• Hosna Hajati asked a question:
    Does anybody know the mannan and B-glucan content of Fermacto or BIoMOS prebiotics?

    I want to know the content of Fermacto and BioMOS as prebiotics.


  • Mohammad Bodrul Munir added an answer:
    What is the optimum feeding trial period or time for formulated feed with dietary prebiotics and probiotics?

    Optimum Feeding Trial Time and why?   What is the optimum feeding trial period or time for formulated feed with dietary prebiotics and probiotics? Please share your idea with a reference.

    Mohammad Bodrul Munir

    Hi David,

    You have mentioned in your answer that "These additives dont have clear efficacy under laboratory conditions, especially the probiotics. "; Do you have any paper? Would you please send me that paper to my email address?

    My email address is HSJEWEL730@YAHOO.COM


  • Mohammad Bodrul Munir added an answer:
    Any advice on post feeding trial for fish?

    I have treated my fish with dietary prebiotics and probiotics for 16 weeks. This was my first phase.

    The second phase was started with the treated fish fed with control diet without any feed supplementation. I want to see how long the feeding trial of dietary prebiotics and probiotics on growth and other performance? I got a good result. But my question is:

    Has anybody done the same experiment with other or same diet supplements for fish? If so, let me give the reference and provide the full paper, please.

    Mohammad Bodrul Munir

    Thank you all. You will see my paper very soon.

  • Mohsen Ali added an answer:
    When testing a potential prebiotic polysaccharide added in a diet for freshwater fish, what measurable indices suggest improved immune response?

    We are testing d potentials of certain marine seaweed as prebiotic candidate in diets for freshwater fish. Feeding trial was conducted to evaluate optimal inclusion levels and effects on digestibility, FCR, feed intake, PER and growth performance. We also quantified proliferation of probiotic bacteria in the small and large I intestines and ran some hematology tests.

    We seek advice on particularly, some biotechnology evaluations we need to undertake to verify that the immune system of fish is boosted and that indeed, the prebiotic is a good candidate. Every suggestion is graciously appreciated

    Mohsen Ali

    The phagocytosis, lysozyme activity, complement components C3 and C4, E-C3bRR (Erythrocyte-C3b rosette rate) and E-CIRR (Erythrocyte-immune complex rosette rate) levels and circulating antibody titers in the serum.

  • Amr M. Bakry added an answer:
    Does anyone have reference(s) for regulation(s) or analysis method(s) for natural microbial culture-based preservative for tofu?


    Tofu industry in Indonesia which has been dominated by local’s small entrepreneur, and very identical with the use of formalin (formaldehyde), a dangerous substance for food additive. Since 1940s, the dependency is severe due to the drastic gap of productivity between the usage and no usage of formalin, since there has been no food additive alternative for the case of increasing the yield and shelf life of tofu.

    Tofu producers are now enjoying a new hope from the emergence of newly develop natural preservative: a lactic acid bacteria culture that is able to give the equal yield and shelf life compared to formalin. However, there has been no regulation for such product in Indonesia, thus the application of the product will bring numerous problems to the producers because the “formalin mafia”s are around and will likely use the regulation gap to dispute and extort the producers.

    A team of food scientists (including my self and Prof. Winarno) and an elder from a tofu producer community himself have been striving to register the new preservative to the appropriate regulation, whether it is already exist or needs to be made as new. The team itself has no interest regarding the product, but only in the purpose of putting an end to the use of formalin in Indonesia. Several laboratory tests have been conducted with the following results:

    1. Contains active Lactobacillus spp cultures

    2. Inhibits the growth of tofu-deteriorating/rotting microbes (directly retrieved from the tofu)

    3. Has the pH of 4

    4. Contains only 0.39% of lactic acid

    thus brings assumptions of bacteriocin and organic acid (gives low pH) as the cause of its preservative activity.


    Regardless the confidentiality and research limitations, We wonder anyone has any reference(s) for regulation, analysis methods, or anything that might be useful to the issue.

    Amr M. Bakry

    You can look at these articles, it will help u. Good luck

    + 4 more attachments

  • Purbo Carito added an answer:
    Does resistant starch exist in fermented gelatinized food?

    There is an indigenous food from Indonesia, called growol. It's made of fermented cassava. The production process, especially during soaking, the bacteria (predominantly by lactic acid bacteria) will degrade starch into other oligosaccharides, disaccharides or monosaccharides. A research about that food conclude that consume growol regularly can reduce dhiarrea prevalency in children under five years old. The research claimed that it was caused by prebiotic effect. I still disagree because during heating process, by steam, the bacteria (LAB) will die.  

    Purbo Carito

    I'm really sorry, I did a typographical when I wrote prebiotic effect. I meant the research conclude that growol has a probiotic effect. For more detail article you can read on Indonesian Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2010 Vol. 7(1): 27-33.

    Usually, growol are consumed a day after processing (steaming) which mean the starch gel can retrograde. As we know retrograded starch are enzyme resistant (RS type 3). Back to my question, does resistant starch (RS) exist on growol? It's well known that RS also act like prebiotic. 

  • Bryan David Grey added an answer:
    How do prebiotics and Ca-alginate interact?

    Ca-alginate is a polyanionic hydrocolloid and is coated with material that are cationic such as chitosan, poly L Lysine, etc. Very many articles have used prebiotics in their encapsulation procedure but not as a coating agent material but as material that improve the porous structure of alginate, because it is believed that those materials can fill the existing cavities of Ca-alginate porous structure hence many articles add prebiotics to the initial solution before it enters microencapsulation phase.

    Bryan David Grey

    a number of materials are more soluble in the polyelectrolyte complex than in the solution or the polymers and this may be a possibility. Alternatively if the prebiotics are charged they may salt out the prebiotic and form a salt wall

  • Luciana Bueno added an answer:
    What is the interaction between prebiotics and Ca-alginate that some reports have recognized them as coating agent ?

    a-alginate is a polyanionic hydrocolloid and is coated with material that are cationic such as chitosan, poly L Lysine, etc. Very many articles have used prebiotics in their encapsulation procedure but not as a coating agent material but as material that improve the porous structure of alginate, because it is believed that those materials can fill the existing cavities of Ca-alginate porous structure.

    Luciana Bueno

    Dear colleague,
    I think is important to investigate this interaction because I also found a kind of interaction between the fiber and calcium carbonate in a enteral solution.

  • A. T. M. Badruzzaman added an answer:
    What's the differents between prebiotics based on aspergillus and yeast cell wall on broiler performance?

    See above

    A. T. M. Badruzzaman

    I am agree with your answer Neeraj.

  • Kadir Serafettin Tekgunduz added an answer:
    Are there any contradictions regarding the use of Probiotics & Prebiotics in healthy children for the treatment of diarrhea?
    WHO and UNICEF protocol do not currently include prebiotics and probiotics in the management of diarrhea.
    Kadir Serafettin Tekgunduz

    The main observed adverse effects of probiotics were sepsis, fungemia and GI ischemia. Generally, critically ill patients in intensive care units, critically sick infants, postoperative and hospitalized patients and patients with immune-compromised complexity were the most at-risk populations. While the overwhelming existing evidence suggests that probiotics are safe, complete consideration of risk-benefit ratio before prescribing is recommended. (Didari T, Solki S, Mozaffari S, Nikfar S, Abdollahi M.A systematic review of the safety of probiotics.Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2014 Feb;13(2):227-39. ).

  • Supriya Yadav added an answer:
    Can anybody suggest a seaweed-based prebiotic product available in market?

    I need that as standard for my experiments

    Supriya Yadav

    Thank you all. But I need a product available in market based on the information you have given. E.g. prebiotic kelp

  • Mini Sheth added an answer:
    What are the best biomarkers to study the prebiotic effect on glycemic and insulinemic response?

    Hi all. It's a well established fact that Prebiotics produces Short chain fatty acids which in turn impart health benefits through different metabolic pathways. What are the best biomarkers to study the prebiotic effect on glycemic and insulinemic response other than GLP -1 in humans? 

    Mini Sheth

    Liposaccharide (LPS) can be considered as one of the biomarkers for inflamatory disorders resulting in metabolic syndrome and perhaps Diabetes mellitus. Our studies have shown that serum LPS levels increase  in obesity and is negatively associated with the colonisation of beneficial bacteria in the gut.

  • Luis Alejandro Rodríguez Campos added an answer:
    Prebiotics, probiotics or symbiotics? Which should one seek to evaluate in a new species?
    Application of probiotic organisms to improve health of farmed animals has gained significant interest among researchers, including aquaculture. Increasingly, new species are being investigated for their probiotic characteristics and are being introduced into different species of farm animals to improve immune response.
    Similarly, oligosaccharides and Polysaccharides are also being screened for their prebiotic characteristics as the carbon source for probiotics.
    Bye and large in both cases (pro- and prebiotics), success has been recorded with some, whereas the vast majority remain impracticable in real farm situations, even after research results suggest "positive results"
    A new approach currently employed is to screen a potential prebiotic in vitro as a carbon source for select probiotic. When this succeeds, then to attempt to introduce both in the animal species targeted as symbiotics, to evaluate the practicability of using both. This is as the evaluation of each on its own often fail under commercial situation.
    What approach would you advise when one is making attempts to evaluate the efficiency of prebiotics or probiotics in the aquaculture of a new species?
    Luis Alejandro Rodríguez Campos

    I think is better to evaluate symbiotics, because this approach generates a complete technology, depending less on interactions with normal flora.  Obiously, like Mr Hossein says, you need to carefully evaluate inclusion levels.

  • Luis M. Rodríguez-Alcalá added an answer:
    Does anyone have the optimized protocol for GLC analysis of short chain fatty acids in a broth medium?

    I want to analyze acetic, propionic and butyric acid in MRS broth (supplimented with inulin) fermented by probiotic bacteria.

    There are similar kinds of studies suggesting different types of preparation for SCFA extraction from the sample. For instance, people have used different solvent (ether or hexane) and samples are esterified with acedified alcohol or directly loaded without esterification of SCFA. I would like suggestions and expertise of researchers working in this area.

    Luis M. Rodríguez-Alcalá

    Dear Namita,

    if you have good results using that column then I suggest to isolate using Bligh-Dyer or Folch methods. Some people also have good results using the Hara-Radin method (isopropanol-hexane). Then inject as you usually do. You will only have to check for split and sample concentration. 

    Good work!

  • Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar added an answer:
    What are the main tests for measuring the prebiotic effect of a foodstuff?
    For example in foodstuff such as meat products, fishery products or dairy products.
    Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar

    Dear Behrooz

    As i Read in a review paper, this properties was a attributed to all NDO (non digestibe oligosaccharides

  • Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar added an answer:
    What is the main test for validation of prebiotic for a simple food systems ?
    Resistance to ferment.
    Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar

    what do you mean by validation and food system?

  • Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar added an answer:
    Which is better for making prebiotics?
    I have 2 conditions,
    1) 100% long chains oligosaccharides
    2) 50% short chains and 50% long chains oligosaccharides

    Which is better for making prebiotics, 1st or 2nd condition? Why?
    Thank you for all of suggestions
    Seyed Hossein Hoseinifar

    Considering the fact that chemical composition affects the fermentability and per se determines the effectiveness of prebiotic, I think the second option is better because potentially more beneficial bacteria can be involved. Good luck

  • Elaine L Puppa added an answer:
    Is there any contraindication in using prebiotics and probiotics in case of diarrhea in healthy children?
    Prebiotics and probiotics are not part of WHO UNICEF diarrhea protocol
    Elaine L Puppa
    Some prebiotics may be gas producing and might have the potential to increase discomfort in children with diarrhea.
  • Hazreen Majid added an answer:
    Has anyone done any research on prebiotics dosage in patients receiving antibiotics?
    Based on our RCT, we discovered additional oligofructose/inulin did not increase faecal bifidobacteria in critically ill patients receiving Enteral nutrition, although it did result in lower concentrations of F. prausnitzii and Bacteroides-Prevotella.
    Hazreen Majid
    Thanks for your interest. For this study we collected the fresh stool sample and quantify microbiota using fluorescent in situ hybridisation. Yes, I agreed critically ill patients receiving antibiotics and enteral nutrition will experience dysbiosis in their microbiota concentrations and that's the reason we did the study having a placebo arm as our control. We evaluated fecal short chain fatty acids, pH and also faecal output/ diarrhoea incidences throughout the study. To answer your Q, the GI symptoms may be influenced by microbiota alteration as this has been shown in Whelan study as well. If you are interested to know more, I'm more than happy to share the in press manuscript.
  • Lesley Hoyles added an answer:
    Has anyone ever done fluorescence in situ hybridization method for gut bacterial enumeration using a teflon-coated slide?
    I've done preparing the bacterial slide (using a teflon-coated slide) and during the observation (40x magnification) under a fluorescence microscope, I noticed that the background of each has lots of debris.

    Similar observations were made in my colleagues' slide whom all used the same protocol. Is this normal? Has anyone got any photos to share? Another question, is it true that the teflon-coated slide is too thick to be observed under 40x magnification? I couldn't get a good image of the microbial cells, but still enough to see their fluorescence.
  • Lawrence Okoror added an answer:
    Does anyone know of a kit that can be used to measure in vivo vitamin production?
    It is known that beneficial bacteria within the colon produce vitamins and consumption of prebiotics enhances the growth of these beneficial bacteria. I am administering a test prebiotic to lab animals and would like to confirm increased vitamin production in the animals.
    Lawrence Okoror
    yes, email or Bioinformaticsinitiatives
  • Geoff Daigle asked a question:
    What is the daily number of probiotic bacteria created in the human gut?
    At 100 trillion bacteria in the gut micro biome, does anyone know the number of new bacteria that have to be generated per day to replace those lost?
  • Jani Chetankumar added an answer:
    Is it possible to increase the viability of microorganism without spore formation for long term?
    I want to maintain the quality of synbiotic syrup through stabilization and maintaining viability of lactobacillus sporogenes for the long term.
    Jani Chetankumar
    Hello friends,
    glycerol, sucrose and freezing helpful to increase the viability but stability of syrup liquid can not be handle with this solution. Can anyone help me to stabilize liquid syrup media.

    Your regards,
    jani chetan

About Prebiotics

Non-digestible food ingredients mostly of a carbohydrate base that improve human health by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of existing bacteria in the colon.

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