Science topic

Problem-Based Learning - Science topic

Instructional use of examples or cases to teach using problem-solving skills and critical thinking.
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I am proposing to develop a Extended MCQ question / Problem based learning question bank in the subject of Oral Pathology/Oral Microbiology as well as Oral Histology/Tooth Morphology.
Anyone interested in contributing can message me
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Thank you for the suggestion professor.
Iam interested with you
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Given the fact that constructionism and constructivism are theoretical frameworks, does the pedagogical model of problem based learning more closely align with the constructivist approach as opposed to the constructionist approach.
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Constructivism is a theory describing how learning regardless of whether learners are using their experiences to understand a lecture, it build critical thinking and PBL is a learning environment that embodies most of the principle that improve learning active, cooperative, getting feedback, tailored to student learning and to solve problems, both increase critical thinking in learning.
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With the increasing importance and implementation of computer applications in modern agriculture,
Should Agricultural universities make thier students sufficient in advanced computer knowledge or should they have depend only on pure computer scientists ??
Who will fill the gap between agriculture and computer ?
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Yes, it is necessary
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Several works have investigated which problems affect the work of a PBL group. Both students and tutors report that, among others, lack of commitment or motivation is one of the most frequent problem. Unfortunately, I could not find any peer-reviewed work which would investigate how tutors deal with this problem and which strategies are considered the most effective. Any suggestions?
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There are studies available comparing PBL and Non PBL
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Critical thinking skills are considered very important in our world with the great variety of information that we can find on the internet. Problem based learning requires critical skills to find the best solution to the ii-manufactured problem that is posed. How can we combine this learning with an educational environment that will be aided by technological means as Web 2.0 tools?
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I got some clear idea from Gracious Zinyeka points. Thanks for your wonderful discussion Maria Aggeliki Myriallaki and participation Santiago Peredo Parada Solomon Mengistie
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according to you what are Hot problems currentlyworld is facing? And what solutions you would suggest to solve them?
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  1. Now, I agree with prof. Madhukar Baburao Deshmukh.
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As a teacher, what is the best teaching method you prefer: Collaborative learning, problem-based learning, individual learning, video-based learning, games-based learning, etc. in the following teaching levels?
1) Higher education
2) Secondary level
3) Middle level
4) Primary level
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Actually , the method of education depends mainly on the nature of the subject, however, education that depends on creating a mode of interaction between students with each other and with the teacher and dependence on the practical side is the one who establishes a graduate with high skill and not relying on traditional patterns
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I have been looking at different types of inductive teaching for mathematics. These include inquiry-based, discovery, problem-based, project-based, case-based, just-in-time, and a hybrid of project and problem-based.
Is there an inductive teaching approach or curriculum that uses everyday topics and students learn the mathematics needed to understand different pieces of it? For example, a class is discussing gardening. So the students learn how to calculate area of their garden. Then they look at mixture problems (fertilizer and soil). Then they see how Fibonacci plays into petals and seed patterns.
It doesn't quite fit one of the inductive teachings exactly. I think it is a combination of several.
Who has done research on this? Who/what should I be looking for?
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Views differed on induction, so there are those who place it within the direct approach, and there are those who place it within the types of discovery, according to the role of both the teacher and the learner. For you, you can look for a discovery-based induction or a combination of several types of discovery.
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I am searching if any research has been done in a related field, especially in science education, in the context of disadvantaged youth.
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Daivd Rempel - Thank you for your question. The success of active learning and problem-based learning is dependant on several factors. 1) training of the tutors on facilitation of discussion in small groups, and mentoring programs of teachers and regular briefing/debriefing sessions for each PBL case. 2) The healthy atmosphere in the tutorials and how effective do students and tutors work effectively to maximise outcomes from PBL tutorials. 3) Design of the curriculum and the PBL program (to build a meaningful hybrid PBL design). 4) Design of the PBL case, the template used, the cognitive elements in the design and the tutor guides of each case. 5) effective management of the PBL program and 6) Annual evaluation, and review of the PBL program, and continuous improvement of the program, and regular research on the program and publications (standards of the program).
Therefore, from my experience over 20 years in PBL and active learning worldwide, we cannot generalise and say any PBL program will end with the same planned outcomes. I came across programs that have cracks in all these elements. Do you think that these programs (looks like houses that may collapse at any time) are of educational benefit? However, maintenance and presence of experts and leaders can make these elements at optimum standards and students could achieve several outcomes including cognitive skills, reasoning, application of basic sciences to clinical situations (cases), and enhancement of communication skills and handling uncertainty.
I have published widely in this area, and you can find my publications on ResearchGate. Also, you could read my book Navigating Problem-Based Learning, published by Elsevier.
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Problem-Based Learning (PBL) has been used in medical and health-related education for over 40 years. Team-based Learning (TBL) has been tried in some schools over the last 10-15 years, one would wonder about any study that has shown specific advantages of TBL over PBL or any other methods used in teaching/learning in higher education
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Thank you all for your responses and the discussion.
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Learning through different means will lead learners to gain knowledge at different levels and shape their attitude and practice especially beneficial in nursing education and clinical practice. Is there any difference or similarity between Problem-based Learning (PBL) and Challenge-based Learning (CBL) in nursing or health education?
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I really appriciate the response by Azer sir.
Just want to add, CBL is a subset of PBL and it is real life. There are differences between these and is well summarized in the following poster.
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I explained in a forum that PBL is a self-directed learning. However, some of the academicians did not agree by saying that tutors intervene in the PBL delivery process. I still belive PBL as one of the students-led learning process.
What do you think?
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Further to my earlier response, I recommend reading my book "Navigating Problem-Based Learning. Churchill Livingstone, El Saviour, 2008"
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There are a lot of problems in medicine that needs the newest technologies in computer science fields like Machine Learning and Deep Learning to solve them.
Can anyone mention some of these problems that are unsolved till now?
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Let's start with a field that I know the best: biosignals processing, clarification, and prediction. There are many unresolved problems like
* Prediction of arrhythmias
* Prediction of epileptic seizures
* Reconstruction of physiological interdependencies of various physiological processes using biosignals.
* Reconstruction of physiological paths in the brain from biosignals.
* Assessing the health condition of people using biosignals.
We can do the following research
* Data mining for disease-genome dependencies from available databases.
* Prediction of disease spreads using internet searches.
* Assessment of the population health using internet searches.
* Cross AI methods with deep knowledge of complex systems theory and apply it to medicine -- this is my area of research.
* Study and predict drug interactions and side effects in patients. This will save a lot of unnecessary suffering in those using medical drugs.
* The above can be supported by an active search through all available data for possible, future drug interactions prior to their application to patients.
* Such research can help medical doctors to avoid deadly or highly damaging drug interactions. Each patient reacts differently to the same drugs! We need to know why and especially when it happens!
* Start development of advanced AI methods tailored towards the needs of bio-medicine.
All the above depends on how reliable databases of biosignals, medical records, bio-imaging, laboratory results, and many other database build.
When you want to have successful research in the field of AI, perfect databases that are open-access are a must. We have an extreme shortage of those databases. You can build a very successful carrier by building such a database(s). :-)
This is just a short list of all possibilities. :-)
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This is an invitation to my training workshop. I want to open a discussion about writing PBL cases. Did you share in writing case scenarios in your program/course? What was your experience? What are the areas do you feel you need further training? This is an opportunity to share your experience and ask questions and also share your responses to issues raised. A pleasure to hear from you.
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Dear Paul. Thank you for your comments. We have a range of resources we recommend for PBL. Among these are my papers and my book titled, Navigating Problem-Based Learning. Published by Churchill Livingstone: Elsevier, 2008, I enclose the cover page.
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There are many Medical School Curriculum, either classic, or Team-Based Learning (TBL) or Problem Based Learning (PBL) ...and each school try to do it best for own students...according to your opinion which one you think is more interesting for the students with good feedback outcome?? Thanks
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Thanks for all your wonderful opinions ...I will take them in my consideration...
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Is it possible to utilize Problem-Based Learning strategy in teaching the concepts of classification of organisms?
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Take a look at the curriculum described in this article:
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- I am currently doing a research that mainly tests the influence of problem-based learning system on self-directed learning readiness of medical students. Two groups of medical students (PBL, nonPBL) will be identified and their SDLR will be measured. I think that unpaired t-test is most appropriate for such issue, am I right?
Also, in the same research, I am going to correlate SDLR to the academic year of the participants, and in this case, three groups (year 1, 3, 5) will be identified. I think that ANOVA and post hoc are most appropriate, am I right?
Also, I am going to correlate SDLR with academic performance (grades), but I'm not sure which is most appropriate, Pearson's r maybe?
hopefully someone answers soon.
Thanks in advance.
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Yes, if the distributions of your scores are all nornal, all the tests you considered are suitable.
However, as the scores of your sample may not be normally distributed nor you can assume the scores of your population are normally distributed, I would suggest you to report both the results of the parametric tests (i.e. the ones you considered) and the non-parametric tests (i.e. Mann–Whitney U, Kruskal–Wallis test and Spearman r).
If the p-values of both parametric and non-parametic tests (say, t-test and Mann–Whitney U) are on the same side (say, both <0.05), you can give a definite answer. However, if they are inconsitant, you should give a conservative answer. However, what is "the conservative answer" is sistuational, it idoes not always mean "not significant".
Anyway, you are on the right track, no need to worry at the moment.
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STEM was the main topic at the 2019 ASTE international conference, with at least 8 posters, 27 oral presentations and 3 workshops promoting STEM classrooms, STEM instruction/teaching, STEM lessons, STEM summer camps, STEM clubs, and STEM schools without providing an operational conceptualization or definition of what STEM is. Some oral presentations advocated for disciplines integration, but the example provided were mainly "inquiry based" and "Engineering Design Process" practices which in fact did not differed from the overly used, poorly conceptualized and epistemologically incongruent hands on/minds off type of classroom activities.
Therefore, it is worth considering:
(1) Why do we call it STEM if it does not differ from practices being implemented for decades (e.g. inquiry, hands on activities)?
(2) What benefits (if any) can this STEMification mentality/trend bring to science education?
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STEM was first conceived as a collective concept by the National Science Foundation in the USA about 30 years ago out of concerns for the quality of undergraduate education , leading to the establishment of Project Kaleidoscope (Elrod, 2010). This and other American funded initiatives have tended to focus on individual teaching enhancements based on the premise that many evidence-based individual improvements will lead to a collective change. However, this has generally not worked out the way these funders originally anticipated.
American interest in STEM education increased rapidly following the publication of Friedman’s (2005) analysis that China and India were on course to overtake the USA in the global economy by surpassing their STEM educational output. Subsequently, other Western countries have followed America’s lead, such as the UK which ran a National HE STEM Programme (2013) from 2009 to 2012. STEM educational reforms are therefore mainly driven by economic rather that pedagogical concerns, leading Fairweather (2008: 6) to describe them as, “solutions in search of a problem”.
References
Elrod, S. (2010) Project Kaleidoscope 2.0: Leadership for twenty-first-century STEM education. Liberal Education, 96(4), pp. 24-33.
Fairweather, J. (2008) Linking evidence and promising practices in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) undergraduate education. Washington, DC: Board of Science Education, National Research Council, The National Academies.
Friedman, T. (2005) The world is flat: A brief history of the twenty-first century. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
National HE STEM Programme (2013) Enabling the HE sector to engage with schools, enhance curricula, support graduates and develop the workforce, http://www.hestem.ac.uk/.
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We mostly transfer our knowledge to students by frontal lecture. We do so over 30 hours a week and know that this very efficient method is less advantageous the more we use it as monodidactic. Therefore many educators the last 500 years postulated to reduce frontal lecture by 50 % and introduce knowledge transfer by other methodologies f.e. problem based learning and handorientated learning and and and. Some of them showed better learning results with reduced quantity of knowledge transfer. We could proof in agreement with results of Carl Wieman, USA and Cnd that the learning efficiency had risen by factor 2. But, and that is my question, we could not proof the storage of knowledge in short or long term memory dependent on learning methodology. Does anybody know published results on that question? Has anybody ideas how to answer this question scientifically? It would be great if you will answer here. Peter
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The optimum blend of lecture and problem based methodology will be more effective as it requires listening and brain stroming.
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Thank you for all your contributions and I invite you to help us expand our current research that brings PBL as a knowledge building tool. Problem-based learning guides that the number of academics for a core discussion is 8 to 15 and because it is a methodology appropriate to the growth of scientific thinking our suggestion is that in the classrooms there are between 24 to 45 students. It seems like an excessive number, however I remember that the PBL will make the academic learn to make decision, where the construction of the thought is modulated by real, everyday experiences.
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I have found that the use of structured essays allows me to us problem based learning in a larger class. This helps with on-line classes as well.
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How do you evaluate the problem-based learning (PBL) tutors? Do you, in your school, ask students to assess their PBL tutors using a standardised form? Or your school prefer not to use this type of evaluation? If you not, what other assessment do you have in your school to evaluate the performance of PBL tutors?
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In my home country, education assessment and evaluation processes generally include students opinion. This applies to all tutors and teachers.
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Not just in tutorial one, where students need to identify problems, generate hypothesees and rank each hypotheses, but in tutorial two, some students prepare their learning issues, however they find it difficult to contribute to the discussion or justify their views.
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Two closely related areas offering research and theoretical insights here, I suggest, are those concerning the topics of self-efficacy and of cognitive mindset. Prominent among contributors to the former is Barry J. Zimmerman, and to the latter, Carol Dweck. Mindset theory differentiates learners whose behaviour is governed by a "performance" mjndset (tending towards obtaining social approval for their actions) or, contrastingly, by a "growth" mindset (motivated to seek ways of improving their current knowledge and proficiency level, perhaps beyond accepted educational principles and regardless of social responses). Self-efficacy - strength of one's conviction that one's actions will be, or eventually prove, successful - is seen by Zimmerman to be dependent upon capacity for cognitive self-regulation in learning-situations, that is, one's responsiveness to, and productive use-making of, task-relevant feedback for steering performance and learning. Both perspectives predict that the kind of feedback to which individuals respond in learning-situations - task-relevant versus social - will have a critical impact upon their readiness to participate in them.
Another insightful explanatory perspective is that of ideomotor theory, positing the necessity of being able to couple an appropriate motor-act to a conceptualized intention to achieve a certain, perceived corresponding effect in one's environment. Here, obviously, appropriate motor-acts are those of speech. Ability to participate in a discussion is dependent not merely upon comprehending the subject and immediate interpreting of the content of other participants' utterances (often ones contributed much earlier), both requiring near-instantaneous memory-retrieval, but equally upon alacrity at accessing suitable words for contributing one's own thoughts as well as at converting the accessed words into motor speech sequences. Contributing will obviously be undermined if one has difficulty imagining suitable words or generally in articulating them sequentially (e.g. as per stammerers). In addition, ideomotor theory has spawned extensive research investigating effects of individuals' focus of attention upon their motor performance and rate of improvement. Individuals who tend to focus on imagining the external goal they are intending to attain are found to perform and improve better than those who tend to focus on trying to produce an effective action for attaining it. This general finding, too, may apply as regards proficiency in articulating thoughts in demanding, formal contexts of speaking, e.g. in an academic discussion, in teaching or responding to audience questions during a lecture.
Other potent determinants of self-efficacy include the individual's general background regarding learning-contexts and the opportunities made possible thereby for furthering their proficiency as communicators. The extensive study headed by Bloom (1985) revealed that expert performers had typically received exceptional levels of parental support throughout childhood and adolescence, providing, among other factors, access to highly expert teachers in their domain, frequent experiences of performing to, and with, others, and opportunities for interacting with like peers. All such factors may be reasonably assumed to promote individual's self-efficacy as communicators of their intentions, and would have constituted for them normal phenomena in their ongoing life. By contrast, the less-privileged majority may grow up in a background of indifference towards their personal accomplishments and potential for growth, exposure to teaching-styles that foster dependency on being told what to think and do, and to ridicule from peers and teachers when they fail to deliver what is expected of them. Acquiring proficiency in articulating one's thoughts requires long-term practice and abundant opportunity for learning by trial-and-error that are often prevented in such an upbringing. Given that, readiness to contribute to a tutorial discussion may be influenced more by individuals' personality traits and personal cognitive style as determinants of self-efficacy than by anything else.
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My current research looks also into the relationship between information and knowledge. Thinking of the information pyramid. Data > Information > Knowledge > Wisdom. I'm searching for (fundamental or recent) literature that examines students behavior to transfer information to knowledge.
Any suggestions?
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I found the best definitions of 3 concepts in InfoSense, a book by noted mathematician Keith Devlin. In short: data=code, information=message and knowledge=action. He provides an example to demonstrate this: grey clouds=code, message=it will rain, action=bring an umbrella
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All the stakeholders effectively attribute towards curriculum designing, integration and problem based learning methodology.
What effectively students can contribute as stakeholders?
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Dear Faraz,
in my experience one important contribution from students comes from their feedback on the PBL experience - see for example this article:
Scholkmann, A. (2017). “What I learn is what I like.” How do students in ICT-supported problem-based learning rate the quality of the learning experience, and how does it relate to the acquisition of competences? Education and Information Technologies. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-017-9629-7.
I have alsohad very good experiences with integrationg students' views on PBL by integrating more senior students as PBL--tutors for younger studtends, and discussing their observations and experiences with them.
I've not heard about procedures for students more actively contributing to the PBL-curriculum, for example through submission of PBL-cases. However, I would be thrilled to read about such examples, if there are any!
Kind regards,
Antonia
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In what way can Project-Based Learning foster students' learning? Do we have any evidence from higher education research to support any such impact on learning?
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Thanks Alline for your detailed response and exploring a range of issues. However, I am asking about evidence from research that showed differences in the impact on learning when project-based learning method is used vs. other methods. I am aware of thousands of articles covering each of these methods. Thank you again. Prof S Azer
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Suggest ways to effectively implement problem based teaching learning to large class.
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I agree with the above mentioned answers. dividing the students into smaller groups will help them share their ideas and knowledge and gain more skills about how to work in groups and respect each other's opinions. you need to play the facilitator's role in which you assist the students and provide them with clear instructions and support them in their work so it is more students-centered classroom.
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You need to be specific in your research. Your area of discipline is Mass Communication. You can focus on communication education 
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not answer this quest
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I am in the process of using Maxqda in creating codes and tagging survey responses to these codes in the code system. This is for my current research on how senior high students learn in problem based learning. I want to ask if I could actually tag a particular student response to different codes in the code system of the software? Or there is a sense of exclusivity in tagging a particular response to just only one code? Thanks!
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If I understand your question, you want to use different codes or tags for the same student response.  If that is what you want to do, you can perfectly use as many codes or tags for the same response or text.