Science topic

Prebiotics - Science topic

Prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients mostly of a carbohydrate base that improve human health by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of existing bacteria in the colon.
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We are preparing a systematic review of the effectiveness of pro, pre- and synbiotics in patients with systemic sclerosis. We aim to evaluate and summarise available evidence on the efficacy and safety of probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic intake in scleroderma. Does anyone know RCTs on this topic?
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When we talk about systemic sclerosis, we must consider the relationship of this disease to immune and genetic mechanisms, as well as the link of this disease to the abnormal generation of extracellular collagen that develops by species of Gram-positive bacteria, including Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, and Bacillus that express surface proteins. that binds to collagen
Thus, it is likely that when the patient increases the consumption of probiotics, prebiotics or synbiotics (which is preferable) that lead to strengthen the immune system and thus block one of the causes of the disease, the consumption of synbiotic products will also reduce unwanted bacteria (The above-mentioned) that promote the accumulation of abnormal collagen and this is another way that can done to suppress disease. It is known that collagen is formed as a result of a number of vital processes that take place inside the body, during which amino acids resulting from the digestion of protein-rich foods are combined. So, to ensure more effective treatment of the disease with probiotics and prebiotics supplements, it is suggested to stay away from eating protein-rich foods to reduce generation of collagen generally during the treatment period.
It is also possible to make mouthwash and masks for the skin by probiotics and their supporting materials in order to control the microbial flora in the body parts and thus reduce inflammation resulting from the disease. It is known that abnormal and even cancerous cells are suppressed by the activity of probiotics and their supporting materials (prebiotic). So if there is any collaborative relationship between malignant cells that divide abnormal inside the body and systemic sclerosis, we cut off one of the supplies that nourishes it.
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How to detect digestion of polyphenols-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex? have similar literature can refer to?Thanks
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are Cyclodextrins promising prebiotic agents ?
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I want to estimate SCFA's (i.e. for checking prebiotic activity) with least amount of chemical requirements & reliable method, for e.g. can TLC method be used for SCFA'S?
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Suggest the standards for using prebiotics in pet foods
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The following link is also very good:
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The irresponsible use of antibiotics in aquaculture has led to health and environmental issues.
As alternative solutions, there is a growing interest in using prebiotics, probiotics & immunostimulants in Aquaculture. Do all have only pros ? which do have some impacts after long-term use?
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Probiotics used for improving water quality in aquaculture br Bioremediation where they producr substances that inhibit pathogen growth or kill pathogens.Several probiotic bacteria are able to improve the enviroment of aquacultur system.
For more detailed in the attached ref.: https:// www.biomin.net species>p
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I had extracted prebiotics from plants through aqueous extraction process. Since to confirm the presence of prebiotics in plant samples I need molecular structure. Which technique will be best suitable for this? Thankyou.
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First of all, the Thin Layer Chromatography should be used by spotting to identify the number of prebiotic compounds. Then, the mixture must be fractionated via column chromatography using different solvent systems. The suggested systems consist of ethyl acetate: ether in ratios ranged between 1:9 and 9:1. By applying the Thin Layer Chromatography, you can identify the presence of each compound in which fraction. Dry the detected fraction, measure its spectra using various available techniques.
These two recent papers may be useful:
All the best to you.
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DETAILS: The book series consists of three volumes about the role of bioresource technology in the areas of food, energy and environment. The book will be published by Springer Nature and will consist of around 60 chapters. Our aim is to bring together a galaxy of eminent, experienced scientists and active researchers to present current developments in this field. As you are an expert in this subject area, we are approaching you with the request for academic collaboration.
If you are interested and have an idea for this new book that you might wish to develop with us, please send us the provisional title of your contribution, an abstract (250 words) and full details of the contributing authors at pztanveer@gmail.com/kur.hakeem@gmail.com. You can choose any title from the below list or suggest any of your own titles.
TENTATIVE CHAPTER LIST: Volume 1: Bioresource Technology: Production of Super Foods 1. Underutilized crops: Solution to future food crises (Done) 2. Overview and applications of prebiotics and probiotics 3. Production of secondary metabolites using bioresources technology 4. Novel value-added products from fungi 5. Commercial-scale production of the enzyme for the feed industry 6. Algae as a potential source of nutrients 7. Chicory: as a potential candidate in the functional food sector (Done) 8. Nutraceuticals: As superfoods 9. Microbes and their role in abiotic stress tolerance in food crops 10. Novel nutraceuticals from marine resources 11. Lichens as a potential natural source of dyes in the food industry 12. Bio-fortification of millets for mitigating malnutrition 13. The journey from Traditional to Functional food sector 14. Role of nanotechnology in the food sector 15. Green and smart packaging of food 16. The technology involved in food waste management 17. Millets: Forgotten foods for the future 18. Plants as novel bio-factories 19. Insects as future food: Advances and challenges 20. Nanosensors: Diagnostic tools in the food industry
Volume 2: Bioresource Technology: Solution to Sustainable Energy 1. Bioenergy and biofuels: Overview and challenges 2. Dedicated energy plant species 3. Broad-spectrum of the first, second, third and fourth generation of biofuels 4. Bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass: Recent advances in technology (Done) 5. Microalgae: Solution to sustainable energy production 6. Municipal solid waste: Potential source for biodiesel production through trans-esterification 7. Engineering of lignocellulosic biomass feedstock to reduce the pre-treatment cost 8. Short rotation coppice for bioenergy and biofuel application 9. Combined heat and power (CHP) programme and district heating system 10. Power generation from jumble based biomass 11. Nanotechnological approach for the production of biofuels 12. Wood pellet technology-Recent advances 13. Artificial photosynthesis: Future novel source of clean energy 14. Biogas production from landfills 15. Biofuels: economics and major challenges 16. Photo-bioreactors: Recent advances and challenges 17. Ethical aspects of Bioenergy and Biofuels 18. Overview and application of metagenomics in cellulase production 19. Biomass briquette technology
Volume 3: Bioresource Technology: Solution to Sustainable Environmental 1. Remediation of soil through Phyto-engineering approach 2. Phytoremediation driven energy crops production on heavy metal degraded areas as a local energy carrier 3. Recent advances in microbial-assisted phytoremediation 4. Phytoextraction and phytomining-overview and challenges 5. Omics technology: Frontiers in engineering Plants for Heavy Metal Stress Tolerance (Done) 6. Concept and overview of microalgae in wastewater treatment 7. Biochar production to rejuvenate soil health and carbon sequestration 8. CRISPR/Cas9 technology: An innovative approach to enhance phytoremediation process 9. Energy plantation to restore the waste dumpsites 10. Bioplastics: Solution to a green environment 11. Approaches of carbon sequestration for mitigating greenhouse gases (GHG) 12. Role of nanotechnology in a sustainable environment 13. Recent advances in the photo technology 14. Aromatic plants as new candidates in phytoremediation 15. Green Buildings: concept and recent advances 16. Challenges, issues and policies for a sustainable environment 17. Advances in Carbon sequestration technology 18. Ecotourism: A way forward for bioeconomy
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Ok je vais vous envoyer le resume de mon chapitre
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I would like to know what is the best dose of levan to use in vivo and the treatment period. I am using mice and I would like to gavage them with levans.
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Hello, I want to make a synbiotic microbead which contains probiotic and prebiotic in gel matrix. Without extra nutrient, probiotic is expected to grow inside of microbeads by consuming the prebiotic. I have tested that before gelation, probiotic can grow in prebiotic/gel matrix solution, but after gelation, probiotic cannot grow inside of beads anymore.
I do not know why, and very appreciate if anyone can provide some suggestions. Thank you.
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What is the best method for prebiotic delivery to mice? dose of prebiotics? and treatment period?
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The prebiotic I use is added to the composition of the feed that the animals feed on. I use a 10% prebiotic diet.
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We wanted to conduct a meta-analysis study on the effect of “a prebiotic additive”, to commercial broiler growth performance, along with a group of experts in the field. My intention is to calculate the effect sizes by taking the part containing the ration averages of “negative control versus prebiotic” in these articles. However, when I search the literature, I see that almost all of the work done in this area reports only pooled SEM for all groups with their means, instead of reporting "the mean ± standard error (or Std. Deviation)" for each group separately . I attached a table from an article to better explain what I mean. In such a table, is there any way to calculate the effect sizes for the “prebiotic additive vs control group” in a sample containing information with 3 or more groups with pooled SEM, assuming n=10 for each group?
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I following the best answer.
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One of my student is interested in studying the Prebiotic application of ulvan polysaccharide. She extracted polysaccharide using hot water extraction and ethanol precipitation (Following an article - Ulvan polysaccharide was extracted by the modified procedure of Hussein et al. using the methods of hot water-extraction and ethanol-precipitation. 100 g of dried Ulva lactuca were extracted three times at 100°C for 2 h with double-distilled water. The collected solution was centrifuged at room temperature for 15 minutes at 6000 rpm; then the extract was precipitated by ethanol (4-times the used volume of aqueous extract), and this mixture was kept at 4°C overnight. The precipitate was collected by centrifugation at 6000 rpm for 15 min and then dissolved in distilled water to dialyze against deionized water for 72 h for removing any traces for the alcohol. Finally, the precipitate was freeze-drying to yield the crude ulvan polysaccharide which its touch and appearance were like a brown gel. ). Next she wanted to do dialyze and and ion chromatography. For that she wanted to know the size of the dialyze bag and which absorbent is used for chromatography. Could any one give a standard protocol for extraction.... Would be very helpful
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Prebiotics and probiotics are not part of WHO UNICEF diarrhea protocol
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So far, there is none. However, probiotics action are mostly strain and pathogen specific
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Many reports describe probiotic or prebiotics supplementation in preterm infants formulas. Is there an evidence based clue regarding safety and efficacy of these supplements for prevention of NEC and improving growth for these infants?
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Effect  on bay laurel (Laurus nobilis , prebiotics) on gut lactic acid bacteria of common carp (Cyprinus Carpio)..
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Please have a look at the following RG link.
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Questions to consider: (1) Do we find evidence of certain bacteria overpopulating/underpopulating in patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer? Are they inhibiting or contributing to cancer cell proliferation and growth? How would we measure that?
(2) "It is now recognized that the gut microbiota and chronic liver diseases are closely linked." Would we find evidence of liver dysfunction/malfunction in those diagnosed with colorectal cancer? ( Quote from paragraph entitled "Liver disease and the gut microbiota" in .)
(3) If the 3 ‘P's’ for gut health are probiotics, prebiotics and polyphenols, then what effect, if any, would a SIGNFICANT increase in one of these have on a colorectal cancer patient's length of survival?
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Hi Samy Azer thank you for sharing and reaching out! I currently am not doing a research project on this. When you suggest I submit a method study, are you suggesting I summarize current methods and their effectiveness (e.g., a lit review)?
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Can anyone help with literature on reactions of Glyphosate, N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine), or its degradation products such as (Aminomethyl)phosphonic acid with Fluoride, HF or Fluorine? Material safety data sheets simply state that they are incompatible with Fluorine. Of interest are reports of complexes of Uranium and Europium where Glyphosate and Fluoride are brought into close proximity. This brings into question the wider subject of Fluoride attack on Phosphorus in biological systems and the basis of observed epigenetic interference with human genes.
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Dear Geof,
I had a look at material safety data sheet of Glyphosate and it states that this compound is sensitive to fluorine due to high oxidation potential of F2.
This seems reasonable as C-P bond in Glyphosate looks like something that can get oxidised quite easily. I have found a couple of articles supporting this hypothesis:
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currently working with plant-based mucilages trying to test their prebiotic effect on a non-dairy drink.
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Refer this paper it help to test prebiotic stability of your sample
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Does anyone have papers of human trials suggesting polyphenols act as synbiotics?
Thanks
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We are isolating probiotic strains from local food samples. What do you suggest to make probiotic pills?
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Hi,
In Institute of Food Science in Mashhad, I showed the tool which
transformation the probiotic bacteria to capsule.
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I am looking for SOP / detailed manufacturing process of a capsule that contains prebiotic, probiotic blend along with few herbal extracts. What special precautions are needed to be taken while manufacturing such a blend? Once such a batch is taken, does the manufacturing unit / equipment still retains residues of prebiotic-probiotic blend? Can it impose a negative impact on future batches of polyherbal blends as such?
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Hi,
In first stage , the number of probiotic bacteria is very import. Removing any residues before any next process.
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Many suggestons come from reserch resuts and production company.
I wonder if any have practical experiences to compare the effectiveness of organic acids, probiotic, prebiotic, plant bioactives, enzymes.....etc. as compared to AGP.
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I my opinion antibiotics in feed for poultry are generally "performance permitters"' . In other words, if a flock does not reach its genetic potential of growth or egg production due to factors like health, hygiene, housing conditions or climate, antibiotics as well as other additives might allow the animals to compensate for some of the differences. But you can not predict reliably whether a certain flock will be an "underperformer".
Enzymes are another category. Especially young animals do not always have sufficient digestive capacity to liberate all the nutrients present in the diet and make use of them. Fytase as well as other enzymes can then improve the utilisation of the nutrient and enhance the performance of the animals.
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Any sugessions that probiotics, prebiotics and protease resistant bacteriocins can be alternatives to antibiotics and can be used for eliminating antibiotic resistance?
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Considering probiotics and / or prebiotics as alternatives or substitutes for antibiotics would be very compromising to affirm, since these do not act like antibiotics, the modes of action are very different. Although these ingredients provide certain benefits to human and animal health, to work properly depends on many factors, and its effects are medium and long term, while antibiotics have an immediate effect in the short term. Some probiotic strains produce certain proteins with antimicrobial effects, such as bacteriocins, among them, we have Nisin, which is used as a broad spectrum preservative in the food industry; Some consider Nisin as an antibiotic, but it would be necessary to carry out very rigorous clinical trials to consider it as such.
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Yeast extract additions are common in conjuction with antibiotics. Pre- and probiotics can help regrow gut bacteria equilibrium provided the bacteria species have not been totally eradicated by the antibiotic treatment. I have seen improvements in my digestive condition by ingesting live sourdough, after no results from yeast and probiotics. I'm interested in all relevant research linking fodmaps and bacteria gut. Thanks.
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i have observed digetion improvemnt and higher food intake in mice while using probiotics in mice. that is something which is not related to my aimed project.. but its interesting that the probiotics group food consumption is more then the control, what parameters i should check for that.. have any idea.. i know just one ghrelin
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I need very preliminary and starting point experimentation for synbiotics where looking for the value addition of prebiotic for promoting growth of probiotics and metabolites.what could be the specific extracellular probiotic metabolite i have to target? any specific protocol to study this synergy other than cell line?
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Dear Ashwini nagesh Angal
Probiotic gut microbiota can utilize prebiotic substances and produce; short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), including acetic acid, butyric acid and propionic acid to activate and induce intestinal epithelial cells and immune system, and produce neurotransmitters such as Serotonin, Dopamine, Acetylcholine, Norepinephrine, gamma-aminobutyric acid to control nervous system and behavior of host.
Regards
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I m research scholar, i m working on prebiotics of some plants and want to check out prebiotic potential of plants against probiotics.
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Hi,
higher difference between this buffers . Normally the Tris HCL buffer is alkanic while HCl buffer is acidic
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Hi all,
I am developing a drinkable Greek yogurt product in my Food development coursework and I would like to conduct microbiological testing of the product. The Greek yogurt culture I've used contains Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, and Lactobacillus acidophilus. I have obtained advice from my tutor and TVC was not possible to conduct due to mixture of microbes present. I am not sure whether determining the shelf-life (yeast/mould and/or S. aureus) or viability of prebiotic organism as above is more suitable. Is that any recommendation on the method to determine the self life of yogurt? Thanks.
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hi,
You can count the numbers oF Total Lactic acid bacteria , Probiotic bacteria(Lb. acidophilus), Total coliform bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and yeasts and molds. Some countries such als Iraq add Samonella count test .
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Dear all.
I have access to ankom fiber analyzer which is mostly useful for measuring ADF, NDF and crude fiber for animal food. I want to do preliminary test to see if my fruits have prebiotic activity, therefore I need to measure the fiber, but I dont know the values which this equipment give me can be helpful approximately? Thank you very much
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i suggest the ADF is more relevant to determination of prebiotics the crude fiber is residue after digestion with sulfuric & sodium hydroxide and the remaining weight ( extract) or CF is more of soluble component and you can test for prebiotic activity
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I was looking for any research reports or reviews on the health benefits of levan-type fructans compared to the inulin-types. What other applications are the levans attractive for? Thanks!
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There are many potential applications of levan, although most of them remain potential. See some of the attached papers.
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Hi everyone,
I have a solution ( containing fruit powder, media and probiotics)
I need to calculate the growth of particular probiotics in my solution, to see if the fruit has prebiotic activity. thats why I need to sterilize my solution first before adding the bacteria to it. but as it will have fruit I dont know if I can sterilize it with the media in autoclave or not. As high temperature may affect its prebiotic activity. Your guidance is so appreciated specially about common sterilization methods as we dont have much facilities.
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You have to standardise the method of sterilisation of fruit powder at first. You may try the following methods:
1. U.V light steriisation
2. Filtration - as stated previously
3. Autoclave - as stated previously
4. Pasteurisation at 70 degree centigrade for 10 minutes
5. Boiling.
The effect of those procedures may be compared.
IT WILL ITSELF BE A VERY GOOD RESEARCH.
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Hi everyone,
I need to measure prebiotic activity of some samples, I read that SCFA is a good indicator of prebiotic activity of my samples because probiotic growth is encouraged and SCFA are produced, I want to ask that is SCFA only produced by probiotics and not any other gut microbiata?
Are prebiotics fermented only by probiotics?
Also, I see they set glucose as control. what is the reason, thank you very much.
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The colon is the major site of bacterial colonisation in the human gut and the resident species are predominantly anaerobes. They include potential pathogens but the greater proportion appear to be organisms which salvage energy through the metabolism of undigested carbohydrates and gut secretions. The major products of carbohydrate metabolism are the short chain fatty acids (SCFA), acetate, propionate and butyrate. In addition to general effects (such as lowering of pH) individual acids exert specific effects. All of the major SCFA appear to promote the flow of blood through the colonic vasculature while propionate enhances muscular activity and epithelial cell proliferation. Butyrate appears to promote a normal cell phenotype as well as being a major fuel for colonocytes. Important substrates for bacterial fermentation include non-starch polysaccharides (major components of dietary fibre) but it seems that starch which has escaped digestion in the small intestine (resistant starch) is the major contributor. Oligosaccharides are utilised by probiotic organisms and in the diet, act as prebiotics in promoting their numbers in faeces. High amylose starch is a form of RS and it appears to act as a prebiotic also. Although there is evidence that probiotics such as Bifidobacteria metabolise oligosaccharides and other carbohydrates, there appears to be little evidence to support a change in faecal SCFA excretion. It seems that any health benefits of probiotics are exerted through means other than SCFA.
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I am trying to review litretures to understand the prebiotic use of the Inulin polysaccharide. Does any one have it know good sources of information? Please kindly share with me and your cooperation is highly appreciated. 
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I need to know about the most used methods to assess prebiotic potential of carbohydrate compounds.
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I agree with Drs. Cote and Razaei's comments. Well-laid out approaches to enumerate beneficial gut bacteria population.
However, depending on the extent of your study and the resources at your disposal, a much more economical approach is to use optical density measurement with a specific probiotic. This may be a preliminary ground work to undertaking Dr. Cote's suggestion.
To do this, purchase a cultured probiotic strain (about $10), grow in MRS agar to obtain isolated strain, prepare your prebiotic of interest in the MRS broth, innoculate the prebiotic medium with isolated colony of the cultured probiotic, prepare MRS medum without the prebiotic as well and innoculate with the bacteria as well. Then measure the optical density over a every 30 mins for a period of 24 - 48 hours to obtain a growth curve - The MRS, MRS + bacteria, and MRS+prebitoic+bacteria should be measured. In my experience, it is best to set up a kinetic cycle on a microplate reader and leave it at 37 C, rather than taking it in and out of an incubator, this may affect the growth curve.
At the end of the incubation period and measurement in the microplate reader, subtract the OD of both MRS+probiotic and MRS+probiotic + prebiotic from the MRS to obtain probiotic and prebiotic-probiotic values. Plot a growth curve of time vs O.D and the take the slope of the log of the exponential phase and divide by o.301 to obtain the growth rate, compare both to see if the prebiotic has an influence on the growth of the probiotic strain.
I can provide a much more detailed assistance if you need it.
However for an extensive prebiotic analysis, Dr. Cote's suggestions are recommended.
Chigozie
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Hi everyone, 
I want to measure prebiotic activity of a fruit powder ( using fecal microbiota), I am wondering if I measure short chain fatty acids at the end of the test , how can I know that SCFA is produced as result of using prebiotc (fibers) by probiotics and NOT by other microbiota, and also NOT from consumption of other components like glucose fructose of the fruit? Many thanks for your help as I am very armature in probiotc topics.
Also advises on choosing the approprite probiotic would be appreciated. 
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Hi,
initial  you must fat extract from your production  such as yogurt second step,  short chain fatty acids is determining  by use GC-MS technique. 
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I am working on organic acids analysis (acetate, butyrate, propionate, valerate, isovalerate, isobutyrate)... Using HPLC, conditions as below: 
Mobile phase : 0.15 mM sulphuric acid with water
Stationary phase: C18 reversed column
temperature: 37'C
Flow rate: 0.5ml/min
elution: isocratic 30-40 mins
detector: UV 210nm
Can anyone kindly share some papers and experience upon this method ? 
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You do realize that the lower pH limit for most columns is 2, correct? You are well below that and will chew up your column (and HPLC metal plumbing) quickly. 
This is not a good analytical system for the low molecular weight fatty acids. Switch to GC-FID; it works quite well. Otherwise you will probably have to derivatize your VFAs in order to get around working at 210 nm (a terrible wavelength to use).
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I am interested in the origin of information and decision processes.
If simple life-forms can move up nutrient gradients ("chemotaxis" e.g. link below) then they would appear to be sensing their environment and "deciding" which way to move.
At what point in chemical/biological evolution can the properties of simple proto-biological systems (and any "behaviour" they might display) no longer be explained purely by physical chemistry, and (presumably) start to display emergent properties?
Is an enclosing membrane required?
Does a transition beyond physical-chemistry alone say anything about the nature of chemical life?
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All,
Except for any readers interested specifically in decision-making and information, I'm transferring attention on this thread to another with more traffic [link below].
Thank you
What's your definition of life? - ResearchGate. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/post/whats_your_definition_of_life#58c92aaacbd5c248e74326d9
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I want to know the content of Fermacto and BioMOS as prebiotics.
Regards
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Hi Hosna,
Usually, the manufacturer will not release its patented contents. If they do, they will not let you know the amount of each ingredient. At least, that has been my experience.
Good luck,
Velma
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 I need expert opinions in selecting the best serological parameters in fish of different dietary prebiotic under culture conditions.  
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Thank you Dr. Salah Mahdi Najim.
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now, I'm going to take a research about prebiotic beverage from growol ( traditional fermentatiton food).  I want to test  GOS contain on it before and after  experiments. with all kindness, please help me to make it.
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thank you, Vitalijs Radenkovs.
it might be helpfull for my current research.
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Can anyone suggest me best  traditional herb that act as prebiotic and promote   growth of Lactobacillus in Bioreactor? 
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I worked for 3 years with fiber from maize and wheat on the entirety of the microbiota . By daily addition of 10/15/20/25 / and 35 grams of fiber appararaissent the best results from 20 grams and stabilization from 5 grams. the action is focused on the pancreas because of the very marked improvement of Diabetes figures , the action focuses on the brain, because an effect on satiety is very clear. A colleague of research gate told me that he had to consider the environement conditions. In fact the changes, nutritional changes , sports activities have not yet start the effect on satiety appears and waist circumference decreases.
Hypothesis; If the fibers have an effect on the microbiota it must have an effect on Lactobacillus !
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Or any dependency svzannuyu a roughness parameter?
Or the effect of what some of prebiotics on the level of roughness or adhesive ability of bacteria?
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i am working on growth pf probiotics in different prebiotics. when i grow them in media devoid of any other normal sugar and giving them only my prebiotic sugars. they have a very slower growth rate,with not much pH drop. so how can i claim,,prebiotics are better supporter for probiotics?
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When you administer probiotics to someone, you give like 108 or 109 bacteria (per pills) which will be delivered in a environnement containing between 1011 and 1012 bacteria per grams (in the colon), which constitute 1014 bacteria in total.
If you add prebiotics in you pills, actually only few of them would used by your probiotics, because prebiotics would be mainly consumed by others bacteria (in much higher proportion)...
Maybe it could help probiotics after they colonized the environment, but recent literature reports more helps in biodiversity than in growth of one species.
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I want to analyze acetic, propionic and butyric acid in MRS broth (supplimented with inulin) fermented by probiotic bacteria.
There are similar kinds of studies suggesting different types of preparation for SCFA extraction from the sample. For instance, people have used different solvent (ether or hexane) and samples are esterified with acedified alcohol or directly loaded without esterification of SCFA. I would like suggestions and expertise of researchers working in this area.
 
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Derivatisation with PFBBr and analysis in methane NCI (GCMS) works like magic for SCFA...very sensitive& pretty linear
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I have treated my fish with dietary prebiotics and probiotics for 16 weeks. This was my first phase.
The second phase was started with the treated fish fed with control diet without any feed supplementation. I want to see how long the feeding trial of dietary prebiotics and probiotics on growth and other performance? I got a good result. But my question is:
Has anybody done the same experiment with other or same diet supplements for fish? If so, let me give the reference and provide the full paper, please.
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Thank you all. You will see my paper very soon.
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Optimum Feeding Trial Time and why?   What is the optimum feeding trial period or time for formulated feed with dietary prebiotics and probiotics? Please share your idea with a reference.
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I would be interested what the normal growing period of these fish under these circumstances would be. If your experimental period is at least 1/2 to 2/3 of that period than you have in my opinion a strong argument in favour of validity of your results. If less than 1/2 of the normal growing period, one might argue that any effect might be gone at normal catching/slaughter age.
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Summary
Tofu industry in Indonesia which has been dominated by local’s small entrepreneur, and very identical with the use of formalin (formaldehyde), a dangerous substance for food additive. Since 1940s, the dependency is severe due to the drastic gap of productivity between the usage and no usage of formalin, since there has been no food additive alternative for the case of increasing the yield and shelf life of tofu.
Tofu producers are now enjoying a new hope from the emergence of newly develop natural preservative: a lactic acid bacteria culture that is able to give the equal yield and shelf life compared to formalin. However, there has been no regulation for such product in Indonesia, thus the application of the product will bring numerous problems to the producers because the “formalin mafia”s are around and will likely use the regulation gap to dispute and extort the producers.
A team of food scientists (including my self and Prof. Winarno) and an elder from a tofu producer community himself have been striving to register the new preservative to the appropriate regulation, whether it is already exist or needs to be made as new. The team itself has no interest regarding the product, but only in the purpose of putting an end to the use of formalin in Indonesia. Several laboratory tests have been conducted with the following results:
1. Contains active Lactobacillus spp cultures
2. Inhibits the growth of tofu-deteriorating/rotting microbes (directly retrieved from the tofu)
3. Has the pH of 4
4. Contains only 0.39% of lactic acid
thus brings assumptions of bacteriocin and organic acid (gives low pH) as the cause of its preservative activity.
Bottomline
Regardless the confidentiality and research limitations, We wonder anyone has any reference(s) for regulation, analysis methods, or anything that might be useful to the issue.
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We are testing d potentials of certain marine seaweed as prebiotic candidate in diets for freshwater fish. Feeding trial was conducted to evaluate optimal inclusion levels and effects on digestibility, FCR, feed intake, PER and growth performance. We also quantified proliferation of probiotic bacteria in the small and large I intestines and ran some hematology tests.
We seek advice on particularly, some biotechnology evaluations we need to undertake to verify that the immune system of fish is boosted and that indeed, the prebiotic is a good candidate. Every suggestion is graciously appreciated
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You may also use histology, to observe morphology of digestive tract and measure the enterocitys, microvillus...
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There is an indigenous food from Indonesia, called growol. It's made of fermented cassava. The production process, especially during soaking, the bacteria (predominantly by lactic acid bacteria) will degrade starch into other oligosaccharides, disaccharides or monosaccharides. A research about that food conclude that consume growol regularly can reduce dhiarrea prevalency in children under five years old. The research claimed that it was caused by prebiotic effect. I still disagree because during heating process, by steam, the bacteria (LAB) will die.  
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my opinion, some strain of LAB has a ability to produce alpha galactosidase,that produce some sugars i.e GOS (galacto oligosaccharide) as we all know that GOS has a prebiotic effect and can utilize by several strains bifido and lactobacilli since growol fermented by lactobacillus plantarum
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Ca-alginate is a polyanionic hydrocolloid and is coated with material that are cationic such as chitosan, poly L Lysine, etc. Very many articles have used prebiotics in their encapsulation procedure but not as a coating agent material but as material that improve the porous structure of alginate, because it is believed that those materials can fill the existing cavities of Ca-alginate porous structure hence many articles add prebiotics to the initial solution before it enters microencapsulation phase.
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a number of materials are more soluble in the polyelectrolyte complex than in the solution or the polymers and this may be a possibility. Alternatively if the prebiotics are charged they may salt out the prebiotic and form a salt wall
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a-alginate is a polyanionic hydrocolloid and is coated with material that are cationic such as chitosan, poly L Lysine, etc. Very many articles have used prebiotics in their encapsulation procedure but not as a coating agent material but as material that improve the porous structure of alginate, because it is believed that those materials can fill the existing cavities of Ca-alginate porous structure.
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Dear colleague,
I think is important to investigate this interaction because I also found a kind of interaction between the fiber and calcium carbonate in a enteral solution.
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WHO and UNICEF protocol do not currently include prebiotics and probiotics in the management of diarrhea.
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The main observed adverse effects of probiotics were sepsis, fungemia and GI ischemia. Generally, critically ill patients in intensive care units, critically sick infants, postoperative and hospitalized patients and patients with immune-compromised complexity were the most at-risk populations. While the overwhelming existing evidence suggests that probiotics are safe, complete consideration of risk-benefit ratio before prescribing is recommended. (Didari T, Solki S, Mozaffari S, Nikfar S, Abdollahi M.A systematic review of the safety of probiotics.Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2014 Feb;13(2):227-39. ).
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I need that as standard for my experiments
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Thank you all. But I need a product available in market based on the information you have given. E.g. prebiotic kelp
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Hi all. It's a well established fact that Prebiotics produces Short chain fatty acids which in turn impart health benefits through different metabolic pathways. What are the best biomarkers to study the prebiotic effect on glycemic and insulinemic response other than GLP -1 in humans? 
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Liposaccharide (LPS) can be considered as one of the biomarkers for inflamatory disorders resulting in metabolic syndrome and perhaps Diabetes mellitus. Our studies have shown that serum LPS levels increase  in obesity and is negatively associated with the colonisation of beneficial bacteria in the gut.
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See above
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Dear Kazem
Aspergillus Meal (AM), has no live cells or spores and is proven to enhance the digestive efficiency of the gut. It might act as substrates for favourable bacteria such as Lactobacillus in the intestinal microbial system that subsequently reduces
Salmonella or E. coli concentrations.
Mannanoligosaccharides is obtained from yeast cell wall (Saccharomyces cervisiae). They are components of the outer layer of yeast cell walls and their components include proteins, glucans and phosphate radicals as well as mannose. The basic composition of the wall consist of mannan (30%), glucan (30%) and protein (12.5%). While the ratio of one component to another remains relatively constant from strain to strain, the degree of mannan phosphorylation and the interaction among the mannan, glucan and protein components vary.
Mannanolig-osaccharides contain protein which has relatively high proportion of serine, threonine, aspartic and glutamic acids and a paucity of methionine. The exact mechanism through which pathogenic bacteria are inhibited by mannose is unclear, though two theories have been presented. One being that MOS may
adsorb bacteria containing type-1 fimbriae inhibiting them from binding to the carbohydrate moieties of the intestinal lining. The other being one of agglutination, that MOS causes pathogenic cells with type-1 fimbriae to aggregate or clump, brining them out of solution. 
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Resistance to ferment.
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what do you mean by validation and food system?
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I have 2 conditions,
1) 100% long chains oligosaccharides
2) 50% short chains and 50% long chains oligosaccharides
Which is better for making prebiotics, 1st or 2nd condition? Why?
Thank you for all of suggestions
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Considering the fact that chemical composition affects the fermentability and per se determines the effectiveness of prebiotic, I think the second option is better because potentially more beneficial bacteria can be involved. Good luck
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Application of probiotic organisms to improve health of farmed animals has gained significant interest among researchers, including aquaculture. Increasingly, new species are being investigated for their probiotic characteristics and are being introduced into different species of farm animals to improve immune response.
Similarly, oligosaccharides and Polysaccharides are also being screened for their prebiotic characteristics as the carbon source for probiotics.
Bye and large in both cases (pro- and prebiotics), success has been recorded with some, whereas the vast majority remain impracticable in real farm situations, even after research results suggest "positive results"
A new approach currently employed is to screen a potential prebiotic in vitro as a carbon source for select probiotic. When this succeeds, then to attempt to introduce both in the animal species targeted as symbiotics, to evaluate the practicability of using both. This is as the evaluation of each on its own often fail under commercial situation.
What approach would you advise when one is making attempts to evaluate the efficiency of prebiotics or probiotics in the aquaculture of a new species?
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Personally, I believe more in the prebiotic approach. The reason is that probiotics are live microorganisms that are taken orally as supplements and therefore may be considered foreign to the host. Knowing how the vertebrate immune system works and that the interaction between any microorganism and its host is dynamic and dependent on the particular organism and the particular host, under a particular set of circumstances, it becomes quite clear that the outcome of the use of any probiotic cannot really be predicted. Prebiotics on the other hand, work by stimulating indegenous microflora which then exert their beneficial effectson the host. Thus all the disadvantages or side effects that may be associated with the foreigness of the probiotic to the host may be avoided. In many cases also, prebiotics may be cheaper.
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Based on our RCT, we discovered additional oligofructose/inulin did not increase faecal bifidobacteria in critically ill patients receiving Enteral nutrition, although it did result in lower concentrations of F. prausnitzii and Bacteroides-Prevotella.
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Thanks for your interest. For this study we collected the fresh stool sample and quantify microbiota using fluorescent in situ hybridisation. Yes, I agreed critically ill patients receiving antibiotics and enteral nutrition will experience dysbiosis in their microbiota concentrations and that's the reason we did the study having a placebo arm as our control. We evaluated fecal short chain fatty acids, pH and also faecal output/ diarrhoea incidences throughout the study. To answer your Q, the GI symptoms may be influenced by microbiota alteration as this has been shown in Whelan study as well. If you are interested to know more, I'm more than happy to share the in press manuscript.
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It is known that beneficial bacteria within the colon produce vitamins and consumption of prebiotics enhances the growth of these beneficial bacteria. I am administering a test prebiotic to lab animals and would like to confirm increased vitamin production in the animals.
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yes, email Bioinformaticsinitiatives@jabu.edu.ng or Bioinformaticsinitiatives @gmail.com