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Hello colleagues, in the coming months I will be investigating the presence of drills (Mandrillus leucophaeus) in an area where they have not been seen for years (Pico Basilé Natural Park, Bioko, Equatorial Guinea). It is a rainforest, with altitudes of about 1000-2000 meters. Obviously, I have considered line transect surveys, as they have been widely used for estimating abundance of primate populations. However, there are some issues to consider.
1. It is a very steep area, which will prevent me from drawing completely straight transects.
2. I will perhaps not even find the species. Therefore, as it has been done with the species in other areas, indirect evidence such as fecal remains will be sought. I also thought it appropriate to incorporate signs of human activity into the data (cartridges, rubbish,...) as bushmeat hunting is the main cause of biodiversity loss on the island.
3. I will also have trap cameras, which I intended to strategically place in front of fig trees, a key food in the diet of the species.
I am just starting in the field. I have done fieldwork before, but related to other very different taxa in a very different environment. I've been checking the literature but still, I wanted to ask you to recommend me a study that has used similar methods (nonlinear transects), or that has considered fecal remains to assess the presence of a primate species (I don't even want to say density, because I do not know or if we find them). Or maybe some other publication that explains how to propose different sampling methods according to the field conditions, how to calculate the distance between transects, etc. Or any other key issues they deem appropriate to explain to me.
Thank you so much!
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Hello Oriol,
I think you are approaching your fieldwork strategically. You are right to consider the extent to which (or even if) so-called "standard", or "classic", field methodologies can be applied in Pico Basilé NP on Bioko:
1. "It is a very steep area, which will prevent me from drawing completely straight transects."
My doctoral research on black lemur socioecological responses to anthropogenic habitat disturbance was similarly in a protected area (a small mountain) where the topography was quite challenging. So, in establishing my study site's path system, and during my initial surveys to select a specific field site on the massif, I used the topography to my advantage as much as I could. For example, linear transects could be adapted to the observer(s) (i.e., you and any assistant(s)!) using ridge-lines or the upper edges of ravines to move in a linear fashion. Of course, this approach would make your survey transits generally altitudinal in nature -- not a bad thing, and there is a comparative literature on altitudinal sampling (but, not what one reads about in the majority of literature on conducting survey transects of primate populations). Trying to move along natural elevational "pathways" in the landscape would largely avoid the logistical challenges of having to try and "bush-whack" your way horizontally/latitudinally up and down across a landscape where steep slopes predominate.
2. "I will perhaps not even find the species. Therefore, as it has been done with the species in other areas, indirect evidence such as fecal remains will be sought. I also thought it appropriate to incorporate signs of human activity into the data (cartridges, rubbish,...) as bushmeat hunting is the main cause of biodiversity loss on the island."
Yes -- you should look for multiple signs that might indicate presence of drills and/or the activity of bushmeat hunters in the ares. In addition to cartridges, *any* evidence of temporary hunting camps should be recorded (and mapped, or pinpointed with GPS) -- e.g., evidence of shelters such as lean-tos and/or campfires; evidence of bush-knives (i.e., 'panga', 'coup-coup") being used to clear brush or paths; etc.
3. "I will also have trap cameras, which I intended to strategically place in front of fig trees, a key food in the diet of the species."
In addition to placing camera traps at large fig trees, if there are any streams or natural clearings that drills might cross where the width of the crossing would permit the possibility of gaining group count data (if drills are present), it would be worthwhile to place a camera trap in any such setting (at least for a brief period to see what might be caught on camera).
4. "... fecal remains to assess the presence of a primate species...".
This would be very tricky at best. Unless you see a drill defecate, and can then locate those fecal droppings, you don't know what species deposited the feces. Then there are the technical issues -- if you were to collect fecal samples, that sets up a situation where you would need the necessary lab materials & equipment to fix and store the fecal samples. Otherwise, they would simply grow mold. I suppose fecal samples could be dried in the sun (and then later re-hydrated using distilled water for whatever testing you envision). But, in a rainforest habitat, trying to sun-dry fecal samples might simply be futile!
Hope some of this feedback proves useful. Good luck with your project!
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When testing antipsychotic drugs on primates, what are some examples of behavioral tests that are the most relevant to observing the behavioral effects of the drugs on primates?
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1- Social Interaction
2- Open Field
3- Tail Suspension
4- Sucrose preference test
5- Forced Swimming Test
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If Ardrey suggested that 'because of its terrestrial life the baboon, as I have suggested, pursues an existence more resembling the human than any other of our primate relatives.' is it sane if I think in reconstruct biological taxonomy on Cultural basis?
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A relevant and valuable open-access source (with a very deep list of references) is available on 'eLife': "Insights into the evolution of social systems and species from baboon studies" by Fischer et al. (2019) -- see:
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I want to test 8 antigens using in vivo (mice immunization and challenge) and in vitro assays (Elisa, elispot, growth inhibition, various cytokine conc measurements). Based on the data obtained and analyzed, 2 of these antigens will be selected for nonhuman primates (NHP) testing. My question is, How do I go about selecting the 2 antigens for the NHP experiments Do I use the elisa OD values, elidpot SI values, parasitaemia and cytokine conc values? If so, what will be the cut-off value for each assay? What if the different antigens perform differently in the different assays?
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I totally agree with colleaque Balam Saidou.Strain of causative agent of Malaria a parasite variant that is genetically unique and induce specific immune response expressed antigens in lab.animals(mice) that yield high immunogenicity are selectef as vaccine.mor detailed in attached ref.
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I have used Allen Mouse Brain Explorer for years and it was awesome but it no longer works on my Mac and its super depressing. Any recommendations for anatomy/ comparative anatomy atlases with advanced features or photos as apposed to illustrations ?
Many Thanks in advance
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I think grays anatomy is nice book for anatomy
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Ecotourism had some advantages for the local people economy. In the tourist sites, primates attract a large number of visitors every year and they are favorable for their potential benefits to tourism. However, the tourism has some disadvantages for primates. The contact between humans and primates and the inclusion of human food in their diet can have negative effects on their ecology and behavior. The tourism also encourages the capture of primates.
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1. Science folks unanimously agree about a fixed definition for “Theory of Mind” or "Mentalizing"! That I think is a philosophical paradox as theory of mind has this very pivotal cannon of being open in empathizing and understanding different beliefs through attribution of mental state as in beliefs, intentions, knowledge and emotion. Thus, how could we all agree to establish one definition for “Theory of Mind” which conveys elimination of all other definitions or disregard openness to other definitions of “Theory of Mind” itself that might be quite different from the typical definition of theory of mind. As if one might staunchly emphasize that they believe in animal advocacy and rights but still keeps a songbird in a cage! I believe that some definitions cannot be strictly defined as a single omnipresent definition and depending on the subject and application would vary in definition. Theory of Mind can have one definition in mentally healthy human and yet another but not incorrect definition in mentally disordered people. Not to mention that theory of mind has been reported to be a personality trait in non-human primates as well!
Do you agree... or disagree?
2. There are neuropsychological assessments through sessions or interviews... But what about an efficient or statistically reliable "experimental" method of assessment for theory of mind in humans and non-human primates?! Theory of mind is a rather complex behavior which not only includes one's own beliefs or intents but also deciphers those of the others.
We have used "eyes task", etc. during neuroimaging to evaluate theory of mind. Scientists using such simple tasks and fMRI with all its limitations in terms of noise, resolution and processing to test mentalizing. Results are amazing but couldn't we develop better tasks and less limited modalities to assess a behavior with such complexity that involves numerous brain regions at once?
Maybe?...
3. This is a social trait! When someone fails to develop mentalizing (either due to neurological disorders such as schizophrenia, autism... or due to still unknown mechanisms of acquired behaviors and social environment) which can be represented as a wide spectrum of complex behaviors from misunderstanding/incomprehension of beliefs or intentions which are different, unempathetic adamancy to disrespecting or denigrating and disparaging others' beliefs; wouldn't it be quite tricky to merely observe and assess underlying brain functions in a singled out subject via current imaging or experimental modalities?
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No veo la explicación científica de este concepto
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Hello everyone, we are trying to isolate DNA from fecal samples without using any kit. Any help regarding the protocol would be much appreciated. Thanks in advance.
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Thank you everyone for your prompt response, means a lot!
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Kindly point out the first-hand signs & how to detect (prior to encounter) of primate species; Trachypithecus pileatus (Capped langur) & Macaca assamensis (Assamese monkey) in tropical forest ? Thank you.
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Kindly suggest some unique notes on variability in behaviour and the habitat utilization which is observable in Macaca assamensis (primates) of Eastern Himalayas in tropical forest of northeast India. Thanks a ton for suggestion.
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Hello, we are trying to implement eye tracking recording for non human primates, larger study is looking into neural activity and movements. Our group had a few questions that we thought people here could help us with as we have similar questions that were asked before here. I looked through those inquiries but didn't quite find the answers we were looking for.
1. Is anyone selling a used eye tracking device? For example the GP3 HD?
2. Has anyone tried using a GoPro camera, can capture 240hz, so seems like an option, and use open source software for eye tracking?
3. Are there any new resources for creating a budget friendly eye tracking system? Using webcams for example, and which webcam as most capture at 30hz.
Thank You
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I believe that conducting an eye tracking recording for nonhuman primates may necessitate a very accurate gaze tracking mechanism and that it should be done in a specialized lab setting.
Several eye-tracking solutions based on off-the-shelf cameras have been developed over the last decade. These low-cost solutions, however, cannot be expected to provide higher accuracy. Some web camera-based eye-tracking systems are listed below.
  1. https://eyeware.tech/academic-research/
  2. https://www.realeye.io/
  3. https://gazerecorder.com/
  4. https://webgazer.cs.brown.edu/
  5. https://eyesee-research.com/
  6. https://www.tobiipro.com/product-listing/sticky-by-tobii-pro/
If you intend to conduct your research with a GoPro camera, you must consider the visual stimuli that you will present to these nonhuman primates. If you're looking for a low-cost eye-tracking system, one option is to use the front camera of a mobile device to estimate gaze direction.
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I was wondering if some primate vocalizations, hand gestures, etc. are universal. For example, a thumbs up in America means doing good, in other countries even if you don't know what they mean exactly, they can see that it means something good. I was wondering since humans are such close relatives to primates especially chimpanzees and bonobos, has any research been done on if some vocalizations and/or hand gestures are universally understood between all nonhuman primates, or do species have their own vocalizations and/or hand gestures that are unique to that species only?
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ugh ugh. In primates, this is a dull exhalation of air.
Studying the facial expressions of the eyes, we distinguished two elements - the animal is friendly or aggressive. For example, a gaze is aggression, a neutral, sliding gaze is friendly, facial expressions of eyebrows - flash (raised eyebrows) - are also aggression.
Sometimes they resemble a clear, articulatory pronunciation of vowels. Like "e", "o", "y". For example, lapunder macaques say something like "uh-uh",
For example, gaze - "I see", gaze and flash (raised eyebrows) - "I see" (menacing), gaze + flash + grin + body leaned forward + hit on the substrate - that's it, patience ends. With the addition of each element, the aggressive glow also increases.
Regards, Sergey
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How do one find means or method in field to detect the presence of primates (Macaca, Trachypithecus, Hoolock species) in tropical rain forests ? Valuable comments much appreciated. Thank you so much.
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Camera traps work well for many Macaca, which spend a lot of time on the ground, but will not be efficient for exclusively arboreal primates like gibbons. Vocalizations are the method of choice for gibbons. This can be as simple as morning auditory point counts from stationary listening posts (get up early, sit quietly on a hilltop and record the time, direction and estimated distance to every group heard), or as sophisticated as using automatic recorders and fancy occupancy models. Leaf monkeys may be the hardest. Line transects on well cleared trails, with surveyors trained well to walk very quietly scanning the canopy above and overhead may be your best chance.
But please do not use nets or canopy fogging!
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Kindly provide brief techniques (SPSS, Calculations, papers) to be employed/referred performing experiment for 'Energy dynamics & digestibility' of primates (T. pileatus & M. assamensis) food plants in tropical forest of Mizoram from India (Northeast) ? Please, help. Thanks a ton !
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Found old primate blood samples and I am wondering what is the best thing to do. Anyone had success getting any DNA from samples like this? Extraction protocol suggestions?
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you will not get conclusive results in most of the samples unless preserved on FTA cards.
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The photoreceptor-to-ganglion cell convergence ratio is not constant across the retina, from foveola to peripheral regions. The convergence ratio is higher in peripheral regions than within the foveola. I assume that this knowledge is based on observations along the horizontal axis. I wonder if anyone has explicitly investigated convergence ratio in upper vs lower peripheral regions of the retina.
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You might try this article
Watson, A. B., 2014. A formula for human retinal ganglion cell receptive field density as a function of visual field location. J Vis 14. PMID 24982468
best wishes
Christine
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Tarsius supriatnai was discovered around 2016 and for this reason, the literature of the Tarsier is limited. Does anyone have any knowledge if Jatna's tarsier is found in mangroves forests.
Photos, literature, observation will do.
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Absolutely not. This species is not yet recorded from the coast / mangrove forests. Actually, this species was formally described in 2017, not 2016. You can refer to the following sources for its ecological preferences:
Shekelle M. 2020. Tarsius supriatnai. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2020: e.T162336881A162336923. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T162336881A162336923.en
Shekelle M., Groves C., Maryanto I., Mittermeier R. 2017. Two New Tarsier Species (Tarsiidae, Primates) and the Biogeography of Sulawesi, Indonesia. – Primate Conservation 31: 1–9.
Supriatna J. 2019. Field guide to the Primates of Indonesia. Yayasan Pustaka Obor Indonesia, Jakarta: 233 p.
Supriatna J., Winarni N. L., Dwiyahreni A. A. 2015. Primates of Sulawesi: An update on habitat distribution, population and conservation. – Taprobanica 7, No 3: 170–192 [this one has some general information on tarsiers' habitat requirements].
Bienkowski L.S., Stephan R.S., Kirschey T., Saryanthi R. 2021 [in press]. Population density of Tarsius supriatnai along a forest degradation gradient in Popayato-Paguat landscape (Gorontalo Province, Sulawesi). In: Telnov D., Barclay M.V.L., Pauwels O.S.G. (eds) Biodiversity, biogeography and nature conservation in Wallacea and New Guinea. Volume IV. [this tile is definitively the best one for your purpose].
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I had 11 primates gene and to know branch specific selection procedure i used aBSERLin Datamonkey.org. But data showing, w=10^9 some show two omega parameter..i align the sequences from clustal omega codon alignment and then remove stop from it. then perform aBSERL.
1-Can anyone tell me what I'm doing wrong.
2- or how i can interpret results from data monkey server?
3-can anyone guide me through it??
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Patrice Showers Corneli can you tell me why this is happening??
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I had 1 set of 11 protein coding nucleotide sequences of 11 primates Species. and i draw a phylogenetic tree . I want to know the no of mutation has occur in each branches or want to know the mutation rate in each branches.
My questions are,
1- Can i calculate probable no of mutation in each branch?
2- Is there any tools available for that? If not, any processes that is available?
3-I also like to know that mutation rate in linages, can i do that?
4- I can't do it with mathematical formulas so can you suggest me some tools, if available?
5- As i want to do a mutation analysis, is there any thing you can suggest?       
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You should start with a good phylogenetics textbook.
It's not a simple problem where an answer can be posted here easily. It depends a lot on which 11 species of primates you are looking at, because the common ancestor of all primates dates back near to the root of all mammals and significant diversity has accrued in that time. If your species are all within the great apes, or some other sub-clade of the primates it will be easier.
To get the rate of evolution, you need fossil data to calibrate the phylogenetic tree.
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I am looking for anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) and anti-Phospholipid antibody ELISA kit for Non Human Primate serum samples. Any suggestions highly appreciated.
Thank you.
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Ask Biorad !!
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Santa Cruz now recommends this new antibody (F-10) but I can't find a publication using this reference. I'm working on human et non human primate hypothalamus and so far, it doesn't work.
Is someone more successful than me ?
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Maybe this site can by helpful:
343 citations have been found for this product
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I specifically need to detect the nuclei to exclude the possibility of cytoplasmic or mitochondrial transfer between human and non-human primate cells. If anyone has succeeded before, could you kindly share the brand/cat # of antibody and the optimal conditions?
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Thanks for your input Igor. We have tried both HuNu and Ku80. Unfortunately both cross-react with NHP tissues. SC121 is indeed specific, however it stains the cytoplasm as you mentioned. We are still in search for a suitable human-specific nuclear marker.
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I don't believe there's much research in this area in humans. There are mice and primate studies
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I'm am traveling to Laos to work with rescued animals and would like to help enhance the enrichment program for the animals to keep them stimulated while they recover in captivity. 
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Tailored Enrichment Strategies and Stereotypic Behavior in Captive Individually Housed Macaques (Macaca spp.)
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The genome size is approximately 2.7 Gb.
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How did your project turn out?
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I have modelled an endangered primate using 20 replicates. In the results, I gave all the average response curves, however for constructing the realized niche from the output I used one best model from the 20 replicates based on Warren et al 2010 evaluation metrics. Is this the right approach to do? I am running short of time for my thesis and someone said that I have to use only the average model to construct the distribution range based on threshold values used. Please clarify
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Hello, I am seeking any advice on how to analyze my ethogram data. I have trouble with stats, so anything would be useful!
As part of my interdisciplinary project on the welfare of primates in sanctuaries in Costa Rica, I have 35.4 hours of observational data of capuchins (Cebus capucinus) from my field season this summer across 3 sanctuaries. This is only my first field season, I will be returning for more hours of data collection!
My hypotheses are that:
(1) tourist presence is a potential source of stress for captive caps.
(2) tourist presence has less of an effect on cap behaviour when the enclosure is more enriched.
My predictions are that:
(1) caps perform vigilance, territorial and aggressive behaviours in relation to tourist presence.
(2) caps in more enriched enclosures (more space per individual, places for privacy, complex structures, etc.) perform less vigilance, territorial and aggressive behaviours when tourists are present.
Each sanctuary differed in enclosure size and enrichments, as well as frequency of guided tours and number of tourists.
Sanctuary 1 (n=5): 15 sessions X 60 min =15 hours observation
Sanctuary 2 (n=3): 9 sessions X 72 min = 10.8 hours observation
Sanctuary 3 (n=3): 8 sessions X 72 min = 9.6 hours observation
Total = 35.4 hours
n = capuchin individuals.
I used both focal follow and group scan methods:
-Focal follows of 6 minutes alternating per monkey.
-3 group scans beginning, middle, and end of session (approx. 30 min apart).
I made notes (all-occurrence style) of when a tour group approached the enclosure and when they left.
I made all-occurrence observations of when capuchins did territorial noise-making (bang tail, throw rocks, bang items in enclosure, etc.).
I can say, anecdotally, I noticed that in the least enriched enclosure (Sanctuary 1), capuchins performed the most territorial and vigilance behaviour. This sanctuary has the most capuchins, the smallest enclosure, and the most tourist activity. Sanctuary 2 had the least tourism activity and the most enriched enclosure (lots of areas for privacy, located at edge of jungle, etc.) and I saw the least territorial and vigilance behaviour performed there. Sanctuary 3 was somewhat in the middle of both, so right now Sanctuary 1,2, and 3 feels like they are on a bit of a spectrum.
How do I demonstrate that tourist presence is correlated with caps' vigilance and territorial behaviour? I imagine creating a graph that looks like a time line of the observational session, with time stamps for when tourists approached and left the enclosure. In my mind, there would be a line tracking vigilance, aggression, and territoriality which would spike during the in-between section of the timeline during tourist presence (which I think of as sort-of like applying a treatment to the capuchin group).
I am wondering if this would be a good way to illustrate the effect of tourist presence, and if so, how to go about making this graph such as in Excel or R Studio.
As well, my understanding is that the individuals housed together are not independent variables because they influence each other’s behaviour. Does this mean that I would combine all their individual data for vigilance, territoriality, etc., when I noticed it was typically the alphas and usually one other individual who performed most of these behaviours?
I used Zoo Monitor to record observations. For behaviour tail-banging behaviour ("drum"), I was able to generate these graphs using the app where the y-axis is Rate (occurrence/min per session) of tail-banging, and the x-axis has dates of observation.
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It's worth taking into account all the previous research on the effects of visitors, as well as animal-visitor interactions, that have been done in zoos and similar settings. Here are several review papers that should help you identify similar studies. A lot of what you test could be accomplished with simple one-way or two-way ANOVAs, but the important part will be to look at what others have already done to test similar effects. Knowing and emulating what has already been done is always one of your best options:
Fernandez EJ, Tamborski MA, Pickens SR and Timberlake W 2009 Animal–visitor interactions in the modern zoo: Conflicts and interventions. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 120(1-2) 1-8.
Godinez AM and Fernandez EJ 2019 What is the Zoo Experience? How Zoos Impact a Visitor's Behaviors, Perceptions, and Conservation Efforts. Frontiers in psychology 10: 1746.
Hosey GR 2000 Zoo animals and their human audiences: what is the visitor effect? Animal Welfare 9(4): 343-57.
Sherwen SL and Hemsworth PH 2019 The visitor effect on zoo animals: Implications and opportunities for zoo animal welfare. Animals 9(6): 366.
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Hello everybody!
Fallback fruits are fruits of low nutritional value that in periods of fruit scarcity become the filler or staple of a frugivorous animal. Fallbacks seem to be well-studied in primates but not so much in birds. While it has been identified that birds, during periods of fruit scarcity, may feed on unripe fruits (Foster, 1977), insects (Carnicer et al., 2009) or even mimetic seeds/fruits (Pizo et al., 2020), the term "fallback fruits" is not usually used in relation to birds. Can anyone refer me to studies that deal with fallback/alternative diets of avian frugivores?
Thank you,
Marie
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I think you can find it recorded in a few papers about kereru, or Hemiphaga novaezeelandiae. I've published three on kereru and my PhD was about them :)
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As there are substantial differences in the vocalization of males and females in other primates, it can be assumed that the adaptation causing it is also similar. So I was wondering if there has been any previous research investigating the correlation of vocal cord length with temperance and other behavioral traits in primates? and if not, are you going to cover this in this research as well?
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Saeed Rezvani Nejad Unfortunately I have nothing to add. My knowledge is limited to a single observation of a zoo orangutan imitating a keeper to whistle, otherwise one would never know. I doubt there have been any further studies.
Male orangutans have a 'long call' that goes over considerable distances, but I have no detailed familiarity with that.
Cheers, John
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I am a beginner in phylogenetics, so there may be some fundamental misconceptions I have, so please bear with me.
I am working on a project to test which specific gene is the best at predicting phylogenetic relations among certain primate organisms. After aligning my sequences (for each gene) and using the R statistical pacakge "ape", I have constructed 22 phylogenetic trees (one based on each gene). I now want to see which tree is the closest to the current, scientifically accepted primate tree.
I understand you can do this using the treedist functions in R, which compares two Newick-format phylogenetic trees. So I need to import my tree (which I know how to do) and the currently accepted primate tree (in Newick format). The problem is, I don't know where to find this tree (with branch lengths). Where should I go to obtain this tree?
Thank you for your help!
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How to add Benjamin correction in ANOVA results, followed by TukeyHSD
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Found during fecal analysis with double centrifugation with Sheather’s sugar flotation solution.
Sample: Non-human primate from African origin.
Seed? Pollen?
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This looks like a dipteran egg, most likely Drosophila or related fruit flies. Not parasitic!
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I am looking for a rugged camcorder easy to transport while following primates in the field and that can be used during heavy rains. It should have a decent zoom and a lens hood, to be able to collect detailed observations while in the rain. I would be very grateful for any suggestion or advice. Thank you.
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you are welcome
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Hi everyone,
I am planning to activate NHP B cell, and looking for strong stimulant.
Suggestions are highly appriciated.
Thank you
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Dear Anil,
The mitogen cocktail described by Shane Crotty in the paper below works quite well to stimulate the NHP B cell differentiation and functionality.
Crotty et al., 2004 - Tracking human antigen-specific memory B cells: a sensitive and generalized ELISPOT system - Journal of Immunological Methods 286 (2004) 111 –122.
Good luck,
Eduardo Silveira
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I'm conducting a geometric morphometric study of a sample of distal humeri from many primate species (fossil and extant) with a view to exploring and describing patterns of variation within species. I've been exploring my landmark data with the package geomorph in R. I'm fairly new to R, but one of the things that is clear to me is that gpagen only performs a partial Procrustes fit of the landmark data. Reflection is an important step for my dataset because I have both left and right humeri in my sample (don't get much of a choice of side with fossils).
Short of coding a wrapper myself, is there any way to perform a full Procrustes fit (with reflection!) using the gpagen function from geomorph? I know this functionality is available in other packages (e.g. shapes), but I prefer the analytical functions of geomorph.
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Sorry--there was a typo in my answer: it is rotate.coords (not otate.coords)
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I need to isolate and purify neutrophils from peripheral blood of nonhuman primates (cynomolgus macaque). The only published protocol I've come across is from the 2014 Neutrophil Methods and Protocols (link below) that recommends CD66abce microbeads from Miltenyi. Considering how easy it is to activate PMN, I try to avoid positive selection whenever possible. If anyone has suggestions or leads on a superior isolation method (e.g. density centrifugation, negative selection) that works for NHP, I'd really appreciate the help. 
Thanks. 
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Svenja Dannewitz Prosseda was this in humans? If so, can you share the modified protocol(s) you use?
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Dear researchers,
We are working in Colombia with the biological groups: primates and bats. We have been debating about landscape extent area/lenght, and also we have had read many articles about without knowing the exact criteria of researchers in this field.
We intend to measure focal primate species responses in landscape windows differentiated by configuration and composition. So it is very relevant to choose correctly the window size.
I really appreciate literature and fundamented opinions,
Regards!
Johana.
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Thank you, Andrew. ¿Do you have bibliography that can help us support your suggestion?. :)
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Hello, I am trying to use laser capture to isolate entire subregions of the hippocampus in brain tissue (nonhuman primate.)
Some papers online say that sections should be cut between 8um and 12um. This seems extremely thin and I am wondering if this will provide too low a yield for RNA sequencing.
Does anyone have any experience cutting out entire structures or subregions with laser capture microdissection? What is the largest size you could cut tissue at? (20um, 40um, etc)
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Tissue thickness is always a compromise between yield and contamination from other cells. I would also recommend something around 8-15µm.
However, if required for special applications, the MMI CellCut laser microdissection offers a software feature to cut thick tissue of more than 40µm (up to 80µm). This number is influenced by the sample itself, especially if the tissue is very wet.
Please let me know if you have any questions.
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I am researching about the use of bioacoustics for mammal species, and there are quite a bit of studies that use bioacoustics for mammals, but they tend to analyse the data manually. How feasible would it be to carry out machine learning for all 11 primate species in Peru?
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Russell Gray I think she is asking more if machine learning is feasible? My immediate answer is yes. We work on multi-species assemblages, we might have as much as 6-7 species calling within just a few seconds, it challenges the algorithms a a bit. Especially as the data is from omni-directional microphones so there's a lot of background noise. Not impossible though, just need to ensure the training is done thoroughly. Have a look at the papers by Bedoya 2014 (Automatic Recognition of Anuran Species based on Syllable identification). We are also working on implementing deep learning on our data - they've done it for bats in our lab (I think the paper is in review) and there was just a paper released on using it on birds I think? (I can't find it or remember the author off the top of my head, might have been in Methods in Ecology). Birds are in my experience a pretty good model species though as their calls are quite complex so easy for the algorithms to identify, we have more issues with the frogs as the call itself is often quite "simple" in it's pattern (then put together into a more complex call series), I don't know how primate calls look like in spectrograms though.
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I have two continous explanatory variables. I assume that the interplay (joint effect) of these variables can predict a third, continous response variable.
What statistical test can be used to test whether the two factors and the response have a statistically significant relationship?
The actual project is aiming to find out whether the interplay of group size and cognitive abilities of members in a primate society can predict the centralisation of the social network.
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Regression analysis can be involved in such investigations. Then, further deep analysis can be involved just to approve your analysis.
Good luck
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I want to work on scientific investigation (Ecology+Genetics) and community based conservation of two threatened species i.e. the Himalayan Gray Langur and the Himalayan Musk deer in western Himalayan areas of Pakistan. Can any body would like to guide me that which can be the funding resources for these researches?
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Take a look at the The Mohamed bin Zayed Species Conservation Fund: https://www.speciesconservation.org/
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This is for a research protocol in spider monkeys' chronobiology. So far the best saliva extracting device has been an aspirator that allows collecting about 1 ml in 2-8 min. The issue is that most monkeys are unwilling to cooperate if they don't receive a food reward while aspirating the saliva, thus contaminating the sample with the treats used to lure them.
The three analytes will be quantified by ELISA, nevertheless, if someone knew of a similar assay less prone to disturbance by the use of salivary stimulants it would be of great assistance as well. Thanks to anyone that can help me in this matter.
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I've seen a number of publications investigating video enrichment with chimpanzees, but I have been asked to gather sources on the use of tvs with other primate species.
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Dear Michelle,
I recommend you to contact Dra. Cristiane Schilbach Pizzutto . She's a very well known specialist that works with enrichment and animal behaviour in primates.
She's else the president of the Animal Welfare Committee of the Veterinarian Council here.
Best regards.
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Hohman G, Sunderraj SFW (1990) Survey of Nilgiri langur and Lion-tailed Macaque in Tamil Nadu, South India. Primate Conservation. Newsletter and Journal on the IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group 11: 49-53
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Hi Vanaraj, you can download it from here:
best regards, Pablo
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Obviously we are using our brain for all kinds of purposes that are quite different from those in our evolutionary history, like writing. But are there more basic examples of repurposing? Something that was an exaptation even in the deepest paleolithic? I assume the Broca area would make a good example, since it controls hand movement in primates and use of grammar and gestures in humans. Is there more like this?
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There are no empirical 'purposes' in evolution (there might be from a religious viewpoint). So exaptation is an exercise in futility (trying to divine original vs new 'purpose' is like reading tea leaves. My personal opinion admittedly. Cheers
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I am studying the cerebral aging in non - human primates, Marmost monkies. The study is conducted on anatomical MRI T1-weighted images. We aim to study the decline of brain and cortical volumes in normal aging.
However, due to the difficulty of extracting (segmenting) some cortical subregions, we would like to rather map the volumetric differences in these regions over years (due to aging / possible atrophy) rather than dileneating and extracting ROIs.
I would appreciate if some one could suggest a method (reference) or an algorithm to start with.
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Maybe this: could be a good entry point for finding the most appropriate way to solve this.
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I am currently working on anthropogenic effects on the vocalisation of howler monkeys in the urban environment.
I record the vocalisations with a TASCAM DR-07MKii and I want to extract acoustic measurement such as frequency, pitch, rates and lengths of vocalisations.
Which program is easiest to use for a beginner to extract these variables?
I currently have: Sound Analysis Pro, Praat and Audacity.
All tips and additional information are very welcome
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I agree that Audacity is of no use-- it's primarily an editing program, not for measurement. Praat and SAP would both probably work for the simple measurements you described. I believe Praat (which was developed for work on speech) has some tools for measuring speech-related features such as formants, which might be useful for nonhuman primate vocalizations. Raven Pro (http://ravensoundsoftware.com/) has (I'm told) an easier learning curve than Praat and includes basic time, frequency, and relative power measurements (though no formant measurements). There's also a set of freely available tutorial videos available (see "Training" on that website).
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Dear colleagues,
we are designing a study to record presence or absence of spider monkeys in forest fragments. We aim to record occurrences using the playback method, but we are unsure about the speaker device we should use. If you have had a similar experience and can offer some advice, I would love to hear from you!
The speaker should be able to play low-frequency calls without distortion. It should be waterproof and dustproof, wireless, and with decent battery life (usually, we have little or no access to electricity). Given that we work in very hilly areas, being light/portable is a plus.
Does any of you have used the SME-AFS Portable Field Speaker (Saul Mineroff Electronics) or the EcoBoulder Plus (ECOXGEAR)? If not, can you recommend us other brands and models?
We would be very grateful for any suggestion.
Best regards,
Irene
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We used an Anchor MiniVox (Anchor, Carlsbad, CA) loudspeaker (frequency response range: 100–15000Hz, output power: 30W, Maximum SPL: 109db) for Callicebus nigrifrons. You can find more details about the procedure in this paper:
Hope it helps!
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Which program would you recommend to use to align primate DNA of a gene to the spliced RNA of the corresponding human gene?
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For multiple alignments see if Clustal Omega (https://www.ebi.ac.uk/Tools/msa/clustalo/) may be useful to you.
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I need to analyse the evolutionary significance of BRCT domain within BRCA1 gene ?
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Brian Thomas Foley thanks 😊
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I am interested in any information on areas in the Southeastern Untied States where people may be doing a study of Squirrel monkeys.
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HI:
Several years ago I did a bit of research on comparing humans, rhesus and squirrel monkeys exposed to short term head up and head down tilt. This work was done during the early Skylab days (perhaps more than several years). We measured segmental volumes using bioimpedance. One substudy that I found rather interesting is the fact that the squirrel monkey seems to use his tail as a fluid reserve to help compensate for postural changes. We measured rump, calf and tail volumes. Squirrels seemed to be quite different in circulatory/volume changes than the Rhesus or humans. Rhesus and humans were fairly much the same. I have never published this work (especially on the tails of the squirrel). I could not find anything in the literature to use as confirmation data. Are you working with squirrels and have any knowledge in this area.?? Thanks les montgomery
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I am interested in comparing primate species population structure and group size composition both in village and forest what kind of test i can use?
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If your interest is to check if there is a significant difference, and if you have continuous values, you can use an analysis of variance. For example, if you have the record (size) of each primare. A comparison of the mean could be appropriate. In case you have few copies = few data (e.g less than 30) you can use Kruscal-Wallist test (it is a non-parametric test)
If you show us your data (or if you send it to me), it could help you better.
Greetings and luck
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We are studying ontogenetic trajectories of cranium in extant primates. Among the sample, we did not find infant specimens (with partial or absent deciduous dentition) of the species Gorilla gorilla, Hylobates agilis, Hylobates lar, Macaca cyclopis, Mandrillus sphinx, Pan troglodytes, Papio hamadryas, Pongo abelii, Pongo pygmaeus and Symphalangus syndactilus. We used some online databases as Morphosource and Kupri, but did not find the specimens we were searching for. Is anyone aware of existing CT or surface scans of such specimens?
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Thank you very much for the useful answers. I'll look after the new additions to the ESRF database, that is already proving to be a great resource for my study.
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I want to compare a single primate species with 12 troops in forest and 12 troops in village.What statistics test best for the population structure and group composition of this particular species?
With Regards
VANARAJ
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(M)ANOVA or PERMANOVA. You need to decide what your factors and variables are. The study may not be replicated though. A troop is a subsample, or pseudo-replicate, if it is within the same forest or village as other troops.
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I am interested in study on food habit and habiat quality assessment of primate species.
VANARAJ
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Vegetation mapping and inventory of plant and animal species composing the diet of the species under study
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I am looking for an anti-human nuclear antibody that would not cross with non-human primates. Does anyone know one ?
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Thank you, it's a very nice tool. To improve it : LAM A/C (clone EPR4100) cross react with both human et NHP.
i'm still looking for.
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Specifically looking for muscle masses, PCSA values, fiber lengths, etc. of muscles acting on the toes including the hallux. I am familiar with studies reporting on these properties in apes, but can't seem to find what I need in monkeys.
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I have been trying to estimate Phayre's Langur (Trachypithecus pahyrei) population of 5 northeastern forests in Bangladesh through distance sampling method in pre-established forest trails. In detection of Phayre’s Langur, my team has been measuring perpendicular distance of the center of animal group (cluster) in their first detected location from transects. However, the forests are larger in size like 1260 ha, 1795 ha etc. and a smaller one is 243 ha. I am having difficulties to survey the large area with the limited resources. So my thoughts are to limit the replication surveys. Can anybody please help me to sort out the minimum numbers of replication surveys in each trail of the forests ? At least how many sightings are critical to analysis to estimate the density precisely? Related suggestions are welcome.
Advanced thanks!
Tanvir
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Hi Tanvir,
In distance sampling, what matters is the number of independent transects you cover (and then we usually say 12 is a minimum, but more than 20 is great). Variance in encounter rate comes from the variance across transects, that is why a reasonable number of transects is required. You actually do not need any "replication" (in this case I am assuming you are referring to covering the same transects several times).
But then you need that from these you get enough detections to estimate a detection function. That means about 60-80 detections (groups if you are doing a group based analysis) on a line transect survey. Note strictly that will be the number of detections per estimate required, so if you wanted estimates in two different habitats separately, you would want that minimum number of detections in each stratum. If you have a covariate that explains detectability then you can get away with less observation in each stratum say, if you make detectability a function of the covariates and then make your estimates conditional on the covariates observed in each stratum.
Repeating the same transect many times can be helpful if you do not have enough observations in a single passage to estimate the detection function, but then you need to care about independence issues. Imagine you have a transect with 10 km. Effort should be recorded as 10 km if you only cover it once. If you cover it K times, say 20, then you could record the effort as 200 km and that would account for the non-independence.
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Dear colleagues,
For our current project into the functional morphology and evolution of leaping in small new world monkeys, we are looking for postcranial material of the tamarins and marmosets (Primates: Callitrichidae). Specifically, we are looking for museum collections that house lots of (preferentially) disarticulated limb long bones that we could either borrow or CT scan at the location of the collection, if facilities allow. Which collections are worth visiting?
We are also very much interested in getting access to cadavers (fresh and frozen – not formalin fixated), to analyze muscle architectural properties.
We appreciate your help.
Kind regards from Berlin,
John Nyakatura (also on behalf of Patricia Berles and Léo Botton-Divet)
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It’s been a few years, but I seem to remember seeing a lot of marmoset and tamarin postcrania at the Smithsonian in Washington, DC. Their online database is searchable and really easy to use too.
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I am working in cooperation with a rescue center in Costa Rica that cares for orphaned wild primates. These orphans are often hand-reared and then introduced into captive populations as such primates can often not be reintroduced into the wild.
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If you want to maximise success you need to be patient. You should first house the hand-reared and captive group in adjacent exhibits so that they can see and hear each other easily but not touch. Do this until both groups seem settled by the presence of the other. Then remove what barrier prevents the primates from touching, but make sure to keep some sort of mesh between them so that the hand-reared individuals can retreat from contact if they want to. At the beginning you will need to supervise this physical contact between the groups because the captive animals might try and pull the arms/legs of the shyer hand-reared individuals through the mesh. Hopefully, eventually, the primates will start grooming each other through the mesh, at which time you can remove all barriers between contact. There will be squabbles and fights at this stage when there is free movement between groups because the hand-reared individuals will need to establish their position in the hierarchy. You should allow this to happen, within reason, as it is an important social skill the hand-reared primates need to learn and only when they have established their rank in the hierarchy (even if it is at the bottom) will they be fully accepted. Of course you can try shortcuts to this approach, but the whole process will be far more traumatic for the hand-reared animals and much more disruptive to the established captive group.
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It looks appropriate for looking at influences on behaviour but we're having trouble finding published studies that use the method. The applied technical pubs on it are less than clear to me in terms of limitations, etc.
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Debra,
All I know about Gupta and Nadarajah are the two online reviews and the online Table of Contents. I recommend reading both reviews and the TOC for this book.
Have a look at the Table of contents for Smithson and Merkle. It is way more promising than the TOC for Gupta and Nadarajah. At a way better price.
You can judge for yourself which book is more useful for you, by comparing the TOCs.
~David S
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I would like to assess the stress levels of small-bodied, solitary nocturnal primates living in forest fragments of varying size, shape and degradation level but am not sure of the best way to do this. As a novice to the field of primate hormones/endocrinology, I have done some reading on the subject and it appears as though cortisol level is the best indicator of physiological stress. However, most published accounts of primate stress studies in the wild are of larger-bodied, social, group-living species that are relatively easy to follow and collect urine/fecal samples from, in comparison to nocturnal species. Furthermore, radio-collaring and tagging of individual seems to be common practice, as sex identification appears to be important for cortisol level assessment. As tagging and sexual identification of nocturnal primates can be very difficult, is there an alternative way to assess the stress level in nocturnal primates, without the hassle and expense of collaring/tagging, and if so, can anyone recommend a method that would allow me to collect samples for analysis? Any help would be greatly appreciated!
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Check this link of article
Regards
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I wonder if anyone knows about citizen science projects in primate research/conservation. I have reviewed the literature on the (potential) role of citizen science in primate research and conservation, but so far I have found only one project: www.chimpandsee.org. I have also learned that the Colombian Primatological Society has launched a call for volunteer contributions of primate occurrence records for a study on species distributions. However, I have not found concrete information (reports, peer-reviewed article) on that project yet. Has anyone heard of similar projects?
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Yes , here in Panama we have a citizen scientists cooperation, see fcprimatespanama.org
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I'm asked to sketch a diagram of AAV8-control- and AAV8-CFLAR (S1) vectors from a paper titled "Targeting CASP8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulator ameliorates nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in mice and nonhuman primates."
I'm not sure how.
Any advise?
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Hi Abhijeet, I think we were working on this at the same time although I got delayed by my actual job!
The AAV8 sequence from the Gao paper is the un-modified AAV8 sequence as far as I can tell. I tried blasting the sequence against Genbank and found a few synthetic vectors derived from different but similar AAV family members - for instance pAAV-RC, or pAAV9-SBBANN-VBC. Although these are not the same as the AAV8-derived plasmid, they give an idea of the construction philosophy that I assume the AAV8 vector uses - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/14994089
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I have seen large variations in dosage levels from various sources (1IU/kg and 0.1 ug TSH/kg for cats and dogs; and a max. of 10IU for larger mammals). I obviously don't want to kill the animals by overestimating - i'd prefer to get an accurate value to work with. These animals only weigh approximately 1kg so i'm guessing it'll be about 1IU?
Also, I'm having trouble converting IU for TSH into ug, mcg, etc.
Any help would be appreciated!
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Hope these materials would be helpful as reference:
Osamura RY, Kajiva H, Takei M, et al: Pathology of the human pituitary adenomas. Histochem Cell Biol 2008;130(3):495-507
Hamid Z, Mrak RE, Ijaz M, Faas FH: Sensitivity and specificity of immunohistochemistry in pituitary adenomas. Endocrinologist 2009;19:38-43
Than you!
Shivish
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What are the neurochemistries and neuroananomical component of the main neuroal circuit(s) involved in human empathy (or more generally in primates or, more generally still, mammals)? (I am also interested to know what it is we still don't know regarding this question).
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There is a need to step back and ask what is meant by empathy and whether that is a useful term in a scientific investigation. What is observed that leads to the idea that empathy is a useful category in science? NB. this is not asking what is the operational definition of empathy, that is what psychologists often do, fruitlessly. It is asking what are the publically observable behaviours that can be lumped together into a category "empathy". It may transpire that it is not a useful category.
Having said this there are many terms which ethologists and like minded psychologists have used in the same area: "intersubjectivity", "theory of Mind", "mentalism" . They are roughly refer to the ability to take the perspective of another. A necessary, but not sufficient, condition for this is the ability to imitate - to translate input from observing a conspecific doing something into output such that this observer does the same thing. This is a complex translation (see Hinde 1953). Mirror neurons are probably part of this. That there was this translation mechanism was known decades before the discover of mirror neurons.
Empathy must be distinguished from sympathy. Sympathy is (probably) seeing the other's point of view and wanting to help, empathy is just seeing their point of view (psychopaths can do that).
Autistic children are said not to be empathetic, a better description is that they are not fluent in mentalistic social interaction and so appear unempathetic. For more on all this see:(all available on Researchgate, except Hinde)
Hinde, R.A. (1953) The term Mimesis. British Journal of Animal Behaviour 1, 7-9
Richer, J.M. (2001b) The Insufficient Integration of Self and Other in Autism In Richer, J.M. and Coates, S. (eds) (2001) Autism: The Search for Coherence. London; Jessica Kingsley.
Richer, J.M. (2014b) Ethology and “Mental Illness” in Evolutionary Science of Human Behavior: An Interdisciplinary Approach. (Eds) P. LaFreniere and G Weisfeld
Richer, J.M. (2016). Mentalistic and scientific stories about human behavior, biomimetic
heuristics and psychology’s confusions. Human Ethology Bulletin, 31(4), 15-33.
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Hi everyone,
I have a few references detailing that, in some primate species (presbytis entellus, presbytis thomasi), males have only ever been seen to attain alpha male status once in their lifetime. I'm having a hard time finding other articles that explicitly state this about their species. Can anyone suggest more?
Thanks in advance,
-Luke
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Thank you!
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I am taking the hominoid personailty questionnaire and asking keepers to complete it twice to see if their responses change, as it is quite a subjective questionnaire, over a period of time. I am also designing a behavioural action questionnaire and going to have this done twice also to see if it is more consistent, the same, or less so. It would also be interesting to compare the two as using on same focal animals to see if results are similar or differ. Being new to stats I am now somewhat lost!
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I think what you want to obtain is the intraclass correlation or research agreement. I was interested in a similar question but in a different contest. Have a look at:
Hope this helps.
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I have a similar plan for pigs and some primate species...
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Thanks! Looking forward reading about your results! Good luck...
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I wonder if anyone has experience using the retrograde viral vector rAAV2-retro (10.1016/j.neuron.2016.09.021) in non human primate brain
Thanks
Inaki
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thanks everyone, except WK
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I wonder if primates also feel sexual humiliation when they are naked or in other context like human, does it lowers reproduction fitness?
I guess there are almost no studies, but curious.
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I do not know but it is probably sexual abstinence ... in the absence of many experiences which in a small environment which is cage / small space /, causes such other behaviors .... Similar behavior masturbation is noticed in mentally handicapped people where not There are many inhibitions ... but please ask sexologists or psychiatrists because there are attempts to solve this problem
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Do we need both TST and pulmonary x ray to work with nonhuman primates?
Is it possible that negative in pulmonary x ray and positive in extrapulmonary TB will be contagious?
Any references or guidelines?
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Purely extrapulmonary TB is rarely contagious, though some of these patients can have sub clinical pulmonary TB.
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I need a reference for MNVT in nonhuman primate brain/ lumbar region for chikunguniya , which is difficult to find , so pls guide me.
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Dear Pradeed B PATIL, this article will help you
regards
Neurovirulence comparison of chikungunya virus isolates of the Asian and East/Central/South African genotypes from Malaysia.
Chiam CW, Chan YF, Ong KC, Wong KT, Sam IC.
J Gen Virol. 2015 Nov;96(11):3243-54. doi: 10.1099/jgv.0.000263. Epub 2015 Aug 12.
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I am looking for a reference on mumps virus immunogenicity testing in nonhuman primate, pls guide me on it.
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It can be helpful!
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looking for depression/anxiety in macaques by reversing the light cycle
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Abnormal circadian rhythms and the effects of "sundowning" in agitation and dementia in Alzheimer's patients has received alot of press. You may find the mechanism explanations helpful...