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Process Analysis - Science topic

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My lab wants to try to do as much of our pre-processing, processing, and analysis in R as possible, for ease of workflow and replicability. We use a lot of psychophysiological measures and have historically used MATLAB for our workflow with this type of data. We want to know if anyone has been successful in using R for these types of tasks.
Any good R packages?
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Begin by consulting this very useful book by Jared Lander R for everyone to get started its available from the z-library and contains much useful research grade code. To find useful packages in R Google what you want to do alongside R package. Example attached. Best wishes David Booth
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I'm working on my thesis recently, and got some technical issues on running SPSS.
My research model is based on process 25, but in process theres's no model 25 to run.
Therefore, I ran model 21 instead. I put 3 way interaction and 2 way interaction in covariates,
but I found there's mistake on estimating index of moderated moderated mediation.
Could anyone help me with this situation? It'll be great if you have template or syntax.
I've already checked on the Hayes' bibliography of mediation, moderation amd conditional process analysis, yet still no clue how to fix the trouble.
Follow up: I chose model 7 instead, and put 2nd-stage moderator and its interaction with mediation in covariate.
But still with question, the 2nd-stage moderator and its interaction would predict twice, first time is when the outcome variables is mediation. Is it okay?
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I've been hearing from several people lately that using the Hayes PROCESS macro is ill-advised, but I've yet to see any formal explanations or empirical data to support this. Can anyone suggest articles that either (a) address these limitations or (b) address why the use of the program isn't a problem? I've been running into paywalls with the few articles I could find.
Either way, I would like to understand the rationale. I love the PROCESS macro and would like to know if there are legitimate criticisms.
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Hey Laura
I think PROCESS is great because you can specify and test a range of different models by just clicking a few buttons, and the output is clear and comprehensive. But I suppose this comes at cost - the cost is that there are only a limited number of models that can be tested, it handles missing data in a less than optimal way, it cannot handle latent variables, and is generally limited to one dependent variable. Does this make it 'wrong'? I don't think so. I'm not aware of any evidence that there are computational or estimation errors in PROCESS. Maybe using PROCESS may be 'ill-advised' as the models it tests could be specified and tested using latent variable modelling software, and there would be advantages to this approach. However, the cost is that it's more difficult and time consuming to run these models in Mplus, LISREL, AMOS or whatever software you may use.
Here's a really nice video describing the pros and cons of SEM and PROCESS
And here is a site where all the PROCESS models are translated into MPLUS syntax - a huge thank you to Chris Stride for this resource.
Mark
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For my thesis proposal
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Hi, Somaia Salem.
First, you can use the PROCESS to analyze secondary data. Second, in the Hayes conditional process analysis, there is only one X (independent variable). For binary independent variables, you can put them directly into the model, while for triple classification and above, you need to code dummy variables first. In addition, I have uploaded the template sample of PROCESS, which I hope will help you.
Best wishes
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Below are some issues related to Big Data database technologies that can be developed scientifically:
- Application of data processing technology in Big Data database systems for modern education 4.0,
- Improvement of forecasting of natural, climatic, economic, economic, financial, social etc. phenomena based on analyzing large data sets,
- Analysis of sentiment, opinions of citizens, Internet users regarding brand recognition of companies, customer reviews of specific services and products, views on various topics, citizens' worldview based on the analysis of large collections of information downloaded from various websites, from comments downloaded from social media portals,
- Analysis of information and marketing services of commercially operating companies that carry out specific analyzes of sentiment, citizens' opinions, Internet users regarding brand recognition, customer reviews of specific services and products etc. on behalf of other companies that purchase specific analytical reports,
- Analysis of the possibilities of cooperation, synergy, correlation, conducting interdisciplinary research, connecting Big Data database systems with other information technologies typical for the development of the current fourth technological revolution called Industry 4.0, which include technologies such as: cloud computing, machine learning, Internet of Things, Artificial Intelligence, etc.
In what other areas are the technologies of processing and analysis of information in Big Data database systems used?
Please answer
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Dear Colleagues and Friends from RG
The issues of the use of information contained in Big Data database systems for the purposes of conducting Business Intelligence analyzes are described in the publications:
I invite you to discussion and cooperation.
Best wishes
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Dear Srdjan Atanasijevic,
Yes. You pointed to the important conditions for the development of big data analysis technology with the use of Big Data Analytics.
Thank you, Regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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What is the best software for image processing and analysis picture? I look for easy applied with high quality. Thank you for your help and time .
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Matlab and Python are two good options for this work.
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After 30 years, much will change. 30 years is a long period for the continuation of the current fourth technological revolution, known as Industry 4.0.
The current technological revolution known as Industry 4.0 is motivated by the development of the following factors:
Big Data database technologies, cloud computing, machine learning, Internet of Things, artificial intelligence, Business Intelligence and other advanced data mining technologies.
On the basis of the development of the new technological solutions in recent years, dynamically developing processes of innovatively organized analyzes of large information sets stored in Big Data database systems and computing cloud computing for the needs of applications in such areas as: machine learning, Internet of Things, artificial intelligence are dynamically developing, Business Intelligence.
The development of information processing technology in the era of the current technological revolution defined by Industry 4.0 is determined by the application of new information technologies in the field of e-commerce and e-marketing.
Added to this are additional areas of application of advanced technologies for the analysis of large data sets, such as Medical Intelligence, Life Science, Green Energy, etc. Processing and multi-criteria analysis of large data sets in Big Data database systems is made according to the V4 concept, ie Volume (meaning number of data), Value (large values ​​of specific parameters of the analyzed information), Velocity (high speed of new information appearing) and Variety (high variety of information).
The advanced information processing and analysis technologies mentioned above are used more and more often for marketing purposes of various business entities that advertise their offer on the Internet or analyze the needs in this area reported by other entities, including companies, corporations, financial and public institutions. More and more commercial business entities and financial institutions conduct marketing activities on the Internet, including on social media portals.
More and more companies, banks and other entities need to conduct multi-criteria analyzes on large data sets downloaded from the Internet describing the markets on which they operate, as well as contractors and clients with whom they cooperate. On the other hand, there are already specialized technology companies that offer this type of analytical services, develop customized reports that are the result of multicriteria analyzes of large data sets obtained from various websites and from entries and comments on social media portals.
Do you agree with my opinion on this matter?
In view of the above, I am asking you the following question:
What are the known futurological visions of technology development until around 2050?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Best wishes
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Tech future dev. in...The advent of Biotechnology courses a few decades ago appeared to provide a better alternative to young students for their career options. The applications of Biotechnology are vast as it caters to various agricultural, animal husbandry, fishery, health, pharmaceutical n etc …Samal, K. C., Mohanty, A., Patnaik, L., & Sahoo, J. P. (2021). Career Options and Future Prospects in Biotechnology. Biotica Research Today, 3(3), 135-138.
Robotics, space tech, AI, BC, BD...Wedler, A., Schuster, M. J., Müller, M. G., Vodermayer, B., Meyer, L., Giubilato, R., ... & Reill, J. (2021). German Aerospace Center's advanced robotic technology for future lunar scientific missions. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, 379(2188), 20190574.
Rusakova, E. P., & Inshakova, A. O. (2021). INDUSTRIAL AND MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING IN DIGITAL LEGAL PROCEEDINGS IN THE ASIA-PACIFIC REGION: A NEW LEVEL OF QUALITY BASED ON DATA, BLOCKCHAIN AND AI. International Journal for Quality Research, 15(1).
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Hello everybody
I have been asked a lot of technical questions about the process mining by organization managers that I want to share here and read your answers.
  1. What is the difference between process mining and BI dashboards?
  2. IT team has designed the information system in my organization, so the structure is available (the staff is working on a defined railway). How process mining can help my organization to perform better?
  3. On the other hand, a process analyst team is available in my organization. Do we need process mining and why?
Best Regards
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Process mining is an analysis tool while BI-dashboards are for monitoring and reporting. These are different use cases. A process mining analysis can result in a new KPI that then should be monitored, but it can also lead to a process change (see Possible Outcomes).
Regards,
Shafagat
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I have a quite complex model to run in SPSS Process with
- 4 groups in the categorical IV
- one mediator
- metric DV and
- three potential moderators.
Three moderators is not provided in the SPSS Process input field, therefore in order to reduce the complexity of the model before running the Process analysis, I want to test if the moderators are significant at all.
If not, I want to delete the insignificant moderators so I can estimate a reduced model in Process.
- Is there a way to check for significance of moderators beforehand in such a complex? (each moderator is hypothesized to influence two effects (direct effect of IV on DV and indirect effect of IV on DV)
Or is the model too complex to check beforehand and I just have to run the complete model multiple times in SPSS Process?
Any feedback is much appreciated! Thank you so much
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I do not recommend to use separate models, since you will not catch the possible interdependences between the moderators and interaction terms. Even if you are not interested in the higher order interactions, the two-way interactions are possibly not independent and therefore should not be inspected separately (same logic as bivariate correlation/regression vs. multiple regression). PROCESS is a nice tool, but you should not limit yourself, just because your are used to PROCESS and it is handy. If the tool your are using is not capable to estimate your model you should change the tool and not the model!! It is the model you want to test (presumably because you have specific hypotheses) and not the tool itself.
Threrefore, switch more flexible programs (I do not know how JAMOVI will handle this) but any program thay can handle structural equation modeling should do it. Very popular is the lavaan package in R for example. Here you can create complex models quite easily and calculate any indirect effects, which you can specify manually at will.
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I have a conditional moderated mediation (Hayes Model 58) that I found is only partially significant through the Johnson Newman technique. We need to convert the variable into a dichotomous variable to find the index of moderated mediation.
Traditional approaches such as a mean split or median split may not be ideal because the conditional effect I found only applies to scores up to a certain point.
Could I group the values that do have a significant effect together vs the rest? Has anyone seen examples of this being done in a marketing journal?
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una mediación moderada condicional (Modelo 58 de Hayes) es solo parcialmente significativa a través de la técnica de Johnson Newman, convertir la variable en una variable dicotómica permitiría encontrar el índice de mediación moderada Legal
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Do the results of conducted analyzes using Big Data database technologies and Business Intelligence analytics enable improving the accuracy of conducted economic and financial analyzes and other analyzes of the fundamental analysis type and other analyzes of economic effectiveness, economic and financial situation, property valuation, determining the development perspectives of enterprises and improvement of credit risk management processes?
In the context of the above discussion, another question arises:
- Is it possible to improve the credit risk management processes as a result of the use of Big Data database technologies and Business Intelligence analytics for fundamental analysis and other analyzes regarding the economic performance research, economic and financial situation, property valuation, determining business development perspectives?
- Do the results of conducted analyzes using Big Data database technologies and Business Intelligence analytics allow to improve the accuracy of conducted analyzes and increase the probability of prediction, forecasted phenomena and economic processes occurring?
Do you agree with my opinion on this matter?
In view of the above, I am asking you the following question:
Does the use of Big Data database technologies and Business Intelligence analytics for analytical processes of the analysis of the economic and financial situation of enterprises enable the improvement of credit risk management processes in commercial banks?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Dear Colleagues and Friends from RG
The issues of the use of information contained in Big Data database systems for the purposes of carrying out Business Intelligence analyzes are described in the publications:
I invite you to discussion and cooperation.
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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Artificial intelligence (AI), and the machine learning techniques that form the core of AI, are transforming, and will revolutionise, how we approach financial risk management. Everything to do with understanding and controlling risk is up for grabs through the growth of AI-driven solutions: from deciding how much a bank should lend to a customer, to providing warning signals to financial market traders about position risk, to detecting customer and insider fraud, and improving compliance and reducing model risk... Aziz, S., & Dowling, M. (2019). Machine learning and AI for risk management. In Disrupting Finance (pp. 33-50). Palgrave Pivot, Cham.
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Hi,
I am conducting a cross-sectional quantitative study, originally i was using 4 predictor variables and criterion and used multi-regressional analysis. This was significant and lead to three of my four predictors being supported.
pearsons correlation indicated these predictors were correlated the variance inflation factor (VIF) and tolerance indicated this was no an issue (low-moderate VIF and high tolerance) as the correlated variables were significant predictors.
predictors: professional self-doubt, developmental depletion and developmental growth (whether participants think they are growing in their careers). i also had years of experience that was non-significant. he criterion is well-being
I ran a serial mediation analysis using model 6. using a theoretical basis i added predictor variable 'self-doubt' as a predictor. developmental growth, developmental depletion and years of experience as mediators . well-being as the criterion.
the pathways between each variable and the criterion are the same as those found in multi-regression. indirect pathways were also found for developmental growth and depletion. depletion also influenced the link between growth and well-being. Is it reasonable to conclude these variables have direct and indirect effects on well-being?
The aim of my study is to see how these factors impact well-being.
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it seems that you have ran appropriate analyses to test your research purpose (except for testing the relative significance of the mediators, you can test which mediating effect is stronger). However, it would be quite challenging to publish your findings into an academic journal due to the cross-sectional design (with the self-assessed measures only--it seems that all the measures were assessed by self-report).
I suggest you to test some potential moderating effects. For example, you can test whether years of experience can moderate some of the indirect effect or the relationship between professional self-doubt and developmental depletion/developmental growth. Also, you can test other variables in your data or demographic variables as a potential moderator.
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In managing the technology of advanced processing and analysis of large information sets in Big Data database systems, there is no hope but it is already used in practice. Big Data database systems are used in many fields of analysis of large data sets and support business management processes, among others by supporting processes carried out in Business Intelligence framework.
Do you agree with me on the above matter?
In the context of the above issues, the following question is valid:
Do Big Data technologies support business management processes?
In what direction will the process of research and application of Big Data technology, which support business management processes, progress?
Please reply
Best wishes
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Yes, they do.
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Moderated mediation (or Conditional Process Analysis, called by Hayes https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0002764219859633?journalCode=absb)
However, it rarely seen be used in biological study. I want to know your opinion on this method. Is it be widely recognized by editors? Has it been used by papers in journal(IF>10)?
Thank for your attention!
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This type of analysis has also been done in areas related to psychobiology, medicine, psychiatry, etc. that are related to biological processes.
You can use the program AMOS (which does not use programming) that also allows you to perform this analysis in a simple way I leave a link, this program includes the methodology SEM (structural equation model) that has indicators that can demonstrate the accuracy of your model beyond the values of path analysis (correlation coefficients), That is to say, it allows you to see the forest beyond the tree as a global model where, although they may not comply with all the direct or indirect coefficients with the established parameters, if they have a good adjustment index they comply with their general objective and allow you to infer that it adapts to your proposed global theoretical model. The R program also has the SEM package to obtain the adjustment indexes of its analysis.
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I am in a process of analysis of my research data and want to make logical membe function. Please guide.
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There are several you tube tutorials, wherein teachers have explained step wise procedure for making membership functions using ' if' and 'then' logical functions.
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I am using data of 25-year interval, one dependent variable and 5 independent variables, all are time series in nature. I would be grateful for a step by step help in the process of analysis with STATA using the ARIMA model, do I differentiate all the independent variables to test for stationarity or I only do that to the dependent variable? Thank you.
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Hi,
Pls see below for the steps
1. Check the data for structural breaks
2. Check stationarity of data (Unit root tests) - if data is not stationary, transform into stationary form (1st difference or so)- consider log transformation as well.
3.Check the seasonality of the data (Seasonal unit root tests or seasonality index)
4. Identify the appropriate AR and MA terms (if seasonality is present, add seasonal AR terms and seasonal MA terms) use information criteria such as AIC, SIC,BIC for selection)
5. Estimate ARIMA or SARIMA model
6. Diagnostic tests( AC, PAC graphs, Q tests, normality tests, etc.)
6.Examine in-sample forecast accuracy
7.Out of sample forecast accuracy
You may also refer the following article by me.
Kind regards
Thushara
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Currently, the only source of an LSA standard is from THC Pharm in Germany. I tried to apply for this standard, but the paperwork was insufficient and provided several obstacles to obtain the standard. I am currently wondering if there are any U.S. based company that has the LSA standard? If not, I have read a few papers which use a similar compound to LSA in order to proceed with their analyses. Since I am using LC-MS, it would be ideal to have an LSA standard - but I am open to researching other options for this Master's Project.
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Thank you all so much. This is helping me out so very much.
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Are there python (Machine Learning)script codes libraries for satellite images pre procssing and processing analysis or feature extractions.
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Thank You Very Much Dear Kawtar Zinebi for this useful link, Really I Found many useful codes there for my new research paper. MAY GOD BLESS YOU.
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I want to quantify the change in fluorescence (brightness) to a reference picture. Please, suggest and guide for the procedure and possible software/programming or program? If literature is linked it will be great help?
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Dear Muhammad Latif, image J is the better software
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Here is a summary of my research design:
X: Continuous behavioral variable (i.e. frequency of viewing specific television content)
M: Continuous attitudinal variable
Y: Continuous attitudinal variable
Controlling for some other variables, I ran an SPSS PROCESS simple mediation model (Model 4), and I found significance for the direct path and one of the indirect paths. I wonder though - do I have to satisfy certain assumptions to be able to, in the same paper, report results from both the said PROCESS analysis as well as those from hierarchical regression where all the variables that I had entered into the PROCESS analysis? I have seen some papers that did this, but wanted to get more wisdom on this matter.
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Process is simply a tool for organizing the variables in a regression according to a path model, and then providing you with calculations of the direct and indirect effects so that you don't need to do this by hand. The regressions it runs are essentially identical to a set of hierarchical regressions, especially for a simple model such as the one you described. So, there is no problem with including both analyses, except that one does not really tell you anything that you could not determine from the other.
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I need to have information about the complex modulus (G*) of a certain PVC plastisol recipe I'm currently developing and the only equipment I have available is an RPA 2000. What I really need to know is how should I know which is the best frequency to do a temperature sweep in my material? I already made some tests but I couldn't really find any information about the correct test standard to use and the most appropriate frequency to do the measurements. Can someone please help on this?
Thank you very much.
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Robert Solimeno Thank you very much Mr. Robert, that's exactly what I'll do with the recipes I'm testing.
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how to do turning process analysis by using ABAQUS software in terms of cutting force and temperature?
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The Attached document may be helpful for you kindly check that....
Good wishes
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I'm currently doing research on the process of analysis of visual sources of inspiration. As part of the collection of information I'm conducting a survey aimed at people with a background in Design and teaching.
The research is focused to a better understanding of the analysis of visual stimuli and their analogy with the learning process.
The survey is completely anonymous and will not be asked for any personal information. Your participation would be a great help for the development of the research. Thank you very much for your time!
The link to access the online survey in English is:
Best Regards,
Laura Valdés
-------------------------
Estoy actualmente realizando una investigación sobre el proceso de análisis de fuentes de inspiración visuales y como parte de la recopilación de información estoy realizando una encuesta dirigida a personas con experiencia en algún campo del Diseño y en la docencia.
La encuesta es completamente anónima y no se pedirá por ningún tipo de dato personal. La investigación está dirigida a entender mejor el análisis de estímulos visuales y su relación con el proceso de aprendizaje.
El enlace a la encuesta en Español es:
Atentamente,
Laura Valdés
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I think I know what you are asking. But I am not sure I can answer your question because it is not easy.
In the old days I used to write things on the blackboard. When done, I'll erase the board and write something else. Then came slides or transparencies. We had to prepare them ahead of time, but we can use slides repeatedly. Not just from one semester to another, but if a student has a question, I can go back to it. Unlike the days of the blackboard, if I already erased the board then a student asks a question, I can not go back to what I erased.
Then came power point. Now I can use a dark background with a light font or vice versa. I can animate and make things clearer, but here is the difficulty in answering your question. We do not know WHY a student understood a specific point. Is it because he/she is smart? It is because of the way I phrases the explanation? or is it because the animation I did made it very clear?
I think I understand what you are asking, but it is a difficult question to answer.
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Is this possible? The negative moderation effect is small (both effects are significant). The mediation simultaneously included 6 other variables, another 2 of which also mediated the relationship between SK and SU. I just want to know whether this is statistically possible, but I also need some help to interpret what it means. Thank you.
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when you have a +ve correlation it means that the two variable is directly proportional to each other and -ve correlation implies that the relation is an inverse relation statistically speaking. 
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Is there a seprate library for process variation (process corners) or monte carlo analysis of the circuits based on carbon nanotube field effect transistors like MOSFETs?
Could we use process corner analysis for all variations of CNFET(e.g. the number of cnts)?
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The following iV-SPICE library for CNFET may be useful.
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Hello all,
I have carried out Solid Glass particle impact on AL 6061-T6 plate. I have verified my results with Experimental values and they seem to match well for different velocities and different particle sizes. However i came across a paper stating that the SPH model is said to be appropriate if the Total Energy remains constant over the entire process.
I find that my Total Energy fluctuates very little, so is it acceptable ? also the internal energy and kinetic energy seem to have little fluctuations in them after impact. I'm attaching the files explaining the Simulation Model and the Energy charts, please let me know if they are acceptable or are they supposed to be constant with time after impact.
Regards
Abhishek Chawan 
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 Hi,
Thank you for taking time and getting back to my question. I have seen some other paper as well, all of which tell that variation of around 3-4% in total global energy is acceptable, i see mine varies around 1.9% so it should be fine. 
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I ran initially a causal steps approach between a variable (A), a predictor (I), and a moderator (G).
Using this approach i found that A correlates to I; I correlates to G; A correlates to G
and entering everything into the model shows a full mediation of I through G for A (i.e. I is no longer sig for A).
Then I decided to use PROCESS and it did not find the initial I and G effect to be significant, and the indirect effect was not significant. finding a single effect of G on A.
I know it's confusing, but which one should I trust? maybe I did something wrong in PROCESS?
Help!
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Given that the "causal steps" approach has some serious problems, I would hesitate to rely on it. 
For an overview, see:
MacKinnon, D. P., Coxe, S., & Baraldi, A. N. (2012). Guidelines for the investigation of mediating variables in business research. Journal of Business and Psychology, 27(1), 1-14.
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I test the moderating effect of categorical moderator (consumer ethnocentrism (CET)) to the relationship of perceived quality and purchase intention. The result of model 1 of PROCESS macro (moderation) shows that the interaction is not significant (p>0.05). However, the Conditional effect of X on Y at values of the moderator(s): table shows the significant of both group (high and low CET) In this case, is it mean that CET does not moderate the relation between perceived quality and purchase intention?
Thank you very much for your help.
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Dear Boonsita,
it seems that moderation effect doesn't exist in your analysis.
B is a moderator variable if there is an interaction between A and B ir order to affect C.  Moderation is synonymous of interaction. It is usually represented as A (predictor or IV) x B (moderator variable).
A relationship is moderated when we can verify that it applies to some sample categories, but do not apply to others (Bryman, 1991). Baron and Kenny (1986) define “moderator variable” as a qualitative or quantitative variable that affects the direction and/or strength of the relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable. We are in the presence of a moderating effect or interaction when the effect of the predictor or independent variable (X) on the dependent or criterion (Y) variable is affected by the presence of the moderator variable (Aguinis & Gottfredson, 2010; Baron & Kenny, 1986).
Aguinis, H. & Gottfredson, R. K. (2010). Best-practice recommendations for estimating interaction effects using moderated multiple regression. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31, 776-786. DOI: 10.1002/job.686
Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173-1182.
Good luck with your research!
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I'm modeling molecular sieves adsorber(dehydration) with pro2.
But i can't find information about it. 
I know that should use tray option.
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you are recommended to use Aspen adsim instead of pro II. Aspen Adsim possess relevant isotherms and relations and you can properly simulate your plant.
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Does increasing Air/Natural Gas ratio into secondary reformer (neglecting the final H2/N2 ratio)  have any bad affects on Ni catalyst since temperature gradually increases with increase in air . How to calculate Approach to equilibrium for Secondary Reformer? 
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A correct ratio of steam to air to fuel may avoid over heating also continually remove carbon from the catalyst. It is easy to do the wrong ratio, but costly in equipment damage, production time, and catalyst replacement. Advice from an experienced expert should be helpful.
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i need to prepare a routine for calculating pump flow rate in a simulation software. i have an old formula but it was difficult to understand.
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Simulation of pumps in process is gaining importance and so the process needs to be studied and better ideas suggested such that the production cost is reduced. With the advent of computers and simulating software’s like “ASPEN PLUS” it is possible to design and optimize a particular process. Proper design can significantly reduce production cost as well as provide to make the process safe and reduce environment hazards. The material, unit operation and processes involved are been identified. Steady state simulation is done. Each unit is taken into consideration and the variables are been optimized. The units are sequentially optimized. Use of newer equipment’s in the process is been going to be suggested.
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 i am using 32nm PTM model file with  vthon=0.63   and vthop=-0.5808. I am assuming 30% threshold voltage variation for 3 sigma. i want to measure RSNM for 10 iteration. coding is given below
********************************************************************
.param
+delvtop1 =agauss(0,-0.1356,3)
+ delvton1=agauss(0,0.1503,3)
+delvtop ='(-0.5808 + delvtop1)'
+delvton='(0.63 + delvton1)'
.TEMP 25.0000
.protect
* Donnot print the contents of library
.include 'D:\Dissertation\coding\model file\32nm_NMOS_bulk6769.pm'
.include 'D:\Dissertation\coding\model file\32nm_PMOS_bulk22584.pm'
* Load the library
.unprotect
*Sets global values
.GLOBAL VDD!
*Parameterize input element
.PARAM VDD = 1V
.PARAM L = 32n
.PARAM WN = '1*L'
.PARAM WP = '1*L'
.PARAM LNA = '1*L'
.PARAM WNA = '1*L'
.PARAM U = 0
.PARAM UL = '-VDD/sqrt(2)'
.PARAM UH = ' VDD/sqrt(2)'
.PARAM BITCAP = 1E-12
*Requesting Graph Data Format in binary
.OPTION POST
CBL BLB 0 BITCAP
CBLB BL 0 BITCAP
*MOSFET (we can specify additional parameters, such as W=<value> L=<value>, in the parameter list)
* m<name> <drain> <gate> <source> <body> <model> <parameter list>
* one inverter
MPL QD QB VDD! VDD! PMOS L='L' W='WP' delvt0= delvtop
+AD='WP*2.5*L' AS='WP*2.5*L' PD='2*WP+5*L' PS='2*WP+5*L'
+M=1
MNL QD QB 0 0 NMOS L='L' W='WN' delvt0= delvton
+AD='WN*2.5*L' AS='WN*2.5*L' PD='2*WN+5*L' PS='2*WN+5*L'
+M=1
* one inverter
MPR QBD Q VDD! VDD! PMOS L='L' W='WP' delvt0= delvtop
+AD='WP*2.5*L' AS='WP*2.5*L' PD='2*WP+5*L' PS='2*WP+5*L'
+M=1
MNR QBD Q 0 0 NMOS L='L' W='WN' delvt0= delvton
+AD='WN*2.5*L' AS='WN*2.5*L' PD='2*WN+5*L' PS='2*WN+5*L'
+M=1
* access transistors
MNAL BLB WL QBD 0 NMOS L='LNA' W='WNA' delvt0= delvton
+AD='WNA*2.5*L' AS='WNA*2.5*L' PD='2*WNA+5*L' PS='2*WNA+5*L'
+M=1
MNAR BL WL QD 0 NMOS L='LNA' W='WNA' delvt0= delvton
+AD='WNA*2.5*L' AS='WNA*2.5*L' PD='2*WNA+5*L' PS='2*WNA+5*L'
+M=1
*Independent voltage source
*v<name> <+ terminal> <- terminal> <value>
VVDD! VDD! 0 DC=VDD
* when reading, use VDD in hold mode use 0
VWL WL 0 DC=vdd
*Initial condition
.IC V(BL) = VDD
.IC V(BLB) = VDD
* use voltage controlled voltage sources (VCVS)
* changing the co-ordinates in 45 degree angle
EQ Q 0 VOL=' 1/sqrt(2)*U + 1/sqrt(2)*V(V1)'
EQB QB 0 VOL='-1/sqrt(2)*U + 1/sqrt(2)*V(V2)'
* inverter characteristics
EV1 V1 0 VOL=' U + sqrt(2)*V(QBD)'
EV2 V2 0 VOL='-U + sqrt(2)*V(QD)'
* take the absolute value for determination of SNM
EVD VD 0 VOL='(V(V1) - V(V2))'
.DC U UL UH 0.01 sweep monte=10
.PRINT DC V(QD) V(QBD) V(V1) V(V2)
*now we are getin1 exactaly same value as we geting from old method(graphical method)
.MEASURE DC MAXVD MAX V(VD) FROM=-500m to =500m
.MEASURE DC MINVD MIN V(VD) FROM=-500m to =500m
* measure SNM
*.MEASURE DC SNM param='1/sqrt(2)*MAXVD'
*CHANGE 0N 1 MAY 2015 MINVD VALUE ALWAYES BE -VE SO WE TAKE abs VALUE OF IT. NOW FIND MIN VALUE OF MAXVD AND MINVD.
.MEASURE DC SNM param='(1/sqrt(2)*MIN(MAXVD,ABS(minVD)))'
.END
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where is incorrect  please let me know ?
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How can I identify products solubilized in high boiling solvents such as ethylene glycol, DMF and DMSO using GCMS?
products are phenolics.
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Given you have organic solvents with very broad solvent compatibility/miscibility (DMSO, DMF), using conventional Liquid/Liquid extraction to solvate your phenolic by-products in an aqueous phase may not work.  Therefore, if possible, can you back up and use solvents with less hydrogen bonding solubility parameter capability in the isolation of your products so that then you could perform a LLE with water and go back to you GC/MS for identification.   Methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) may work as a substitute for DMF/DMSO.  An interesting batch removal process of phenol like compounds from MIBK was published by Palma, Paiva, Zilli, and Converti in Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification, Volume 46, Issue 8, August 2007, pages 764-768.  Alternatively, as you said, HPLC/MS/MS (tandem mass spec) may be your best bet.
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In detecting Multivariate outliers, many researchers recommend using Mahalanobis Distance (MD) technique. In SPSS, such function is readily available by assigning the Dependent Variable, and Independent Variables via regression analysis tool (Regression > Linear > Save > tick Mahalanobis). An output of MD scores will appear (MAH_1). Another new variable that reveals the upper-tail probabilities of MD is created by computing 1-CDF.CHISQ(mah_1, X). X refers to the number of predictors. Any cases with values below 0.001 indicate multivariate outliers.
In my case, I am testing 3 continuous Independent Variables, and 5 continuous Moderator Variables. The specific moderation tool used is the Conditional Process Analysis SPSS-Macro Model 1 (Hayes, 2013). My question is, what is the number of predictors (X) that I should use in running the MD test as described above to discover Multivariate outliers? Other than IVs, should I take into account moderators in the number of predictors?   
IMHO, moderators are considered as predictors that change the effect of IV on DV. But at the same time, there is a clear distinction between the effects of IV and MV (interaction), and as such MV is not a main predictor of interest (in predicting DV).
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I agree with Mehmet. The model is symmetric, statistically there is no difference which variables are treated as moderators or as predictors. Moderator variables are predictor variables. 
Regards,  Karin 
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I am going to find the magnitude of 3 way interaction. I read A.F Hayes's book "Introduction to mediation, moderation and conditional process analysis", wherein I found the results of his sample data which is also run by me through hierarchical regression method. The question is that A.F Hayes uses the unstandardized beta of step 3 of hierarchical regression while in many articles all steps of that are used. Would you help me in clarifying the mystery. The reference file containing data is attached.
Thanks.
Muhammad Imran Khan
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Dear Muhammad,
First this:
A three way interaction. That means that there are at least three predictors.
You must also include the two way interactions; there are three of them.
And the three way interaction itself. And an intercept.
That is:8 parameters. This means at least (really at least!) 80 cases.
The analysis:
you should standardize the interval level predictors and the dependent variable. Do not standardize categorical or dichotomous predictors.
The standardisation makes interpretation easier; very low score is -2, mean score=0 and very high score is 2.
Then you compute all the interactions.
Next all 7 variables go in the regression, together. And than you check the (unstandardized, the B's) coefficients, for size and significance.
(Why would you do a hierarchic regression when your researchquestion postulates this moderation model? All the incomplete models will have a bias.)
To interpret the effects of the regression you write down the regression equation (with (all!) the found coefficients) and you fill in values for the variables.
And there are tests to see where (for which values of moderators)  the combined effects are significantly different.
Take care,
Pierre
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I want to model behavior Shape memory material (SMA) in Abaqus .diagram stress-strain material is like this picture. This graph is adiabatic condition (because is high rate loading like earthquake) and is simple multilinear model for theses material. Point A, B, C, and E is defined. Temperature changes between Ts and Tf .slope branch EA is equal elastic modulus Austenite (67000Mpa) and slope branch BD is Martensite (26300Mpa). Elastic modulus changing in process analysis .Ts is start Temperature .Tf is related with effective specific heat, specific entropy at the reference state. Temperature defined in each branch graph. Equations of stress and strain are according to Temperature.in figure 3D  point 0 ,1,2 is shape memory effect (Temperature is Ms<T<As )and point 5,6,7,8,9 is pseudo-elasticity (Temperature is T>Af )
1- How can I define behavior SMA in abaquse?
2- How I define plastic behavior this material in abaquse?
3-Do these materials should be defined failure?
4-what is hardening of the material in abaquse?
5-what kind of analysis for this material should be defined in abaquse?
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Hi Mr Dr Mig
I have question about link Abaquse  to Fortran. I am using from cod of Fortran for behavior material SMA . I have Subroutine from SMA behavior in Fortran.(file SMA_UM) I do not understand the process, but I read this Subroutine.   do you  have information about the Algorithm step by step  SMA behavior ?
thank you so much
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I'm doing research related to Lean Construction, and I had problems in the processing and analysis of data. My research was to determine the extent to which the implementation of lean construction on EPC projects. in this study I used a research instrument such as a questionnaire. I want to know the assessment by the respondent to the application of Lean Construction in EPC projects they work on. The end result of this research is the principles of Lean Construction that has little value or rarely applied. In a study like this assessment whether I need to use validity Test for the questionnaire?
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Normally EPC projects are conducted strictly based on engineering standards and codes like API, ASME, BSI, etc. Therefore project managements are highly regulated and the work flow complies with very specific details described in those codes and standards. So it is not a surprise that EPC contractors do not pay attention to solutions like Lean Construction. Nevertheless, your research topic is interesting and I do not believe that you are going to require any kind of validity test.
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I have performed an experiment on unconventional machining with 4 levels and 4 factors. Can anyone please guide me what is the suitable process for analysis and optimization??
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May I ask why you dont want to use classical Regression-DoE (RSM) using a D-optimal experimental design?
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I am ongoing to complete my research based on survey. I want to test whether a variable (dependent) has the positive relation with another variable (independent). I have 6 independent variables and one dependent variable, and there are 3 questions under each variable.  Totally 21 questions for 7 avarialbes. The answers for each question is likert scale (1=strong disagree, 2=disagree, 3=Neutural, 4=agree, 5=strong agree). I have collect the 101 effective responses.
According to past literature study, some researchers used PLS method for the analysis. But I have little knowdge on statistical analysis.  could you kindly please how to process this analysis from likert scale data to the data for PLS?
By the way, one stupid quesiton, what is the" loading" how to calcualte the "loading" for each questions?
Really appreciate your kind advice!
Best wishes
crane
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Based on your question "I want to test whether a variable (dependent) has the positive relation with another variable (independent)." collapse each of your clusters of three variables and undertake a bivariate correlation against the matching dependent variable for each case. Observe 1. whether there is correlation and 2. If correlation is present whether positive or negative. You could also collapse all independent variables and all dependent variables and undertake a bivariate correlation between all collapsed dependent and all collapsed independent variables. Again observe 1. whether there is correlation and 2. If correlation is present whether positive or negative
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Dear all,
This is more of a survey than a question. I stumbled across the Julia language (julialang.org), developed at the MIT as a faster, more flexible and open source alternative for languages such as MATLAB, Python, R and others, when Dougles Bates announced that he would prefer Julia over R for further development of his linear-mixed effect modeling package.
How do you estimate the probability that Julia will replace well-established languages such as MATLAB, R or Python soon? Are you planning already on moving to Julia for teaching statistics instead of using R? Is there someone among you working already on Julia packages for the processing and analysis of EEG-, fMRI- or eye-movement-data? 
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Dear Sebastian.
I think we should let time decide, Julia is nice and fast but unstable and improving fast. . I personally use Python for most of my computation. I tried programming with Julia a bit and I think it could be a good rival for Python/R/Matlab/Octave but it takes time for Julia to get a big community and support like Python/Matlab.
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There are different causes for foaming in Amine absorber for gas sweetening in natural gas plants including: 1)heavy hydrocarbon accumulation, 2) solid particle , 3) antifoam problem. Do you think that the foaming due to these causes are different?
I want to monitor the absorber by the various measurements (flow, temperature, pressure).  Do root causes can be diagnosis based on measurements?
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Probably you have seen this paper before, but it won't hurt to share it here and even read it again. :) I believe it is one of the best references on amine units systematic troubleshooting:
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I know about Bland Altman techniques and the approach of looking at inter subject repeatability. I have 2GB of data and per subject I have at least 10 repeated observations.
How big should my sample be to give me a better understanding of the whole population, and in case of big data, are the techniques like Bland Altman still valid?
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You could easily look at the span of the properties of your data for each subject using bootstrapping (as developed by Efron and Tibshirani).
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I am interested in the analysis of process reliability in the workplace to uncover the production gaps and/or the unreliable processes that might exist in my organisation. I know that WinSmith Weibull software permits such an analysis, but are there any more effective tools/software other than Weibull that one can use? Also, how critical is it for operations management to conduct these types of process reliability checks to conduct the day to day quality control?
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How critical quality improvement is can be calculated to some degree. A few examples are How much waste is there, how much time is lost, how much product re-worked, how many customers are lost due to faulty products, how much more can you charge for higher quality products? The savings from improved quality can be quite high.
If you are looking at production, Curvaceous software is excellent. It provides insights into the best operating conditions and the interactions of them as well.
It is quite likely every thing done can be improved, from ordering, through paperwork, through tracking, customer support, and shipping. A good starting place is asking everyone at the company, listening, and even offering rewards.