K. Allen
Good luck with your research.
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The consume of alcohol is permitted and widespread in several countries.
The scientific data however is clear: alcohol is cancerigene, neurotoxic, addictive, hepatotoxic.
If we add the behavioral effects: violence, car accidents and social disturbs..
The british medical association reported that there is no safe limit for alcohol consumption.
Is not unethical permit the alcohol propaganda??
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Interesting divulgation article with engish references reporting lower BDNF with alcohol comsume!!! Dangerous!!!!
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In most Mexican cities, public administrations use street furniture as propaganda, painting with the color of their political party every change of government. In terms of urban landscape, these behaviors do not create conditions of quality of public space, identity and attachment to the place by the inhabitants
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n Poland, nothing like this happens.
It is a democratic country and the regulations from 2015 regulate the issues of advertising in public space
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Approximately the fall of communism, i.e. from the 1990s to the present, we have increased nationalism, inter-ethnic intolerance and intolerance. There is a rise in hate speech and open propaganda against members of other religions. All this leads to the intensification of inter-ethnic relations and thus to the threat of peace and stability, especially in the Balkan.
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The way I see it is that nationalism is a multi-faceted concept which is on the same continuum as globalism. They both go hand in hand most of the time and they react to eachother periodically, counteracting the consequences of the other at times. I don't see how it can stop but hopefully nationalism and globalism at their most extreme expressions will slow down.
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Recently I am doing a research of testing propaganda model constructed by Herman and Chomsky in their book: manufacturing consent. I want to test the model in news coverage during  war times of the United States. Does anybody know any previous research done by scholars except Kevin Young? Any recommendation will be highly welcomed and appreciated.
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Consept in the key of Journalism Society
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Since 2005 the flu vaccine has been "critical" for survival of humanity, according to many public health bureaucrats and scientists who have made themselves "Private property" for vaccine propaganda. This is far from the truth, where no "hispanic epidemic conditions" arose, and at the same time several where mass-vaccinated against a largely non-lethal virus. Many of these got gruesome side effects, and after 10 years mass vaccination of 65-post year old people are urged by Norwegian public health authorities with considerable revenues for producers of vaccines who use sly techniques in pushing those who don't want the vaccine.
Such a development of propaganda by public health officials and legislators is cheap and takes advantage by spreading public fear among people who have a good enough immune system.
With such a development, a scenario of 2030 can be easily made, where the vaccine against a common cold will be pushed on the population for the same cheap reasons used during the swine flue outbreak.
Vaccination industry is a MacDonalds of Medical Science! Vaccination should be kept for lethal and dangerous viruses, where life&death are imminent and not where low probabilities for contamination and high probabilities of revenues reign the final calculations. The health authorities must get their feet on the ground and consider humanity as a well-developed species with 100.000 year old immune systems with great adaptability.
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It is a Sad day for actual science.
Sorry Sergio, your RN score is very indicative of your inability to understand actual science. Please actually reference your absurd ASSUMPTIONS. This is a science forum where propaganda such as yours is not acceptable.
Vaccines are essential for world health. Influenza is deadly to many people and kills large numbers each year, world wide. Check the facts!
D'oh
Your conspiracy theory is nonsense. It is those that do not respond well to vaccines (e.x., the elderly, diabetics, immuno-suppressed etc.) that need you to be vaccinated to protect them through a mechanism known as "herd Immunity". D'oh
Yes in very rare cases syndromes do develop after vaccination, but the frequency of the worst of them, such as Guillain-Barre syndrome, is higher in infected individuals than it is in those vaccinated, totally negating your propaganda.
I suggest you educate yourself. Look at PubMed science rather than be brainwashed by anti-Vaccine propaganda.
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Ideological preferences from the right moving to center-left, lack of political representation, high levels of corruption, lack of rule of law and poor efficiency and effectiveness concerning public policies
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Dear Adrian Sergio Gimate-Welsh ... Good question... Actually I lived such similar case... almost similar...
Thanks for sharing all of these data..
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Political commentators often refer to the wave of populism that has engulfed many of the world’s democracies as ‘Post Truth Politics’. The general definition of this suggests that political decisions in voting and selecting of candidates is now more related to emotional or purely ideological impulses than rational selection based on policies and economics.
Is this in reality anything new and was there ever a time when political pragmatism really influenced the mass of the electorate? Was telling the truth ever more important than getting elected and are truth and political ideology ever compatible?
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I'm fairly cynical when it comes to politics. The way I have interpreted the term "post truth" is more akin to "post everyone being constrained to believe in the politically correct narrative, truisms, orthodoxy, formulae, of the self appointed elite BSers."
What is "truth," in politics, other than what the politicians claim it is? What gives politicians the right to claim that political ideas nowadays can be untruthful, just because they go counter to their mantra?
I'll grant that Trump's way of playing fast and loose with the details will lend credence to such self-serving terms as "post truth," but the phony nature of the term becomes obvious when the naysayers seem unable to get beyond minor errors in Trump's ability to get the ultimate decimal fractions exactly right.
Enfin bref, "post truth" is a term that can only be used by those self-important individuals who think they have the corner on "truth." Reminiscent of religious fundamentalism.
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In most newspaper articles, journalists inserts the formula: "Scientists consider ...". Would not it be necessary to force this formula to sound "Some scientists think ...". Otherwise, we are ridiculing science and scientists and making them an element of journalistic propaganda!
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Andrzej:
This is a critical question in the area of leadership communications for those in public office. Journalism has been measured in my research using big data analysis of their coverage of policy issues and public actors. Too often news articles seek what appears to be scientific "facts" in order to make their by line's case, rather than inform the public.
When science and data are abused or not rationally reported with the terms you suggest above e.g. "some scientists have concluded" or with a "small sample size used - one scientist has concluded," essential public information is weaponized to create a story/ rather than seek truth.
If the policy matter was public health or safety indices we place the good of the people in jeopardy. A matter of ethics yes, and a matter of keeping the scientific community out of the fray of weaponized propaganda another.
Perhaps if scientists were insistent in having their work be appropriately characterized it may help. However, editors and owners of the five major news conglomerates in the US for example may have their own agenda.
The question becomes - how accountability for reporting scientific findings may be best implemented? Given the internet and online publishing there may be a niche for scientific reporting? Data driven news?
Thank you for raising this important issue
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After the collapse of the Soviet Union and thanks to this disintegration in the philosophical space of Russia, significant quantitative and qualitative changes took place. To a certain extent, this process also touched upon the Russian philosophy of history as part of the philosophical science. Actually, the philosophy of history in Russia has gone far beyond the limits of Soviet historical materialism and now exists as a collection of diverse philosophical and historical concepts and theories whose creators and carriers prefer to improve your philosophical and historical views and their propaganda. Mutual criticism of supporters of various philosophical and historical trends remains in the shady part of the Russian philosophical space (opposition of dissertations, discussions at scientific seminars and symposiums) and is not carried to the pages of journals and books, as a rule. Therefore, strictly scientific, objective systematization of modern Russian philosophical and historical theories, concepts and schools is a very important task for the Russian and world philosophy of history.
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Dear Gloria.
I fully support your concerns about ideological textbooks of history and historical research that deform the consciousness of young generations and thus create additional prerequisites for future ethnic, social, political and cultural conflicts, threatening the progress of civilization. Such a threat exists in Ukraine, too. And this threat is growing very rapidly. Therefore, I write several own teaching aids (History of Ukrainian Statehood, Philosophy of History, Philosophy of Economics) and several scientific monographs (World History of Money, Credit and Banks, History of the Theory of Money and Credit, Essays on History Ukraine: on the path of industrial-bureaucratic transformation (the second half of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twenty-first century), in which the dialectical nature of historical development is demonstrated, and the diverse influence of peoples and nations on each other. However, in Ukraine my work does not find support from governmental organizations and the official scientific community. This is my main problem.
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I know that the issue is hard. Let us try to be very careful not to offend other people, try not to mention the names as much as it will be possible; certainly avoid people who are around on RG; and let us discuss just the methods. So let us discuss the problem apart from the RG and just in principle. Let us try to examine when political propaganda intervenes in science and what are their methods.
Therefore the essential point is the discrepancy between facts and the interpretation of the facts in science under influence of politics, or :
What are the methods of political propaganda in science, scientific media and scientific communication? How to protect science from politics?
This may concern opposing some scientific concept by using political action or inverse: the opposing some political orientation by using fallacious scientific methods. Using science is very effective to persuade the masses and can be easily dissimulated. The important aspect of the propaganda method is to imply the conclusions and to avoid establishing links with the discussed facts.
As far as I know, we had on RG at least 2 such threads: during the last elections in the US (trying to discredit Donald Trump), and one recent and still running - on plagiarism (trying to damage certain Serbian politicians). There are certainly some others of which I am not aware.
The common feature of such attempts is to focus the discussion on some personality and to avoid clarification of the facts and insist on some more general aspects, structural or contextual aspects, persuasions or general principle without establishing the links with the discussed facts. Number of logical fallacies are used and none of them is specific for those discussions.
May be we should concentrate on relation of the political propaganda and science, morality of publishing, and scientific and political paradigms vs. empirical facts.
Or, the essential point is that since politics is often blind for the facts, the question is how deep politics reaches into science?
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Interesting questions.
1. I don't think science can be completely free from the politics because science and politics are generally inseparable. For example, political science.
2. Scientists also live in the human society. Hence, they are also influenced by political opinions from the outside. The verb "infiltrate" conveys the problem. Without an independent opinion in the society, it is very hard to hold own opinion.
3. To influence scientists, politics can define studies and pay for purposes that are predefined by political wishes. For example, there are movies about Nazi-time, where some scientists say, they are scientists and are not interested in politics at the beginning of the movie but later they are confronted with politics and have to make their decisions that conform to the ideas they rejected before.
4. To explore methods of influence by politics, I would study historical books that explore a particular sinister time or contact historians -- maybe, they already have findings on the issues you are interested in.
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The British Council was established in the mid-1930s as an instrument of the then-emerging cultural diplomacy. To this day it operates in many countries throughout the Globe.
I am surprised that I have failed to find any "history" of the British Council, not even an official one. I am especially interested in the Second World War chapters. The Council helped several exile representations to run their information and propaganda services. Any suggestions?
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Leaving aside Philippe Taylor's books on British cultural propaganda, such as The Projection of Britain and British Propaganda in the Twentieth Century, etc., there are two official histories the later one from the 1980s: Frances Donaldson, The British Council - the first fifty years, Jonathan Cape, 1984
There are also several new works on the British Council during the Second World War. For example: Edward Corse, A battle for Neutral Europe - British Cultural Propaganda during the Second World War, Bloomsbury, 2014.
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I have an essay to write on whether Propaganda or Technology influenced the outcome of WW2.
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Dear Kim
In addition to the readings suggested by Ivo Carneiro De Souza, I would recommend the work of Harold Lasswell, the American political scientist,  on propaganda (available online).  May I also suggest that you focus on 'the role of propaganda in WWII' rather than on its 'outcome'?
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Hi All,
I am preparing my PhD proposal and my topic is set " Social Media and Terrorist Propaganda". As I have stated above, I have come up with 2 questions that are both related but different in nature. I am searching for theories and methods that would fit my research questions. My ideas are still shaping so, any comment is welcome. 
Sefa
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Many researchers decided to examine the relationship between social media and jihadist movements such as Gilles Kepel, Olivier Roy
For me, the strategy of jihadist movements is divided into several parts.
The first trump used by jihadist propaganda is a critique of Western civilization. It is a civilization that denied religion, based on frivolous pleasures and widespread debauchery, where men and women interact without any decency. Secondly, I think you can use the concept of "bare life", developed by the Italian scientist Giorgio Agamben. In short, 2000 Palestinians were killed in silence in the Gaza Strip; the West does nothing to stop it. However, when four Westerners are murdered by jihadists, major Western countries send forces. This shows a double standard regarding human lives.
Third, the Syrian conflict plays a vital role. ISIS highlighted the inaction of Western governments in 2013, when Bashar Assad committed genuinely a massacre in his own country. This was an undeniable engine of jihadist propaganda on social networks saying, basically: "What do you expect from the West ? they are slaughtering our brothers, sisters and thousands of children. Bashar el-Assad is their puppet..How can you continue to live among these monsters? ".
By using literally unbearable videos and photos of the conflict, their expectation is to trigger a reaction from observers. The main message of such propaganda is in fact: "Only merciless traitors may continue to live among these monsters You must act, either by joining us, or punish them for what they did."
My last but not least: the conspiracy. The West is against ISIS because the Caliphate is the only pure and just entity. The Caliphate is the only country struggling against sin, through the teachings of Islam and the Holy Quran. The West, corrupt to the bone, can not accept such a holy resurrection that it destroyed 90 years ago i.e. in 1924. In other words, this will certainly significantly undermine its interests. The West wants to continue to plunder the Muslim countries, but the Caliphate is the only country that can thwart its plan. In addition, the caliphate has the strength to provide defense and dignity of Muslims worldwide. This is why all Muslims should swear allegiance to the caliph, the only real authority Sunni Muslims. The caliphate should also annihilate those "idolatrous Shia dogs " because they are worse than "the Crusaders". They claim to be Muslims while they are kufr -misbelievers. They delude the message of the Prophet and they only deserve death. If you are a true Muslim, you have to join us to do so.
Finally, the main strategy of the jihadist groups through the social networks is to create a genuine partition between US and THEM.
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am doing a research about Egyptian' Newspaper propaganda techniques,,, please send me any researches related to the topic.
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I hpe I helped you. Best wishes.
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I am searching for more information about propaganda in Turkey, due to my thesis in which I want to write a short overview about the 'tradition' of propaganda in Turkey and how the situation considdering propaganda is now. Thanks a lot!
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I'm curretly researching about Japanese censorship during and post 2° World War, in correlation with the SCAP governement influence. 
Japanese language provides tools to render ones thought into hierarchical structure that's hardly understandable by other languages which lack this capacity.
Is therefore needed to provide further explanation when dealing with topics related to the imposition of ideology through language or could it be possible to find a common strategy to deal with propaganda?
Thank for all your answers and help.
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I agree with Tariq.  A footnote in this regard, explaining the implicit, implicature and import of polyphony in propaganda messages will be useful.
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The question in other words is that even having clear cut academic definitions of Advertising, Propaganda ,Marketing , and Persuasion, it is very hard to differentiate them from Public Relations practices.Any tips?
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Propaganda in PR involves using mostly false rhetoric to lure an audience into believing the principles and ideas of the propagandist while publicity focuses on providing information on a particular product or subject to those who need it.
A publicist carries out demographic and psycho-graphic research and analysis to identify the needs of the public and then fashions his/her message to suite these needs. A propagandist uses existing phenomenon  and rhetoric that appeals to the emotions of the public  or group as a tool to create change in attitude and ideologies.
The message of the propagandist is provocative in nature while the message of a publicist is informative and persuasive in nature.
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My dissertation topic looks at how the media plays on people's emotions by amplifying extreme phobias of Islam. Linking to the 'Trojan Horse' Report in Birmingham.
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Hi, Michelle,
These might be useful:
Saeed, Amir. "Media, racism and Islamophobia: the representation of Islam and Muslims in the media." Sociology Compass 1.2 (2007): 443-462.
Thompson, P. M. Allen's Islamophobia and the British news media: a critical evaluation of Islamophobia as a concept and its application to the written news media in Britain between 2001 and 2008. Diss. University of Wales Trinity Saint David, 2013.
Awan, Imran. "Operation ‘Trojan Horse’: Islamophobia or Extremism?." Political Insight 5.2 (2014): 38-39.
Rinella Cere and Barry Richard have also done work in the area of media and islamophobia work. I'm not sure whether the media are also mentioned in the Trojan Report too? At https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/birmingham-schools-education-commissioners-report?
Good luck Anita
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Types, please.
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There are different types including Black, White and Grey.
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I am looking for potential collaborators/authors who might be interested in contributing a chapter. The book would highlight how propaganda has changed in our society (in name, practice, and study) as well as highlighting areas of additional academic inquiry.
Some possible topics include:
- Propaganda in crisis situations, both journalist trying to report and humanitarian organizations trying to highlight human needs
- Changes in the vocabulary – Rhetoric, PR, public diplomacy, advertising, marketing, soft power
o How does the label impact the way the field of research is approached?
- How have changes in the “arts of persuasion” impact society today?
- How have governments changed the way they use various methods of influence at home and abroad?
o What does this mean for citizens?
- How do non-state actors use influence? Changes?
o What does this mean for nations/governments?
o What does this mean for citizens?
I am open to other ideas and suggestions. Please send me a private message if you or someone you know might be interested in contributing something.
Thanks!
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I would like to contribute to your book on the area of cultural diplomacy. However, I would like you to let me know when you intend to close entries or contributions for the book. This will enable me work within the time frame of the issue in question.
Thanks.