Science topic

# Probability - Science topic

The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.

Publications related to Probability (10,000)

Sorted by most recent

In this paper, we investigate the relation between topological pressure of free semigroup actions for non-compact sets proposed by Xiao and Ma (J Dynam Differ Equ, 2021) and measure-theoretic pressure of Borel probability measure. For any Borel probability measure, this paper defines lower and upper measure-theoretic pressures. Moreover, we give a...

We prove a rate of convergence for the N-particle approximation of a second-order partial differential equation in the space of probability measures, like the Master equation or Bellman equation of mean-field control problem under common noise. The rate is of order 1/N for the pathwise error on the solution v and of order 1/ √ N for the L 2-error o...

Analysis of multiple secondary outcomes in a clinical trial leads to an increased probability of at least one false significant result among all secondary outcomes studied. In this paper, we question the notion that that if no multiplicity adjustment has been applied to multiple secondary outcome analyses in a clinical trial, then they must necessa...

Polygenic scores can identify individuals with high disease risk based on inborn DNA variation. We explore their potential to enrich clinical trials by identifying individuals based on higher risk of disease (‘prognostic enrichment’), or increased probability of benefit (‘predictive enrichment’).

En este trabajo se presenta los resultados de un estudio cualitativo que tiene como
propósito caracterizar el conocimiento de profesores de matemática en formación inicial de la Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica (UNA) sobre la noción clásica de probabilidad. Se proponen indicadores para caracterizar el conocimiento relacionado con el Knowledge of...

Let w∈F2\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$w \in F_2$$\end{document} be a word and let m and n be two positive integers. We say that a finite group G has t...

Tournaments can be used to model a variety of practical scenarios including sports competitions and elections. A natural notion of strength of alternatives in a tournament is a generalized king: an alternative is said to be a k - king if it can reach every other alternative in the tournament via a directed path of length at most k . In this paper,...

This paper provides an experimental test of stochastic choice models of decisions. Models that admit Fechnerian structure are tested through the repeated pairwise choice problems. Results refute the Fechner hypothesis that characterizing the probability of selecting a given prospect increases in how strongly it is preferred to alternative choices....

We consider the population Wasserstein barycenter problem for random probability measures supported on a finite set of points and generated by an online stream of data. This leads to a complicated stochastic optimization problem where the objective is given as an expectation of a function given as a solution to a random optimization problem. We emp...

The aim of this paper is to develop a new de-neutrosophication technique for single-valued triangular neutrosophic (SVTrN) numbers using the method based on probability density function of the corresponding truth, an indeterminacy and falsity membership functions. Using the proposed ranking technique a methodology for solving neutrosophic linear pr...

Let X1,…,Xn\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$X_1,\ldots ,X_n$$\end{document} be an i.i.d. sample from symmetric stable distribution with stability paramet...

We consider the M-neighbor approximation in the problem of one-qubit pure state transfer along the N-node zigzag and alternating spin chains governed by the XXZ-Hamiltonian with the dipoledipole interaction. We show that always M > 1, i.e., the nearest neighbor approximation is not applicable to such interaction. Moreover, only all-node interaction...

Let M be a compact, unit volume, Riemannian manifold with boundary. We study the homology of a random Čech‐complex generated by a homogeneous Poisson process in M. Our main results are two asymptotic threshold formulas, an upper threshold above which the Čech complex recovers the kth homology of M with high probability, and a lower threshold below...

Recent research on return-sweep saccades has improved our understanding of eye movements when reading paragraphs. However, these saccades, which take our gaze from the end of one line to the start of the next line, have been studied only within the context of silent reading. Articulatory demands and the coordination of the eye–voice span (EVS) at l...

We provide a short proof for the twisted multiplicativity property of the operator-valued S-transform.

Hawkes processes have been widely studied, but their many probability properties are still difficult to obtain, including their moments. In the paper, we shall give the moments for two classes of linear Hawkes processes with Gamma decay kernel and compound Gamma decay kernel functions by employing the method proposed by Cui et al. (2020), and the r...

A two-step model for generating random polytopes is considered. For parameters d, m, and p, the first step is to generate a simple polytope P whose facets are given by m uniform random hyperplanes tangent to the unit sphere in , and the second step is to sample each vertex of P independently with probability p and let Q be the convex hull of the sa...

We consider condensation measures of the form P:=13P∘S1-1+13P∘S2-1+13ν\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$P:=\frac{1}{3} P\circ S_1^{-1}+ \frac{1}{3} P\circ...

Reciprocity characterizes the information exchange between users in a network, and some empirical studies have revealed that social networks have a high proportion of reciprocal edges. Classical directed preferential attachment (PA) models, though generating scale-free networks, may give networks with low reciprocity. This points out one potential...

The paper considers urn schemes in which several urns can be involved. Simplified formulas are proposed that allow direct calculation of probabilities without the use of elements combinatorics.

The report deals with the topical issue of risk-based thinking in the process approach
in the quality management system. An approach to the calculation of risks with the determination of the probability of their occurrence on the basis of the IDEF0 functional model is proposed.

We reprove in an easier way a result of Brian Clarke: the completion of the space of Riemannian metrics of a compact, orientable smooth manifold with respect to the $L^2$-distance is CAT$(0)$. In particular we show that this completion is isometric to the space of $L^2$-maps from a standard probability space to a fixed CAT$(0)$ space.

The article is devoted to the expansions of iterated Ito stochastic integrals based on generalized multiple Fourier series converging in the sense of norm in the space L2([t, T ]^k), k ∈ N. The method of generalized multiple Fourier series for expansion and mean-square approximation of iterated Ito stochastic integrals of arbitrary multiplicity k (...

The World Heritage Site of Susa constantly encounters challenges in the development and expansion of Shush city. In 2019, a salvage archaeological project was undertaken to counter the construction of a transportation underpass in the vicinity of world property. The results showed that this section was related to the industrial activities of the Pa...

This paper develops a combinatorial description of the extreme points of the core of a necessity measure on a finite space. We use the ingredients of Dempster-Shafer theory to characterize a necessity measure and the extreme points of its core in terms of the Möbius inverse, as well as an interpretation of the elements of the core as obtained throu...

The EMML and SMART algorithms minimize KL(y, P x) and KL(P x, y), respectively, over nonnegative vectors x; for a > 0 and b > 0, KL(a, b). = a log a/b + b − a is the cross-entropy, or Kullback-Leibler, distance. To guard against sensitivity to noise in the data vector y we regularize. Convergent iterative algorithms are presented for minimizing A(x...

This paper studies the allocation of voting weights in a committee representing groups of different sizes. We introduce a partial ordering of weight allocations based on stochastic comparison of social welfare. We show that when the number of groups is sufficiently large, this ordering asymptotically coincides with the total ordering induced by the...

The detection of target species is of paramount importance in ecological studies, with implications for environmental management and natural resource conservation planning. This is usually done by sampling the area: the species is detected if the presence of at least one individual is detected in the samples. Green & Young (Green & Young 1993 Sampl...

The number of events observed in neutrino telescopes depends on the neutrino fluxes in the Earth, their absorption while crossing the Earth and their interaction in the detector. In this paper, we investigate the impact of the QCD dynamics at high energies on the energy dependence of the average inelasticity and angular dependence of the absorption...

We study independent long-range percolation on $\mathbb{Z}^d$ where the vertices $u$ and $v$ are connected with probability 1 for $\|u-v\|_\infty=1$ and with probability $1-e^{-\beta \int_{u+\left[0,1\right)^d} \int_{u+\left[0,1\right)^d} \frac{1}{\|x-y\|^{2d}} d x d y } \approx \frac{\beta}{\|u-v\|^{2d}}$ for $\|u-v\|_\infty\geq 2$, where $\beta \...

We study independent long-range percolation on $\mathbb{Z}^d$ for all dimensions $d$, where the vertices $u$ and $v$ are connected with probability 1 for $\|u-v\|_\infty=1$ and with probability $p(\beta,\{u,v\})=1-e^{-\beta \int_{u+\left[0,1\right)^d} \int_{v+\left[0,1\right)^d} \frac{1}{\|x-y\|^{2d}} d x d y } \approx \frac{\beta}{\|u-v\|^{2d}}$ f...

The 2-particle coalescence problem that is considered in this paper involves two identical particles each having radius a/2, that isotropically diffuse in arbitrary spatial dimension d with the same Diffusion constant D/2, and coalesce into one particle when they meet.
The Survival Probability for this coalescence reaction is in the form of an int...

In this paper, we introduce actions of fusion algebras on unital $C^*$-algebras, and define amenability for fusion algebraic actions.
Motivated by S.\ Neshveyev et al.'s work, considering the co-representation ring of a compact quantum group as a fusion algebra, we define the canonical fusion algebraic (for short, CFA) form of a discrete quantum gr...

Rank and Yank' is practiced in many organizations. This paper is concerned with the condtions for none to be whipped by `Rank and Yank' when the evaluation data under each criterion are assumed to be ordinal rankings and the majority rule is used. Two sufficient conditions are set forth of which the first one formulates the alternatives indifferenc...

Let $k$ be any positive integer and $G$ a compact (Hausdorff) group. Let $\mf{np}_k(G)$ denote the probability that $k+1$ randomly chosen elements $x_1,\dots,x_{k+1}$ satisfy $[x_1,x_2,\dots,x_{k+1}]=1$. We study the following problem: If $\mf{np}_k(G)>0$ then, does there exist an open nilpotent subgroup of class at most $k$? The answer is positive...

Using the age-structure formalism, we definitely establish connections between semi-Markov processes and the dynamics of open quantum systems that satisfy the Markov quantum master equations. A generalized Feynman-Kac formula of the semi-Markov processes is also proposed. In addition to inheriting all statistical properties possessed by the piecewi...

The halfspace depth of a $d$-dimensional point $x$ with respect to a finite (or probability) Borel measure $\mu$ in $\mathbb{R}^d$ is defined as the infimum of the $\mu$-masses of all closed halfspaces containing $x$. A natural question is whether the halfspace depth, as a function of $x \in \mathbb{R}^d$, determines the measure $\mu$ completely. I...

In this short note we consider a graph process recently introduced by Frieze, Krivelevich, and Michaeli. In their model, the edges of the complete graph K_n are ordered uniformly at random, and are then revealed consecutively to a player called Builder. At every round, Builder must decide if they accept the edge proposed at this round or not. We pr...

Remixed Eulerian numbers are a polynomial $q$-deformation of Postnikov's mixed Eulerian numbers. They arose naturally in previous work by the authors concerning the permutahedral variety and subsume well-known families of polynomials such as $q$-binomial coefficients and Garsia--Remmel's $q$-hit numbers. We study their combinatorics in more depth....

In this work, we characterize the outage probability (OP) of an intelligent reflecting surface (IRS) assisted multi-user multiple-input-single-output (MU-MISO) communication system. Using a two-step approximation method, we approximate the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) for any downlink user by a Log-Normal random variable. The impa...

In this paper, we continue the investigation of quantum Markov states (QMS) and define their mean entropies. Such entropies are explicitly computed under certain conditions. The present work takes a huge leap forward at tackling one of the most important open problems in quantum probability which concerns the calculations of mean entropies of quant...

Paper highlights the previous work on web service discovery and techniques; also describes the proposed work for automated web service discovery with combination of different approaches. The approaches enable users to form queries and to search and discover the services based on different requirements. The proposed system uses methods such as proba...

We compare the performance of cartel penalties that are proportional to a cartel’s revenue and cartel penalties that are proportional to the difference between the cartel price and the competitive price: the overcharge. Prior literature has shown that when the probability of cartel detection does not depend on the cartel price, penalties that are b...

Rhacocleis poneli is an alien species, increasing its range in Aquitaine. It has been discovered in 2021 in the Béarn area, green waste (ornementals and substrate) appearing as the most probable introduction vector.

Noise radars have the same mathematical description as a type of quantum radar known as quantum two-mode squeezing radar. Although their physical implementations are very different, this mathematical similarity allows us to analyze them collectively. We may consider the two types of radars as forming a single class of radars, called noise-type rada...

No âmbito da saúde, há um intenso debate no que concerne ao financiamento do sistema público de saúde e, particularmente, às medidas de incentivo fiscal para contratação de planos privados de saúde. O presente estudo aborda o tema do ponto de vista econômico, analisando se o subsídio fiscal possibilitaria economias ao sistema público que excedam o...

Zusammenfassung: Die azetabuläre Dysplasie ist eine Pathomorphologie des Hüftgelenks, die mit Hüftschmerzen, Instabilität und Arthrose in Verbindung gebracht wird. Anatomisch gesehen handelt es sich bei der Dysplasie um eine dreidimensionale, volumetrische und flächenbezogene Minderüberdachung, die anhand des Ausmaßes und der Lokalisation der Minde...

SINTÉSIS DE PROBABILIDAD E INTRODUCCIÓN A PROCESOS ESTOCÁSTICOS

Para un correcto análisis de los recursos hídricos es necesario conocer de una manera precisa las precipitaciones de una zona, esto permitirá realizar aplicaciones con altos niveles de confiabilidad en cuanto a la cantidad de agua que se tenga en una cuenca hidrográfica. Las series suelen ser de varios años por lo que es muy probable que por fallas...

Il est fortement inquiétant que les grandes économies dont les États-Unis se dirigent vers une récession accompagnée de turbulences financières en cascades. Faudrait il craindre que des facteurs ayant occasionné les bouleversements des années 1970 et 2008 se mettent en jeu et entrainent les grandes économies mondiales vers des catastrophes financiè...

Because the asset value of a private company does not observable except in quarterly reports, the structural model has not been developed for a private company. For this reason, this paper attempt to develop the Merton's structural model for the private company by using the dividend discount model (DDM). In this paper, we obtain closed--form formul...

This paper considers hiding messages in overt transmissions with a full-duplex receiver, which emits artificial noise to secure its transmission connection while a transmitter opportunistically sends a covert message to a covert user. The warden’s uncertainties in decoding the overt message and artificial-noise-received power are exploited to hide...

The entropic dynamics (ED) approach to quantum mechanics is ideally suited to address the problem of measurement because it is based on entropic and Bayesian methods of inference that have been designed to process information and data. The approach succeeds because ED achieves a clear-cut separation between ontic and epistemic elements: positions a...

Given a permutation σ$$ \sigma $$, its corresponding binary search tree is obtained by recursively inserting the values σ(1),…,σ(n)$$ \sigma (1),\dots, \sigma (n) $$ into a binary tree so that the label of each node is larger than the labels of its left subtree and smaller than the labels of its right subtree. In this article, we study the height o...

To implement remote control operations in quantum networks, two schemes for the multi-hop quantum operation teleportation are proposed by using different partially entangled states. One is to adopt high-level partially Bell states as quantum channels, the other is to use high-level partially GHZ-Bell states. By comparing the two schemes, it is foun...

A Borel probability measure μ with compact support on Rd is called spectral measure if there exists a discrete set Λ⊂Rd such that EΛ:={e2πi⟨λ,x⟩:λ∈Λ} forms an orthonormal basis of L2(μ). In this paper, we first study the spectrality of a class of general Moran measures on R. Suppose that pn≥2 and {(pn,Bn,Ln)}n=1∞ is a sequence of Hadamard triples....

The most general Probability Density Function for calculating the probability of events of a bernoulli-distributed variable for any variable-intensity process when the events rate function is known.

En este estudio se caracteriza, cómo algunas de las principales orientaciones curriculares a nivel internacional abordan la estadística y la probabilidad en Educación Infantil y Educación Primaria. Para ello, en primer lugar, se analiza la presencia explícita de la estadística y la probabilidad en las orientaciones curriculares; en segundo lugar, s...

We examine the possibility of artificial Hawking radiation by proposing a non-PT-symmetric weakly pseudo-Hermitian two-band model containing a tilting parameter by pursuing Weyl semimetal blackhole analogy. We determine the tunnelling probability using such a Hamiltonian through the event horizon that acts as a classically forbidden barrier.

Efficient sampling of many-dimensional and multimodal density functions is a task of great interest in many research fields. We describe an algorithm that allows parallelizing inherently serial Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling by partitioning the space of the function parameters into multiple subspaces and sampling each of them independentl...

We consider rooted subgraphs in random graphs, that is, extension counts such as (i) the number of triangles containing a given vertex or (ii) the number of paths of length three connecting two given vertices. In 1989, Spencer gave sufficient conditions for the event that, with high probability, these extension counts are asymptotically equal for a...

In this paper, we develop local expansions for the ratio of the centered matrix-variate T density to the centered matrix-variate normal density with the same covariances. The approximations are used to derive upper bounds on several probability metrics (such as the total variation and Hellinger distance) between the corresponding induced measures....

We consider the asymptotic behavior of the infimal values and the statistical estimators of the solutions to a general stochastic optimization problem. We establish the epi-convergence of the performance criteria of approximate problems when the approximate probability laws, obtained by sampling the values of the random variable, converge weakly an...

Let ([n],d) be a metric space with diameter Δ and with average distance r̄\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$\bar {r}$\end{document}, where [n] ≡{1,2,…,n}....

This article attempts to refute the generally accepted view that Jan Wojciech (Albert) Łubieński, Pantler of Sieradz, was the patron of Piotr Baryka,, the author of the comedy Z chłopa król (The Peasant Become King), first staged in 1633 (editio princeps, 1637). The attribution results from a conjecture, which has never been properly verified, form...

Critical intermittency stands for a type of intermittent dynamics in iterated function systems, caused by an interplay of a superstable fixed point and a repelling fixed point. We consider critical intermittency for iterated function systems of interval maps and demonstrate the existence of a phase transition when varying probabilities, where the a...

We developed multiple equations to observe the two and three flavors of neutrino oscillation with the mixing angle based on L/E=0.1 to 0.9 in this study. In different settings, the nature of the neutrino oscillation probability was discovered to be varied in different equations. The observation indicates increasing likelihood in one equation and de...

We show that with high probability we can build a Hamilton cycle after at most $1.8 n$ rounds in a particular semi-random model. In this model, in one round, we add an edge in the following manner: we are given a {uniform random} $v\in[n]$ and then we can add an {arbitrary} edge $\{v,w\}$. Our result improves on $2.016 n$ in a recent paper of Gao,...

La Estadística presenta efectos pragmáticos en otros sectores,
por lo tanto, se hace necesario proponer estrategias de enseñanza-aprendizaje basadas
en situaciones reales. Esta investigación estima la Educación Matemática Realista
como estrategia de construcción del conocimiento probabilístico, a través de
situaciones contextualizadas. Objetivo...

Developers, programmers and coders usually know two or three programming languages to get the most probability finding solutions of their obligated tasks in business. In addition, trainers who study a language and find another one is interested so, he need just the different or the new statement of the new language. All of the previous persons alre...

Let G be a finite group with normal degree, cyclic degree and Sylow degree
Nor(G), Cyc(G) and Syl(G) respectively. The normality degree, cyclicity
degree and Sylow degree of G is the probability that two elements randomly
chosen normal subgroup, cyclic subgroup or Sylow subgroup in G denoted as
PNor(G),PCyc(G) and PSyl(G) respectively. This concept...

Resumo: O presente artigo tem por objetivo comparar os currículos da Espanha e do Brasil a partir da proposta feita pelo National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) em relação ao ensino e à aprendizagem da probabilidade para crianças entre 6 e 12 anos. Inicialmente, discutem-se algumas ideias gerais sobre o ensino desse assunto. Na sequência...

Given two graphs $X$ and $Y$, each with $n$ vertices. The friends-and-strangers graph $\mathsf{FS}(X,Y)$ of $X$ and $Y$ is a graph with vertex set consisting of all bijections $\sigma :V(X) \mapsto V(Y)$, where two bijections $\sigma$, $\sigma'$ are adjacent if and only if they differ precisely on two adjacent vertices of $X$, and the corresponding...

A Boolean algebra $\A$ equipped with a (finitely-additive) positive probability measure $m$ can be turned into a metric space $(\A , d_{m})$, where $d_{m}(a,b)= m ((a\wedge\neg b)\vee(\neg a\wedge b))$, for any $a,b\in A$, sometimes referred to as \emph{metric Boolean algebra}. In this paper, we study under which conditions the space of atoms of a...

Let G be a finite group with normal degree, cyclic degree and Sylow degree
Nor(G), Cyc(G) and Syl(G) respectively. The normality degree, cyclicity
degree and Sylow degree of G is the probability that two elements randomly
chosen normal subgroup, cyclic subgroup or Sylow subgroup in G denoted as
PNor(G),PCyc(G) and PSyl(G) respectively. This concept...

The title compound, C 14 H 18 O, I, was obtained as a side product during an attempt to synthesize (E)-3-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-1-(2,5-dichlorothiophen-3-yl)prop-2-en-1-one from the reaction of 1-(2,5-dichlorothiophen-3-yl)ethanone and 4-tert-butylbenz-aldehyde and KOH solution in methanol. It turned out that methanol which was used is a mixture of m...

We study the problem of finding the root vertex in large growing networks. We prove that it is possible to construct confidence sets of size independent of the number of vertices in the network that contain the root vertex with high probability in various models of random networks. The models include uniform random recursive dags and uniform Cooper...

Este trabajo está dedicado al uso de cuevas y abrigos como lugares de enterramiento en época visigoda. Para ello, tras acotar su marco geográfico a la península Ibérica, el sureste de Francia y las islas Baleares y la cronología a los siglos VI-VIII, y repasar la historia de la investigación, se recogen 87 yacimientos con uso en esas centurias y se...