Science method

Precipitation - Science method

. Precipitation occurs when a local portion of the atmosphere becomes saturated with water vapour, so that the water condenses and "precipitates," in the form of rain, drizzle, sleet, snow, graupel, or hail.
Questions related to Precipitation
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
1 answer
Hi everybody,
I'm about to extract HBV-DNA from plasma. I have modified some homemade methods that are regularly used for Human genome extraction. But I could not get enough DNA for positive plasma samples. I also had a problem with a high concentration of proteins in plasma. I tried a high concentration of NaCl (6M), but it couldn't precipitate even 50% of proteins. I just have seen this problem with serum samples. Maybe it is because of the high protein concentration of plasma. By the way, I also don't want to use the phenol/chloroform method.
Who can help me?
Thank you for your consideration in advance
Relevant answer
Answer
If you just want to pcr the dna you could try running nested pcr primers on the invisible amount of dna that you have or even on diluted serum. Nested pcrs are extremely sensitive and will amplify the tiniest amount of dna
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
3 answers
I am synthesizing a rare earth metal oxide based nanocomposite using citrate sol gel method which includes ammonium molybdate also as one of the starting material. during heat treatment there is formation of white colored precipitate that i assume to be due to ammonium compound. Lease anyone clarify this and suggest solution to avoid this problem.
Relevant answer
Answer
Do not use at heating temperatures above 50 degrees.
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
4 answers
Hello Everyone,
I am attempting to isolate mtDNA from rat myocardial tissue and running into some issues. When I run what I perceive to be mtDNA on a 0.5% agarose gel with 0.5ug/mL EtBr (120V constant) I see intact bands just below the wells that don't seem to run any further. The gel is run in 1x TAE buffer. I included a picture of this. The equipment we utilize to capture images is down so I used a handheld UV back light to get it. This picture was taken about 3 hours after starting the gel run. The mtDNA I isolated has a 260/280 ratio of 1.2 and ~0.40ug/uL concentration, which I loaded 6.4ugs to see whether I could see anything at all.
I have considered three possibilities in regards to this 1) I have no mtDNA 2) the mtDNA is bound to protein thus unable to migrate further 3) the mtDNA is degraded, which may be suggested by the smearing observed.
I isolated pure mitochondria from homogenized rat myocardial tissue then proceed to use the Abcam Mitochondrial DNA Isolation kit to isolate mtDNA. Our mitochondria isolation method works as we use this method to respirate them using an oxygen probe. The steps are mainly lysing the mitochondria then precipitating out the nucleic acids. I don't think the kit does a well job of breaking down proteins as suggested by my 260/280 ratio, therefore I want to add Proteinase K into my lysing incubation. Also I avoid vortexing when isolating mtDNA to prevent any degradation.
Do you have any suggestions to determine whether I do have mtDNA? Is 1D agarose gel electrophoresis enough to run a DNA of this size? If it helps we use BioRad 5x Nucleic Acid Sample Loading Buffer and BioRad EZ Load 1kb Molecular Ruler (1-15kB).
Thank you for your time and help.
Relevant answer
Answer
I tried wako and biovision kit to isolate mtDNA, but failed somehow. Only smeared band. I think maybe TBE buffer is suitable for longer running.
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
1 answer
I did my purification of GFP through affinity chromatography using Co-NTA column. however, my cell lysate is too little (HEK293t cell, ca 100µL lysate). My equate became very diluted after the elution. no protein band can be observe in my SDS page. anyone know how can I Precipitate or extract the GFP from the buffer? is using the ethanol method works?
Relevant answer
Answer
To concentrate the protein for SDS-PAGE, you can use any of several protein precipitation methods. I have often used the trichloroacteic acid (TCA)/sodium deoxycholate (DOC) method. One tenth sample volume of 72% TCA and one-tenth sample volume of 0.15% DOC are added to the sample in a microcentrifuge tube. The sample is incubated for at least 10 minutes on ice, then centrifuged at top speed of the microcentrifuge for 10 minutes. The supernatant is carefully and thoroughly removed. The pellet is dissolved in SDS-PAGE sample buffer. A 1-ml sample can be handled in this way and ultimately loaded on a single lane of a gel.
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
4 answers
Is an analysis of 61mg/L Fe (total) plausible from a deep confined siliciclastic aquifer ~420 m below ground level? Normally precipitation of FeS and FeS2 under redusing conditions will limit iron concentrations from getting anywhere near that high (i.e. 5 - 10mg/L Fe is often considered very high) . Can bacteria affect iron concentartions?
Relevant answer
Answer
Thanks Dalibor and Mostafa,
The pH is circum neutral 6.7 and the sample was unfiltered - it was noticeably reddish in colour - but still wasn't expecting such a high reading of ~61 mg/L (ie 5 mg/L is considered quite high). As far as we know there is nothing very usual about the aquifer - mature, quartz dominanted, Jurrassic-aged, siliciclastic sediments, trace pyrite is common - we need to check whether oxidation of the steel well screen maybe by bacteria mediated processes is causing the problem. The sample also contains 24 mg/L SO4 which may be unusal from such a deep sample and may be indicating some sort of redox process is taking place?
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
2 answers
HI researchers!
I am planning on purifying some alpha synuclein proteins from E.coli. Many method that I had come across use the Hiprep q ff column or sephadex columns as part of the purification step.
My question is, would it be ok for me to simply use ammonium sulfate for precipitation and then proceed with dialysis? Would this be adequate?
I would really get the advice and insights from those who are doing this regularly! Thank you in advance.
Best Regards,
Mathangi
Relevant answer
Answer
Alright, thank you so much!
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
3 answers
mAbs are purified using Pro A chromatography, eluted with acetate buffer pH 3.0 and pH was adjusted to 6.0, stored in fridge.
During thawing, entire protein gets precipitated.
Please share thoughts.
Relevant answer
Answer
Try a higher pH (e.g. 7.4, more physiological). Other options might be adding a carrier protein,e.g. BSA, detergents (Tween 20) or non reducing sugars (e.g. saccharose, sorbitol, mannitol). Glycerol in my experience is likely to inactivate your AB if you store it at 4degC, but good to keep it pipettable when storing it at -20.
Alternatively, flash freeze aliquots in liquid nitrogen and store at -80 or below or lyophilize it.
Add an antimaucrobial, e.g. sodium azide.
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
3 answers
How interpass temperature and TTT diagram are related to each other.
Relevant answer
Answer
AWS D1.6 specifies an interpass temperature of max. 175°C for stainless steels. This is mainly to avoid sensitisation. The interpass temperature is typically measured on the surface some distance from the weld (e.g. 1"/25mm). Thus, the actual temperature of the (bulk) weld may be significantly higher than the measured interpass temperature. This is why the max. interpass temperature is conservatively set well below the temperature where sensitisation can occur (above 500°C).
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
7 answers
I'm looking for methods of protein precipitation in high % sucrose, about 50-70%. It is sucrose gradient experiments for centrosome isolation. I tried TCA down, but there was no pellet. so I want to know proper precipitation methods in high sucrose sample.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thanks Adam
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
6 answers
Do we have a convenient database to get knowledge about mean annual values of precipitates (MAP) and temperatures (MAT) around the world? For example, I have longitude and latitude coordinates. How can I get MAP and MAT values?
Thank you!
Relevant answer
Answer
NASA keeps global precipitation climatology maps in its Global precipitation measurements (gpm) page and NOAA has a 'global climate dashboard' (climate(dot)gov) where you can choose your variable, location etc.
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
2 answers
Hi
I am new in wrf model.
I need to make a precipitation map using RAINC and RAINNC. I have a WRF model output (nc file).
How can I make the map?
Can I use python?
Can you help me ?
Thank you
Regards
Relevant answer
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
3 answers
After adding the TMB substrate, the colour of my samples change to blue. After 15minutes of incubation and added the Stop Solution, few minutes later, black precipitates occurred in the wells of my samples but my wells of standards are looking clear in yellow colour. Why black precipitate occurred in my samples ? And how to overcome the problem ?
Relevant answer
Answer
We ran a time course on the TMB and found that after five minutes we started seeing a precipitate. The absorbance values were still very satisfactory, so that resolved the problem for us.
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
6 answers
I used lars-wg6 to assess climate change for the years 2021_2040, the annual average precipitation during theses years shows 99percent decrease comparing to the observed data from 1984_2016.
Is this much decrease even possible?
Does anyone know where I might have made a mistake? Because I changed so many things yet the amounts are about the same.
Relevant answer
Answer
About 3,500 years ago, that happened in what is now Pakistan to about 5 million people living in 1,000 cities in what we call the Indus Valley civilization. They cut down the trees that were making the rainfall for their area to fire the bricks to build those cities--then the rain stopped and every one of those 1,000 cities were abandoned forever. Fortunately, science learned about 10 years ago, that by replanting the right native plants, we can bring the rain back to areas very quickly. Without replanting the correct native plants, and protecting them from grazing, agriculture and timber harvest, then there is the possibility of ending with a Mars-like rain-free condition.
The general rule that arid lands should use, is set aside 5 hectares of land as Ecological Restoration Preserves for every hectare of grazing land, agriculture land and timber harvest land as you want to have regular rainfall to support the human-utilized areas. Saudi Arabia in 2010 set aside 200 million acres as Ecological Restoration Preserves, based on my suggestion at https://www.ecoseeds.com/cool.html and this year starting the replanting of their whole country with one million tree PER WEEK at
Greening Saudi - Saudi Green Initiative
on how to increase the annual rainfall in Libya to about one meter, and those same methods of 1.) native planting, to change the dew point so clouds can form, 2.) rock dams in wadis to slow the flow so water goes into the aquifer instead of running off as flash floods, 3.) Solar panels on every roof to shade the roof and keep the homes cooler plus provide the electricity 4.) rooftop rain water catchment systems on every roof, for flushing toilets and watering gardens, 5.) Cloud seeding either with silver iodine or SNOMAX, and 6.) Replanting the native Pseudomonas host plants that produce the rain clouds, those bacteria that live on leaves of certain plants provide the raindrop nuclei--see https://www.discovermagazine.com/planet-earth/does-rain-come-from-life-in-the-clouds -- are some of the methods that could be tested on a small scale in every country facing water shortages.
Use your model and put some native vegetation in an area, and include the change in the soil surface temperature when you have an insulating layer of plants blocking the sun's heat. Then, your model should also show a change in the dew point, which should allow the formation of precipitation--in many cases you only need a 1-2 degree C. change in the night time dew point temp. to go from unbearable humidity and a deadly Heat Index, to nice cool huge increase in rainfall.
You could go out and get actual temp. changes for various kinds of plants, between bare soil temps and the insulating value underneath plants, as I did for the single native grass plant growing in the Mojave desert, shown above.
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
1 answer
One of my compounds, after synthesis, was washed with methanol. When I tried to spot it on a TLC plate, the methanol part (which had some residues in it) solidified/formed a precipitate in the capillary tube.
After this when I rotary evaporated the methanol it didn't form any solid/precipitate.
Why did either of these things happen?
Relevant answer
Answer
The reason why the methanol part solidified/formed in the capillary tube may be the solvent volatilizes or the high concentration of the product.
After evaporation, the residue may be a mixture, or the melting point of the product may be lower than the evaporation temperature.
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
3 answers
Hello everyone, I applied PCA in python by taking lagged climate indices and then used its resulted two principal components (showing maximum variance) with GLDAS satellite data precipitation values in multiple linear regression to predict monthly precipitation. My data was 38 years monthly data. The correlation between GLDAS and model's predicted precipitation on the training set was 0.50 and on the test set was 0.49.
I wanted to check the model's performance further so I took 22 years monthly TRMM data and calculated PCA on 22 years monthly lagged climate indices. I entered the obtained two PC values in the previous developed multiple linear regression equation and acquired the predicted monthly precipitation. The correlation was calculated between the TRMM and model predicted precipitation which was negative -0.45.
What is the reason that I got negative correlation and what this negative correlation shows?
Relevant answer
Answer
TRMM shows the amount of condensed water in the atmosphere. Not all condensed water falls to the surface of the earth. Water does not always fall on the surface of the earth in the place where the satellite showed. Maybe this is the problem. What is the spatial scale of averaging? This may be important.
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
6 answers
I mixed my small molecule with dppc surfactant in water and I did not achieve NPs. However, when I repeated the procedure with PBS instead of water I was able to form NPs. why is this?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Yasmin Choaie, I think the PBS buffer worked on the zwitterionic charges of dppc inducing thus their self-assembly. Please be aware by these two remarks:
- you said PBS instead of water ! PBS is water buffered solution.
- are you sure that your 'small molecule ' has been entrapped/encapsulated by dppc?
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
3 answers
Hello,
We trying to use glibenclamide at [C]=1000μM in a cell culture medium, from a stock solution at 1000mM in DMSO. Each time we add the glibenclamide to the cell culture medium it seems to precipitate.
Could someone who has tried this protocol explain the way to do it please ?
Thank you !
Relevant answer
Answer
It has to do with the concentration of glibenclamide. The reason why you have precipitation is surely because the conc. of the stock added (1000mM) is to high. You should further dilute the stock before adding into the plate.
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
2 answers
I want to prepare a nanoparticle with fucoidan and strontium salt in the presence of a crosslinker. Anytime I prepare this solution, precipitates keep forming at the end of process, however, I want to obtain a turbid or cloudy solution without any precipitate.
Please what are the necessary conditions that I can use to solve this problem?
Relevant answer
Answer
By adopting right method and meticulously following the procedure.
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
1 answer
Hello everyone,
I have a question about the "Gordon-Sweets" histological staining, used in my case to highlight the reticulin fibers in the mouse femur. Despite the steps carried out as the protocol and the attention to wash with water, at the time of observation under the microscope many granules / precipitates of dye are visible, that prevent a clean view of the sample.
Currently I have not found any ways to avoid or reduce them, has anyone ever had this problem? How was it fixed?
Tanks for tour attention!!
Relevant answer
Answer
Just from your explanation: It sounds like the source stain, once in or on your samples, has either become insoluble to your washing step material, or you do not have s good method in place for the washing step. Washing may need to be a solvent of some kind. It also sounds like at lest some of your stain may be crystalizing either in contact with your samples, or in a drying step, or in the washing step.
As you can see, there can be many causes for this annoying result.
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
2 answers
I am analyzing dendrometric data in white spruce growing in NY state. During all years annual precipitations were quite high (1000 mm plus), and summer precipitation (May -August) never drop below 300. At the same time, we see clear decline in the growth rate during summers with high air temperature (at least several days with Ta>30 oC) and higher growth rates during colder years (not more than 2-3 days with Ta> 30 oC). Summer precipitation are slightly (positively) correlated with temperature. Summer soil moisture oscillated from 30-25 % to 10-20% by volume. Preliminary data on this study were recently published ( ). At this time I am thinking about additional measurements or modeling which can help to pinpoint the exact mechanism of described spruce behavior. This could be thermal stress but not sure how to separate direct temperature impact (e.g. increase in stomatal conductance with temperature) from soil moisture limitations?
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you for this interesting paper. It shows that for drought damage in plants variability in VPD, perhaps, is less important than variability in soil moisture (SM). VPD can change, however, not only because of SM, but because of air temperature. As air becomes warmer the relative humidity declines (Clausius-Clapeyron equation), and, under constant specific humidity, -VPD increases. Therefore, in most cases SM signals cant be separated from VPD or temperature signals. Another problem is that temperature has other mechanisms of photoinhibition as well as mechanistic controls of sap flow (e.g. via changes in sap density). I wonder if there are any comprehensive review of experiments on high plants where air temperature, VPD and SM were all controlled? Control irrigation experiments where soil moisture was kept at field capacity while air temperature was elevated at constant VPD?
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
2 answers
Hi, I am trying to synthesize alpha-amino gamma-butyrolactone hydrobromic acids from DL-methionine. I am using ethanol: water as medium and DMS to react with Methionine. after the complete process, I am unable to crystalline the product. what could be the reason?
looking for suitable answer
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Mahally Judsy, Thanks for the response. I am putting final product in ice. but still can not get. what else could be the reason.?
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
2 answers
Generally, Tannins precipitate Alkaloids.
Then, why tannins present in tea do not precipitate and neutralize the caffeine and other alkaloids present in the Tea?
Thanks in advance
Relevant answer
Answer
Interesting question. I've seen caffeine/theobromine co-precipitate with cacao procyanidins in organic solvents (e.g., ACN, MeOH). May play somewhat differently in water. Phenomenon likely due to larger degrees of polymerization (DP) in cacao relative to tea. One needs a fairly high concentration of dimeric or trimeric tannin to precipitate BSA. Once you exceed <3DP, it will precipitate BSA quite readily. The proline residues responsible for tannin binding/precipitation are structurally similar to caffeine. Thoughts?
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
3 answers
I am studying about Staphylococcal phage and I obtained lytic bacteriophage. Now, I want to precipitate Bacteriophage using pEG6000 with 2.5 M NaCl. How can we preparation PEG-6000 20% + NaCl 2.5 M for bacteriophage precipitation? and how can we adjust their volume (?uL of peg6000/? uL of NaCl), Could you help me, please?
Relevant answer
Answer
how can I create drought conditions by using PEG 6000 for drought-resistant rhizobacteria in the laboratory to check their drought-resistant attributes
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
2 answers
I just want to Run RHtests V4 and RHtests_dly Prcp on R provided for checking in-homogeneities in temperature and precipitation.The website ( http://etccdi.pacificclimate.org/software.shtml ) gave me the packages in .txt format. What is wrong with my procedure to get (.r ) extension? Thanks
Relevant answer
Answer
Thanks!
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
3 answers
Using a Tris-HCl, EDTA, and Triton-x-100 lysis buffer for DNA extractions. I autoclaved it and stored in in the 4C fridge. After a few days, white flakes precipitated out of the buffer. Is it ok to heat the lysis buffer to re-dissolve everything? Should I make a new batch? How do I prevent this in the future?
Relevant answer
Answer
EDTA can precipitate at low temperatures, you should be fine to warm it up to redissolve. You should be fine to store at RT unless you have other ingredients not listed here.
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
5 answers
Hey there,
Is there someone who has experience with neural networks or similar technology and predicted groundwater levels with it? I am asking for an application having groundwater level measurements, Temperature, vapore pressure and precipitation.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thanks Shima. That was very helpful and appreciated
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
3 answers
I prepare NiSe nanoparticles, when I put the nickel source and then capping under N2 at room temperature, I adjust PH with NaOH, and the sample color turns black immediately before adding the selenide source, Does this mean that NaOH reacted with the nickel source?
After half an hour of stirring, some amount of the sample begins to precipitate. What is the problem?
Relevant answer
Answer
I agree with the Yuri answer above. You can have some insights by looking to reported Pourbaix Diagram (attached for the Nickel and selenide case). You want to avoid formation of Ni(OH)2 which is quite stable, will precipitate and will hinder your reactions. You NiSe nanoparticles need to be synthesized at acidic pH.
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
5 answers
In identification tests, unusually color was appeared with Fehling test, while the positive test is to form a precipitate.    
Relevant answer
Answer
sir did you get the possible answer for the green suspension ?
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
7 answers
Hi,
I'm trying to run some immunoprecipitation experiments but am not getting the expected results.
I'm following the IP protocol provided by the supplier. In a nutshell, I react 100-500ug of cell homogenate with 2ug of antibody overnight then precipitate that with 100ul of protein G agarose beads. I elute the proteins by boiling the beads in 2x SDS sample buffer with 0.1M DTT.
The antibodies are validated for IP experiments by the supplier. I've tested the antibodies against a purified form of the antigen and it works. I also tested the crude cell homogenate to ensure the antigen I'm trying to pulldown is there.
The only thing left is the protein G beads so I want to see if I can somehow test the beads to make sure they're working properly.
Thanks in advance
Relevant answer
Answer
In addition to the suggestions by Dominique Liger, for a functional test of protein G beads, you could make a small column with e.g. 0.5ml of beads, pass a little of bovine (or human) serum through them, wash with PBS end elute with an acidic buffer (e.g. 50mM glycine HCl, pH 2.5). You then should find the IgGs in the eluate, detectable as protein by photometry or of course by Western, if you have suitable anti species ABs.
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
1 answer
I have 20 years of daily rain data for 9 station (about 7345 days each), and I intend on conducting IDW to estimate the catchment's precipitation.
this will be for the purpose of comparing GPM data to in situ rain stations and the applicability of GPM in flood forecasting.
what is the easiest way to conduct this amount of IDWs, and is there a way to have an organized output in one sheet ?
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
3 answers
Hello friends,
I need to calculate such extreme precipitation indices (e.g., R5D, R20, RR1..etc) using R programming or Python. I will be thankful for any kind of help.
note that:
R5D --> the highest 5-day precipitation amount for each year.
R20 --> the annual count of days with precipitation >20 mm.
RR1 --> the annual count of rainy days > 1mm.
Regards,
Relevant answer
Answer
It seems that you likely read in netCDF files, ege.from https://psl.noaa.gov/data/gridded/data.unified.daily.conus.html.
There are many tutorials and videos you can google on how to access netCDF data via R. I find this one nice: https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/futureheatwaves/vignettes/starting_from_netcdf.html
Once you have the data in R, then the calculations boil down to applying some "moving window"or "sliding window" function on a numeric vector.
In R you can use filter() for this purpose:
R5D <- filter(x, rep(1, n = 5), sides = 2) # gives sums on 5-day windows
which.max(R5D) # gives index of largest 5-day sum
From the date vector ("date"), that should be of class dateTime, you can create a vector containg the only the year:
year <- format(date, "%Y")
This vector can be used to split the precipitation vector ("prec") into yearly chunks (it's a list of numeric vectors):
precip_chunks <- split(precip, year)
No you can apply and kind of function on these chunks, e.g.
RD20 <- sapply(precip_chunks, function(x) sum(x>20))
or
RR1 <- sapply(precip_chunks, function(x) sum(x>1))
etc.
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
2 answers
I am studying the aging effects of the ink mixture containing particles and resin. Sometimes I can observe particle precipitation in the bottom of the vial. But sometimes I cannot observe, and the ink mixture looks more like gel. So what could happen chemically in the ink mixture?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Kaiyue Deng, most likely this is a dispersion which have strict stability conditions. Any thing that may causes breaking one or more of these conditions provoke destabilization of the dispersion, and consequently the system manifestes by precipitation or phase separation. Among these sources, ageing, evaporation of the dispersing medium, failure of the protecting colloid surfactant, and so on. My Regards
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
4 answers
I'm working on the purification of a botanical extract rich in saponins and I need to remove the polysacharides content from it. Any suggestion on how to do it, will be very appreciated.
Thanks a lot,
Elias
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Atala,
Mostly polysaccharides are precipitated using different concentration of ethanol depending upon nature and molecular weight of polysaccharides. In your case triterpene glycosides are your interested constituents, you may isolate them with the help of Affinity Chromatography by using special stationary phase friendly to your compounds. The following paper may more helpful for you.
Doi: 10.1007/978-1-61779-624-1_16
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
6 answers
Material flow during FSW varies from one zone to another in the SZ depending on the FSW tool profile and significant heating caused by tool material interaction. Similarly, the distribution of precipitates in the SZ is not similar. The appearance of precipitates is found mostly different in the advancing side, retreating side, top middle zone and bottom of the SZ. Hence, is there any significant correlation between the nature of precipitation with material flow during friction stir welding of materials?
Relevant answer
Answer
Material flow does not have any role on the precipitates during welding of precipitation hardenable aluminum alloys (AA2XXX, AA6XXX and AA7XXX). More heat is generated on the advancing side than the retreating side. This is the reason for variation in the state of precipitates across the stir zone from advancing side to retreating side.
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
5 answers
hi everyone
I need this dataset to do my thesis.
can you help me?
Relevant answer
Answer
Just as Dennis Becker has explained, which also depends on what you want and the purpose for which you need the data.
You may also consider the hybrid data that combine different data sources like; https://www.chc.ucsb.edu/data/chirps
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
1 answer
Hi guys. I am pretty baffling with the terms "continues precipitation" and "discontinues precipitation". A lot of article describe the difference of these two precipitations by morphology of precipitate. However, such description cannot explained the origin of "continues" and "discontinues". Is there any formal definition of these two precipitation?
Relevant answer
Answer
continous precipitation: It is generally coherent precipitation, there is coherency between planes of precipitates and the matrix,where ininformation of planes of coherent particles are in the registry of the matrix,they provide maximum hindrence to dislocations providing greatest strength. While dis-continous precipitation: It is generally incoherent precipitation,doesn't result in maximum hardness of the specimen and there is no coherency between planes of precipitates and the matrix.
thanks & regards,
g. sudhakar,
phd(materials engineering).hcu
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
3 answers
I have developed a syrup at pH 3 of a BCS class II molecule using propylene glycol, beta Cyclodextrin, citric acid, antimicrobial preservative, and sweeting agent. But i every time get precipitation after holding 2 to 3 days. When shake the bottle i found smoke like floating of these precipitation. How can I fix the problem. I am looking forward to your help.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you sir @phil Geis for your valuable comment. I conducted microbial test and found no growth which made me confirm that it is not from microbial contamination.
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
6 answers
Nessler's reagent before use has a precipitation form in the tube. Still, when I make some microliters from it to do the solution it produces a milky aspect, so, the spectrophotometer couldn't read its absorbance because of this color.
How can I avoid this reaction?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear all, please have a look at the following similar RG thread. My Regards
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
2 answers
Hello,
I have a huge number of data and I need to calculate such categorical statistical indices (e.g., POD, FAR, CSI, ETS) using python or R. I will be thankful for any kind of help.
Regards,
Relevant answer
Answer
Binary Forecast Verification is included within SwirlsPy - open-source Python lib:
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
2 answers
I've been trying to do invitro transcription of 70 bp long DNA oligo using T7 RNA polymerase to figure out formation of G-quadruplex structure. The following components are added to the master mix for 20uL reaction volume:
1. 200nM ds DNA (prepared in 50mM tris and 10mM MgCl2),
2. Transcription buffer {trisCl (pH 8), 2mM spermidine, 50mM KCl, 10mM MgCl2, 10mM DTT} followed by
3. 40% PEG 200 and at last 2mM NTP .
I have successfully carried out transcription using this method earlier but now gradually the transcription seems to be having an issue.
The problem is when NTP is added to mixture having peg 200 , it immediately forms white precipitate. I tried repeating this in absence of peg and seen that there is no ppt formation. Not able to understand why is it happening. Is there any report of interaction of peg 200 with NTP?
After EDTA addition, the precipitate disappears. To check if DNA is precipitating due to Mg2+ chelation, I have also made the reaction mixture in absence of DNA , still I can see precipitate formation.
Can someone please help.
Note: I have assembled the reaction in room temperature.
Thanks in advance.
Relevant answer
Answer
It is the magnesium precipitation with phosphate or pyrophosphate. When the transcription happens, pyrophosphate is generated, if you don't add pyrophosphatase, then Mg will form insoluble magnesium pyrophosphate with it. if you add PPase, Mg will form Magnesium sulphates with the monophosphate. And the precipitation should be a sign for successful transcription.
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
1 answer
I am trying to complex small peptides (~7000-9000 MW) with plasmids (roughly 6000 bp) to condense the later down to form particles. Recently, I've run into an issue when trying to concentrate my materials. If I use a higher concentration of plasmid and scale the peptide to it (using N/P ratios) a precipitate will form in solution after mixing. The solutions do contain some salt in the form of PBS and the precipitate does lessen when the salt is removed. Does anyone have any tricks for getting these materials to play nicely with each other and stay in solution? Thanks!
Relevant answer
Answer
The mixing order could have an effect, compare protocols for the use of transfection reagents. Another option might be to add reagents that complex charged groups and will shield them. Possibly, stuff like (bridged) trialkylamines can do the trick.
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
6 answers
Hello,
I was using RIPA for protein lysis. I have recently seen a white precipitation formation after adding the Pierce reagent. We tried dilution of protein but still saw that white formation. Does anyone have a similar problem? how do you get over it? Any suggestion would be appreciated.
Thanks.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear all, please have a look at the following similar RG thread. My Regards
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
3 answers
The small municipality where I work (in Europe) has received an application for a wastewater permit, with treated discharge from several waste streams from a landfill, into our munipality's wastewater system. The landfill has applied to receive dewatered sludge from wastewater treatment facilities, which would then be stored outside where it is exposed to precipitation, then later applied as an agricultural ammendement if it meets those standards. The stored sludge would generate highly polluted runoff (COF, BOF, N, P, etc) which would be routed to a sedimentation pond (lagoon), where it will then be discharged into our wastewater system. We (the engineers handling the permit) think this is ludicrous, and have as a first step suggested that the sludge be stored in such a way that it is not exposed to precipitation. This would most likely require a building or roofed area approximately 8 000 m2. Large and costly, but not outrageously large and costly. Any other suggestions for how the sludge can be stored or processed so that it isn't dewatered, 'watered', and then the wastewater treated and sent back again to the wastewater treatment plant.
Thanks in advance.
Relevant answer
Answer
Compressed briquettes of the sludge can be stored. Or it can supply to brick kiln and cement industry for mixing in equal proportion. Incineration could be another option for resource recovery from the sludge but it is always a costier process.
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
2 answers
We are trying to prepare sodium hypochlorite solution for decontamination purposes. But sodium hypochlorite powder is not dissolving in water and remains precipitated. Any help will be appreciated. Thanks.
Relevant answer
Answer
Some of the important facts are highlighted below as well like concentration of sodium hypochlorite used
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
1 answer
Hello there,
I have read many papers that have either added Ferric Quinate/Citrate to the main media before or after autoclaving. I did not observe any main differences, except that Ferric Quinate precipitates above 40 uM.
What are some of your recommendations and why?
Thanks!
Relevant answer
Answer
I have noticed the same thing, and actually, I did TEM imaging of the precipitates and the bacteria tend to adhere to them. They also seem to have a particle-like morphology, and they look very similar to some iron nanoparticles that I have made before by thermal autoclaving around the same temperature 150C. I would filter the solution and add it aseptically afterwards; also some vitamins are heat-liable, so I would add those after, too.
Hope this helps.
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
5 answers
Hi,
I have a time series data for precipitation and temperature over a specific region and I need to regrid in different resolution, for instance, from 0.25 degree to 0.1 degree, using Matlab or R. I will be thankful for any help.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hadir Abdelmoneim Bassyouni Hi! did you find a solution? I am looking for something similar for SWE data.
Thanks
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
3 answers
I was trying to calculate the percentage change of Standardized Precipitation Index values using Sen's slope. What I observed was that the percentage became extraordinarily large as the time scale of SPI values increased reaching as high as ~40,000% for a 12-month time scale. I was not sure if this was even plausible (doesn't seem so) so I tried to find the reasons for such values. A possible reason I found was the presence of negative values of SPI which reduced the mean and thus, increased the percentage change. I want to ask if I should calculate the mean of the SPI after converting negative values to positive (modulus of negative values) or what I have done already is correct?
Relevant answer
Answer
As SPI can be negative and positive with the mean value close to 0, the percentage change is generally not applicable to such variables. The trend can be simply described by the slope, like temperature change in °C/(10a).
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
3 answers
As you may know, the SPI values after calculation are obtained on a monthly basis with suitable skips in the months for corresponding time scales. What I want to know is that how should I prepare the rainfall dataset against these SPI values. For 1-month SPI values, each month in a say, 50 year time period is a data point, i.e., 50X12=600 months. So, should I prepare a time series containing monthly rainfall for each of these 600 months? And will the same time series be used for 3-month, 6-month and 12-month SPI values with a skip of repsective months?
Relevant answer
Answer
İ think this is correct approach, becouse both time series represent the same period
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
7 answers
Hello,
I would like to review recent developments in high-strength alloy systems for applications at 1200 oC. As far as I know, Ni-based superalloys lose their strength over 1000 oC due to the dissolution of Ni3Al precipitates. Therefore I am wondering about what alloys systems (preferably non-refractory) are used for very high temperature (1200 oC) applications? Any recent developments in Ni-based superalloys that permit high temperature usage? Kindly provide some references.
Thank you.
Relevant answer
After Vadim Verlotski , I recommend for you to start with the recent review by P.Tsakiropoulos, as its present the trends for developing Nb-silicide based alloys as feasible alloys for application at ultra-high temperatures for their density, oxidation and mechanical properties.
Best regards
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
7 answers
I have calculated Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) values using "SPEI" package in R. Interestingly, I have got some zero values of SPI for about 10 months in the same year and this has happened for multiple years. I was wondering about the possibility of this to happen as I haven't seen anything like this in the papers that I've been through. Please do tell if there is someting wrong here.
Relevant answer
Answer
Andrea Galletti I assumed it to be in a Gamma distribution as that's the default setting but I'll take a look just to make sure.
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
15 answers
Thanks in advance to anyone who will answer. I am trying to precipitate caseins in raw skim milk without using isoelectric precipitation. My goal is in fact to obtain caseins in their native structures. I have already tried centrifugation at 30000 x g for 1 h and it seems to work pretty well. However, the centrifuged pellet seems to be in e gel-like form, so I'm afraid the present proteins are highly denatured. Do you have any suggestion?
Thanks again.
Relevant answer
Answer
The usual first step is to centrifuge the milk to remove the fat and precipitate the casein micelles with low pH or precipitating agents. ... If the majority of the product protein associates with either the fat or micelles, this can be used to advantage. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1429861/
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
3 answers
Hi
I work on complex fe(iii)-tannic acid , but I find precipitate of blue-black color, although ph=2
Can any one help me?
Relevant answer
Answer
Then you can lyophilize the complex and use it for further applications.
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
1 answer
Hi, I'd like to ask whether it is necessary to precipitate MMLV Reverse transcriptase before affinity chromatography purification (Äkta)? My colleague must do this step with his Taq DNA polymerase. He use (NH4)2SO4 or Na2SO4 + PEG. Without this precipitation is polymerase inactive.
Thank you for your responses.
Bohuš
Relevant answer
Answer
the so called Pluthero method to purify Taq is quite old (1993) and while simple it can result in low yields and DNA contaminants (see "A simple and efficient method for extraction of Taq DNA polymerase" 2015)
I don't think the ammonium sulphate precipitation is required for activity (please correct me if I' wrong) but it may be worth a try on MMLV RT, as they are very different proteins. Yields are sometimes not very important and Am sulph precipitation can be a very useful method to isolate/purify and concentrate protein preps. I might just use a modern MMLV RT prep like this https://www.protocols.io/view/recombinant-protein-expression-of-mmlv-rt-h-yxmvmxmw9l3p/v1?version_warning=no
iff your constructs are similar, good luck!
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
10 answers
I have encountered many papers, where NaOH is added to precipitate a nanocomposite, whether it is a sulfide or an oxide nanocomposite. I want to know the principle behind adding it.
Relevant answer
Answer
Basically on the addition of NaOH we are precipitating out the metal hydroxide. This metal hydroxide is then heat treated to finally yield metal oxides.
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
3 answers
I have monthly precipitation time series consisting of 113 years. Is there a upper limit on number of outliers determined ? Several methods detect outliers based on various criteria and treatment techniques. Which is the best method for a treating an Outlier
Relevant answer
Answer
Take a look at these papers and especially the references to Ruey Tsay
papers on time series outliers. He is the expert. Best wishes David Booth
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
3 answers
Recently I stored pH probe in 3M Kcl solution, But after few days the salt get's precipitated in the bottom of the falcon tube (50 mL) and also the salts gets rises up along the surface walls of pH probe and get's precipitated. I'd like to know the possible reason for this ?
Relevant answer
Answer
Evaporation and/or temperature decrease during night. Just add water on the top.
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
14 answers
Hi
I have the time series described below:
1) Observed monthly cumulative precipitation data (mm) - attached (data.xlsx)
2) Historical monthly cumulative precipitation data (mm) produced by the MIROC model for the nearest node to the physical station (Observed data coordinate) - attached (data.xlsx)
I couldn't find a regression or relation between them. I tried ANN and Data analysis tools and some statistical methods.
Could you please let me know how to find a relation between these time series?
Best regards
Relevant answer
Answer
You are right.
I think the best source of CMIP6 data (for now) is the link below:
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
3 answers
I have a dry ethanolic extract of a plant. For MTT assay, I mixed the dry extract with PBS, it formed immiscible cloudy precipitation. Note that, I also tried another sample with 10% DMSO and 90% PBS, and still it's precipitated.
Is it fine to microfilter the solution to prepare the treatment stocks?
Relevant answer
Answer
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
6 answers
Hello everyone
I have precipitation data at 5 different meteorological stations. All of these stations have missing data. I have tried MCMC method using XLSTAT.
It gives negative values for some of the observations. (plz see attached file)
Can anyone guide me what to do with these values?
Should these be replaced with zero or considered as missing again?
Or any other way?
Thanks in anticipation
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
4 answers
I prepared complete epicult c human medium for a breast cell line generation protocol. I supplemented it with Penstrep, although it wasn't explicitly stated. After 2 weeks of storage at 4 °C, i saw precipitates beneath a clear medium. After shaking, the medium was foamy and cloudy. Has any one experienced this? I desperately need help. Any and all inputs will be very much appreciated. Thanks.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello Dingy,
Thanks, and yes Kiran contacted me and has been very helpful.
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
10 answers
I am using RUSLE model for determining erosion in watersheds of Nepal. I want to know the level of erosion due to precipitation in monsoon. So can I use precipitation of only monsoon months (June- September) in the model instead of average annual precipitation ?
Relevant answer
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
6 answers
Someone could help me to make this type of map on QGIS or R. I already have data from the 11 synoptic stations as in the figure but unlike the map my data is from 1960 to 2020. I would like to make this map to highlight the climate change of the last decades.
Relevant answer
Answer
Yes Coly,
you got me right. You are thinking in right direction.
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
8 answers
I need to create a spatial map of precipitation data for a specific basin using python or R. I will be thankful if anyone can help me by sharing python or R code.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Hadir,
You can plot precipitation map by using the following Python script. Meanwhile, here are some links for Python applications in meteorology:
https://unidata.github.io/python-gallery/examples/index.html
https://hatarilabs.com/ih-en/regional-precipitation-analysis-with-python
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
4 answers
Hi Guys!
I'd like to download future precipitation data from Worldclim.org. There are several GCMs such as: https://www.worldclim.org/data/cmip6/cmip6_clim2.5m.html .
Does anyone know which GCM is better for South Asian country, Bangladesh?
Thanks Much!
Rabiul Islam
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi, you can choose Can-ESM5 model with SSP128,256 and 585 for a high quality research.
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
4 answers
I am trying to use 4-aminobenzophenone (which the manufacturer claimed its soluble in cold water ) in an aqueous reaction medium.
I found it hard to dissolve in cold water, but it dissolved in DMSO. But when I added the DMSO-dissolved 4-Aminobenzophenone, it precipitates out.
Please, how can I achieve the solubilization of 4-Aminobenzophenone in aqueous media.
Than you
Relevant answer
Answer
Hana shuker Mahmood Thank you so much for this.
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
1 answer
I want to use isolated histones with the Abcam Histone H3 Modification Multiplex Assay Kit (ab185910) and need to know if using a trichloroacetic acid or acetone precipitation step when isolating the histones will preserve or destroy histone modifications such as acetylation, methylation, and phosphorylation for detection by antibodies.
Relevant answer
Answer
Instead of the kit, which uses either TCA or acetone (you can lose phosphorylation with acids), if you have enough cells, you could try hydroxyapatite purification, eluted by 2M NaCl, and concentrate the 2M eluates
using an Amicon. You can dialyze out the salt vs. 150mM NaCl-TE buffer (see Walkiewicz, Bui et al from my lab on the full protocol). Good luck, happy histone mod hunting! Cheers, Yamini
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
8 answers
Hello everyone,
I am trying to evaluate by western blotting proteins secreted by cells to the culture medium (in cell cultures). I found a precipitation protocol with TCA/Acetone (https://www.its.caltech.edu/~bjorker/Protocols/TCA_ppt_protocol.pdf) but I was wondering if I should I first separate the floating cells in the culture medium to have just the soluble protein in the supernatant or should I add directly TCA solution to the medium taken from the cell culture?
I hope to read your answers and thanks in advance :)
Relevant answer
Answer
You should first collect the conditioned media containing the floating cells, dead cells and cellular debris and centrifuge this media at 900× g for 10 min at 4 °C so that the soluble proteins remain in the supernatant and other unwanted components (cells) are pelleted down. Then proceed further.
Best.
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
4 answers
How to avoid precipitation (or) How to get Uniformity of final liquid laundry detergent solution? we always get small amount precipitation after few hours. How to solve this problem?
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello sir,
Could you please tell me what method did you use for the formulation?
Do Check out if the method needs improvement.
Other than that, You can check out the possible reason causing Precipitation.
It can be either due to the
1) formation of insoluble complexes
or
2) two oppositely charged particles leading to electrostatic attraction clubs together
or
3) complexes interact with one another and form a neutral aggregation
or
and consequently results in precipitate
Please take a look at these articles, It may be useful!
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
7 answers
I am looking for daily/ monthly / annual temperature and precipitation data for southern African Cities and National parks. If there is anyone with a link, please help and also on how to extract it. I tried Worldclim.org/data but cant extract it....is there a special software for this?
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Lazarus Chapungu , the worldclim data is given as raster and you can easily extract values using the raster package in R; here is an easy-to-follow guide (https://gisday.wordpress.com/2014/03/24/extract-raster-values-from-points-using-r/comment-page-1/).
The CRU dataset suggested by David Mendes is good but If you are looking for station dataset, you can find them on the Ogimet website (www.ogimet.com), a Weather Information Service. However, please note that this is given in the United Nations World Meteorological Organization’s Synoptic, METAR, and SPECI codes. To decipher these codes, please find the key to the codes here: https://www.nodc.noaa.gov/archive/arc0021/0002199/1.1/data/0-data/HTML/WMO-CODE/WMO4677.HTM.
I hope this helps!
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
4 answers
  • How can I measure concentration of peptides or proteins after using extraction buffer containing DTT, urea and thiourea?
  • I´m using this extraction buffer: 2% SDS, 0,1 PBS, 25 mM DTT, 8M urea, 6M thiourea.
  • After, I precipitate proteins using aceton.
  • BUT: I´ve got just these commercial kits: PierceTM BCA Protein Assay Kit (REF 23227) or PierceTM Quantitative Colorimetric Peptide Assay (REF 23275). Both of them are incompatible with DTT and high concentration of urea/thiourea (according to the manufacturer).
Thank you very much for help!
Relevant answer
Answer
If you are able to precipitate the proteins from this extraction buffer using acetone without precipitating the interfering substances too, then you can resuspend the pellets in acetone to wash them, pellet them again, and dissolve them in the BCA assay buffer for the assay.
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
1 answer
I am looking at telomerase activity using the TRAP assay, using previously processed samples from peripheral blood that seem to have DNA contamination/telomere fragments.
The problem I am having is that I am seeing some telomerase banding in some samples after heat treating and inactivating the enzyme. Therefore, I am getting a positive signal in what should be my negative controls.
I do not get signal in my CHAPS negative control or heat treated positive control pellet. I have ruled out contamination and uneven heating during heat inactivation.
I would like to try to clean any previous DNA from the samples but leave the telomerase intact and functional.
Relevant answer
Answer
this previous discussion thread might give you some other ideas as well on removal of DNA contaminants from lysates- https://www.researchgate.net/post/How_can_I_remove_DNA_from_bacterial_crude_lysates
best wishes
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
4 answers
I have prepared simulated body fluid (SBF) many times, as reported by Kokubo et al., Biomaterials, 2006. However, I am experiencing great difficulty to prepare concentrated or super-saturated SBF with 5 times concentration or more. Beyond 7 pH, precipitation is happening, even though we add the Tris buffer very slowly...
How to avoid precipitation while preparing higher concentration SBF?
Relevant answer
Answer
1. Add tris buffer dropwise with help of either separating funnel or funnel drop.
2.Try to use fresh glass bottle, by doing so you can stop precipitation. because used glass bottles/beakers may contain some roughness on its surface and this roughness might cause precipitation.
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
3 answers
My supervisor told me that there are some ways to extract data using a programming language. I would greatly appreciate it if someone can guide me a little on this.
Relevant answer
Answer
You can use terra package from R to extract the data. https://github.com/rspatial/terra
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
3 answers
Hello Everyone,
I am trying to precipitate protein using organic solvents such as acetonitrile and isopropanol. The ppt occurs but as soon I add TFA (1%) or TFA in an organic solvent the ppt does not occur. Also, I tried using TCA up to 30% but no ppt. Does anyone have a similar issue when using TCA or any acid?
My objective is to ppt the protein and analyze the supernatant, which contains saponins by HPLC-UV.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hey dude! I hope you are keeping well! We have had luck using saturated NH4SO4 to ppt protein out. Add a small volume to the protein solution make it 5050 with MeCN and pellet out the protein.
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
3 answers
Dear community!
Does anyone know how to create a solution of Zn2+ (at least 200mM, but even better at 1M) at pH 7, but avoiding Zn2+ from precipitation as Zn(OH)2? The solution will be used at room temp.
I was thinking if there was any specific counter ions that could help Zn2+ of staying in solution..
Any advice is immensely appreciated!
Thank you very much!
Daniel
Relevant answer
Answer
The profile distribution of Zn and the Zn2+-pH isotherms of savanna alfisols irrigated with untreated wastewater
hope so this paper gives you an idea about the work thank you
  • asked a question related to Precipitation
Question
7 answers
I want to make a plot representing the 14 biomes defined by Olson (2001) with the same style from Whittaker diagram.
For this purpose, I’ll need the range of annual mean temperature and the annual precipitation of each biome.
Someone can inform where I can find these values?