Science topic

Prejudice - Science topic

A preconceived judgment made without adequate evidence and not easily alterable by presentation of contrary evidence.
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Publications related to Prejudice (10,000)
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Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and questioning (LGBTQ+) youth experience a myriad of mental health disparities as well as a heightened risk of suicide compared to their non-LGBTQ+ counterparts. They are also more likely to experience a multitude of stressful experiences such as bullying, discrimination, rejection from family, prejudice...
Book
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People have long made invidious distinctions between individuals (e.g., the clean and the unclean, good and evil, black and white, sacred and profane, etc.) (Smith, 1995) and these distinctions affect the degree to which individuals experience prejudice, unfair discrimination, and oppression in organizations and society as a whole. Although there...
Article
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Existing studies on prejudice, which is important in multi-group dynamics in societies, focus on the social-psychological knowledge behind the processes involving prejudice and its propagation. We instead create a multi-agent framework that simulates the propagation of prejudice and measures its tangible impact on the prosperity of individuals as w...
Article
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Background In many countries, policy makers and practitioners turn to prejudice reduction programs and interventions to tackle prejudice in the community. However, successfully addressing prejudice requires an effective intervention that can scale to match the broad span of the problem. The scalability assessment frameworks from health sciences hav...
Article
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Given the increasing research activity on epigenetics to monitor human diseases and its connection with lifestyle and environmental expositions, the field of epigenetics has attracted a great deal of interest also at the ethical and societal level. In this review, we will identify and discuss current ethical, legal and social issues of epigenetics...
Article
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Despite growing scientific attention for hate, little is known about how perceived threats may influence hate and aggression. In four preregistered online studies (Ntotal = 1422), we test a threat – hate – aggression model, examining the differential effects of symbolic and realistic threats on the emergence of hate, and the associations between ha...
Article
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Empathic competences might help adolescents navigate current multicultural societies by supporting harmonious intergroup relations. Yet it is unclear how each component of empathy (empathic concern and perspective-taking) is associated with different dimensions (affective, cognitive, behavioral) of ethnic prejudice. The current study aims to fill t...
Article
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Anecdotal stories of racism and discrimination shared by racialised physicians are hard to conceptualize within the broader landscape of our profession, begging the question: Is there a way to measure the impacts of racism on medical training? This bold and personal call to action by racialised researchers outlines the international landscape of di...
Article
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Young people who are placed in out-of-home care are amongst the most vulnerable in our community. Removed from or rejected by their families, they must learn to live with carers who may be strangers. They may have experienced the trauma of abuse or neglect. Post care, they may experience further social isolation and marginalisation due to limited s...
Article
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The study replicates the first European field experiment on gay men’s labor market prospects in Greece. Utilizing the same protocol as the original study in 2006–2007, two follow-up field experiments took place in 2013–2014 and 2018–2019. The study estimated that gay men experienced occupational access constraints and wage sorting in vacancies offe...
Article
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Purpose of the review This article presents an overview of the so-called “Universal Adhesives”, which theoretically have the potential to simplify and expedite adhesive protocols, by providing flexibility about the etching approach and type of substrate, thus representing the state-of-the-art in adhesive dentistry. However, despite the claimed adva...
Article
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In this theoretical article, we argue that discourses of diversity are shifting. In segments of the population in Western countries, the discourses on diversity appear to be shifting from multiculturalism towards narrower monoculturalism, nationalism and prejudice. We here argue that the discursive space to voice such opinions have widened. The lib...
Conference Paper
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Patientenzentrierung ist ein wichtiges Merkmal einer exzellenten Gesundheitsversorgung. Dies bedeutet nicht nur eine fachgerechte medizinische Versorgung, sondern schliesst auch die Erfassung und den Einbezug individueller Wertvorstellungen, Bedürfnisse und Lebenswelten von Patient*innen ein. Angesichts der zunehmenden gesellschaftlichen Diversität...
Preprint
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Leaders and their immediate entourage are convinced in some cases that the only solution to solving the crisis is military intervention. Moreover, favouring such an option, they argue in various ways convincing themselves that, after all, the risk is minimal, the threat will be eliminated, and decisive action will bring more benefits than losses. B...
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A new book by an academic expert on the far right, Prof. Paul Jackson, of Northampton University in the UK, will be required reading for those who wish to introduce themselves to the history and nature of rightwing extremism within Britain, in both the country's past and present. It also offers some brief but interesting points concerning the 'inte...
Article
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Why would decision makers (DMs) adopt heuristics, priors, or in short “habits” that prevent them from optimally using pertinent information—even when such information is freely-available? One answer, Herbert Simon’s “procedural rationality” regards the question invalid: DMs do not, and in fact cannot, process information in an optimal fashion. For...
Article
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This book is written in the context of the 7th July 2005 suicide attacks on the London underground train and bus transit system, which have come to be known as the 7/7 bombings, and were the only major terrorist attacks that have affected London during this century. Three British-born Muslims from Pakistani immigrant families, and one Jamaican who...
Article
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Gender and sexual minorities are at increased risk for psychological disorders compared to the general population. The minority stress model has been proposed to explain these elevated rates of psychological distress. Per this model, minority stress factors (e.g., prejudice, discrimination, rejection, internalized homophobia/ transphobia) combine t...
Article
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The COVID‐19 pandemic exacerbated ageism (stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination) toward older adults in the United States, highlighting the belief that older adults are a burden. Prior to the pandemic, a growing body of research sought to reduce ageism using the PEACE (Positive Education about Aging and Contact Experiences) model. Extending t...
Article
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Members of the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT+) movement continually report situations in which they are execrated, violated in various ways, marginalized by people who cannot live with diversity. Concomitant to this fact, these people are able to cope with this harsh reality, however, there is little literature regarding this way of...
Article
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Transgender people suffer constant violence, being stigmatized and marginalized in society for subverting the standards of gender roles. The most varied types of violence are filed, however, the discussion remains on the sidelines, literally peripheral, mainly in the sphere of public policy. However, they manage to go beyond pain and suffering and...
Article
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Beliefs can be highly resilient in the sense that they are not easily abandoned in the face of counterevidence. This has the advantage of guiding consistent behavior and judgments but may also have destructive consequences for individuals, nature, and society. For instance, pathological beliefs can sustain psychiatric disorders, the belief that rhi...
Article
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O arroz é cultivado praticamente em todas as regiões brasileiras, sendo uma cultura de grande importância socioeconômica para os pequenos agricultores do sul do Amazonas. Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar o desempenho agronômico do arroz em dois solos de terras altas da região de Humaitá, submetidos à calagem. Para isso amostras dos solos Cambiss...
Article
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Cancer is a set of different diseases in which there is an abnormal multiplication of sick cells and when diagnosed with cancer, the person and their families suffer a great impact, because despite the advancement of science, being with cancer is still considered a death sentence, still experiencing discrimination, prejudice and social rejection, a...
Article
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Members of the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT+) movement continually report situations in which they are execrated, violated in various ways, marginalized by people who cannot live with diversity, including reports from family members and members of religious institutions. Concomitant to this fact, these people are able to face this h...
Article
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Our study aimed to describe and assess the impact of legal aspects on dentists’ practices during the COVID-19 pandemic. The objectives were: (a) to explore dentists’ and dental managers’ knowledge about dental liability during the COVID-19 pandemic; (b) to inquire about the respondents’ perceptions of immunity for prejudices resulting from non-urge...
Article
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Objective: to analyze the effects of sexuality on common mental disorders and quality of life in elderly people. Method: cross-sectional study conducted with 721 elderly people from all regions of Brazil who answered four instruments: bio-sociodemographic, EVASI, SRQ-20 and WHOQOL-Old between July and October 2020. Data were analyzed using Mann-Wh...
Article
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Husserl has often stood accused of Eurocentrism given his disquieting coupling of philosophy as universal science with Europe. And yet, however much this accusation has clouded the appeal of transcendental phenomenology, the nature of this charge remains obscure: whether Husserl’s chauvinism is merely a personal opinion punctuating his writing or i...
Thesis
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Estudar gênero no esporte é investigar o quão influente e diverso esse tema se torna. Principalmente no futebol e futsal feminino, onde se caracteriza o preconceito de gênero como uma dessas questões influentes históricas e culturais preservadas e com difíceis invasões. Observando a necessidade de expansão sobre o assunto, a Faculdade de Ciências A...
Article
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Most research on suicides focuses on youth or the elderly and dominant groups of a population. The purpose of this study was to assess suicide trends for non-elderly adult Hispanics (age 20–64 years) over the past decade (2010–2020). Data from the Web-Based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS) were analyzed for the study period. S...
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One of the current research themes, in the society we are part of, is the theme of stereotypes. Regardless of nationality, gender, faith, age, etc., people tend to judge or categorize those around them. In labeling, we don't think about what long-term effects can occur, in fact we don't think rationally when it comes to "gossip" on someone. Later,...
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Este artigo apresenta uma análise da subcategoria de intersexo, no decurso de um estudo comparativo na Universidade da Madeira, UMa (Portugal) e na Universidade Federal de Sergipe, UFS (Brasil) sobre “Vozes dos estudantes universitários sobre a diversidade sexual e de gênero, sua relação com a coeducação e com a inovação pedagógica.” Foi adotada um...
Article
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This study is conducted on people in Turkey who had at least one dose of vaccination and it evaluates their differences in attitude in terms of health literacy, product judgment, the country of origin, intention to recommend and motivation to boycott. The 393 vaccine consumers were selected through convenient sampling and the data was collected thr...
Article
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As the 100th anniversary approaches of Albert Einstein being awarded a Nobel Prize, questions remain about the motivation for the prize and about the absence of any specific mention of his theory of relativity. By revisiting and supplementing earlier scholarly studies, it will be shown that “Einstein did not receive, as often claimed, a prize for h...
Article
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RESUMO O artigo analisa o discurso de desnaturalização dos livros didáticos de Sociologia sobre as diferenças culturais. Para tal, à luz da Análise do Discurso de filiação pecheutiana, analisa-se o discurso materializado nos livros didáticos de Sociologia aprovados e recomendados pelo Programa Nacional do Livro Didático de 2015. Ao longo do texto,...
Article
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Studies have shown that romantic partners in consensual non-monogamous (CNM) relationships are targets of stigmatization. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms and the conditions under which such stigmatization occurs. In two experimental studies (combined N = 772), we asked participants to read the description of two partners in...
Conference Paper
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INTRODUÇÃO: A emergência da pandemia de COVID-19 trouxe grandes desafios que têm impactado a assistência direta às pessoas em todos os níveis de atenção à saúde, em especial a população em situação de rua (PSR), que é caracterizada como um grupo populacional de grande vulnerabilidade social, com características associadas à pobreza extrema, vínculo...
Article
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Introduction:"TELEMEDICINE" (Healing by Wire) has been bestowed to humanity by the growth of ICT, and it has also emerged as a rescuer in the Indian healthcare delivery system. Telemedicine's influence on a nation's ICT (information and communication technology) infrastructure may be seen in the size and form of its ICT infrastructure. Aims and obj...
Article
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Investigamos a representação discursiva de crenças de homens professores de Educação Infantil acerca de sua identidade acadêmico-profissional. Por este ângulo, averiguamos como as crenças são constituídas através de relatos orais sobre si e sua formação acadêmico-profissional. Realizamos entrevistas com três professores efetivos da rede municipal d...
Article
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A study is made to the created gender dichotomies and the creation of transnational mobility shift in Nigeria’s Sefi Atta’s novel, A Bit of Difference (2012). Using the novel and related trends, the article seemingly valorizes the dialectics of transnational migration on gender identities in Africa.It examines the critical discourses of feminist co...
Article
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Religious sectarian intolerance occurs when members of different religious sects within a faith are unable to tolerate the religious beliefs and practices of each resulting in bigotry and prejudice toward each other. The present research sought to develop a psychometrically sound measure of religious sectarian intolerance for Muslim adults. The res...
Article
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A large proportion of studies carried out in recent years in different populations have shown that stigma toward mental disorders is highly prevalent. In the present study we conducted a comprehensive assessment of stigma to describe and compare stigma toward mental disorders in students enrolled in five different university degrees. Three hundred...
Thesis
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Mental health is an integral and essential component of health. Mental illness is one of the biggest problems which causing a major contribution in death and disease burden in different forms and it also increasing the suicidal death risk among youth. Mental illness is seen to vary across time, within the same population at the same time. Geographi...
Article
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This paper contributes to a small but significant body of research addressing issues of prejudice in science education. It is written in the form of a critical incident analysis that uses the framework of intersectionality to examine deficit ideologies and biases inherent in science as a body of knowledge as well as science teacher education. If le...
Article
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A recent evolutionary theory of female sexual fluidity suggests that women do not have sexual orientations in the same sense that men do, and instead women’s apparent sexual orientation is a function of their sociosexual orientation. Among other things, the theory predicts that women’s unrestricted sociosexual orientation decreases their negative a...
Article
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Zhiguang Fan,1,2 Hongyan Chen,3 Hanwei Wu,4 Xinghai Zhang2 1Department of Education, Jilin International Studies University, Changchun City, Jilin Province, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Marxism, Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun City, Jilin Province, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Chinese Medicine, Changc...
Article
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Well-known predictors of prejudice toward Muslims include social dominance and authoritarianism. However, a gap exists for variables reflecting a rejection or mitigation of ideological motivations associated with prejudice toward Muslims. We examined if quiet ego was related to positive attitudes toward Muslims, and whether this could be explained...
Article
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Traditional moral evaluation relies on artificial and subjective evaluation by teachers, and there are subjective errors or prejudices. To achieve further objective evaluation, students’ classroom performance can be identified, and the effectiveness of moral education can be evaluated based on student behavior. Since student classroom behavior is r...
Chapter
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Adult education changes the social and psychological minds of adults more than any other profession. Adult education instills hope in adults and liberates them from their prejudice of seeing themselves as not being capable to learn.The main purpose of this paper was to investigate the strategies for effective management and Administration of Adult...
Experiment Findings
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India is multicultural and emerging globalized society. Indian education system is secular and democratic value based. Indian culture is the culture of diversity. So it is not a particular culture but mixture of various cultures. To transmit this culture from generation to generation, the role of education is very important. So, Indian multicultura...
Book
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This timely volume constitutes the first book-length account of implicit as well as explicit language attitudes. It details the findings of a large-scale study, incorporating cutting-edge implicit and self-report instruments adapted from social psychology, investigating the evaluations of over 300 English nationals of the status and social attracti...
Article
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Science diplomacy has been a recent phenomenon that has captured the attention of policymakers. However, science and science diplomacy had been at the forefront of international relations as early as the 1850s. In this paper, a retrospective view of the role of science diplomacy during Colonial rule and its role in strengthening the Indian Swadeshi...
Article
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In this study news discourses dealing with the Roma minority in Bulgaria are analyzed. One of the most problematic issues facing Bulgaria in terms of the EU membership process was its attitude toward minorities. The government implemented several policies in this regard and was finally accepted as a member. The overall situation of the Roma minorit...
Article
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Não há dúvidas sobre a importância da cafeicultura para a economia brasileira, fato revelado por um grande número de eventos nacionais e internacionais do setor. No entanto, somente nas últimas duas décadas as mulheres têm participado destes eventos, principalmente pelo preconceito que prevaleceu até o início do século XXI. O presente estudo foi re...
Article
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RESUMO Introdução: A prática de atividades físicas, em especial a hidroginástica, apresenta-se como uma ferramenta poderosa para o combate aos problemas físicos e biopsicossociais do idoso, porém percebe-se que o homem idoso ainda não encontra-se totalmente inserido nesta perspectiva de busca por uma melhoria na saúde e qualidade de vida. Objetivo:...
Article
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Background: Disability, and everything it encompasses, presents major challenges to individuals, families and communities worldwide. Children with disabilities (CWD) are marginalised and excluded in most societies. Discrimination and prejudice towards CWD are compounded by poverty, lack of essential services and support and sometimes a hostile and...
Article
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Christian-Muslim relations in recent times have raised concerns the world over. There have been increments in polemics and prejudices. Although the root causes of many of these have been political, religion has often been used as a tool to manipulate sentiments and legitimatize the political and social agenda. The lack of a hermeneutics of toleranc...
Conference Paper
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Smart toys are becoming increasingly present in children's lives, reinforcing the relevance of this market niche. Advances in user interfaces and artificial intelligence have been incorporated into smart toys to provide greater autonomy and inductive reasoning skills through machine learning. However, machine learning embedded in smart toys not onl...
Article
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Experiências de mulheres negras ao adoecer por câncer de mama: A imanência do sofrimento e cuidado Experiences of black women getting sick from breast cancer: The immanence of suffering and care Experiencias de mujeres negras que se enferman de cáncer de mama: La inmanencia del sufrimiento y el cuidado Resumo Objetivo: conhecer o sofrimento ao adoe...
Article
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Ideology and strategy are categories that have been studied independently and many definitions and concepts have been listed for them, But the ratio between these two categories cannot be measured only based on these independent reviews. In order for the relationship between ideology and strategy or ideological attitude and strategic thinking to be...
Article
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This work examines the influence of personal control and anxiety on stereotyping and prejudice. In two experiments, personal control was manipulated in an autobiographical experience task. In Experiment 1, participants then completed measures of implicit and explicit gender stereotypes. In Experiment 2, implicit and explicit racial prejudice was as...
Article
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Gender roles, relationships, customs, and expectations all play its roles in various levels of leadership and success. Promoting gender equity in the health business is an important aspect of the effort to attain healthy lifestyles and general well-being for all. The Sustainable Development Goals present an idealised global vision for social growth...
Article
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This study examines the relationship between personal traits, news use via YouTube algorithmic searches, and engagement with misinformation about U.S. Muslim congresswomen. Based on analyses of survey data, we find that those with lower cognitive ability and frequent algorithmic use were more likely to believe and share misinformation. Republicans...
Article
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Tourism has developed in Nevşehir and Antalya, two of the most significant destinations of today's Turkey, in 1960s. In line with the previous study in the related literature, it is possible to mention that the tourism activities in those regions have been triggered by the visits of the hippies. In this study, it is aimed to reveal the contribution...
Article
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A saúde mental é um assunto que está cada vez tomando proporção, especialmente na mídia. Isso se deve a uma maior ampliação de conhecimento na área da psicologia e psiquiatria, que aos poucos vai desvelando a mente humana e propondo melhores tratamentos para pacientes que antes costumavam ser negligenciados. No entanto, há algumas décadas, a saúde...
Article
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It is known that it has been a difficult process for many centuries for a woman to get her own freedom when viewed around the world. In this process, the emphasis that there are many social judgments that are important for a woman, and that the most basic thing that a woman is responsible for is her family, comes across as a situation that has b...
Conference Paper
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Facial forgery by deepfakes has raised severe societal concerns. Several solutions have been proposed by the vision community to effectively combat the misinformation on the internet via automated deepfake detection systems. Recent studies have demonstrated that facial analysis-based deep learning models can discriminate based on protected attribut...
Article
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Gender equality is a requirement of human rights. Reducing gender disparities and giving women greater agency have been part of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) since their inception in 2000. Millions of women and girls around the world are still subjected to discrimination because of their gender. Women faced social and economic discriminat...
Conference Paper
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Building and maintaining relationships are important to develop public relations professionals, and these activities, to gain more relevance with the advent of social networks. The ambience platforms enable the approximation and grouping of people with the same affinities and interests. In this way, the strategic communication positioning of the br...
Article
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Abstract Background: Discrimination is one or more unjustified negative behaviors towards a person based on one or more characteristics of that person. In the case of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) persons, they have been constant victims of stereotypes, prejudices, and discrimination around the world. However, few scientific studies explore the...
Technical Report
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The project Building the evidence base about economic, health, and social inequities faced by LGBTQ2S+ individuals in Canada aimed to address existing data and research gaps regarding LGBTQ2S+ peoples’ employment experiences and outcomes in Canada. Drawing on multiple data sources – including a literature review, interviews with experts, an analysi...
Article
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Today’s increased demand and consumption of fish would be impossible to ensure without aquaculture. Farmed fish, however, is often considered inferior among consumers in comparison to its wild counterparts. The aim of this study was to profile Croatian fishery consumers based on their intention to consume farmed fish. The participants in this study...
Preprint
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Facial forgery by deepfakes has raised severe societal concerns. Several solutions have been proposed by the vision community to effectively combat the misinformation on the internet via automated deepfake detection systems. Recent studies have demonstrated that facial analysis-based deep learning models can discriminate based on protected attribut...
Article
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Background Symptoms of functional neurological disorder tend to be variable, yet patients often report them being present constantly and of permanently severe intensity. Furthermore, they typically worsen when they are mentioned or during clinical examination. Such phenomena are sometimes interpreted as indicating symptom exaggeration or even fabri...
Preprint
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Abstract & Résumé & Zusammenfassung: Much has been written on the relationship of China and Africa in the past decade. However, the subject of Chinese migrant entrepreneurs in Africa and their articulation with African counterparts was little explored up to the early 2010s. Apparently, this research gap has been closed, as shown by four publication...
Article
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Despite increasing contact opportunities, prejudice toward refugees persists, especially in mass immigration contexts. We investigated changes in and associations between Turkish early adolescents’ ( N = 687, M age = 11.11 years) positive and negative contact with Syrian refugees and their outgroup approach-avoidance tendencies over 15 months (thre...
Article
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Islamophobia is an imposed term of the West broadly defined as a fear or hatred of Islam and its followers. Prejudice is considered an unjustifiable and harmful incident of discrimination that is related to the rise of Islamophobia. In western opinion, Muslims are warmongers who have extremist approaches towards life, and Islam is a backward religi...
Article
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Ageism as perceived by older individuals has been recognized as a potential risk factor for physical and mental health. We aimed to develop a comprehensive scale that can quantify perceived ageism among aging individuals (55+), including both positive and negative stereotypes, prejudices, and discriminations. This effort resulted in an 8-item Perce...
Article
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Exploring and understanding the different views related to disability is essential for developing effective educational programs to reduce the related stigma and prejudice. Our study aimed to explore the spontaneous representations of disability and causal related beliefs in a sample of Romanian preadolescents and understand them through the lenses...