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# Process Modeling - Science topic

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Hi everyone, I'm using PROCESS model 1 to explore the direct effect of continuous variable X and the moderation effect of continuous variable W on the association between continuous X and Y. However, the data didn't meet with the assumption of normal distribution. Should I continue to carry out the model or replace it with other methods?
Hello Bette Jingyi Wu. How exactly did you assess the "normality" assumption? Thanks for clarifying.
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share the sample table
Hi,
IV stands for independent variable, DV for dependent variable, MV for mediating variable, SE for standard error, LLCI and ULCI for lower and upper limits of the 95% confidence interval, respectively.
In the text, you might say something like: The independent variable (IV) significantly influenced both the mediating variable (MV; b = 0.50, p < .001) and the dependent variable (DV; b = 0.35, p < .001). The MV also significantly affected the DV (b = 0.25, p = .002).
Hope this helps.
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Up to this point, I thought that when doing a dimensional analysis using the Buckingham-Pi theorem the exponents are generally quite "simple". For example 0.5, 1 or 2 and so on.
However, I now have found a paper where the exponents of the dimensionless numbers that are formulated by a data-driven approach have "strange" exponents like 0.07 or 0.304. This seems a bit odd to me and brings me to the questions: are such exponents (still) physically meaningful? If so, in which cases does such a type of exponents occur (and why)?
Thank you very much!
Some of my thought:
In physics, theories about phase transition could give various non-integer exponents (see e.g. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ising_critical_exponents).
Sometimes, exponents could arise from specific type of ODE (e.g. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cauchy%E2%80%93Euler_equation). For example, I am working on one simple physics model and got a second-order ODE. One coefficient is an definite integral of some special function (I can only calculate it numerically). Because of this coefficient, the solution of ODE has non-integer exponents.
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Hi guys!
So i've already run a PROCESS (model 7) analyses for my data, which was not significant.
I have 4 conditions, and now i want to run PROCESS for only 2 of the conditions. When i try split file i get the error: MATRIX cannot do split-file processing in interactive mode. Run the job in batch mode or process each split-file group seperately. Does anyone know how to?
Another error that i get is SINGULAR OR NEAR SINGULAR DATA MATRIX.
Does anyone know what that means? And how i can fix it?
The values of my X are 1, 2 and the values of my Moderator are 1, 2
I hope that someone has the answers!
Wish you the best,
Freddie
I'm gonna try my best to make it work. Thanks again!
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Memorization, due to its strong correlation to the Data processing model by literature has been of fashion and even considered as an ailment in teaching an learning theories.
Also, because it is an end result, a finished product, and not an indication of understanding relations which are elements of learning etc it has been undermined.
However, 2 reasons tramp this argument
1) memorization might be possible only if at some degree these correlations are identified or experience (via synapsis)
2) memorization is a critical part of learning ! It can be said to be an indication of learning or an aspect of success outcome
Finally, memorization methods include some kind of tension
- teasing to false ontologies i.e. "i am a dog"
- mnemonic devices, usually with completely unrelated in substance reference
- humorous connotations
Some types of memorization provoking techniques are inadequate for education but are used in the media and entertainment quite effectively
Another main argument against the learning value of memorization or its suitability as a basis or important element in a theory of learning is that it only concerns a late stage of learning, that is recall. This is a stage in the end of the sequence of sub stages such as assimilation, awareness of problem etc. But one of the arguments above questions this, although literature has not given attention to these objections that seek to upgrade memory phenomena in learning
Also, constructivist theories have seen to eliminate memory phenomena since they are at the other "ideological end" of the spectrum: pre-set knowledge vs constructively, actively constructed by students which is presumed to the sole path to involving higher mental states such as critical thinking, evaluaction, creativity which are basic aims in the realm of education
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how to calculate Parameters of the extended Antoine equation for pure compounds using ASPEN PLUS?
Dear friend Abdul Wahab
To calculate Parameters of the extended Antoine equation for pure compounds using ASPEN PLUS, you can use the following steps (How can I obtain Antoine coefficients (A, B and C) from Aspen Plus ....):
1. Open Aspen Plus and select a new simulation.
2. Select a property method and component list.
3. Add a component to the simulation by clicking on "Components" in the Data Browser and then clicking on "Add Component".
4. Enter the name of the component and its molecular weight.
5. Click on "Properties" in the Data Browser and then click on "Antoine Parameters".
6. Enter the Antoine parameters for your component in the appropriate fields.
7. Click on "OK" to save your changes.
You can also find Parameters Ci for the Extended Antoine Equations as PLXANT-1. You can transform to the Basic Antoine Equation by using the following formulae:
C1 = A Ln (10)
C2 = -B Ln (10)
C3 = C
I hope this helps!
Source:
(1) How can I obtain Antoine coefficients (A, B and C) from Aspen Plus .... https://www.researchgate.net/post/How_can_I_obtain_Antoine_coefficients_A_B_and_C_from_Aspen_Plus.
(3) Where does ASPEN Plus calculate the vapor pressure of compounds from .... https://www.researchgate.net/post/Where-does-ASPEN-Plus-calculate-the-vapor-pressure-of-compounds-from.
(4) Extended Antoine equation | ResearchGate. https://www.researchgate.net/post/Extended_Antoine_equation.
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The code should be well documented with examples.
Sigfried Vanaverbeke You might look for libraries or code snippets with decent documentation and examples and determine whether they fit your requirements. Check to see if the code has been tested and confirmed by the community as well.
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I ran Process Model 59 with three parallel mediators for my Master Thesis. So I have read that in model 59, the indirect effect is a nonlinear function of the moderator, so no index of moderated mediation is provided.
What conclusions can I then draw from the results? Can anyone help me with the intepretation of the output? How do I know whether my moderated mediation model is signficant then?
I believe the issue may be a model misfit . Model 59 in the PROCESS version 4 ,has an independant (X) ,dependant ( Y) and one mediating variable(M) . There is a moderating variable ( W) that is added to impact all three pathways . Your model with three mediators may not be Model 59.
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Hi all,
Does anyone have any good presentations, examples or suggested reading on how to explain the two process model for Sleep/Wake ? S -Sleep and C-Circadian. The original research paper by Daan,Beersma and Borbely 1984 can be a little confusing.
Cheers
Ian Dunican
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İf you have any reference about how i can report model 16 in process macro. Especially the interaction of two moderators and interpreting their different levels.
I recommended
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There are so many simulation softwares available for RTM and VARTM process modeling. I wanted to know and decide which of them is preferable for modeling complex problems of flow of resin through the porous media. As there will be so many technical experts who already worked on this around the world, I sincerely need your suggestions.
Thank you.
PS: Price details of software will also be helpful.
Moldex3d
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We ran a study using a process model (it's a serial-parallel mediation model; Hayes' model 81). See attached image.
A is a dichotomous variable and the effect of A on E is actually serially mediated by the paths B-C and B-D. (this was our finding in Study 1).
We were asked to test a moderation relationship in a follow-up study, employing a categorical moderator. In the model presented, the moderator will affect the relationship between A (again a categorical variable) and B (continuous variable). In this case, in the follow-up study, can the moderation relationship be tested using simply the interaction in an ANOVA (A is categorical, the moderator is categorical and the DV would be B, which is continuous), leaving aside the rest of the variables of the PROCESS model? Is there something wrong with this approach?
Or should we instead, in the follow-up study, run the whole model again and test the moderation using a more complex PROCESS model (this time with the moderator included)?
Thank you very much for your help.
Hello Luis,
To the extent that adding a moderator to help explain more of the variance in variable B (by adding M and A*M as predictors of B), it is possible that you'd get different answers as to the mediation amounts for the C and D variables (e.g., coefficient products for b->c * c=>e and b->d * d->e) may well differ from what you found in the first study. For this reason, I'd include the full model (moderation and mediation portions).
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I have conducted a moderation analysis with two independent moderators. (Using Hayes Process model 2). I have attached the output for your reference.
I am looking for the impact that financial wellbeing and gender has the relationship between marital status and loneliness.
My variables are:
Y: Loneliness (continuous variable - low values indicating low loneliness)
X: Marital status (single or married- dummy coded to have single as the reference category)
W (mod1): Financial wellbeing (continuous- low values indicating low financial wellbeing)
Z (mod2): Gender (male or female- dummy coded to have male as the reference category)
As you will see, all the p-values show significance
I have to questions:
1. Is this selection of variables appropriate for the moderation analysis I am undertaking?
2. Can someone please help me interpret this output? When interpreting the conditional effect I am seeing all the values under 'effect' are negative but I am not sure how to interpret this in relation to the predictor (being single coded as 0).
Any guidance would be greatly appreciated!
A moderator analysis is used to determine whether the relationship between two variables depends on (is moderated by) the value of a third variable. This relationship is commonly between:
1. A continuous dependent variable and continuous independent variable, which is modified by a dichotomous moderator variable;
2. A continuous dependent variable and continuous independent variable, which is modified by a polychromous moderator variable; or
3. A continuous dependent variable and continuous independent variable, which is modified by a continuous moderator variable. In this guide,
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Hi all,
Please let me know If you know any things about my question. Recently I have conducted a mediation analysis using PROCESS model 4 macro software and with the bootstrapping method (Hayes, 2017). As you know, in these conditions, we have three paths, A, B, C
path A is between IV and M(mediator), path B is between Mand DV, and path C is between IV and DV when M also is in the model. Please let me know when we can say the indirect effect is significant? should all three paths be significant before? for example when path C isn't significant, and or two paths C and A aren't significant, we can say the indirect effect is significant (I know when zero isn't in the confidence interval (BootLLCI and BootULCI), we have the significant indirect effect). what about when we have two and or three mediators in the model?
All the best,
Esmaeel,
Stefan Poier Yes, a single-step test of the indirect effect with bootstrap CIs is what I would also recommend. MacKinnon et al. showed that this provides for the most powerful test. That's why I think path analysis with simultaneous estimation of all effects in a single model is the way to go. Nonetheless, I find the logic of the Baron and Kenny approach to still be worthwhile for beginners to think about in order to better understand what mediation actually is.
MacKinnon, D. P., Lockwood, C. M., Hoffman, J. M., West, S. G., & Sheets, V. (2002). A comparison of methods to test mediation and other intervening variable effects. Psychological Methods, 7(1), 83-104.
MacKinnon, D. P., Lockwood, C. M., & Williams, J. (2004). Confidence limits for the indirect effect: Distribution of the product and resampling methods. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 39(1), 99-128.
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Dear researchers,
I conducted a mediation analysis using SPSS PROCESS model 4, and the result was as follows:
a=0.35, p<.001; b= 2.93, p<.001; c'=-0.11, p=.61; c= 0.93; p<.001.
That means the total effect and indirect effect (ab=1.04) were positive and significant, but the direct effect (c'= -0.11) was negative and insignificant. And the value of the indirect effect was greater than the total effect.
I thought at first that the complete mediation effect may sound good, but some papers said due to the indirect effect (ab) being positive and the direct effect (c') being negative, this may be the suppressing effect. However, in my result, the total effect (c) was significant, and that did not meet the premise of suppressing effect.
What is the best explanation for my result?
Best, Yanchen
Hello Yanchen,
after looking at Kenny's website, I assume his term "inconsistent mediation" is rather descriptively meant in that regard that you may have a positive indirect effect plus a negative (true) direct effect. If the direct and indirect effect are of equal but opposite sign, then both eliminate each other with the result that the overall relationship or total effect is zero (although an indirect effect exists). A comparable situation is when you have two mediators with opposite design.
Imagine the scenario in which you have a dummy predictor (broken leg, 0 [no] or 1 [yes]) and a single outcome "overall mood". Then imagine one mediator being "pain" and another being "getting attention". A broken leg has a positive effect on pain and pain has a negative effect on mood (=negative indirect effect). Likewise, a broken leg has a positive effect on "getting attention" which then positively affects mood (thus, a positive indirect effect). If both effects are equally strong, then the overall relationship between a broken leg and mood is zero. Beware however that this is no bias but still shows that things often have negative AND positive consequences which may counterbalance each other.
Now back to Kenny mentioning that this is like suppression. IF he simply sticks to the empirical phenomenon (without any causal explanation) of suppression--namely a zero overall effect but a negative direct effect, he is correct and this looks like inconsistent mediation. However, it is more important to consider (and THIS is the fundamental difference to inconsistent mediation) that the suppression scenerio incoporates wrong and biased effects (remember the term "true direct effect" above whereas in the incostent mediation, all effects are correct (ok we assume that for the sake of the argument). Suppression results from a causal structure in which NONE of the variables has any effect on the outcome but this strange behavior results from a sort of bias called "collider bias" in the causal inference literature. Recently, this paper solved the riddle and at least proposed two forms of causal structure that leads to the suppression scenerio (whereas all of psychology including Kenny) has failed for decades to really explain it.
Kim, Y. (2019). The causal structure of suppressor variables. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 1076998619825679. doi:10.3102/1076998619825679
For most people this will be rather shocking, as for decades (as so often), people focused on the enhanced prediction results for the target predictor following the inclusion of the suppressor. In this regard, suppression was deemed a good thing. Enhanced prediction, yes, but no effect at all.
HTH
Holger
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I want to simulate the Methanation of CO2 in a PFR. In the set of reaction equations the water gas shift reaction appears: CO + H2O <-> CO2 + H2. I am using a reaction rate expression published in: https://doi.org/10.1002/ceat.201500327 📷. In the rate the expression the partial pressure of CH4 is a variable, even though it's not included in the reaction equation. How can I implement this in the input form of heterogeneous catalytic reaction? How can I declare the variable name of the CH4 partial pressure?
I could find a solution to this Problem: In the stoichiometric input tick CH4 but assign 0 as stoichiometric coefficient. CH4 will appear as "(N: CH4)" in the reaction equation. When using the option "Advanced" for kinetic input one can use N1 as variable name for the CH4 partial pressure.
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I am conducting a systematic literature review on process modelling languages (PMLs). I need your answers.
ARIS
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Hello Respected Scholars,
I want to know how Moderated mediation results can be created in the form of the below-attached tables. Please do guide or share any source or material in this regard.
Thank You!
Regard
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This is a moderated mediation model, and I have no idea where to start to determine a sample size or how to conduct a power analysis.
Haroon R Abbu Jack Cincotta Hey! I am doing the same thing now for my thesis, and I was wondering if you know what test family (z test, F test...) and what statistical test you used in GPower? Thanks!
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I am having good knowlege in steady state flowsheet simulations in aspen plus. However for my current project I need to transfer a steady state process model into a dynamic modell. I studied myself steady state simulations through uni lectures and tutorials on youtube. For dynamic simulation I coudn't find sufficent training material online, so I am asking you for recommendation on training materials (beginner level) for Aspen Dynamics.
Hi,
You can learn Aspen Plus dynamics from the following list:
1- Plantwide Dynamic Simulators in Chemical Processing and Control (2002) - Luyben
2- Distillation Design and Control Using Aspen Simulation (2013) - Luyben
3- Design and Control of Distillation Systems for Separating Azeotropes - Chapter 4 - Luyben
4- ASPEN PLUS - Chemical Engineering Applications - Chapter 15 - KAMAL I.M. AL-MALAH
5- Process Analysis and Simulation in Chemical Engineering - Chapter 8 - Ivan Dario Gil Chaves
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Hello everyone,
Could you recommend free process modeling software?
Thank you for your attention and valuable support.
Regards,
Cecilia-Irene Loeza-Mejía
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I have 10 variables (1-D.V, 8-I.V and 1-Moderarator) in my model and I have 267 no of observations i.e. sample size.
I am newbie in AMOS and want to test the interaction between the variables of this model through AMOS. The measurement model estimates are quite handsome. The results of Hayes process model in SPSS for moderation are also fine. However when I run the Model fit measure plugin or Calculate estimates for interaction. The error "RMSEA is not defined" is shown. May I know the reason and solution please?
Note: The standardized values of IVs and moderator have been used for interaction.
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I am currently writing a blockchain paper.
In the next chapter, I'm trying to cover various requirements for developing a blockchain-token based on Ethereum.
Furthermore, in the following chapter I try to compare different distribution channels and create a kind of "best-practice" for token distribution.
Would you have any ideas?
I would be very grateful.
Dear Johannes,
This reference is for a comparison and evaluation strategy, which includes a process model. Probably, it is not what you are looking for...
Tebes, G., Peppino, D., Becker, P., Papa, F., Rivera, M.B., Olsina, L. (2018). Family of Evaluation Strategies: A Practical Case for Comparing and Adopting Strengths. Journal of Computer Science & Technology, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 48–60, https://doi.org/10.24215/16666038.18.e06
You can access it also at RG
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I would like to optimise the process model of a thermal energy supply system, which was developed in the software environment IPSEpro, with regard to the economic and energetic constraints. Since the options in the software itself are limited in terms of optimisation algorithms, I would like to optimise the process model via the COM interface with Matlab with the help of the optimisation algorithms available in Matlab. What is the best way to link the Matlab code for optimisation with the code that controls the call to the external process model? How can the objective function for the algorithm be formulated in Matlab when there is no functional relationship, but a parameter of the external model should be used?
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Dear Researchers, Modellers, and Mathematicians,
As we know that in mathematics, computer science, and physics, a deterministic system is a system in which no randomness is involved in the development of future states of the system. A deterministic model will thus always produce the same output from a given starting condition or initial state. In this regard, I am looking forward to having examples from daily life events which are deterministic. Thank you!
Sincerely,
Aman Srivastava
Thank you, Dr. Faical Barzi, Dr. Zakaria Yahia, Dr. José Robles for sharing your opinions. It can be concluded from your responses that "deterministic processes can never happen in nature due to a certain degree of uncertainty involved; however, humankind has considered such (relevant) processes to be deterministic for their convenience in model development, such as the case of automated system or examples from classical mechanics". I request readers of this question to kindly view their responses for more understanding. Thank you, kindly stay connected.
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While Computing undergraduate studies, several different software projects are required to be submitted. When in academic institutes, to development of software, it needs to follow a prescriptive process model. However, when considering group projects, the stages or works can be shared among the members. But in individual projects, as a single member, no work can be shared but can be loved the practical problems by managing the process groups efficiently.
Hence, rather than group projects, the selection of the prescriptive process model is important.
Then when selecting a prescriptive process model, what are the things that an underegrad should be considered?
Disclaimer
The discussion targets the perspectives of two types of participants.
It is warmly welcome the ideas of both the groups as well as interest audience
When selecting a perspective process model, there are some facts to be
Considered they are Scope of validity, the impact of the process, Degree of confidence
And tailorability of the process.
When considering a flash flood prediction system,
If the Scope is well defined so its Helps to define clear goals in order to reduce cycle time also improving code quality. So according to this system the goal would be give accurate prediction reports on time.
The impact of process- This reflects the weight that should be given to each context of the project. In here If the impact is not known then the prescriptive process will lead to unpredictable results. So this is very important part.
Degree of confidence- Effectiveness of this application to be deployed in different areas where floods can be occur.
The ability to modify when changes in requirements can is referred to Tailorable. It must be able to adapt the process described by the prescriptive model to specific goals of the project. In this system adding new databases ,data sets or new functions can be taken as examples.
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Briefly comment how do you see six-sigma as a prescriptive process to an organization?
What kind of deviations and disadvantages it can observe when implementing it?
Disclaimer
The discussion targets the perspectives of two types of participants.
It is warmly welcome the ideas of both the groups as well as interest audience
Six Sigma can be characterized as a quality control technique that centers on dispensing with as numerous surrenders as conceivable. Six Sigma centers on the whole software process in guaranteeing quality. The essential thought behind this methodology is to move forward the quality by recognizing numerous abandons as conceivable. Six Sigma employments Define, Measure, Analyze, Progress, and Control (DMAIC) as an integral part of it. since Six sigma is applied to the whole prepare and is an approach that's based on minimizing the surrenders as much as conceivable, it may make inflexibility that in turn comes about in delays. Additionally , complicated strategies will result from this approach. Assist, since client fulfillment is concerned amazingly where anything not satisfactory by the client is considered as a deformity, the inner quality control measures that an organization utilize will be ruined.
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I want to write a theory development piece and I am proposing a process model. As Cornelissen (2017) editorial suggests, you can adopt a narrative style for writing a process paper. My question is can I use statements similar to propositions with the title of "narrative"?
For example, my proposition is: "In the pre-adoption stage, users have an initial attitude toward the technology that affects their decision in the next stage (phase)..."
- Cornelissen, J. (2017). Editor’s comments: Developing propositions, a process model, or a typology? Addressing the challenges of writing theory without a boilerplate.
Thank you Justin Nicholes Justin Nicholes , I already got an answer from Suzzane Rivard, former senior editor at MISQ theory and review. She was open to the idea of "narratives", and i used a combination of propositions and narratives (which is different from narrative style of the prose) to reflect all aspects of the theoretical contributions that I wish to present.
And interestingly I don't have any idea of your classification of theory purposes (tell a story, argue for position, combination). If you please share the article for this taxonomy/ typology I would be thankful.
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You need to find a software engineering organisation's Prescriptive and descriptive process models to understand and improve the processes.
1. Describe how do you find those
2. Describe how do you confirm those findings
Disclaimer
The discussion targets the perspectives of two types of participants.
It is warmly welcome the ideas of both the groups as well as interest audience
The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a general-purpose, developmental, modeling language in the field of software engineering that is intended to provide a standard way to visualize the design of a system.
The approach has the advantage of giving high level understanding of the system and the 'actors' who have investment in the system before writing a line of code. It slows development down! This can save development money and result in better end user satisfaction and less maintenance.
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I'm doing research and I want to test my hypotheses with Process model 7. I've heard it's better to first analyse my mediation with Process model 4. I've done this, but I found no significant mediation. But, I still have a moderation to test. Do I still have to use Process model 7 for this, even though I already know there is no mediation? Or can I better use Proces model 1 for the moderation analysis?
The basic characteristics required to select the process model are project type and associated risks, requirements of the project, and the users. One of the key features of selecting a process model is to understand the project in terms of size, complexity, funds available, and so on.
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I'm looking for a tool to measure the similarity between two process models to identify how much the models differ from one another.
Dear Mr. Krajsic!
I searched for YOU resources that you may find valuable:
1) van Zelst, S.J., Buijs, J.C.A.M., Vázquez-Barreiros, B. et al. Repairing Alignments of Process Models. Bus Inf Syst Eng 62, 289–304 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12599-019-00601-7 Free access:
2) A case-study: M Adela Grando et al. (2021).Study of EHR-mediated workflows using ethnography and process mining methods Health Informatics Journal 1–14, Free access:
Yours sincerely, Bulcsu Szekely
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Hi all,
I am doing a moderated mediation regression in process (model 7). I have covariates with a lot of levels, (e.g., 5) and created dummies.
Now, when I run the PROCESS model, I get the error: NOTE: Due to estimation problems, some bootstrap samples had to be replaced. The number of times this happened was:2740.
When I run the model with the categorical variables (no dummies), I do not get the error, but then I do not have dummies. What would be the most simple option for now?
Kind regards,
Maayke
How large are the groups you are comparing with each dummy variable?
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Several works available in the literature have addressed regression models for the prediction of mass yields and elemental composition of the bio-oil/biocrude produced from biomass thermochemical liquefaction (i.e. pyrolysis and HTL), based on its biochemical composition. However, I haven't been able to find any work going further and predicting the relative amount of representative families of compounds (e.g. alcohols, carboxylic acids, phenols, etc.) in the bio-oil/biocrude.
A couple of works (, ) have proposed computational algorithms for the chemical characterization of bio-oils/biocrudes by using a reduced number of compunds but, in the end, they rely on experimental data such as biocrude GC-MS/Simulated Distillation.
My idea, obviously, is not to get a detailed composition profile, but at least to be able to describe how biomass composition and process operating conditions affect the relative amount of maybe 10 to 15 representative compunds.
I would appreciate any ideas on the topic.
Best regards
Its quite important to get the BMP test done and after particular days we can also start testing the effluent or the slurry on daily basis to get the actual data too
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I am looking for sotware(s) that can allow anyone to visualize process models & sub-processes, allowing to share them in a collaborative way . It can be a mix of tools that can be combined to provide an intuitive platform to work within a kind of process framework management system.
Much chemical process modelling and/or simulation work can be done with the widely-used Microsoft’s Excel.
Application example ― Simulations carried in Excel 5.0 with Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) macros ― The recursive least squares algorithm (RLS) allows for (real-time) dynamical application of least squares regression to time series. Years ago, while investigating adaptive control and energetic optimization of aerobic fermenters, I have applied the RLS algorithm with forgetting factor (RLS-FF) to estimate the parameters from the KLa correlation, used to predict the O2 gas-liquid mass-transfer, while giving increased weight to most recent data. Estimates were improved by imposing sinusoidal disturbance to air flow and agitation speed (manipulated variables). The power dissipated by agitation was accessed by a torque meter. The proposed (adaptive) control algorithm compared favourably with PID. This investigation was reported at (MSc Thesis):
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In SPSS I'm doing the analysis for PROCESS model 7, but I'm struggling how to do the write-up. Would be great if anyone could help me out :)
Reporting results with PROCESS macro model 1 (simple moderation) in APA style ... introduction-to-mediation-moderation-and-conditional-process-analysis
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I used PROCESS model 1 to calculate a moderation effect. The results show a significant interaction between the variables, but the conditional effects are non-significant. I mean standardized the moderator (Zmean_Tr).
How should I interpret these result? Could this be due to an error in my data? Or should I just conclude the interaction is not significant after all?
Many thanks!
Your data seems totally ok, but your interpretation is flawed. The significant interaction only tells you that the slopes of your X variable change with changes in your moderator W. Since your exploratory effect of the interaction is very small (2%) I would not expect strong changes.
Additionally, the test of the conditional effects at different levels of the moderator does not compare the slopes with each other, but if each slope is different from zero. Therefore, the slopes may differ from each other but all not from zero. And again additionally, the values for the moderator to test the slopes are artificial (unless you specified it by yourself), in PROCESS 16th, 50th and 84th percentile, others use +/- 1 SD and in case of not symmetrical distributions, this will again change the results. As you can see, with increasing values of W the conditional effect switched from negative to positive values (therefore crossing zero, why they are close to zero and not significant) and has the largest value at W = 1,073. Imagine you would test W = 2.0 the slope would surely be significant.
Taken together, it is not a problem of the data, but the interpretation.
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I am currently conducting research on the factors influencing the sexual harassment behaviour of female athletes. where I have 1.DV 2.MEDIATOR. 2.MODERATOR and 2.IV, I have separately analysed by Hayes model 7 and 15. it seems inappropriate.
It is always possible to combine two models. I have no idea what "model 7" or "model 15" refers to.
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We have run a follow-up study on an earlier experiment where this odd result occurs for an additional IV that we called context. First, the effects and mediation analyses of the two main IVs nicely replicate the earlier study.
Now, when running a model 4 on the new (dummy coded binary) IV called "context". The total effect is nonsignificant (p = .22), the direct effect is significant (p = .004), and the indirect effects are all nonsignificant. Part of the reason appears to be that there is no significant path from this IV to the mediators (ps >.6). Therefore it looks like this is clearly not a case of a mediation.
I was wondering if there might be a suppression effect - but the models says the mediators are not significant.. any ideas on how to interpret such a case, or on how to proceed?
We need the solar scheffler dish (CST) stand formula according to longitude and latitude from 8m² to 32m².
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Dear all,
my thesis is looking into the extent to which allocentric values influence the relationship between moral superiority and social exclusion. Attached below is the PROCESS output (using model 1) - the outcome variable for the analysis was the exclusion behavior (exclude vs. include any player); the predictor variable for the analysis was the participants’ condition (control vs. moral superiority), with participants’ COS (culture orientation) score being the moderator for the analysis. This was a method advised by my supervisor (binary logistic regression). The overall model is significant, but what does this mean? How do I interpret the results in layman terms? I am confused as to how to interpret and report the results in the APA format.
Thank you very much for your help!
Model Summary
R R-sq MSE F df1 df2 p
.4267 .1821 79.9939 32.0530 3.0000 432.0000 .0000
F(3,432) = 32.05, p <.001, R2 = .18 (all predictors to y)
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If I want to test 2 hypothesis, one is mediation and the other moderation of this mediation (adding W to model), should I run only 1 analysis (process model 7) and interpret the results for each hypothesis separately ? isn't it better in order to avoid multiple comparisons problems? (I can't work with SEM this time) I see researchers using first model 4 and then run another analysis using model 7
thanks!
Apparently better to run model 4 to test first for the mediation, and then run model 7 to test for the moderated mediation.
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I want to know if multi-tubular reactor can be customized through ASPEN Custom Modeler for simulation of Polymer synthesis reaction. Please let me know if there is any related code or method.
Yes, I agree with the point of Rick Manner's response to the general concept of the multitubular reactor design. And for the modeling of such in Aspen HYSYS, you can PFR model, it has provision for the number of tubes present in the reactor.
So, PFR should be suitably model the MTReactor for you.
Kind regards
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• I'm currently working on a project designing a Polycarbonate manufacturing plant. I found two main processes for the production such as phosgene method and transesterification method. But I couldn't find any Process Flow Diagrams related to the process. This transesterification method was developed by Asahi Kasei Corp. Japan. Anyone has an idea about the better process to produce Polycarbonate and Unit operations involved with it?
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If I calculate my results with Model 4 beforehand, all results are traceable and correct. But if I switch to Model 58 and let my moderator act on the paths, my signs become negative. Why do the signs change so much in Model 58?
Thanks
No change helping you without seeing the WHOLE output(s). With a multicategorical X (5 groups?) you should have 12 indirect effects in model 58.
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I have written code for a for a Heat Exchange Reformer in Aspen Custom Modeler, but it cannot run. The program describes a shell and tube heat exchanger with steam methane reforming reactions occurring on the tube side.
However when it runs, it gives error messages along the lines of:
"Check bounds: Step cut by 2.11607e-02 due to GHR.z("H2",27) below lower bound 0.00000e+00."
and is repeated for other components
Has anyone encountered a similar problem before?
I can share more details if needed.
You can check and try to change the nonlinear solver or its parameter.
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Is it neccessary to perfrom validation of process model established using a box-benkhen experimental design?
How "big mistake" will it be if I finish the experiment after performing the runs according to box-benkhen design, without any further repetition of the runs?
It is ok to distribute/publish your results even if you did not have the resources to replicate them. As long as you clearly explain that is what you are doing an use word like may and could to indicate the results have not been validated
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Dear all,
I have a 130 surveys to investigate the relationship between strategy (IV) and firm performance (DV) moderated by governmental regulations. Each of the variables consists of several dimensions (4 types of strategy, 7 dimensions of government, 6 dimensions of performance (see the pic.), each of the variable is based on different theoretical frameworks. Each question is the 7 likert scale. The model looks exactly like the PROCESS model 3 by Hayes, however, I can only run it with one IV.
So far I do not understand whether I still can use the Hayes model, or how can I run check my hypothesis. How do I group questions to certain variables? Should I run CFA or Multivariate ANOVA? Am I in a right direction? Would be grateful for any help!!!
You should consider only the total scores of the general variables considering the number of your sample, this can be done also in JAMOVI, you can also do it through AMOS that allows to estimate adjustment indexes of the SEM model to evaluate the general hypothesis of the theoretical model raised.
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Hi everyone,
I need to know if there's any recent (2018-2019) resource about communication processes models from a psychosocial POV.
Thank you!
Different models serve not only as a frame for communication, they can help to rise problems as well as discuss them. Communication is not only transportation of messages, nowadays communication is more of sharing ideas and feelings and willingness to participate.
1. Aristotle Model of Communication
2. Shannon and Weaver’s Model of Communication
3. Berlo’s Model of Communication
4. Schramm’s Interactive Model of Communication
Shannon & Weaver’s and Scramm’s models as the key to succeed in intercultural communication by adding to the model the element of interpretation and confirmation of the feedback. Circulation from Schramm’s model gives us feedback, the interpreted decoding, which is the representation of the meaning received. However, confirmation of the feedback seems necessary to keep the communication ongoing and make sure that the message is understood as it was aimed.
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I have used appropriate references for all the values and inputs that I have used for simulation. Please kindly help me out. I have been working through this for quite sometime.
I used unisim for carrying out this. File is attatched below if anyone is free to debug.
Arjun Sankar S Defined Spec. for tower is incorrect so check these paramete in order to make the converging of the tower.
re-Check the parameters again and tell me what happened??
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An author says that Poisson process model may under estimate the incoming traffic especially when the traffic is heavy-tailed. He advises me to use Pareto distribution to model the traffic in cognitive radio networks. However, I observe that Poisson process has largely been utilized in the literature for the incoming traffic modeling in CRNs. Suggestions please?
I agree with Prof Amara
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Anyone knows what is the difference between running a mediation X-M-Y and moderation X-W-Y separately compare to a moderated mediation model 5(which is only the direct effect of X and Y being moderated ).X-M-W-Y
Their interpretation seems similar since no indirect effect being moderated. Need help. Thanks.
X- independent
Y-dependent
M-mediator
W-moderator
Ihope it helps
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Hi, I am looking for a sabbatical position for 1 year in the field of plastic forming processes so I would like to know if somebody knows about an opportunity to join a group with similar interests. I have been working in this area for 4 years.
polymers or plasticity (Plastic Behaviour of Material)?
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I have developed a process model for technology addictions from my literature review. After the model is developed, l now want to develop a conceptual model with reliable constructs from the theoretical framework that can be validated quantitatively. I have the theoretical framework of the model also developed but the conceptual model with the reliable constructs for validation quantitatively is becoming a problem. I need help.
How do l develop a conceptual framework with suitable constructs from theoretical framework of a process model that will can be easily validated? I have the theoretical framework of the model also developed but the conceptual model with the reliable constructs for validation quantitatively is becoming a problem. I need help.
When your conceptual framework / research model developed is uniderpinning on previous theoretical framework means you should modify others' theoretical framework by adopting / adapting / add new constructs / variables to form your own / new conceptual framework / research model. When you do that, ensure you complete the following:
1. Majority of your constructs / variables should be from previous theoretical frameworks - if you inject / replace too many your own / new variables then your conceptual framework / research model no longer underpinning on the previous theoretical framework - this might cause you don't have reliable quantitative results (rigorous literature review is paramount important).
2. When you adopt variables from previous theoretical framework into your new conceptual framework / research model, ensure you inherit the similar operational definition and their survey questionnaire items - don't create your own unnecessarily. If variable adaptation is required, please adapt with the justification from the literature reviewed.
3. When you inject new variables with their respective questionnaire items - ensure those items measure what you'd defined. You can't have gap / disconnect between the operational definition and its questionnaire items e.g. operational definition defines something whereas your questionnaire items measure something else!
4. You should pilot test / pre-test your conceptual framework / research model with adequate sample size before going for actual big bang data collection. Pilot test provides you opportunity to evaluate the reliability & validity test results before enhancing the conceptual framework / research model further before actual data collection.
5. You should use the correct statistical analyses to analyze your sampled data e.g. path analysis vs structural equation modeling, linear vs logit multiple regression, para vs non-para statistics etc.
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What are the best process modeling standard notations to create and implement a process framework into a small and medium-size enterprise and which workflow softwares can be used to manage them (share among employees, receive feedback...) ?
For example, I discovered Nintex or PYX4 softwares, but they come with their own language notation so I was looking similar softwares that allow to import/export process into BPMN files, for example, which seems for me quite accurate
BPMN is the effective process modelling standard. There are some BPMN modelling tools that are open source or that have open source editions, such as:
ARIS Express
BeePMN
Bizagi Modeler
Camunda
Flowable
Imixs-Workflow
The full BPMN language can be unnecessarily complex. So you may want to use a subset, at least initially, to document processes.
There are other business process modelling approaches such as:
Flow Charting
Swim Lanes
Event Process Chain (EPC)
Value Chain
Unified Modelling Language (UML)
IDEF-0
LOVEM-E
SIPOC
Systems Dynamics
Value Stream Mapping
These might be worth exploring.
There are some notes I have written on the topic of BPM:
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What are the sustainable goods/food manufacturing/processing model used by industrial world keeping Industry 4.0 in mind?
Dear Mr. Tiwari! This question is very interesting and relevant - so I looked up resources to support you in your work:
1) BRF (2019)."Industry 4.0: how will the new industrial revolution affect the Food Industry" Monday June 24th, 2019.Available at: https://blog.brfingredients.com/en/industry-4-0-food-industry/
2)John de Yonge (2019)."Why your next big bet should be in food innovation" Ernst & Young Global Limited . Available at: https://www.ey.com/en_us/innovation/how-innovation-can-change-the-future-of-food
3) Noor Zafira Noor Hasnan & Yuzainee Md Yusoff (2018). "Short review: Application Areas of Industry 4.0 Technologies in Food Processing Sector", Conference: 2018 IEEE Student Conference on Research and Development (SCOReD) , Available at:
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Hi, I'm using the Hayes Process model 15 but confused with the judgement and interpretation showed in the following picture:
If the IU(the mediator)is no longer significant, will it influence the moderated mediation effect?
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Hello,
When performing a PROCESS model (Hayes, 2013) for moderation, the overall model was not significant R2 = .03, F(3, 186) = 2.12, p = .100, but one main effect was (b = -.39, SE = .18, p = .031).
My question: is it allowed to interpret the main effect if the overall model is not significant?
And: how do I interpret the effects if the independent variable is a categorical variable? (The dependent variable and the moderator are both interval).
Kind regards
If I am employing moderation in secondary time series analysis can I need to proceed with the methodology of time series?
I need some liturature regarding its methodology
Actually my all variables (quantitative) are of mixed order can I still procedd with ARDL approach irrespective of moderation analysis?
If someone guide me / suggest some relavent stuff I shall be very grateful for this favor.
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I need to know how to calculate sensitivity analysis for AHP (analytical hierarchical process) model through examples .
This can be calculated using expert choice
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Hi everyone
I am conducting a research involving a serial mediation analysis using Hayes's Process (Model 6).My scales are all Likert type except one (this one measures Borderline personality semptoms in which 1=Yes, 0=No) Should I compute my scales by average or by total score? It doesn't make a difference considering standardized coefficients, but I'm going to report unstandardized coefficients, which is affected by how you compute your scales (sum or mean). Is it okey that computing Likert ones by avareging scores and the other one (yes/no) by sum, and report the unstandardized coefficients?
Should I compute my scales by using mean scores or sum of the scores?
Use mean scores when you are conducting a quantitative research using parametric statistics with metric data (Interval / ratio). Use sum of scores when you are using non-parametric statistics with non-metric data like ordinal etc.
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What are the main components for designing a Projectification process model for developing corporate entrepreneurship?
I understand projectification as the process of developing a company from traditional to project-based organizational forms. How this process is structured depends on what the starting point for the process is. In his older, but widely quoted paper,
Christophe Midler described four phases of project identification:
- Functional organization and informal project coordination
- Centralized project coordination
- Empowerment and autonomy of the project management structure
- Transforming the permanent processes of the firm
In addition, Midler describes the need for change (e.g. changes in the relationship, changes in tools, changes in career management). In my opinion, these points can be a starting point for your design of the main components of a Projectification process model.
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Though I got same from other's work but still need confirmation to clear my doubt between Serial and Parallel mediation.
yes that's correct
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Have you ever heard about halal processed foods and products exhibition or conferences in your country ?
Yes, it is a very large market in any region of the world, initially in the food area and currently already being seen also in the cosmetic. Developed initially for the Islamic community, but is spreading rapidly due to good production and marketing practices.
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In this model, I use 3 IVs 1 DV and 1 moderator. I have tried to find the PROCESS model, however, none fits. If there is a model which suits this model, which one is it? If not, Is it possible to do regression? If yes, how so?
And is there any supporting journals which I can refer to regarding this model?
You are hypothesizing three interactions effects, one for each combination of an IV and the moderator. That should be straightforward with PROCESS.
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In ethanol steam reforming , how to calculate the heat of the different unit operation in aspen plus, provided with different NIO/ethanol molar ratios and the carbon yield?
Why would anyone want to turn ethanol - a valuable trasportation fuel in syngas - CO + H2 waiting t be turned into something more valueable - like ethanol.
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block diagrams explaining flow/process/model of any scientific field containing 2D blocks/contours of different shapes connected by arrows/lines
FileMaker produces data flow diagrams directly.
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I think there are plenty of models for wastewater treatment processes modeling such as ASM1, ASM2, ASM3, TUD(P), AQuasim, Sinba, WEST, Efor, GPS-X, BioWin, SIMBA, etc.
I need to estimate direct CH4 and N2O emission for my case study WWTP. I am not familiar with these models at all. I need some guidance how to choose one of them. I am looking for a general estimation of amount of direct emission as I do not have that much detailed data about the plant.
The models you mention can be extended to include GHG emissions. However, the models are very complex and the understanding (and therefore also modelling) of GHG emissions is still not really clear. If you are unfamiliar with process modelling of WWTPs I would say it is a hard task to set up and callibrate a model for a real plant well enough to give some qualified estimate of GHG emissions. An easier way would be to go for emission factors for your assessment. Of corse has a large uncertainty as local conditions and operational strategy has show large variations.
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I have used 'nnstart' tool under Neural Network Toolbox of MATLAB 2018a. I have 3 input parameters and 2 outputs. I was able to predict the outputs for new sample inputs after the model training. How can I identify the optimum input parameter values (I need to minimize the output values)?
Dear Karum:
Thanks for your data, but I need to know the problem. I am attaching a work with the mentioned before methodology description. As a consequence of a well done systemic analysis you obtain a conceptual mathematical model. It identification could be done by different modeling methods, including neural networks. Solution of the identified model(s) could be found by different methods, including metaheuristics. Onces you are able to solve your problem, changing the coordination variables and the more important input data you could construct, helped by neural networks or other modeling tools, behaviour rules, that define the relations, by calculation procedures, between optimal decision variables values and coordination variables and important input data. This is the idea. Would be needed you read carefully the attached work, then I will be able to help you a little more.
Best wishes,
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Hi,
Does anyone know any software or method or a good paper or book that proposes how to build an optimum plant layout.
For example think that we already have a plant and we want to extend it. Where to put the new components and pipes to have the best and optimum layout.
Thanks for your time and consideration.
The Autodesk is the best tool for three D model. The layout and optimization tools that allow design, layout, and configuration of Energy & Utility production environments, material cost, safety, maintenance of the equipment’s, ,heavy earth moving equipment’s movement for vessels and equipment’s maintenance.as well as optimize equipment and line operations using 3D facility models. Like AutoCAD , Autodesk,.Aveva, etc.
The AutoCAD facility and production line design and optimization solution enables the development of 3D virtual models of production systems to optimize layouts and ensure that factors such as clearance, energy, noise, and safety are considered before starting production.
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