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Programmed Cell Death - Science topic

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Hypertension has been linked to a higher risk of getting some malignancies and a higher cancer-related mortality rate. Furthermore, many anticancer medicines have been linked to developing new high blood pressure or deteriorating previously well-controlled hypertension. The P53 tumor antigen is a mutation-hosting antigen. It is also one of the huma...
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Background Most patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have underlying cirrhosis and a compromised liver function. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have emerged as an important approach for HCC treatment. The purpose of our study was to explore the prognostic significance of liver function in HCC patients receiving ICIs. Methods Hazard ra...
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Background: To evaluate the changes of immune environment of distant tumors after combined microwave ablation (MWA) and anti- programmed death receptor - 1 (anti-PD-1) therapy, and assess the changes of systemic immune response. Methods: Bilateral hepatocellular carcinoma model was established in mice, which were then subsequently treated with M...
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Objective There is a lack of effective treatment to improve the prognosis of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). Programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1)-targeted immunotherapy has shown promising results in a variety of malignant tumours. However, in patients with advanced ICC, the safety and efficacy of anti-PD-1 agents remain unclear. Methods...
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CCR4-NOT complex-mediated mRNA deadenylation serves critical functions in multiple biological processes, yet how this activity is regulated is not fully understood. Here, we show that osmotic stress induces MAPKAPK-2 (MK2)-mediated phosphorylation of CNOT2. Programmed cell death is greatly enhanced by osmotic stress in CNOT2-depleted cells, indicat...
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Upregulation of inhibitory receptors, such as lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3), may limit the antitumor activity of therapeutic antibodies targeting the programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) pathway. We describe the binding properties of ezabenlimab, an anti-human PD-1 antibody, and BI 754111, an anti-human LAG-3 antibody, and assess their act...
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Interferon gamma (IFNG/IFNγ)-induced adaptive immune resistance remains a challenge for tumor therapy. We observed that the chaperone heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) stabilizes the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), resulting in IFNγ-induced expression of immunosuppressive indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (I...
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Cells of metazoans respond to internal and external stressors by activating stress response pathways that aim for re-establishing cellular homoeostasis or, if this cannot be achieved, triggering programmed cell death. Problems during translation, arising from defective mRNAs, tRNAs, ribosomes or protein misfolding, can activate stress response path...
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In their natural environment, most bacteria preferentially live as complex surface-attached multicellular colonies called biofilms. Biofilms begin with a few cells adhering to a surface, where they multiply to form a mature colony. When conditions deteriorate, cells can leave the biofilm. This dispersion is thought to be an important process that m...
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Ferroptosis is a recently discovered programmed cell death pathway initiated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Cancer cells can escape ferroptosis, and strategies to promote cancer treatment are crucial. Indocyanine green (ICG) is a near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent molecule used in the imaging of residual tumor removal during surgery. Growing attent...
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Woodchuck (Marmota monax) infected with woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) is the most pathogenically compatible naturally occurring model of human hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, chronic hepatitis B, and HBV-induced hepatocellular carcinoma. This system plays a crucial role in discovery and preclinical evaluation of anti-HBV therapies. Its utiliza...
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Lung cancer is the second (11.4%) most commonly diagnosed cancer and the first (18%) to cause cancer-related deaths worldwide. The incidence of lung cancer varies significantly among men, women, and high and low-middle-income countries. Air pollution, inhalable agents, and tobacco smoking are a few of the critical factors that determine lung cancer...
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Pyroptosis is a programmed cell death caused by inflammation. Multiple studies have suggested that Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection causes tissue pyroptosis. However, there are currently no protective drugs against the inflammatory damage caused by pyroptosis. In this study, anti-pyroptotic effects of the natural compound astaxanthin (ASTA) wer...
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Objectives To provide an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of the efficacy and safety of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors combined with chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone in the treatment of extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC)...
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Doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective anthracycline chemotherapeutic anticancer drug with its life-threatening cardiotoxicity severely limiting its clinical application. Mitochondrial damage-induced cardiomyocyte death is considered an essential cue for DOX cardiotoxicity. FUN14 domain containing 1 (FUNDC1) is a mitochondrial membrane protein participa...
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The spliceosome is a massive ribonucleoprotein structure composed of five small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) complexes that catalyze the removal of introns from pre-mature RNA during constitutive and alternative splicing. EFTUD2, PRPF8, and SNRNP200 are core components of the U5 snRNP, which is crucial for spliceosome function as it coordinate...
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Programmed cell death 10 (PDCD10) was initially considered as a protein associated with apoptosis. However, recent studies showed that PDCD10 is actually an adaptor protein. By interacting with multiple molecules, PDCD10 participates in various physiological processes, such as cell survival, migration, cell differentiation, vesicle trafficking, cel...
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Cancer immunotherapy (CIT) has gained increasing attention and made promising progress in recent years, especially immune checkpoint inhibitors such as antibodies blocking programmed cell death 1/programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4). However, its therapeutic efficacy is only 10–30% in...
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Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are frequently used as treatment for many malignancies. Immune related adverse events (irAEs) due to use of ICIs are common. Thyroid involvement is the commonest endocrine irAE. Here, we present an unusual case of Graves' disease who is potentially cured due to destructive thyroiditis caused by inflammation due t...
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Ferroptosis is a new type of programmed cell death characterized by iron-dependent lipid peroxidation. Ferroptosis inhibition is thought as a promising therapeutic strategy for a variety of diseases. Currently, a majority of known ferroptosis inhibitors belong to either antioxidants or iron-chelators. Here we report a new ferroptosis inhibitor, ter...
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Introduction Colorectal cancer (CRC) is largely refractory to currently available immunotherapies such as blockade of programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1). Results In this study, we identified SPATA2 and its protein partner CYLD as novel regulators of CXC-ligand 10 (CXCL10), a T-cell-attractant chemokine, in CRC. By specifically deleting SPATA2...
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Background: Bladder cancer (BLCA) is the sixth most common cancer in men, with an increasing incidence of morbidity and mortality. Necroptosis is a type of programmed cell death and plays a critical role in the biological processes of bladder cancer (BLCA). However, current studies focusing on long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) and necroptosis in cancer a...
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Histological transformation from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is one of mechanisms of the acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). However, SCLC transformation and tumor heterogeneity have never been reported in sequential targeted therapy and immunothera...
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Immunotherapy using programmed cell death 1 (PD1) inhibitors has shown great efficacy in colorectal cancer patients harboring mismatch-repair-deficient (dMMR) and microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) alterations. We previously showed a negative correlation of zymogen granule protein 16 ( ZG16 ) with programmed death-ligand 1 ( PD-L1 ) expression...
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Introduction Necroptosis, a type of programmed cell death, has recently been extensively studied as an important pathway regulating tumor development, metastasis, and immunity. However, the expression patterns of necroptosis-related genes (NRGs) in colorectal cancer (CRC) and their potential roles in the tumor microenvironment (TME) have not been e...
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Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) is a co-inhibitory checkpoint receptor expressed in various immune cells, especially in activated T cells. Engagement of PD-1 with its ligand leads to the exhausted T cells and impaired antitumor immunity. To date, PD-1 expression and its roles have been widely reported in T cells but not well defined in innate immune...
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Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has revolutionized the treatment of different advanced solid tumors, but most patients develop severe immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Although a bi-directional crosstalk between bone and immune systems is widely described, the effect of ICIs on the skeleton is poorly investigated. Here, we analyze the chan...
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Favorable prognostic significance of sole trisomy 8 and its associations with additional chromosome aberrations was confirmed in 7 adult and 3 pediatric patients with myelodysplastic syndromes treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The group of comparison included 10 MDS patients with sole monosomy 7 or 5 chromosome and those...
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Programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) is the ligand for programmed death protein-1 (PD-1), is associated with immunosuppression. Signaling via PD-1/PD-L1 will transmits negative regulatory signals to T cells, inducing T-cell inhibition, reducing CD8 ⁺ T-cell proliferation, or promoting T-cell apoptosis, which effectively reduces the immune respo...
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Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are clonal hematopoietic stem cell diseases arising from the bone marrow (BM), and approximately 30% of MDS eventually progress to AML, associated with increasingly aggressive neoplastic hematopoietic clones and poor survival. Dysregulated immune microenvironment has been recognized a...
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Astaxanthin is a red orange xanthophyll carotenoid produced mainly by microalgae but which can also be chemically synthesized. As demonstrated by several studies, this lipophilic molecule is endowed with potent antioxidant properties and is able to modulate biological functions. Unlike synthetic astaxanthin, natural astaxanthin (NAst) is considered...
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While immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have transformed the therapeutic landscape in oncology, they are effective in select subsets of patients. Efficacy may be limited by tumor-driven immune suppression, of which 1 key mechanism is the development of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). A fundamental gap in MDSC therapeutics is the lack of...
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Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) being the most common histological type. Owing to the limited therapeutic efficacy and side effects of currently available therapies for NSCLC, it is necessary to identify novel therapeutic targets for NSCLC. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs)...
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Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains one of the most common malignant tumors with poor survival. Pyroptosis is a kind of programmed cell death that can regulate the proliferation, invasion, and metastasis of tumor cells. However, the expression levels of pyroptosis-related genes (PRGs) in HCC and their relationship with prognosis are s...
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Background: The emerging role of precision medicine among in oncologic science is a potentially explorable area to solve long-standing implication of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC)'s management, especially by identifying programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) in its population. Objective: To describe the PD-L1's expression among TNBC popul...
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Programmed cell death (PCD) is an important mechanism of innate immunity against bacterial pathogens. The innate immune PCD pathway involves the molecules caspase-7 and caspase-8, among others. Brucella abortus is a gram-negative bacterium that causes a zoonotic disease termed brucellosis. The innate immune response against this pathogen involves a...
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While it is generally accepted that oxidative stress impacts the diabetic kidney and contributes to pathogenesis, there is a substantial lack of knowledge about the molecular entity and anatomic location of a variety of reactive species. Here we provide a novel “oxidative stress map” of the diabetic kidney – the first of its kind, and identify spec...
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The molecular mechanisms underlying cancer immune escape are a core topic in cancer immunology research. Cancer cells can escape T cell-mediated cellular cytotoxicity by exploiting the inhibitory programmed cell-death protein 1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1, CD274) immune checkpoint. Studying the PD-L1 regulatory pattern of tumor cel...
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The programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and its receptor programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) deliver inhibitory signals to regulate immunological tolerance during immune-mediated diseases. However, the role of PD-1 signaling and its blockade effect on human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) differentiation into the osteo-/odontogenic lineage remain unk...
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Previous studies have shown increased aberrant expression of immune checkpoint (IC) proteins, such as programmed cell death receptor-1 (PD-1) and T cell immunoglobulin mucin-domain-containing-3 (Tim-3) on T cells from patients with multiple myeloma (MM), which result in T cell exhaustion and dysfunction. However, little is known about the mechanism...
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Background Clinical studies have shown that the efficacy of programmed cell death receptor-1/programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-1/PD-L1) inhibitors on glioblastoma (GBM) is much lower than what is expected because of the low immunogenicity of GBM. Ferroptosis of cancer cells can induce the maturation of dendritic cells (DC cells) and increase the a...
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The PARP-1 expression level and poly (ADP-ribosyl)ation activity in cancer markedly affect the therapeutic outcome. Nicaraven, a free radical scavenger has been found to inhibit PARP, but the effect on cancer cells is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the potential role and molecular mechanism of nicaraven on cancer cells. Using U937 ly...
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Background Nanomaterials have been widely used in electrochemistry, sensors, medicine among others applications, causing its inevitable environmental exposure. A raising question is the “carrier” effect due to unique surface properties of nanomaterials, which may collectively impact the bioavailability, toxicokinetic, distribution and biological ef...
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The heterogeneity of exhausted T cells (Tex) is a critical determinant of immune checkpoint blockade therapy efficacy. However, few studies have explored exhausted T cell subpopulations in human cancers. In the present study, we examined samples from two cohorts of 175 patients with head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) by multiplex immunohist...
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Sympathetic cues via the adrenergic signaling critically regulate bone homeostasis and contribute to neurostress-induced bone loss, but the mechanisms and therapeutics remain incompletely elucidated. Here, we reveal an osteoclastogenesis-centered functionally important osteopenic pathogenesis under sympatho-adrenergic activation with characterized...
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Background Endometrial carcinoma (EC) is the most common gynaecological cancer worldwide. The Cancer Genome Atlas molecular grouping of a given case of EC could be assessed by POLE gene mutation, mismatch repair (MMR) ‘to reflect microsatellite instability’ and p53 status, which has proved to be of prognostic value. Programmed cell death receptor 1...
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Ferroptosis is a new type of programmed cell death that has excellent anti-tumor potential in different tumors. However, the research on ferroptosis in glioma is still incomplete. In this study, we aimed to revealed the relationship between ferroptosis-related genes (FRGs) and glioma. We collected gene expression profiles of glioma patients from th...
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Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare, highly aggressive skin cancer with neuroendocrine differentiation. Immune checkpoint inhibition has significantly improved treatment outcomes in metastatic disease with response rates to programmed cell death protein 1/programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) inhibition of up to 62%. However, primary and second...
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Background Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), an important epigenetic regulator, that mainly regulates histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) through histone methyltransferase, and participates in promoting the development of tumors. At present, the loss of H3K27me3 expression in meningioma is a poor prognostic factor, but the research of...
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Purpose To evaluate the safety and efficacy of selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) in combination with a PD-1 inhibitor in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (uHCC) and liver-only disease ineligible for chemoembolization. Patients and methods NASIR-HCC is a single-arm, multicenter, open-label, phase 2 trial that recruited...
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Background Adjuvant therapy for high-risk resected melanoma with programmed cell-death 1 blockade results in a median relapse-free survival (RFS) of 5 years. The addition of low dose ipilimumab (IPI) to a regimen of adjuvant nivolumab (NIVO) in CheckMate-915 did not result in increased RFS. A pilot phase II adjuvant study of either standard dose or...
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Cutaneous melanoma is the deadliest type of skin cancer, and its highly aggressive and metastatic nature leads to an extremely poor prognosis. Necrotizing apoptosis, a specific form of programmed cell death, has been extensively studied in recent years. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between necroptosis-related functional genes and cut...
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Cancer progression is closely linked to oxidative stress (OS) inflammation. OS is caused by an imbalance between the amount of reactive oxygen species produced and antioxidants present in the body. Excess ROS either oxidizes biomolecules or activates the signaling cascade, resulting in inflammation. Immune cells secrete cytokines and chemokines whe...
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ROS include hydroxyl radicals (HO.), superoxide (O2..), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). ROS are typically produced under physiological conditions and play crucial roles in living organisms. It is known that ROS, which are created spontaneously by cells through aerobic metabolism in mitochondria, can have either a beneficial or detrimental influence o...
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Erythropoietin-producing hepatoma receptor A2 (EphA2), receptor tyrosine kinase, the most widespread member of the largest receptor tyrosine kinase family, plays a critical role in physiological and pathological conditions. In recent years, the role of EphA2 in the occurrence and development of cancer has become a research hotspot and is considered...
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Drug resistance and metastasis are two major obstacles to cancer chemotherapy. During metastasis, cancer cells can survive as floating cells in the blood or lymphatic circulatory system, due to the acquisition of resistance to anoikis—a programmed cell death activated by loss of extracellular matrix attachment. The anoikis-resistant lung cancer cel...
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Programmed cell death (PCD) plays an important role in plant environmental stress and has the potential to be manipulated to enhance disease resistance. Plants have innate immunity and, following pathogen perception, the host induces a Hypersensitive Response PCD (HR-PCD), leading to pattern (PTI) or effector triggered immunity (ETI). Here we repor...
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Ferroptosis in recent days has gained high impact due to its implication in inducing several neurological challenges. Impairment of iron homeostasis (mainly surplus iron deposition) is the key reason for the induction of the ferroptotic cell death. This type of programmed cell death in the neurons can trigger neuropathological abnormalities. Ferrop...