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Process Design - Science topic

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I have developed a mathematical model for modeling and optimizing process design. Now there are measurable input data available to compute other parameters via the model. I need suggestions on Open Source software and applications that are user friending that I can use to write my mathematical model equations to automatically calculate the measurable inputs are keyed in.
Software outside the usual programing and coding using MatLab and Python interface.
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There are several open-source software and applications that you can use to write your mathematical model equations and automatically calculate the measurable inputs as they are keyed in. Here are a few options:
  1. Jupyter Notebook: a web-based interactive environment for creating documents that contain live code, equations, visualizations, and narrative text. It supports many programming languages including Python, R, and Julia.
  2. RStudio: a free and open-source integrated development environment (IDE) for R. It provides a user-friendly interface for writing and running code, as well as visualizing and analyzing data.
  3. Scilab: a free and open-source software for numerical computation. It has a user-friendly interface and supports a wide range of mathematical functions, including optimization and control systems.
  4. Maxima: a free and open-source computer algebra system that can manipulate symbolic expressions and perform numerical calculations. It has a command-line interface, but there are also several graphical user interfaces (GUIs) available for it, such as wxMaxima.
  5. Geogebra: a dynamic mathematics software for learning and teaching math, science, and engineering. It has a user-friendly interface and supports a wide range of mathematical functions, including optimization and control systems.
These are just a few examples, there are many other options available. It depends on the specific requirements of your project and your personal preference.
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Research Question
When observing the current scenario of the production plant of the automotive industry 4.0, all the machines and production equipment, the other technological innovations: IoT, AI, Big Data, Cloud, M. Learning etc, all connected by wireless networks and their sensors infrared and clusters operating in series, within the processes designed by the Engineering Center and by Logistica. In this scenario, it is necessary to ask:
a) In your opinion, are the activities performed there meeting the OHS conditions required by OSHA/ILO, not exposing employees to new and different occupational hazards in their tasks?
b) Within these new practices, systems, interpersonal relationships, new tasks and work processes, required of workers by the new technologies installed there, it is possible to identify new risk factors that show a relationship of danger, in this new work environment of Industry 4.0 ?
c) If the answer to item a) is POSITIVE, can you point out examples of safety item or condition at work, of these new tasks?
d) If the answer to item b) is POSITIVE, can you name and describe the new risk factors that you believe exist in the new environment?
e) In your opinion, do you believe that in Industry 4.0, there are better conditions for Occupational Health and Safety than in the old manufacturing industry?
f) What can you suggest to improve the current operational and safety conditions at work, in the industrial process 4.0?
Dears, I will be happy if you answer my questions for I increase my doctoral thesys studies. Thank you very much for all.
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Unfortunately, it is difficult to answer these questions without more context. Each situation is unique and depends on the specific conditions, processes, and technologies being used in the workplace. That being said, there are some general principles that can be applied to any workplace:
a) Employers should ensure that the workplace meets Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and International Labour Organization (ILO) standards. This includes providing proper training, equipment, and procedures to ensure that workers are protected from potential hazards.
b) Employers should identify and evaluate any potential risks associated with the new technologies, systems, and processes being used in the workplace. This includes assessing the potential for physical, psychological, and social risks.
c) Employers should implement measures to mitigate any identified risks, including providing personal protective equipment (PPE) and training.
d) Employers should ensure that workers are aware of their rights, responsibilities, and their role in maintaining a safe and healthy workplace. e) In general, it is likely that workplaces utilizing Industry 4.0 technologies will have improved conditions for occupational health and safety than in the old manufacturing industry.
f) Employers should continually assess and review their safety systems and processes, and make sure that they are up to date with the latest technologies and best practices. They should also ensure that workers are regularly consulted and involved in safety decisions.
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I have a plug flow reactor with two parallel equations taking place simultaneously inside it. I am not able to see any conversion in the stream summary table. It is despite the fact that I have input proper kinetic data and proper inlet/outlet conditions. Does anyone have a clue about it?
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hey, did you solve the problem? im in the same situation Seyed Soheil Mansouri
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In a design I'm working on, we're thinking of removing the NaOH from a aqueous solution by using ion exchange columns. This will adsorb Na+ ions onto the resin and produce H2O. Regeneration is possible using HCl (which will produce a solution containing NaCl) or H2SO4 (which will produce a solution containing Na2SO4). Since in the same plant NaOH is used as a reactant, is there any way to recover the Na and re use it? Which is usually the most economically feasible?
Thank you in advance!
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Your question might be similar with some wastewater management projects. Based on my understanding, choosing the most appropriate membrane to perform the separation might be very helpful, especially some high-selective membrane or device. There might be some commercial membranes available as well.
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I want to estimate cost of a PSA system for hydrogen production. Required cost is only high level estimate, and numerically solving a complex system of PDEs is out of scope of the project. I am looking for alternate methods to estimate the PSA size.
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The referenser is still is there, the link though changed:
Kent S. Knaebel - A “How To” Guide for Adsorber Design
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How I can design or calculate the aeration tank volume of the Extended aeration sludge process design? The COD = 1800, BOD 600, TSS 300 and TKN 200. If COD needs to reduce to 70. (Units are mg/L). I just need to process of design or formula or just give the way...please. ?
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Thanks so much for this attachments
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I want to know if multi-tubular reactor can be customized through ASPEN Custom Modeler for simulation of Polymer synthesis reaction. Please let me know if there is any related code or method.
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Yes, I agree with the point of Rick Manner's response to the general concept of the multitubular reactor design. And for the modeling of such in Aspen HYSYS, you can PFR model, it has provision for the number of tubes present in the reactor.
So, PFR should be suitably model the MTReactor for you.
Kind regards
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i can use cadence genus as well, i have 90nm SAED library for synopsys but need 45nm or 65nm for my research
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Start with google. The keywords you want are "freepdk45 nangate"
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I need to know what methods the software uses but this information have too much restrictions.
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I have been working on Aspen EDR more than 1 year. I have also simulated a wide variety of projects specifically two phase. It's so lifesaver and the results can be trustful. Let me know if you have any problem.
Telegram ID: @Erf_Afr
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Recently I have designed a automated gas leakage detection system using IoT. Now I want to analysis it further. What is the process to design/summarize it's control system.
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See this page for any alternative software:
Best regards
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I'm looking for correlation for density and viscosity of sodium hydroxide in function of concentration and temperature in range of 0-140 degrees Celsius?
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Pdf is not opening
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What is process of designing hardware of microstrip patch antenna after simulation using HFSS? And how it is possible?
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Ok Anik sir I agree with you, ur explanation of Antenna fabrication is very good and I understood this, I told because Mr Gauri Shankar Paul is also want to share ideas,all suggestions are welcome. It will enhance more knowledge.
Thanks Anik sir
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We are soon starting with a project on assistive technology and work process design in manufacturing for supporting an ageing workforce and facilitate their health.
Do you know examples, projects, papers, etc., that may be useful in this context? Any experiences with such projects?
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Sharing with you a paper published at empower 2018 conference, conducted by IIT Delhi. Hopefully, it gives you a few insights.
EFFICACY OF ASSISTIVE DEVICES IN TERMS OF
BALANCE AND GAIT EFFICIENCY IN GERIATRIC
PATIENTS WITH LOCOMOTOR IMPAIRMENTS:- A
LITERATURE REVIEW
First Author
Yashika kumar
Assistant professor of prosthetics and orthotics
Indian spinal injury center –Institute of Rehabilitation sciences
Vasant kunj Delhi
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Looking for interest in developing a novel system to produce pure CO2 from methane. The application is for EOR projects where a source of CO2 is not readily available, but there is, or will be, associated gas with oil production. Rather then flaring this gas, it would be used to generate a pure CO2 stream for re-injection, as well as electrical power for the injection system. I'd like to discuss the thermodynamics and practicalities. System could also be used for geosequestration from a power gen system, but may only be break even...
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Business process design projects are considered as knowledge-intensive work, because different analysis perspectives should be taken into account and multidisciplinary teams should be involved in order to generate design solutions. In that case, what knowledge should be considered in business process design projects?
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The following article with high citation is helpful:
Knowledge management for improving business processes: an analysis of the transport management process for indivisible exceptional cargo.
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Hello and Thanks in advance.
I’m fairly new to Biology so please bear with me here.
I’m currently in the process of designing an experiment using ELISPOT assay to detect antigen specific CD8+ T cells isolated from vaccinated mouse spleen. The peptides I’m stimulating the cells with are predicted to be MHC class I restricted just like how the reference papers suggest. However, I do not understand how a simple treatment of purified peptide would end up being presented by the MHC class I molecules by the antigen presenting cells. My understanding is that exogenous proteins are usually presented by the MHC class II molecules, therefore are targeted by CD4+ T cells.
Are there free “empty” MHC molecules that are just sitting on the membrane of the APCs that readily loads the treated peptides? But I thought class I MHCs need to have peptides bound in the ER in order to mature/fold properly and transported to the cell membrane.
Do the peptides go through endocytosis and then get released into the cytosol to go through the regular process that other degraded peptides go through? (Transported into the ER via TAP then get loaded onto the MHC)
I hope my question makes sense to some degree.
Again really appreciate the help.
Would also very much appreciate any other comments regarding ELISPOT assays for future tips :) such as why are DCs used as APCs when most nucleated cells are use MHC class I molecule.
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The short answer is yes, MHC I can exchange peptides without going through the entire peptide loading process. And also, endocytic vesicles are leaky, so there is a good chance the peptides will lead into the cytosol.
Although truthfully, I'm not sure anyone really understand exactly how loaded peptides work. Because we do the same with MHC II peptides too. Basically, I think the assumption is if you start with the restricted peptide, you have a better chance that even if it goes through the normal process, you will end up with presentation with the peptide you loaded.
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As we know the executions of any business process is not possible without its data. In particular process designers have to know data scope (data model) as well as the way data is processed during BP execution.
BPMN does not allow us to include all the information about data structures nor data flows.
What in your opinion is the best way to show above mentioned data properties in business process diagrams?
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It is right that BPMN is not for representing data structure model, but I understand about the need to represent data dynamics. Every data object represented on BPMN model is just a data view of a structure data model. However, that data view could be showed through annotation object but it's less formalized. There also are some software where is allowed link BPMN model with data structure. For example Visual Paradigm.
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Good structure of the data warehouse depends on good preparation for all of factors encountered by the process of designing a data warehouse. We are all aware of the rapid increase in the volume and accumulation of data. Platform for placement of data is of great importance and all further processes depend on precisely from this platform.
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I agree that a good data warehouse structure depends on good preparation for all factors encountered in the data warehouse design process. Very important issues in the field of data warehouse design. To design the right data structure, the following determinants are important: - type of data and type of analyzes carried out on this data, which will be collected in the data warehouse, - important security factors, i.e. whether this data warehouse will be connected to the Internet ?, - will the data warehouse be developed to collect and process large collections of information on Big Data? database systems ?, - what is the financial budget for building this data warehouse?
Best wishes
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Researchers in the field of wheat development and improvement will already know that there have been 2 confirmed Sucrose Transporter Genes (SUT1 and SUT2) that have been identified and confirmed in Triticum aestivum so far. I am working with these genes and 3 others (SUT3, SUT4, and SUT5) from rice as i have found similar sequences in Triticum. Am very new to crop biotechnology field and currently in the process of designing my first set of primers. Later in my work, am planning to do yeast 2 hybridization and co-immunoprecipitation. I have a hypothetical pathway of gene certain gene interactions with sucrose that i would like to work towards proving. So my question is, "is there any particular experiments that i could do whereby i can show sucrose interactions with multiple genes simultaneously or is it 2 genes at a time?" Also as I mentioned i am quite new in biotechnology, so any advice on experimental skills or wheat growth or good lab practices would be highly appreciated.
Thanking you in advance.
Dee
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Expression analysis with qPCR would be a good way to start.
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Hi,
Does anyone know any software or method or a good paper or book that proposes how to build an optimum plant layout.
For example think that we already have a plant and we want to extend it. Where to put the new components and pipes to have the best and optimum layout.
Thanks for your time and consideration.
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The Autodesk is the best tool for three D model. The layout and optimization tools that allow design, layout, and configuration of Energy & Utility production environments, material cost, safety, maintenance of the equipment’s, ,heavy earth moving equipment’s movement for vessels and equipment’s maintenance.as well as optimize equipment and line operations using 3D facility models. Like AutoCAD , Autodesk,.Aveva, etc.
The AutoCAD facility and production line design and optimization solution enables the development of 3D virtual models of production systems to optimize layouts and ensure that factors such as clearance, energy, noise, and safety are considered before starting production.
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How can I find methodology and formula which Aspen Plus software uses for simulation?
For a single stage turbine, which equations are used in Aspen Plus software?
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Dear Joshua,
Please look at my publication "
Effect of a partial thermal decomposition of the working fluid on the performances of ORC power plants" (Equation 1).
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I am in the process of designing control strategies for a 2-DOF helicopter (TRMS) and hence I would like to test my strategies while the helicopter performs some of those complicated manoeuvres .
Please advise.
Thanks
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Hello,
I am in the process of designing an experiment in which I am hoping to induce a medium-term inflammatory response. I was considering using repeated LPS injections over a week or so, and have also been considering time-release pellets to release a constant amount of LPS into the system daily. I am concerned about the possibility of endotoxin tolerance, but have not found any literature on endotoxin tolerance during LPS exposure, only in a "preconditioning -> gap -> subsequent LPS challenge" type of model.
Is endotoxin tolerance dependent on a gap between challenges? Or is there evidence that it would occur gradually over the course of constant administration of LPS?
Any guidance or links to published reports would be much appreciated. Thank you!
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Hey, Rebecca. As you have pointed out, the LPS response is highly dependent on the injection paradigm. However, endotoxin tolerance can be induced with repeated injections of escalating dose with no gap period. See PMID: 15885308 as an example of high-dose IP LPS in rats, and PMID: 29643512 for an example of moderate-dose IP LPS in mice.
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where can I find some suggestion for modifying curriculum of a certain course? Is there any website or forum to get help?
(given that course was "design studio 1: design process" for bachelor students of Industrial Design)
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My question is about the simulation of an internally heat integrated distillation column (HIDiC) by using as software ASPEN PLUS. My main question is related how to calculate the exact amount of heat that can be exchanged in each stage between the rectifier and the stripper?
Thank you in advance!
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Hello! Thanks for both answers! Washim I want to ask you if you have worked with HIDiC, because I wanna ask some more specific questions?
Im looking forward for your answer!
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In my case , I need to heat stream from 560 to 610 C by using steam at 730 C . Is it possible to use shell and tube heat exchanges ?
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Yes , Dear Rick . In this project , there was a design mistake . Instead of fired heater , shell and tube heat exchanges was used . When I realize it , it was very late and I should deal with high temperature shell and tube heat chargers . This was a bachelor degree final year project and I have finished it already .
Thanks to all of reserachgate members who had made a contribution or tried to make a contribution . Thanks you all for sharing knowledge .
There is no wealth like knowledge,and no poverty like ignorance.
(Buddha )
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I am in the process of designing a digital controller for level control of a coupled tank system but I am not sure how to select the sampling interval for the control signal. I believe there is deep relationship between the sampling interval and the time constant of the system under consideration. I also came across a website where it was stated that " Sample time should be 10 times per process time constant or faster " but I am not being able to find any good journals on that.
Can anyone please help?
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The sampling interval depends with the dynamics of your system to be controlled. In fact the rule of "10 times" refers exactly to this point.
1.Let assume we have a tank where the content will vary between a minimum and a maximum level. We should first know (or estimate) how long will take to get a maximum level when level is minimum, and opposite. Once you know the duration, then you will have the sampling interval you are looking for.
2.You should design then a range for your sampling interval. You can use the rule of duration +/- 3StDev to describe the interval you need in sampling.
3.Have a difference between sampling interval and shipping of that signal you have from sensors. A 1:1 relation can be assign if the shipping cost is not to concern, or you can design different rate of sampling:shipping rate, depending with your actual application.
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I am doing a project in which i will have to provide an analytical financial viabiliy of the above two processes.
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I am doing research report about Discuss the interrelationship between materials testing and engineering process for [ Design and Manufacturing ]
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I am in the process of designing a suitable objective function (fitness function) for the optimization of certain parameters of a controller. I would thus like to look into some good examples of cases where a good amount of effort has been spent towards the design of a suitable objective function. Good textbooks and papers from good quality journals are most welcome.
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The fitness of an objective function used for process controll is highly dependent on the process and the potential penalty for sub optimal operations. If operating slght;y off target will cause significant extra expense or safety/reliability concerns a great deal of attention will be required for the controll system to keep the opration precisely on target. But if the penalty for poore process control is small investing to reduce variability caused by the control system may not be justifiable.
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I'm currently doing research on the process of analysis of visual sources of inspiration. As part of the collection of information I'm conducting a survey aimed at people with a background in Design and teaching.
The research is focused to a better understanding of the analysis of visual stimuli and their analogy with the learning process.
The survey is completely anonymous and will not be asked for any personal information. Your participation would be a great help for the development of the research. Thank you very much for your time!
The link to access the online survey in English is:
Best Regards,
Laura Valdés
-------------------------
Estoy actualmente realizando una investigación sobre el proceso de análisis de fuentes de inspiración visuales y como parte de la recopilación de información estoy realizando una encuesta dirigida a personas con experiencia en algún campo del Diseño y en la docencia.
La encuesta es completamente anónima y no se pedirá por ningún tipo de dato personal. La investigación está dirigida a entender mejor el análisis de estímulos visuales y su relación con el proceso de aprendizaje.
El enlace a la encuesta en Español es:
Atentamente,
Laura Valdés
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I think I know what you are asking. But I am not sure I can answer your question because it is not easy.
In the old days I used to write things on the blackboard. When done, I'll erase the board and write something else. Then came slides or transparencies. We had to prepare them ahead of time, but we can use slides repeatedly. Not just from one semester to another, but if a student has a question, I can go back to it. Unlike the days of the blackboard, if I already erased the board then a student asks a question, I can not go back to what I erased.
Then came power point. Now I can use a dark background with a light font or vice versa. I can animate and make things clearer, but here is the difficulty in answering your question. We do not know WHY a student understood a specific point. Is it because he/she is smart? It is because of the way I phrases the explanation? or is it because the animation I did made it very clear?
I think I understand what you are asking, but it is a difficult question to answer.
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I know that between MTP & MTO process is differences in catalyst type and operation condition such as temperature range,…. and process design (recycles and reactor construction).
But my doubt is in exploring an exclusive kinetic and mechanism for MTP process.in other words for review, and study kinetics and mechanisms of MTP process, the proposed kinetics for MTO process can be useful? Or must restrict my research explore in “MTP kinetics” only.
Thanks. 
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Here it is again.  If you coninue to have problems. Email me (RManner@alum.mit.edu) and i will send the attachment via email.
You should speak to your professor to see if it is accetable to change your focus from MTO to MTP.  The presentation discusses the dofferences between MTO and MTP catalyst.
PS    I am not a Professor
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I am researching on the challenges of managing sludge from Waste Stabilisation Ponds as compared to those of Activated Sludge Plants and other conventional wastewater treatment systems used in developed/developing countries. What are the grey areas to look out for by new research? Can anyone share experiences from the field, as well as relevant material with data on process design, operational and economic performance monitoring and retrofits?
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.Sludge are treated by natural occurring processes and the influence of solar light, wind, microorganisms and algae. The anaerobic pond is the primary treatment stage and reduces the organic load in the wastewater. For facultative ponds sludge removal is even rarer and maturation ponds hardly ever need desludging. Sludge can be removed by using a raft-mounted sludge pump, a mechanical scraper at the bottom of the pond or by draining and dewatering the pond and removing the sludge with a front-end loader
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Hi,
I want to build a process dealing with non corrosive gas where the valves will switch their positions every hour (max). So in order to minimize the energy consumption, I was wondering if there is any kind of valves which require energy only during the position switching and not during all the time where the valve is open (if the valve is normally closed)
Regards 
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Dear Sebastien,
Yes valves can be set up to only use power to open and shut them.  Even that power requirement can be eliminated by replacing the controller with operator carrying a wrench.  But power required to switch valve positions is not normally a significant part of the energy required for most processes that I am familiar with,
Valves usually cause additional pressure drop across the line they are in and as a result cause a pump or compressor to work a little harder (and consume more power)  than they would need to if there was no valve.
I think we need a better description of he process in order to determine the impact of a valve choice on the overall energy requirement for the process.
I Hope this his helpful;.
Best Regards
Rick
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I am interested to know what will happen if two reactors are operated in parallel (the idea is separate HDO and HC).  Also I was wondering if the operation condition (i.e. pressure and temperature )  in reactor A and B will differ each other.  Can anyone would like to share the challenge of the reactor design? And it possible to separated water coming from reactor A (HDO) prior to second reactor B (HC)?  I would appreciate for your kindness and helpful.  Thank you
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Hi
Why not use pressure swing system while operating in parallel. This will ensure optimal usage and conversion in each stage.
As far as removal of water is concerned; you can go for reactive separation if water is not needed in the downstream section. If not physical methods need to be implemented.
Regards
Binoy Shah 
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Hello everyone,
I am a young researcher and I recently started my PhD project, which will largely be centred around the practical aspects of continuous crystallisation by spray drying. I was hoping to benefit from your expertise and the diversity of each of your individual backgrounds related to this subject.
What do you think are the major aspects related to the applicability of spray drying in the pharmaceutical industry? Would you consider utilizing spray drying as a crystallization process? Based on your experience, can you recommend where computational modelling can be used to best effect to support a conceptual process design?
Thank you very much for your time! I would appreciate your feedback.
Kind regards, Frederik
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You can take a look at: "A spray-drying strategy for synthesis of nanoscale metal–organic frameworks and their assembly into hollow superstructures". As all MOFs are crystalline materials I think this paper will help you find the critical conditions for crystallization by SD. 
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To design the plant.
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POX is a  good way to produce syngas/H2 from any hydrocarbon.  Usually low value  hydrocarbon  like vacuum resdue or natural gas are used as feed but any hydrocarbon will work.  
If you want to produce H2 from C6+ Hydrocarbon naphtha reforming is a good option that will increase the octane of the naphtha and make H2 as a byproduct 
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I am in the process of designing an OMT at lower Ka band (18.1-21.7 GHz).
I'd like to validate the scattering parameters of my design by simulating the OMT with at least two different methods within the CST Suite. I used the transient solver which is based on the FIT method and the TLM solver which is based on the TLM method.
I understand that each solver uses different meshing technique, but that should not have a significant effect on the scatttering parameters (which I am observing), should it?
I appreciate your responses.
Thanks 
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Salam
All solvers should in principle agree (wont be exactly the same though). If they are far from each other there is a sign something is not alright. Id recommend increasing the mesh, for both cases, and seeing whether by doing so both curves start to get closer. If they do it was a convergence problem, if they dont there is some other issue.
Play around also with the F solver, to add a third solver. In general both Fit and F (which is FEM) agree.
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in a continuous system, the pressure is 3 mbar. this pressure is produced by using an ejector at the end of the pipe line. in the middle of the process there is a tank which has liquid and vapor phases. I want to make sure that no liquid would enter the vacuum pipe. Is there any method to calculate the minimum height of the tank? the tank is a cylinder with the volume V.
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Hossein  Porhimati,
Conversion of vacuum into Head in meter and density of the condensed liquid is required,
e.g.  Pressure =3 mbar=0.001 bar
Absolute Pressure = 0.0010197 kg/cm2a
Density of the condensed liquid = 980 kg/m3(you can take as per fluid used)
Gauge Pressure                    = 0.0010197-1.03 kg/cm2g =-1.0289 kg/cm2
Minimum Height        =      Gauge Pressure/Density of the liquid
Minimum Height =  -1.0289 X 104/980 m
Minimum Height   =-10.499 meter(minus sign shows the distance below condenser)
Please find attached herewith excel sheet Calculator
Good Luck!
Prem Baboo
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One of the vent gas stream contains hydrochloric acid and we are planning to dispose of it by burning it in a flare. Could anyone help me understand whether it will burn and what is the reaction and what will be the components of product of combustion?
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Never heard of it, that HCl can be burned in a flare stack. It is not a hydrocarbon and as such you cannot burn it. The best option is to pass through a Packed bed Scrubber before venting it to atmosphere.
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The photographic language offers additional, differential and inductive resources for the creation in the project process, beside the technical sketches, drawing, prototypes and others? 
The area projetual prioritizes the functional, esthetic, emotional, symbolic and technological aspects between others, which has been taking the designers to investigate and to implement new techniques for the handling, constitution and interpretation of the images in the project stages.
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Julio, I think photographic language is to enable the world to see the possibilities of manipulating aesthetic qualities in a photo to suit one's perceived idea about how things should appear. Hence, the mental imagery comes into play, probably with the primary purpose of capturing emotions, feelings, or moods that can help in defining the subject. In this way, techniques or processes of achieving such results are not more important than the actual outcome which fulfills the essence of the theme.   
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Process validation, process qualification, process design 
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Some of the criteria might be process consistency (by X-R, X-S quality chart), process capability (Cp, Cpk ), precision (Gage R&R analysis), less variability and less rework needed.
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Process validation, process design, process qualification
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typically 3 production batches [Note for Guidance on Process Validation - European ...]
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Process design, process optimisation, factorial study
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in process design you must follow a process to achieve a point, so you must consider anything  about your point, but in process optimization you can keep other varied as the constants and work on a variable which can be optimize your process.
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Currently, my group members and I are in the process of designing and developing an actual V-blender machine that is of low cost to be used as industrial purpose. Thus, several parameters are to be looked upon this case. Generally, it will give effect in the after product.
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About the rotating speed of a V-shaped tumble blender please check my answer at: https://www.researchgate.net/post/How_do_I_test_the_performances_of_a_self_developed_table_top_V-blender_machine
About the V angle of a V-shaped tumble blender please check my answer at: https://www.researchgate.net/post/How_do_the_angles_of_V-Blender_tumbler_affect_powder_mixing_operations
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nerate data under different working conditions with TE process simulator?
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I would like to suggest to go through an article published by Ricker and Lee (1995).
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Colleagues,
The literature is not definitively clear about the use of mid-point categories on self-report Likert scales. For example, some say that mid-point choices increase scale reliability (Courtenay & Weidemann, 1985; Madden & Klopfer, 1978), while detractors claim that mid-pointing could result in satisficing, (Krosnick, Narayan, & Smith. 1996), which could cluster responses at the mid-point. I am in the process of designing a scale and would appreciate your thoughts on the matter.
Best,
Ruth
References
Courtenay, B. C., & Weidemann, C. ( 1985). The effects of a don't know response on Palmore's facts on aging quizzes. The Gerontologist, 25, 177-181.
Krosnick, J. A., Narayan, S., & Smith, W. R. ( 1996). Sati sf icing in surveys: Initial evidence. In M. T. Braverman & J. K. Slater (Eds.), Ad1•ances in survey research (pp. 29-44). San Francisco: Sage.
Madden, T. M., & Klopfer. F. J. ( 1978). The "cannot decide" option in Thurstone-typc attitude scales. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 38, 259-264.
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I am strongly agreed with the very Interesting respondents answers please.
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I am looking for some strategies for dealing with architectural design trade-off? 
Do you know any strategy in  research or applications in companies?
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Sajjad
i assume you mean trading off performance along one dimension against another.  If the real intractable problem here is that you cannot find a common metric for all the issues in design.  These issues are dealt with extensively in my book. How Designers Think
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I am in the process of designing my post-graduate research study. I'm exploring the idea of assessing gait patterns which could then translate to better rehabilitation through more focused clinical assessment within the Maltese population.
I'm aware that there are several research studies which have been published on this subject however these are specific to certain populations, for example traumatic amputees, or vascular amputees, or bilateral amputees.
My aim is to assess unilateral TT amputees, however there is an enormous list of variables to omit or include, especially in the 60+ age bracket (which is the bulk of amputees in Malta). Most are Vascular patients who would usually also suffer from Diabetes.
I was thinking of analysing Spatio-Temporal parameters with 3D motion capture, and comparing it to a low cost accelerometer technology which is ideal for clinical set-ups.
Any feedback please?
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Excellent. You are reading in the right areas. Good luck with your study.
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I am currently in the process of designing evaluative frameworks for different services within a Children's Services department. I would be keen to see any existing evaluative frameworks or processes which could be adapted for use here. We are aiming to be able to generate a standard framework to be used across different services to evaluate their implementation, effectiveness and outcomes for children and families. If there are any key texts or existing evaluative frameworks I would be extremely grateful if you could let me know.
Thank you for the help!
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Why don't you have a look at the new economics foundation website, they have some good measures and reports that would be www.nef.org.uk
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Exit stream = Inlet stream no reactants consumed, what might be the cause of that?
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1- Check that you have truly introduced LHHW reaction to the Aspen plus.
2- Check operating conditions and phases
3- Check the units of kinetic coefficients and their values
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I want to design some simulation-based scenarios involving students from different health care disciplines, and also assess the effectiveness of interprofessional simulation experience on student's learning. 
Would you like to share some suggestions about the whole process (design, implementation, and assessment)?
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Hi! 
Why don't you get in touch with Icons Project? They design simulations and may give you a hand.
best,
Laura
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We are in the process of designing and fabrication of apricot pit cracker for ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir state. 
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we are in final stage of development and fabrication of high capacity apricot pit cracker cum separation unit 
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I am following the thesis of Martin Land (very good work), but I can not find references that easily describe the ways to implement WLC. I'm trying to do some simulations with this system.
Thanks!!
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Please check my WEB Site - ACADZ, inc. I have developed simulation models using Icons for semiconductor manufacturing and other manufacturing and have published over 20 Research Papers. The two main areas are "Minimum Inventory Variability Scheduling Policies (MIVP)" and "Automated Material Handling System Simulation (AMHS)". Please send me an email at donald.collins@asu.edu and I will forward you some research papers.
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Regarding HSA (Heterogeneous System Architecture) foundation and all the prototypes and simulator, etc. that they are releasing ... I am especially interested in the global memory hierarchy ... How exactly are the CPU memory hierarchy and GPU memory hierarchy going to be integrated in HSA? This is still quite vague.
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check
AMD R-Series
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I'm in the process of designing a simple flow panel for human PBMCs and am looking for one marker that would best identify neutrophils. CD66b seems like a relatively new and specific marker, but I'm open to suggestions!
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Dear Meaghan, most of the neutrophils will actually not be in the PBMC (=Mononuclear Cells, i.e. monocytes + lymphocytes) fraction under normal conditions, but in the granulocyte/erythrocyte layer after Ficoll. If you want to enumerate neutrophils, it would be better to use whole blood, not PBMC. Granulocytes (neutros/eos) can be distinguished in the FSC/SSC as SSC high cells (for an example, see here: http://www.nature.com/jid/journal/v132/n10/fig_tab/jid2012282f2.html). Inside the granulocyte gate, neutrophils with be positive for CD16, eosinophils will be negative. CD66b is also expressed on eosinophils, so it is not specific for neutrophils.
Good luck!
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These days I am working to scale up a new process based on laboratory data. There are several chemicals which still have no adequate thermodynamic and transport property data. To measure all of the required data for engineering design will be very tedious and costly, thus, is it appropriate to just use the group contribution method as the thermodynamic and transport property data generator?
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Preliminary use of Group contribution methods is a good approach, especially in the absence of measured data.   For binary or other multicomponent VLE or LLE that has not been studied Group Contribution may provide a better starting point than going with the assumption that the system is ideal.  The key is understanding the system that is being studied and how well can the Group contribution methods predict the interactions.  For simple compounds (few carbons and simple functional groups) confidence in the predictions may be better than for more complex species.  
As mentioned above nothing can replace quality measured data, so group contribution may serve as a suitable workaround and help to move work forward until more accurate data can be found in the literature or generated in the lab.
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In the steam reforming of Naphtha (avg formula C11H24) I'm considering to add a pre-reformer to first reduce the heavy hydrocarbons to methane and then use a membrane reactor to convert the methane to hydrogen. Anyone with previous experience in this process? Is there a more "updated" catalyst than the Ferroxide / Thoriumdioxide combination ?
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Yes, pity "new" engineers are scramming away from nuclear. Still think Thorium has SO MUCH potential but most of the "thinking" goes toward hydrogen
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I personally see a process as a sequence of activities, so I go for the imperative paradigm. But in the last 5 years, I have come across a lot of work on declarative processes. I am still not convinced that declarative processes are intuitive. Can anyone please explain if I am wrong?
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That is a very interesting question, which we investigate for a while! In order to create a more clear terminology, we name two paradigms: 1) activity-based and 2) artifact-based processes (explanation in short words follows).
In the activity-based paradigm (this is what you call imperative), the focus of the process is the activities (the methods) to carry out certain tasks. A process is then defined by a sequence of activities (a workflow). Artifacts, which represent any piece of produced/consumed data in a project, are the inputs and outputs of activities. Dependencies between artifacts are expressed by the combination of activities in the workflow.
In the artifact-based paradigm (this is what you call declarative), the focus is the artifacts. Artifacts have type, structure, content, responsibilities, and dependencies among each other. For every artifact, there are several methods that can be used to create the artifact, e.g., a requirements spec can be created using plain text, structured text, diagrams and models, and so forth. That is, a process is defined by a set of artifacts to be created, and a context-specific selection of appropriate methods.
What we learned so far:
- There is no absolute distinction between these paradigms; you always have a mixture.
- Activity-based processes better reflect the way of work.
- Artifact-based processes provide better means to assess project outcomes.
- Artifact-based processes are more flexible, as one can select different methods to create an artifact.
However, in an experiment, we learned that artifact-based approaches are easier to analyze, design, and implement processes (which means: this paradigm seems to better support SPI projects), while process users do not care, and prefer more detailed guidance. Experience from practice also shows that artifact-based processes are more difficult to teach, as they require a certain level of abstract thinking.
So, are declarative more intuitive? It depends. For just enacting a process in a project, the imperative process is more intuitive as it contains more guidance. If you have to analyze and design processes, then the declarative approach is more intuitive as you can talk about process artifacts, their properties, and so on. In the end, neither is simple. It always depends on the users and their intention.
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For collecting spilled paddy I want to design a cyclone separator. The blower will suck the paddy from ground into the cyclone separator.
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Thank you very much.. your reply found very much useful.
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I am looking for input to help the development of this thesis question and/or possible avenues of research.
Input may include specific architects that strictly use physical model making to inform their design decisions or literature that might review this design technique.
All comments and criticisms are welcome.
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Nesma El-Saqqa
Thank-you for your input, a very interesting thought of conducting such survey. I had an idea of surveying architecture students versus working professionals to see if the two groups think differently and could possibly answer such questions:
• Do students only build models for presentation purposes and not to help them through the design process or to overcome design issues?
• Is there a lack of education in architecture schools related to model making?
• Is it common practise for practising architects to constantly build models to aid design?
• Do professionals not build models because they’re too time consuming and costly to produce, and are people neglecting design exploration because of a monetary value?
• Is there a link between limited design exploration and bad architecture, or ‘less resolved architecture?
Kalliopi I. Valsamidou
I just finished watching that documentary on Frank Gehry, amazing! Thanks a lot for that link.
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Engineers need a wide range of instruments for different mineral industries. The engineers must evaluate each application during the process design and select an appropriate instrument.
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The WISDM (Wireless Sensor Data Mining) Lab is concerned with collecting the sensor data from smart phones and other modern mobile devices (e.g., tablet computers, music players, etc.) and mining this sensor data for useful knowledge. Currently our efforts are mainly focused on the acclerometer and GPS sensor data from these devices, but in the future we will mine the audio sensors (microphones), image sensors (cameras), light sensors, proximity sensors, temperature sensors, pressure sensors, direction sensors (compasses) and various other sensors that reside on these devices.http://www.cis.fordham.edu/wisdm/
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I am wondering how I can change the "trace" or >0.001 values in the stream table in Aspen Plus v8.0 to rational numbers, PPM or PPB. Furthermore, for the unit of enthalpy I always get Gcal/hr no matter what system of units I choose (e.g. SI, CGS) whereas I want it to be shown in GJ/hr.
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I have once had this problem in the past, its usually fixed by changing the tolerance from the Convergence setup. I am not sure why you want the “trace” option out of the stream results table, because it’s usually applicable to variables that are less than the specified trace threshold (by default about “tolerance/100”). However, you can change the default trace option to relax the convergence. The trace option is either “Cut off” or “Gradual”. When the Trace Option is Cutoff (specified on the Convergence | Conv Options | Defaults | Tear Convergence sheet), Aspen Plus bypasses this convergence test for components that have a mole fraction less than the Trace threshold. The default Trace threshold is Tolerance/100. The alternative Trace Option, Gradual, adds a 100*Trace threshold term to the denominator. This setting gradually relaxes the convergence test for trace components”
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Glycerine can be used as an environmentally friendly solvent in extractive distillation, however, due to its thermal decomposition at high temperatures, there might be some limitations for its applicability.
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The autoignition temperature of glycerol is 370 deg C which is pretty high and therefore it should work well as a solvent in high temperature applications as well. However there are some limitations in its use. At temperature 280 deg C, a toxic component acrolein (propenal) forms. Acetaldehyde also forms along with acrolein. At higher temperature, CO, CO2, CH4 and H2 form in addition to these two products.
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I would like to know how can I use the results from a steady-state simulation in PRO/II for dynamic simulation and what the easiest way to this is? I only know that there is an application called DynSim that might be useful.
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here is a good example for dynamic simulation in PRO/II using DynSim. I think You should also try ANSYS. Personally i prefer it as it provides great plant simulations in real operating conditions.
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Performing a design project to product 2-MeTHF from hydrogenation of furfural
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It depends on the quantity you want to dry. In addition to the above methods using hydroponics solid materials and filtration may be work well.
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Can somebody explain or have notes explaining how to do isothermal VLE measurement of binary mixture?
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You need to use VLE unit like Othmer still. Take the binary mixture in different ratios like 10+90; 20+80: etc.. and find the RI or density of each mixture and prepare calibraiton curve. Then take one mixture in to the feed vessel, heat it. The vapor passes through empty column which is electrically heated and goes to codenser. The condensate is recycled back to the feed vessel. There would be provision to collect vapor codnensate. Monitor the vapor temperature and liquid temperautre. When equilibrium is reached the temperature would be stedy. Maintain at the equilibrium for 2 h and then collect vapor condesate sample and liquid sample from feed vessel. Measure the concentration using calibration curve. This gives one stet of T-X-Y data. Repeat the run for ten compositions and generate VLE curve. You can refer some papers for the VLE unit details.
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When modeling ethylene/PE solubility, UNIFAC group parameters are required for each component of system. So I am a little bit confused about ethylene. Will it be from second group or first?
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Hello. Here is something that help you to predict the thermodynamic behavior of this system, using models of UNIFAC:
UNIFAC is an activity coefficient model, like NRTL or UNIQUAC. But it is based on group contributions, rather than molecular contributions. With a limited number of group parameters and group-group interaction parameters, UNIFAC can predict activity coefficients. The following table lists the property methods based on UNIFAC.
The original version of UNIFAC can predict VLE and LLE, using two sets of parameters. So there are two property methods based on the original UNIFAC model, one using the VLE data set (UNIFAC), the other using the LLE data set (UNIF-LL).
There are two modifications to the UNIFAC model. They are named after the location of the universities where they were developed: Lyngby in Denmark, and Dortmund in Germany. The corresponding property methods are UNIF-LBY and UNIF-DMD. Both modifications:
Include more temperature-dependent terms of the group-group interaction parameters.
Predict VLE and LLE with a single set of parameters.
Predict heats of mixing better.
In the Dortmund modification, the prediction for activity coefficients at infinite dilution is improved.
Ref: Aspen tech / Help / UNIFAC Activity Coefficient Method.
On the other hand, I got used to simulate a Aromatic unit from UNIF-LBY model, the results were very good.
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Hydrogen is in large excess (more than 100 times).
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Yes, Your mixture is quite complex. Most of constituents nomenclature I see for the first time. But why You consider the boiling temperature of furan (+31.4 C) as low? Well, that is a special question, maybe, in that example it is so. As I understand, by separation of furan using cryogenic technique H2 dissolves in furan drops, and problem arises to remove H2 from droplets. Such a problem appears in most cryogenic methods. For example, by cryogenic distillation and rectification in process of helium extraction from natural gas. That is a great question, one should view special literature. There, when methane and other hydrocarbons are liquified, helium dissolves into this liquid fractions and further treatment of such liquids is carried out.
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I want to design an MBBR (moving bed biological reactor), and I need design parameters. Is there any book, article or etc. about MBBR's design?
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Ya technical details are available in book
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We have built an electric racing car and we are thinking of a business plan in a theoretical sense to increase production from 1 unit to 10 and then in an year make 1000 such cars.In 3 years the target is to make 3000 such cars.I would like to know the approach for that with respect to optimization of production processes and also costs.
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Hi there, there are some major aspects in optimizing production process, such as process planning, production planning and scheduling, layout optimization, and so on.
Many models and methods are available in these aspects, which provide approaches both to allocate you manufacturing resourses properly and to evaluate costs.
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I'm modeling reactor gas discharge concentration to a piece of scrubbing equipment. HCl concentrations vary from 22w% to 0w% while temperature varies from ambient to 110C. Does anyone know of equations to estimate vapor concentrations over the solution or of tabular data that I could build a look up table?
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Tabular data for the partial pressures of H2O and HCl over aqueous solutions of HCl can be found at “Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook”, or at some other alternative reliable source. For isothermal data along different compositions linear interpolation is often considered enough accurate by engineers. For data of constant composition along different temperatures the usual practice is to assume a nearly linear dependency for the logarithm of the partial pressure versus the reciprocal of the absolute temperature, and to interpolate accordingly. Although linear interpolation by using just the pair of neighbouring data points is often used, it is generally possible to improve the accuracy of the interpolated data by using polynomial or spline interpolation.
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I want to design a cyclone separator for cleaning the product gases of a steam gasification process. The gases will exit the reactor at around 850degC.
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Hi,
Design parameters to remove solids from gas using a cyclone separator.
Input Data:
- Diameter of Separator
- Flow
- Target Efficiency
- Max Pressure Drop
- Particle Density
- Gas Density
- Gas Viscosity
- Number of Turns Inside the Cyclone
- Diameter of Particle Collected with 50% Efficiency
Preliminary Calculations to Determine Overall Size of Separator:
- Height
- Width
- Volume
- Diameter of Exit
- Length of Body
- Length of Cone
Other Important Considerations:
- Overall Collection Efficiency Calculation
- Pressure Drop Calculation
Hope this helps!
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I'm designing a device for the neutralization of a chlorpyrifos ethyl gas current via chemical absorption in a Sodium hydroxide solution. In order to decide what equipment to use (packed tower, bubble reactor, etc.), I need the liquid-phase mass transfer coefficient, be it provided by actual experimentation on this particular reaction or via correlations that could fit to this system.
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My dear Friend, if you notice to the chemical structure of chlorpyrifos, you can find very good leaving group that can separate very easy from the structure. if your environment is a alkalin condition the attached reaction will be carried out.
if you get IR spectroscopy you will observe C=O band in to the structure with -OH viberational banding which is related to change the structure from enol form to keto form . I hope this interpretation help you.
Regards
Reza
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The details are to include mass balance of what goes in, what happens within and the products from the reactor.
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Hi Olujimi, there are several types of fed-batch depending on the feeding strategy. For example constant feeding, step input, etc. Please find the attachment.