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I'ld like to know what are the different Ways to reduce operational cost during a monoclonal antibody production process development ?
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The increasing energy demand and the necessity to reduce CO2 emissions are worldwide problems. This motivates the increasingly "green" choices, in order to reduce the anthropogenic environmental impact, made by companies and governments of many countries in the world. Nonetheless, among the clean energy options currently available on the world market, only nuclear power can provide constant energy, regardless of weather or geological conditions, making nuclear one of the most promising low-carbon energy options. However, the nuclear fission reactors are characterized by the formation of radioactive waste, and this problem can be partially solved through the spent fuel reprocessing.
"In its 2020 edition of Energy, Electricity and Nuclear Power Estimates for the Period up to 2050, the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA's) high case projection has global nuclear generating capacity increasing from 392 GWe in 2019 to 475 GWe by 2030, 622 by 2040 and 715 by 2050".
The main points that can then be discussed:
- total installation costs and the time to build a nuclear power plant;
- long-term profitability and maintenance costs;
- storage of the last waste ;
- research on spent fuel recycling optimization and next-generation reactors;
- industrial and cyber security;
- deep prejudices in many countries due to singular accidents;
- nuclear fusion possibility.
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Dear Mr Karmakar,
I think we all agree with you. The problem is when will this be possible?
"Research on controlled nuclear fusion began towards the end of World War II in the United States and the USSR. Steady progress has been made since and culminated in the 1990s with the demonstration in the United States and England of nuclear fusion power generation. However, these experiments achieved amplification rates of less than 1 (record set at 0.76), i.e. the energy produced was less than that injected into the plasma ....
After ITER, the European roadmap for the development of fusion provides for the commissioning of a demonstration reactor (simply called ... DEMO) producing electricity (of the order of 500MW), in the 2050s".
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Science has been developing for centuries and poverty existed and still exists. When the classical economy began to develop in the 18th century, scientific concepts appeared that suggested that as a result of the development of the market economy economic prosperity would grow and income inequality would decrease, also in the international area.
Unfortunately, over 200 years have passed and the income diversification has increased and the scale of poverty in many countries is growing. Poverty is currently determined by various economic, economic and political factors, etc. The development of information, IT and Internet technologies, new production solutions and innovations creates new categories of added value of manufacturing processes.
Technology, information, knowledge, and innovation are categories of production factors whose importance is growing in production processes. Technological development should reduce the scale of poverty, but time will show to what extent this positive process will work. On the other hand, other instruments should also be developed, poverty reduction programs by increasing the support of the richest countries for the poorest.
In addition, in the 21st century there are many important economic problems to solve, so as to develop sustainable pro-ecological development, improve socio-economic policies, develop democratization processes, develop economic support programs for the poorest countries etc. which should reduce income disparities, technological development, etc.
Please, answer, comments.
I invite you to the discussion.
Best wishes
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Poverty is expected to increase in 21st century due growing menace of climate change.
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Chemical engineers translate processes developed in the lab into practical applications for the commercial production of products and then work to maintain and improve those processes. They rely on the main foundations of engineering: math, physics, and chemistry (though biology is playing an increasing role). The main role of chemical engineers is to design and troubleshoot processes for the production of chemicals, fuels, foods, pharmaceuticals, and biologicals, just to name a few. Chemical engineers work in almost every industry and affect the production of almost every article manufactured on an industrial scale. They are most often employed by large-scale manufacturing plants to maximize productivity and product quality while minimizing costs.
Students (max of 5 student per group) are asked to write a 10-15 page essay (inclusive picture)
emphasizing the the critical contribution of chemical engineering to a pathway to sustainability
Submit your article to the google classroom in pdf format
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Nor Maisurah so what is your question?
regards,
GB
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Dear Colleagues,
To design a final stage process development for lipid nanoparticle formation using microfluidics, what aspects should be taken into account? Thank you for your suggestions.
Sincerely,
Jacky Tsai
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Molinaro, Roberto, Michael Evangelopoulos, Jessica R. Hoffman, Claudia Corbo, Francesca Taraballi, Jonathan O. Martinez, Kelly A. Hartman et al. "Design and development of biomimetic nanovesicles using a microfluidic approach." Advanced Materials 30, no. 15 (2018): 1702749.
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Current workflow of TO
the current process of TO.
Thank you in advance.
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For any optimization task you must to begin from a system analysis that allows to formulate the conceptual mathematical model. Depending of it complexity you must or not to decompose it and just after these works you are able to work over the detailed mathematical modelling and the elaboration of the solution procedures.
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What is the growing share of protectionism that limits cross-border trade between major economies in the projected slowdown in global economic growth?
Do you agree with my opinion that in many developing countries the influence of foreign direct, capital and financial investments is significant.
However, the analysis of this process in individual countries results in a significantly different scope and nature of the impact of foreign investment capital.
According to the doctrine of classical economics, all countries should benefit from opening up the economy to foreign investments and the development of trade, including the export and import of economic goods.
However, are all countries always benefiting from this process economic benefits and the process develops faster?
It's not always like that. If all countries benefited from the growth of trade, protectionism, such as the establishment of anti-dumping duties to reduce cross-border trade, would be unnecessary.
What is the impact of foreign investment capital in the globalization era on the economic development of developing countries?
What is the growing share of protectionism that limits cross-border trade between major economies in the projected slowdown in global economic growth?
Are the currently limited protectionist practices cross-border trade is the main factor in the forecasted slowdown in global economy growth?
Please reply
Best wishes
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Protectionist practice is one of the reason in the slowdown in global economic growth amid Covid-19, however, benefits of so called Globalization & Liberalization have failed to address the Equality, access to equal opportunities & removing poverty in many emerging nations.
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I use StatSoft Statistica 12 for Data Processing and developing the algorithm of building  of confidence interval. And I need test arrays of pseudo random numbers to check the algorithm efficiency.
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Thank You, David!
Now I've found this option in Maple 17 for an arbitrary distribution.
Kind regards
Viktor
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For one reason, and maybe a more direct one, it has to do with issues of the nature of visual working memory and visual long-term memory (very important, general issues). For a great Article on this, see:
Now, in order to use my writing to best effect, let me basically quote a letter to the author (quoting myself):
First, the letter's Title: " [From where] do some top-level discriminations (familiar/recollection) [come]"; now continuing:
"Dear  Professor Mark W. Schurgin
I am a "top down" guy (the most top-down there is) and a complete empiricist and guy that defines Psychology (or at least his Psychology) in terms of behavior patterning and environmental/circumstances aspects ONLY -- i.e. these environmental.../behavior patterns aspects IS ALL .  I am a neo-Piagetian and believe that, with new technologies (e.g. eye-tracking and ancillary machine processing), we can literally discover the concrete bases (i.e. directly observable overt behavior patterns in situ), AT LEAST at the inception of each KEY new set of significant behavior patterns related to major cognition and major cognitive processes developments. I believe thus we can actually identify the bases of qualitative shifts in levels/stages [(i.e completing Piaget's theory (basically, his Equilibration TYPE 2 -- the "balance" between stages) by finding the primary bases of stage/levels qualitative changes -- and all most empirically:  in the end, I provide PIVOTAL concrete testable (verifiable/falsifiable) specific hypotheses TO PROVIDE THE real FOUNDATION of THIS NEW THEORY)].  To put it in other words, the Ethogram Theory tells and shows a way to find the concrete grounding (foundations) of abstraction and abstract thought itself -- these major cognition and cognitive processing phenomenon.
This, indeed, would be one "place" (quite literally) where some major bases of familiarity and recollection BEGIN.  To come to an understanding of my view/approach, a rather substantial amount of reading is involved and necessary ( a LOT of it with respect to its foundational differences with some modern baseless assumptions (replaced in EThogram Theory) and to, correspondingly, contrast it with modern approaches to research; the rest of the writing is to as clearly as possible contextualize where/how these KEY changes occur IN BEHAVIOR PATTERNS ... (the nature of and development of the Memories are also always involved) AND I OUTLINE THE NEAR-SPECIFIC NATURE OF TESTABLE HYPOTHESES (which finally comes up in my writings, where I most-clearly "channel" biology).  800 pages: Two hundred of the pages come from the original 1985 treatise AND from two other major old papers AND, then, the other 600 pages are recent essays written in the last 2-3 years (necessary to put the Theory in context, as indicated, and then to get to rather specific hypotheses).
Anyway, here is how to get to my writings: [(someone's reading, understanding, and "belief in" this system may be essential for real progress in Psychology, and it finally becoming a true science (as empirical as any); it is "at your feet" and just a several select others, I place this Theory and all the related writings for a chance of beginning the seeking of much more clarity and of major advances in Psychology; THAT IS IMPORTANT)] :
See, AND READ:
and
and
(see the Project Log of this Project to see many important Updates)
Sincerely, with great respect, Brad Jesness
P.S.  The main reason for this P.S. is to direct you to the final 100 pages of recent essays (not among the 512 pages you already have been directed to); these are very worthwhile essays composed after the 512 pages: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/331907621_paradigmShiftFinalpdf "
(end quoted of myself)
Do you now understand some major reasons WHY Psychology should CARE about Ethogram Theory?
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Regarding the Question and related issues and assertions: WHERE are the psychologists?; WHERE are the analytic philosophers? Are they simple lazy, afraid, confused (not unlikely) OR silently "losing" and conceding; can they not bring their thoughts to bear on mine?
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Hi. I’m in the process of developing my dissertation research which employs the use of Fuzzy Inference models. I’m curious if anyone who employed the use of Python or R for advanced data analytics found either of these platforms to be particularly scalable. Of the two, I’m more familiar with Python, but would like to begin the core of this analysis with the platform that offered the greatest potential for use continuity. Thanks in advance for any thoughts!
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Excellent answers
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I'm very intersted in this research. I've conducted a study that document bleak results for nurses perceived knowledge of disaster response. We are in the process of developing education modules to distribute. I believe we need to have educational options that range from univsersity coursework to 1 hour modules for nurses in the work environment.
Thank you,
Julie Bulson DNP, MPA, RN, NE-BC
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Thanks Anne, as SADN has included in the strategic plan accessibility and affordability of disaster nursing education is a priority if we want to change the landscape of nursing preparedness. Currently I'm engaged in a project with ASPR-TRACIE to develop emergency preparedness modules focused on the nursing response that will allow nurses in a short period of time to receive a basic understanding of what they need in a crisis and then outlining the ROI for the organization. Much of it comes down to critically thinking and using the nursing process as I've outlined in one of my articles.
Glad someone is leading the cause...
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I'm trying to use Mettler Toledo's IC Quant software to generate calibration models for the reaction components. I run my reactions at high temperature and pressure, since I cannot collect the reaction standards needed for the calibration at the reaction temperature, I prepare the reaction standards first by running the reactions to different conversions of my limiting reagent (so that I have different concentrations for the components). I then collect the spectrum of these reaction standards at room temperature and use these spectra and the measured GC-FID  concentrations for multivariate data analysis. 
Now the problem is, the absorptions are becoming less intense with increasing temperature. Hence when I try to apply the calibration model (built using reaction standards collected at 25 C) to the real-time reaction spectra collected at the reaction temperature of 140 C, I see a significant offset in the predicted concentrations from that of its actual value (the predicted concentration have negative values). I also notice that the temperature dependence is linear in the range that I tested (25 - 140 C). I'd like to to know if there is a standard procedure to apply the temperature correction to the spectra collected at a different temperature in real-time to get accurate predictions for concentrations.
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A physical law is always good but I thing that an empirical correlation that you found under your experimental conditions with your specific materials is better. When I do FTIR-ATR experiments I prefer my calibrations over external ones like PNNL and I would prefer using it also over theoretical ones (but maybe that's just me)... good luck
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Does the number of the response categories (points of the Likert scale) affects the reliability of the scale. Actually, i think that when we use 5 point Likert scale (strongly agree, agree, neutral, disagree, strongly disagree) on the responses on "neutral" we don't get anything about the aspect in which we are interestead. i am in the process of developing a scale in which i will use likert scale but i am confused in taking the desicison that which type of likert scale (four, five or six) will be best for the tool. please give suggestions and any autentic reference if have.
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My experience shows that it is difficult to generalize the answer to your question. In most cases, its the quality of the question and the way that it is being asked rather than the number of points on the scale. Poorly written questions lead to unreliable data.
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We are looking for a type of material which can change from liquid to solid through treatment (such as heating or curing), but the solid can be easily removed (dipping it into DI water/solutions etc.).
We will do patterning with photoresist on the formed solid, and remove the solid afterward. So this material can't be photoresist or prolift since they will be affected in the patterning process with developer.
Many thanks and appreciate for any help!
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Thank you so much Carlos Araújo Queiroz and Phil Denby , that's really helpful informaiton!
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Zinc wastes may be in the form of lump wastes and the source of secondary zinc also include waste zinc coated iron and steel.
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Bio remediation can be tried too I believe that also.
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Observation is a very vital scientific method that helps a lot in the collection of the primary information that is reliable in nature in which direct study of the situation is involved.
Observations sometimes act scientifically, when used by the researchers in various research works but it should be noted that all observations are not scientific in nature.
It is important that investigator (observer) understand the functions of the observation, otherwise the gathered data may not be accurate.
So, it is the prime requirement that observer first planned out properly about 'what has to be observed'.
Therefore, I am looking for the correct procedure to develop a details about the observation before I start observation.
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Dear Andrey Vinajera Zamora
The materials is realy helpful for me.
Thanks a lot.
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WAG injection is an EOR process that was developed to mitigate the technical and economic disadvantages of gas injection. It is the most widely applied and most successful traditional EOR process.
It involves the injection of slugs of water alternately with gas although sometimes the two fluids are injected simultaneously (termed SWAG= zero slug size).
My question is: when optimising the slug size to achieve high oil recovery, the optimisation directs me towards small slug sizes that the period of injection will be one month to inject gas and one month to inject water, is that still considered as SWAG or is it considered as WAG injection at small slug sizes behaving similar to SWAG?
Keep in mind that I dont have a real field, and I didnt consider the economic part.
The only thing I can consider in my work is how much gas available to inject, which leads me to my second question.
I could not find a source to tell me approximately how much gas available to use for injection, I appreciate any suggestions or links I can find the answer?
Thanks in advance
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From a reservoir / recovery perspective one can consider that infinitely small sized slugs tangent the behavior of simulatenous injection. But this is not true from an operations and design of facilities perspective. Equipments and procedures for true simultanenous operations will differ from those of alternating with short slugs (CAPEX /OPEX will be different, HSE aspects too).
For the second question, there are many possible answers. I would structure things considering different configurations. First configuration would be reinjection of associated gas (minus whatever was used for compression and other utilities) eventually focusing WAG on part of reservoir(s), second configuration would be maximum efficiency level of gas injection (no limit on gas availability).
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Are there any guides, handbooks or tools that cater specifically to monitoring and evaluation of education programs, and what are the possible roadblocks that one can face?
What are the various software that can be used to develop an effective monitoring and evaluation tool ?
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What are the directions or steps one need to move to prepare a checklist to find out 'Aggressive Behavior in Children'.
Please elaborate the details (step by step) process for preparing the checklist. The main aim of the checklist will be to find the is the child is aggressive or not?
Guide with the details process to develop the checklist.
Please suggest any particular book on developing checklist also (if any).
Regards.
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Greetings
I suggest the following references for your question about the preparation of Aggressive Behavior in Children .
Ref 1: Contributors: Patricia Clark, Gayle McDowel. The Developing Child Observation Guidebook. Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc
Ref 2: Juliane Callegaro Borsa. Development and refinement of the Peer Aggressive Behavior Scale–PAB-S. Borsa Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica (2016) 29:19
Ref 3: Thomas . Achenbach, and Thomas M. Ruffle. The Child Behavior Checklist and Related Forms for Assessing Behavioral/Emotional Problems and Competencies. Pediatrics in Review Vol. 21 No. 1 August 2000.
Ref 3: WILLIAM T. GARRISON, AND FELTON EARLS, . The Child Behavior Checklist as a Screening Instrument for Young Children. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 24, 1:76-80, 1985.
Ref 4: Observing, Recording, and Reporting Children’s Development.
Ref 5: Richard E. Tremblay. The development of aggressive behaviour during childhood: What have we learned in the past century? International Journal of Behavioral Development © 2000 The International Society for the 2000, 24 (2), 129–141
Ref 6 : Hanratty J, Livingstone N, Robalino S, Terwee CB, Glod M, Oono IP, et al. (2015). Systematic Review of the Measurement Properties of Tools Used to Measure Behaviour Problems in Young Children with Autism. PLoS ONE 10(12): e0144649. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0144649
Ref 8: Developing a Protocol.
Thank You and Best Wishes
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I’m in the process of developing stable Huh-7 cell line for luciferase purposes. My experiment is mostly based on Connelly’s (2012) work, except I’m using pmirGLO vector instead of psiCHECK-2. Is there some major difference which promotes using the latter one for this purpose?
Anyway, I cotransfected my construct with pcDNA vector and exposed cells to the G418 selection agent. Everything went as expected - cells which survived formed ‘islands’ - so than I moved 1 whole ‘12 well’ to 1 smaller ‘96 well’ plate and now they are growing in 1 ‘48 well’. It looks ok, cells are alive and growing, but the process of growing is very slow (compared to non-treated Huh-7), it takes more than a week to make such small well confluent enough. Is it normal? Current photo in the attachment. Maybe you could point some dangerous symptoms from this one?
Thank you for your time.
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Thank you for your answers. I'm using RPMI (line was purchased from CLS [http://www.clsgmbh.de] as they recommend).
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We are on a planning process to develop a research work on
multiresistant strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa which will be carried out in different hospitals and clinics.
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Dear All,
how do I establish a process development for integration of nanocellulose in biodiesel/bioethanol in a biorefinery or oscillaory baffled reactor?
Is it feasibility and what will be the implication on the liquid biofuel?
What will be the impact of nano particle on the liquid biofuel?
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5. Waheed, M., & Olusegun, S. (2012). ENGINE PERFORMANCE OF BIODIESEL FROM FEEDSTOCK FOR CLEANER ENVIRONMENT: A REVIEW. Present Environment & Sustainable Development, 6(2). ..this article not only downloaded sir .please download the article sir
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I am in the process of developing a research proposal on the impact(s) of business curriculum internationalization on a variety of dependent variables related to performance-based funding (i.e., student course completions, retention rates, completion milestones) for Ohio's community colleges.
Since there are only twenty-three state-supported community colleges in Ohio and can relatively easily obtain the necessary data for every institution, I have determined my sample will be all 23 institutions (which obviously is also the entire population of Ohio community colleges).
I am contemplating using MANCOVA to attempt to isolate the IV (business curriculum internationalization) from several covariables (institutional size/FTE, proximity to four-year institutions, proximity to concentrations of multinational corporations) and then work to determine the degree of impact (positive or negative) on the dependent variables noted.
My question is simply how does the fact that I am examining every institution within the population being studied influence my analysis of the data I collect? Do I still need to write out the standard null hypotheses for each research question, run calculations for confidence intervals, etc? I am having difficulty determining the value of p scores, etc. when there should effectively be no sampling error.
If I am just completely overlooking some aspect of this, I would greatly welcome anyone's input on how to go about organizing this research and methodology section of my proposal.
Thanks!
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If that really is the population to which your conclusions will apply, go for it. With the availability of (1) big data and (2) higher CPU and RAM processing power, I expect we will see more population testing rather than sample testing which may in turn force new thinking in statistics along the lines of the above responses.
Population testing puts the researcher on the front foot in looking for unanticipated deviations that are invisible when using sample testing. This is a wonderful development.
Because sample sizes are often not large enough I have been doing population testing for some years in my own field of audit testing with surprising discoveries precisely because of the limitations of sampling.
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In a digitalized world many a product evolve based on interactions. Only the core interactions may be facilitated. Also it is not customer centric but more ecosystem centric
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Most appreciated Krishna, I could add differentiated value addition will no value leakage.
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I'm interest in learning more about the methodology and more broadly the process for the development of the World Health Reports. i'm looking for references that describe these processes and or that analyse them with guidance on how to improve these processes.
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You can consult the World Health Reports themselves. Every report has its own methodology. The annexes of reports are based on information submitted by the health authorities ( MoH) of respective countries. I am aware that some of the ITM faculty contributed to WHR.
Best
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Dear all,
I am looking for automated analysis tools that enable detecting and classifying wolf howls recorded by means acoustic sensors. Are you aware of such tools or are you in the process of developing one? If yes, could you please send me some information about the relevant software or tools?
Many thanks in advances
Best wishes
Fridolin
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Not necessarily for wolfs, but this is for whales:
I'm working with detection and classification of sound signals, but with different frequency than wolves or whales ;-)
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According to 2013 data from the International Tungsten Industry Association (ITIA), the recycling rate was 50% in Europe and the United States in contrast to 30% in Japan. To improve the tungsten recycling rate in Japan, it is efficient to use scrap cemented carbide because the tungsten content in cemented carbide is more than 80%, which is higher than in other uses.
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Roast the carbide in air or oxygen and heap leach the residual ash.
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What steps should be taken when proposing and founding new academic programs or sub-discipline/disciplines in colleges and universities? What are the requirements for establishing such programs, degrees, sub-disciplines, or disciplines? What are some of discipline accreditation in different countries?
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For about 33 years, I was shouldering the responsibility of what you are asking about (as the coordinator of the committee of study plan at our chemistry department). The current chairman has, thankfully, replaced me this semester in this duty.
Developing a new academic program is a hard laborious work which involves a decision about the name of the discipline "which is easy", then looking at similar programs in nearby universities as well as the universities abroad. Before the mid 1990s, this was a tough job "there was no internet" but we did it. I was given the task of giving descriptions of courses to be taught in applied chemistry in 2 languages.
Approval of the program by our department was reached after several meetings which looked at the lengthy handwritten report word by word with continuous suggestions which made me re-write the report several times. The final approved version of the report was typewritten & was sent to the college's council which approved it & sent it to the council of deans. This council approved it conditionally & added few suggestions so the report of the program was modified to get the full approval of the deans.
The final step was to send the program's report including information about the chemistry department & its staff to the Ministry of Higher Education to get the discipline accreditation. We succeeded & the program was started in 1998 after nearly 4.5 years' work since the onset of preparing the program.
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I m working in chlorine alkaline plant. We are analysing gas (H2, O2) in chlorine gas by GC system manually. But this method is really take many time and labor force. We have analysed 24 point every day and there are 304 points in the plant. We have took samples with injector and then get in to lab and analysed it by GC chromatography.
I think, online system processor could be good choice for this process analysis.
Have you any idea?
Thanks in advance,
Umut BASTURK
QC Supervisor
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you may use O2 detector device instead of GC
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I'm interested in knowing the methodology others have used to develop and validate a framework in general and a  framework for designing a training programme in particular.
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The following article is useful.
Using the Context, Input, Process, and  Product Evaluation Model (CIPP)  as a Comprehensive Framework to Guide the Planning, Implementation, and Assessment of Service-learning Programs.  Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement, 15 (4), 57-84.
 Best regards
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The critical theory can use the human view of the employee, to develop a more accurate process management. What do you think?
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Very interesting viewpoint. Is looking at the performance of the team vs the performance of the individual an issue?
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I will develop some co-design method helping stakeholders negotiate and generate mutually beneficial solution.
I wonder how I can enhance rigor of the process developing this method.
I thought about asking comments about the method to experts using 'Delphi method', (Conducting online survey targeting panel of experts until achieving certain consensus among expert) because it would help me to collect experts' opinion about my method and refine it based on their comments. 
How do you think? I will appreciate if you share your opinion about using delphi method in this situation or suggest better way to enhance rigor of the method?
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Hi
The Delphi method was not designed to real life situations. It might work in academia  with reasonable sucess (some might disagree) but co-design or the end product of projects developed through co-design is still to be proved worthy in my humble opinion. It is good to have everyboy onboard but it is as useless as having all the data and not knowing how to treat it (patterns, tendencies, risks, egos, competition, market, etc.)
I think something in the field of multivariate decision making will be more interesting to you.
good luck
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To design the plant.
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POX is a  good way to produce syngas/H2 from any hydrocarbon.  Usually low value  hydrocarbon  like vacuum resdue or natural gas are used as feed but any hydrocarbon will work.  
If you want to produce H2 from C6+ Hydrocarbon naphtha reforming is a good option that will increase the octane of the naphtha and make H2 as a byproduct 
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Hi! I am applying benefits, opportunities, costs and risks (BOCR) with Analytical Network process in the development of a decision support tool for procurement model's selection. I need a sample questionnaire that combines BOCR with ANP.
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Dear Collins:
Do direct comparison. Use transitive property in order to reduce number of questions. Take care while using transitive property other you results will become inconsistent. If you need further assistance then let me know.
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I require psychometric test expert to partner with me in finalizing development of  questionnaire to ,measure end of life pertinent issues preparedness
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Well I can partner with you, but will you give me credits for that?
Anyhow, in general, psychometric measurement involves precision. Likert scale can be considered for this purpose. According to Likert scale, there are five options to every multiple choice question. These are: strongly disagree, disagree, can't say, agree, and strongly agree. 
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Interested in novel food processing and development of functional food.
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Mr. Dasgupta, here in Brazil, there is as far as I know just one processing company to supply Sao Paulo State, the richest State of our country. This market is small since the juice is expensive and has a shelf life shorter than conventional tetrapack juices, like Mr. Naik said. I think that this kind of technology becaming more commercial can be viable in developing countries like ours due the reduction of technology costs. Best regards.
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I want to use meta-Cresol as Asphaltene precipitation inhibitor. My Asphaltene content in crude oil is 7 wt%, however i don't know the optimum concentration for meta-Cresol. would you please answer me according to the literature you have read before?
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You will find your best answer at the lab. Asphaltene's molecules and deposition model vary in each oil independently on the Asphaltene's content. Start with  a low dosage, say 100 ppm
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Six Sigma plays an important role. How it can improve the software requirement analysis process?
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 Remember Six Sigma it's like a toolbox, in the Define (Phase) tools I´m using the Kano Model, CTQ Drill Down tree and CTQ Workshops to define (first of all) the requirements (In software phase since the discovery phase you get operative / Process requirements), once I have the definition (Business blueprints) I´m using tools to design ( DFSS) and assure the compliance of all requirements. I think, the CTQ workshop; when you translate customer CTQ´s into Process KPI´s, its the most relevant tool I´m using in this phase.
You should use the DFSS methodology and tools to software development , if you are in AMS you can use the DMAIC to reduce the defects or to define enhancements.
Once you "adapt" the Six Sigma tools it could became a part of your methodology, Im working in methodology for development, security and ERP implementation. Pleas let me know how can we work together.
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what are the key points in master development planning of an oil field?   what should be carried out t in studying, management and evaluation of the plan? which parameter can have majore impact: seismic data, Geology, Laboratory, Simulations or physical instruments and facilities, maintenance, etc.
how can one reduce the uncertanties rasied during the development stage of the field? eg: mechanisms present in the reservoirs, change in IOIP and IGIP, etc. which may affect the production strategy of the field ( PGC & PGR )
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I want to know about the computational methods or programs used to study the solute-solvent and solute-solute (where solute is a small molecule) interactions. I want to use the data/information obtained from these programs for extraction and crystallization process development.
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Dear vinod
MD or Molecular Dynamics is you desired tool.MD is an that use statistic and molecules momentum for simulating any fluid in microscopic approch.but its computational time may be high
regards 
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I am following the thesis of Martin Land (very good work), but I can not find references that easily describe the ways to implement WLC. I'm trying to do some simulations with this system.
Thanks!!
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Please check my WEB Site - ACADZ, inc. I have developed simulation models using Icons for semiconductor manufacturing and other manufacturing and have published over 20 Research Papers. The two main areas are "Minimum Inventory Variability Scheduling Policies (MIVP)" and "Automated Material Handling System Simulation (AMHS)". Please send me an email at donald.collins@asu.edu and I will forward you some research papers.
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I would like to know if there are any recycling methods of spent slurry after slicing silicon ingots using diamond wire sawing.
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Depending on the chemistry of the slurry it could be utilized as a silica source for a cement kiln.  Amorphous silica is far better than crystalline.
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These days I am working to scale up a new process based on laboratory data. There are several chemicals which still have no adequate thermodynamic and transport property data. To measure all of the required data for engineering design will be very tedious and costly, thus, is it appropriate to just use the group contribution method as the thermodynamic and transport property data generator?
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Preliminary use of Group contribution methods is a good approach, especially in the absence of measured data.   For binary or other multicomponent VLE or LLE that has not been studied Group Contribution may provide a better starting point than going with the assumption that the system is ideal.  The key is understanding the system that is being studied and how well can the Group contribution methods predict the interactions.  For simple compounds (few carbons and simple functional groups) confidence in the predictions may be better than for more complex species.  
As mentioned above nothing can replace quality measured data, so group contribution may serve as a suitable workaround and help to move work forward until more accurate data can be found in the literature or generated in the lab.
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I personally see a process as a sequence of activities, so I go for the imperative paradigm. But in the last 5 years, I have come across a lot of work on declarative processes. I am still not convinced that declarative processes are intuitive. Can anyone please explain if I am wrong?
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That is a very interesting question, which we investigate for a while! In order to create a more clear terminology, we name two paradigms: 1) activity-based and 2) artifact-based processes (explanation in short words follows).
In the activity-based paradigm (this is what you call imperative), the focus of the process is the activities (the methods) to carry out certain tasks. A process is then defined by a sequence of activities (a workflow). Artifacts, which represent any piece of produced/consumed data in a project, are the inputs and outputs of activities. Dependencies between artifacts are expressed by the combination of activities in the workflow.
In the artifact-based paradigm (this is what you call declarative), the focus is the artifacts. Artifacts have type, structure, content, responsibilities, and dependencies among each other. For every artifact, there are several methods that can be used to create the artifact, e.g., a requirements spec can be created using plain text, structured text, diagrams and models, and so forth. That is, a process is defined by a set of artifacts to be created, and a context-specific selection of appropriate methods.
What we learned so far:
- There is no absolute distinction between these paradigms; you always have a mixture.
- Activity-based processes better reflect the way of work.
- Artifact-based processes provide better means to assess project outcomes.
- Artifact-based processes are more flexible, as one can select different methods to create an artifact.
However, in an experiment, we learned that artifact-based approaches are easier to analyze, design, and implement processes (which means: this paradigm seems to better support SPI projects), while process users do not care, and prefer more detailed guidance. Experience from practice also shows that artifact-based processes are more difficult to teach, as they require a certain level of abstract thinking.
So, are declarative more intuitive? It depends. For just enacting a process in a project, the imperative process is more intuitive as it contains more guidance. If you have to analyze and design processes, then the declarative approach is more intuitive as you can talk about process artifacts, their properties, and so on. In the end, neither is simple. It always depends on the users and their intention.
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How to develop HTP processes?
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The key to a successful HTP process is to determine, before you worry about protocols, how you will determine success. Will you be using fluorescence tags (e.g. GFP or LOV), antibodies, or some kind of assay? And how would you test for this, cheaply and with low sample requirements?
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When modeling ethylene/PE solubility, UNIFAC group parameters are required for each component of system. So I am a little bit confused about ethylene. Will it be from second group or first?
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Hello. Here is something that help you to predict the thermodynamic behavior of this system, using models of UNIFAC:
UNIFAC is an activity coefficient model, like NRTL or UNIQUAC. But it is based on group contributions, rather than molecular contributions. With a limited number of group parameters and group-group interaction parameters, UNIFAC can predict activity coefficients. The following table lists the property methods based on UNIFAC.
The original version of UNIFAC can predict VLE and LLE, using two sets of parameters. So there are two property methods based on the original UNIFAC model, one using the VLE data set (UNIFAC), the other using the LLE data set (UNIF-LL).
There are two modifications to the UNIFAC model. They are named after the location of the universities where they were developed: Lyngby in Denmark, and Dortmund in Germany. The corresponding property methods are UNIF-LBY and UNIF-DMD. Both modifications:
Include more temperature-dependent terms of the group-group interaction parameters.
Predict VLE and LLE with a single set of parameters.
Predict heats of mixing better.
In the Dortmund modification, the prediction for activity coefficients at infinite dilution is improved.
Ref: Aspen tech / Help / UNIFAC Activity Coefficient Method.
On the other hand, I got used to simulate a Aromatic unit from UNIF-LBY model, the results were very good.
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The ultimate aim of process development is, however, the realisation of large scale commercial production.
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For both scale up and scale down I would recommend to use a tool such as regime analysis. It forces you to dig into your understanding of the process, and it helps you identifying key subprocesses that might need further investigation. Check for example: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0141022987901335
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We have built an electric racing car and we are thinking of a business plan in a theoretical sense to increase production from 1 unit to 10 and then in an year make 1000 such cars.In 3 years the target is to make 3000 such cars.I would like to know the approach for that with respect to optimization of production processes and also costs.
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Hi there, there are some major aspects in optimizing production process, such as process planning, production planning and scheduling, layout optimization, and so on.
Many models and methods are available in these aspects, which provide approaches both to allocate you manufacturing resourses properly and to evaluate costs.
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Is it possible to take a purified virus/particle and cross link to an e.g. agarose bead and then use this bead to deplete serum of antibodies specific to this virus? I have done something similar in the past, cross linking peptides, whole proteins and sugars to beads to purify antibodies, but is it possible with whole virus?
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It should work.
The downside I see is that you can probably only use the beads once because harsh dissociation buffers could destroy the virus.
Also you will elute virus fragments along with your antibodies so an extra protein A sepharose step might be needed to get rid of them.
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One constraint for the work is that there is a small sample of material 200 - 250 ml, and a large column (Oldershaw 1" diam, 15 stages). The column may be too large for distilling a sample of that size, but don't have any good guidelines for sizing/selecting a column for this type operation.
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What is the composition of the sample? Do a literature search to see if there are binary VLE data available. If not estimate the VLE relationships with UNIFAC. Use a process engineering software like Chemcad and model the distillation. This will tell you the operating prssure you need, the reflux ratio you need for the separation you want and how many stages you need and what height of packing to use. Google glassware manufacturers in Vineland, NJ - the lab glassware capital of the world, for lab distillation columns. Contact Dan Punk of Sulzer (918-447-7679) after you choose a column to see if he'll give you some Goodloe structured packing (HETP ~ 2 inches) or call Scientific Development Company in State College, PA to see if they will give you some Pro-Pak packing, a random packing with HETP ~ 2 inches.
A 1" diameter column is too big; the liquid hold-up is at least 100 ml/ft of packed height, assuming 4% holdup on a volume basis. I don't know if you can get columns with diameter less than 2.5 cm. If you can get one with diameter of 1 cm, the hold-up drops to an acceptable 16 ml/ft of packed height. The smallest Pro-Pak packing size is 0.16 inches, or 0.4 cm. This would only give you ~2.5 pieces of packing across the cross-section. You are better of with a structured packing. Good luck - you will need it!
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The details are to include mass balance of what goes in, what happens within and the products from the reactor.
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Hi Olujimi, there are several types of fed-batch depending on the feeding strategy. For example constant feeding, step input, etc. Please find the attachment.