Science topic

Pragmatics - Science topic

Pragmatics is a subfield of linguistics which studies the ways in which context contributes to meaning.
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How can I find a topic that links grammar to literature or links grammar to language analysis, such as
1,Ellipsis in Literature "select text "
2,The Pragmatic Functions of Modal Verbs in Dostoevsky's " The Dream of a Ridiculous Man"
To do a graduation research ,as a student in the English Department.
Can you suggest topics for me .
with many thanks🌼
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Hi there! Stylistics uses linguistics to explore literary texts. For example, is the language used in a specific text / corpus what you'd expect or are there aspects that make you think the author was (unwittinglly) conveying some kind of underlying message?
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I am a graduate student at Arizona State University and I am taking an introductory class on research and evaluation in education. We have been asked to get input on the differences between research and evaluation, are they the same thing or do you think they are married in purpose and use? I am an elementary teacher and we are a data driven school. We use the evaluation process to research better options to meet the children on their learning field for maximum success. We also use evaluations to determine if scholars have reached the goals and mastered the information or standards we set. I think that we can take the evidence that is placed before us and use it to build the research data that will give us an idea of what we need to do with our scholars which will then lead to more evaluation. I don't believe they are the same, but they work hand in hand help us gather the evidence as part of both the evidence and the research. I realize that as I learn more I tend to lean towards a pragmatic approach to research. Although my personal definitions are evolving as I learn, I believe that research is the gathering and investigating of information where as evaluating is taking the research and drawing conclusions or using it to direct further research. Again, my own thoughts are growing and changing as I learn and study and your thoughts could add to my understanding, research and evaluation of the information.
I would like to hear from you about what you think is the difference or the same between research and evaluation. Also, what paradigm do you lean towards? Do you recommend any references for education research or evaluations?
Thank you for your thoughts and actions.
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thank you everyone. I appreciate your feedback.
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Greetings, I am a student enrolled in a research class for Arizona State University, and we are discussing the topic of research and evaluation. For this discussion we are drawing from Mertens (2020) Research and Evaluation in Education and Psychology. While I believe there is a link and they overlap, research is how we find related tops and information, while evaluation is how we add validity. Mertens stated that research is knowing and understanding while evaluation is the applied inquiry process.
I think we use a mix method approach in our research, to see what may be factual and biased and what may be just theory.
Through different approaches, how can we still maintain the discipline of being objective while not falling into a biased opinion, where we only post, follow or research an opinion that we agree with? Out of the for theories, postpositivism, constructivism, transformative and pragmatic, which would be the most effective in being open and unbiased?
Thank you for your time
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Research is the pathway of passing the knowledge for the readers & the students , which remain a guiding factor for the students in their study & also in their knowledge . Education covers the basic path of the prescribe study matter for which student of higher education may take the advantage of knowledge of research .
This is my personal opinion
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Can anyone recommend any pragmatic articles/research on ELL (ESL) teaching/learning in the K-12 education system? Thanks for any info.
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Try choosing the topics by the keywords hashtags or the title
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Mixed-methods researchers promote pragmatism as a paradigm by suggesting that it is directly linked to the needs of mixed-methods research. Scholars maintain that pragmatism provides a philosophical foundation for social science research, in general, and mixed-methods research, in particular (Morgan 2014a).
Many researchers still believe that mixed methodology should be done separately.
What is the take on the pragmatic approach where mixed methods adopt the use of both methods using one instrument/tool to collect data at the same time? This will either be QUANT+qual or QUAL+quant.
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Actually, I do not know that mixed-method has limitations. Thank you for the useful RG link.
Kind Regards,
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RG is an excellent platform for article publicity. But does it pragmatically work? How can we increase the visibility of our published manuscript?
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No effect
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i wanted to use both quantitative and qualitative data in conducting ex post facto research
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Being pragmatic is governed by practicality, i.e., collecting data using approaches that best address the research question(s). In ex post facto research (i.e., after-the-fact investigation), used when controlling the treatment variable is infeasible or unacceptable, a pragmatic sequential mixed methods design (Mertens, 2019) could come in handy. In particular, you might consider the exploratory sequential mixed methods design (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2018), in which the qualitative stage is the basis for the quantitative stage. You could go through the study by Killian and Wilkins (2009) to grasp how they implemented the sequential design in their ex post facto study. Full citations are as follows.
Creswell, J. W., & Plano Clark, V. L. (2018). Designing and conducting mixed methods research (3rded.). SAGE Publications. https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/designing-and-conducting-mixed-methods-research/book241842
Killian, J. E., & Wilkins, E. A. (2009). Characteristics of highly effective cooperating teachers: A study of their backgrounds and preparation. Action in Teacher Education, 30(4), 67–83. https://doi.org/10.1080/01626620.2009.10734453
Mertens, D. M. (2019). Research and evaluation in education and psychology: Integrating diversity with quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods (5th ed.). SAGE Publications. https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/research-and-evaluation-in-education-and-psychology/book259357
Good luck,
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The wastes produced at household level become a major problem. What could be the various possible ways to deal with such waste. Really, it is worsening the situation all around the surrounding.
Your reply is appreciated in advance.
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There are many easy ways to reduce household waste. With a little planning, thought, and creativity, we can significantly reduce our impact on the environment by cutting down on trash. The following link includes a list of 11 easy ways to reduce household trash, kindly check it:
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I am currently studying educational paradigms and I am interested in Pragmatic which seems to be the most helpful in EFL Research.
From an Axiology perspective, Pragmatic "gain knowledge in pursuit of desired ends"(Mertens ,2020,p.11).
I work in an English training school in China. Parents want every effort to be rewarded, but I, as a teacher, want students to learn useful learning skills and strategies. And those are essential to their success.
From an Ontology perspective, Pragmatic" asserts that there is a single reality and that all individuals have their own unique interpretation of reality"(Mertens ,2020,p.11).
Students are so different from each other and they are supposed to have unlike advantages in learning, Some are good at phonics, some are great at reading comprehension and some are skillful at writing. So we should respect and understand every one of them and provide proper help.
From a methodology perspective, Pragmatic "match methods to specific questions and purposes of research"(Mertens ,2020,p.11).
Now I want to work on research for a better teaching method for Chinese students.
I am planning to collect quantitative data, such as length of lessons, length of at-home-review, Star Reading grades before and after learning.
And also I am planning to collect qualitative data, such as students' class behavior, feedback to the learned knowledge, and feedback to the new knowledge.
But I don't think those data are enough for my research and I need more ideas, could you please share your ideas with me? What other data should I collect for my reseach?
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Meng: You should start with small discourses, like "Jokes," and then go on to larger translation issues. Please see the two PowerPoints below. For advanced students, you can go into the various types of "Irony." Again, I've added a PowerPoint.
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In case it does, does this mean that a person who acquires this pragmatic competence have communicative competence?
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Hani: Perhaps the reverse is true: Communicative Competence is one aspect of Pragmatic Competence. Communicative Competence is a linguistic concept, while Pragmatic Competence is a more universal concept. Please check out my PowerPoint relating to "Linguistic Pragmatics."
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I am about conducting a contrastive research study on the pragmatic competence of Yemeni EFL learners by comparing their responses in the speech act of gratitude to the ones made by English native speakers. My question is on the eligibility of using already-published-research data of the native speakers for my research as these native speakers are not reachable. If yes, can you suggest a criteria reference for this procedure?
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I would determine whether or not the participants consented to the use of their data beyond the study that they originally consented to. Sometimes this means contacting the collecting researcher.
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The basic idea behind Systems Theory is, “The whole is greater than the sum of its parts.". This is a narrow idea and in our complex world with climate change, environmental degradation, and global inequalities. The pragmatic and positivist trend in the world was to oriented research towards explanations and causes, i.e. in-between of input and output, causes and effects. For no-system theoreticians, the idea is to observe systems as forms with enough inner complexity to reduce the external complexities by the means of selections that stabilized meaning. In this context, it is the self-observation of the form that has been investigated as a system. Once again why system theory is developed into a theory of self-organizing systems.
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Yes and No. It depends on which kind of the system you are dealing with. Some systems are just too huge to model them sufficiently accurately.
I will give you just one simple example. Human cell. Just one living cell has the number of functional parts approxiamtely equal to the number of living people on the Earth. Are we capable to predict the evolution of the humanity in the span of just a few years? Nope. Nada. Zilch.
It is same with a single cell! Not to speak about bodies!
With other systems, it gets even worse: human body, society, state, humanity, ecosystems, the whole Earth's nature, the Umiverse. Is there any escape from this trap made by our inability to evaluate all processes undergoing in the complex system simultaneously? Yes. There is.
By searching for emergent structures in complex systems, we can describe them at different levels. Seems to be easy, right. But it isn't. We have a Russian doll like structure of hard sciences each encompasing just one part of the complexity of the Universe: quantum fields, particles, atoms, molecules, materials, biomolecules, cells, tissues, bodies, ecosystems, the Earth, the Solar system, galaxies, and the Universe.
Scientific disciplines are here for a good reason. We are unable to go from the first principles and derive behavior of galaxies from them! We take as the baseline whole stars, gravity, and electromagnetism. We cannot go from quantum field theory to prove behavior of the galaxies!
Stars themselves are emergent structures originating in the lower level physics: electromagnetism, atomic interactions, fusion, etc. This physical ladder goes even lower.
Many scientists working in their field of research do not realize that they are working with emergents that exist only due to vast number of interactions of parts operating at the lover level of the physics ladder. Those who understand this can easily cross the borders of disciplines as they are putting ends correctly together.
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After reading Mertens' Introduction to Educational Research, I have a preliminary understanding of the four main research paradigms of research, which are post-positivism paradigm, constructivism paradigm, transformational paradigm and pragmatic paradigm. In the future, I plan to focus on the education direction of adult lifelong growth and learning. In this direction, I think the pragmatic paradigm will be more helpful to the education and research work I want to do. There are three reasons as follows:
#1 I focus on the growth and learning of adults, whose needs for growth and learning also change with the development of the times. The axiology of the pragmatic paradigm is that knowledge is acquired in the process of pursuing expected goals, and it is necessary to contact with multiple groups to obtain different understandings (Morgan 2007). This is suitable for the study of adult education in different Settings.
#2 The ontology of the pragmatic paradigm emphasizes the creation of knowledge through lines of action, pointing out that different people or groups can work together to complete "joint actions" or "projects". The emphasis is on the actual actions (" courses of action "), the beliefs behind those actions (" guaranteed claims "), and the possible consequences of different actions (" maneuverability ") (Morgan 2007). In my opinion, the personal growth and learning of growing people is the change of their beliefs or beliefs to action, and the positive feedback brought by the action promotes the occurrence of continuous learning. So at this point I also think that the pragmatic paradigm is more suitable for the direction of adult growth and learning.
#3 The epistemology of the pragmatic paradigm proposes that researchers need to interact with different members of society to understand problems in order to determine wise courses of action and determine the appropriateness of these actions, once implemented, to solve problems. The researchers did not position themselves as distant observers. Educational research on adult growth and learning requires interaction with group members, and researchers themselves are also part of the group, so they cannot be merely observers.
reference
Mertens, D. M. (2020). Research and evaluation in education and psychology : Integrating Diversity with Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Methods (5th edition). ISBN:9781544333762
阅读完Mertens的《教育研究导言》,初步了解了教育研究的四个主要的研究范式分别是后实证主义范式、建构主义范式、转化型范式和实用主义范式。我打算未来专注在成人的终身成长学习的教育方向上,在这个方向上我认为实用主义范式对我想做的教育及研究工作会比较有帮助。理由有三,如下:
#1 我关注的是成年人的自身成长学习,成年人本身成长学习的需要也是在时代的发展中也是变化的,实用主义范式的价值论是在追求预期目标的过程中获得知识,需要与多个群体接触,从而获得不同解度的理解(Morgan 2007)。这对于在不同环境下的成人成长教育的研究会很适合。
#2 实用主义范式的存在论强调通过行动路线创造知识,指出了不同的人或群体可以共同完成“联合行动”或“项目”。重点在于实际行为(“行动路线”)、这些行为背后的信念(“有保证的主张”)以及不同行为可能带来的后果(“可操作性”)(Morgan 2007)。在我看来,成长人的自身成长学习正是基本其信念或信念的改变,到有所行动,以及行动后带来的正向反馈促进持续学习的发生。所以在这一点上我也认为实用主义范式更适合用于成人自身成长学习的方向。
#3 实用主义范式的知识论提出研究者需要与社会的不同成员互动,理解问题,以确定明智的行动方针,并确定这些行动一旦实施后的适当性,解决问题。研究者没有将自己定位为有距离的观察者。对于成人的成长学习的教育研究,是需要与群体成员互动,而且研究者本身也是群体之一,无法成为仅是观察者的角色。
参考文献
Mertens, D. M. (2020). Research and evaluation in education and psychology : Integrating diversity with quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods(第 5 版)赛奇出版社。ISBN:9781544333762
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This article may also be helpful:
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This is up to each party, and what it carries on its agenda is based on the ideas that this or that side carries.
📷
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My respects Dear Dr. Anwar Ismail...
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In the 1980s Bealer wrote Quality and Concept which presented a type-free first-order approach
to intensional logic to compete with other higher-order, type-theoretic and modal approaches.
The presentation (both in the book and in a published article) is very sketchy (some non-trivial lemmas are merely stated) and the presentation is not easy to follow.
I was so impressed and intrigued by Bealer's philosophical arguments based on his system that I took it upon myself to clarify the presentation of his intensional logic and to furnish detailed proofs of the soundness and completeness results, which I hope might interest a larger audience. I wrote a paper containing this material which gives a general philosophical motivation and points out some open problems. I was interested in being sure of the correctness of these results before advancing to purely philosophical discussions on the advantage of this approach.
What would be a good journal to submit this paper to ?
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Look at the journals listed in the bibliography of the entry for "Intensional Logic" in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy:
Some more recent work by Bealer is also referenced.
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In terms of conducting educational research or an evaluation, what are some examples of situations where there is a need for only a qualitative or only a quantitative approach to a topic instead of using both?
I am learning about the four research paradigms including constructivist, transformative, post positivist, and pragmatic. The pragmatic paradigm follows a hybrid model using quantitative and qualitative methods and doesn't have to prove a general truth. This seems to be the most flexible and generally applicable approach to me as someone who does not have any formal experience in educational research or evaluation.
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I am currently supervising my PHD student's study in Education. We are examing Universal Design Instruction (UDI) for students with visual disabilities in the classroom with intention to build a custom UDI model. Hence we are using both methods of quantitative and qualitative data for added value and strength.
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I am an MA student working on pragmatics, specifically DCTs (discourse completion tasks). do you happen to know any books or articles on how to write and analyze DCTs? or is there any source for DCTs on different topics?
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Rafal Rzepka Florence Daniel thank you very much.
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I'm beginning to think that this distinction is not as clear-cut as it has traditionally been taken for granted. Consider the following example: "She may like this one" (uttered by a friend who is helping you find a dress for your girlfriend). Many would say that this is a case of epistemic modality (no speaker's commitment to the truth of the modalized proposition). However, in this context, the utterance of "She may like this one" counts as a suggestion, this notion falling, in my view, within the domain of deontic modality.
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Semantics is long-term and theoretical; pragmatics is here-and-now, practical, applied. There are many different types of context, linguistic, musical, geographical, historical, cultural, etc., and Pragmatics deals with these contexts in terms of HERE AND NOW. Semantics is able to transcend from the here-and-now to deal with these issues in a broader sense. Here is a PowerPoint on "Semantics," and one on "Pragmatics." These PowerPoints illustrate this distinction.
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I am looking at second language development for children  through play activities. I can see a a lot of second language use through the child's monologue with herself while playing but need to find research on the subject.
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Play is an extremely important aspect of children's development, and adult development as well. Associated with play is laughter (mainly a public phenomienon), and smililng (mainly an individual phenomenon). Here is a PowerPoint about "Play," one about "Laughter and Smiling," and one about "Humor and Education." Enjoy:
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When I was doing research on measuring integrated curriculum and extracurricular activity participation of Chinese students, mixed methods really inspired me and gave me great help.Now as a postgraduate freshman, I have to think deeply about pragmatic paradigm and other research paradigms.Welcome to discuss more recent studies together.Thank you.
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Interesting. Pragmatism is Dewey's concept in education.
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The real world is constantly changing. Human beings' understanding of their own brains is still so superficial that they can hardly talk about the whole real world. I was struck by a passage: "These philosophers reject the scientific idea that social inquiry can reach truths about the real world by means of a single scientific method. "In the pragmatic paradigm, the outcome is all that matters, and the value of the outcome is judged by its validity, not by its consistency with some 'reality' in the real world. Pragmatism's emphasis on "believing one thing is different from another" is more convincing than other paradigms that emphasize the nature of reality and objective truth.
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The problem nowadays is that social inquiry has extended its reach in the natural sciences, going beyond such issues as knowledge production, and making claims about social construction of content. That may be acceptable for social sciences and some areas of biology, but results in some very weird claims for mathematics, physics, and engineering. What Isam Alkhalifawi says is entirely correct, except that pragmatists did also have a mitigating notion of convergence toward something beyond mere workability as an ideal at "the end of inquiry". Unfortunately nowadays the lines between pragmatists and constructivists have become blurred, and many who profess to be following the pragmatic paradigm have strayed from its basic principles.
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In my research, I have examined the impact of computer-mediated self-paced lessons on Turkish EFL learners' request modification. However, I am not sure what test I should run to see whether there is a statistically significant difference between the frequency counts of modifiers in pre-test and post-test. Moreover, I am not certain about how I can code the data. Do you think I should assign codes to each sub-category (e.g. playdown, politeness marker) or is it ok to type the frequency counts of internal and external modifiers in pre-test and post-test onto SPSS?
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Asking for a friend:
Greetings
I am a last-year Ph.D. student who is waiting for a doctoral defense session. I am going to continue my Postdoc in the area of pragmatics and language education. Do you have any idea about the existed opportunities? Thanks so much in advance
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Look out for vacancies on The Linguist List https://linguistlist.org/career/search/. If you know which researchers have projects on these topics that you are interested in, write to them to introduce yourself. It's also worth asking your PhD supervisor about this.
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Several studies in general population have found a prevalence of 3 to 8% of advanced liver fibrosis in the context of NAFLD by means of noninvasive procedures. Diabetes prevalence has been increasing worldwide. It is one of the main risk factors for chronic liver disease and cirrhosis. Liver fibrosis is a strong predictor of mortality. In pragmatic terms do you think that all diabetic patients seen in consultation should be screened for liver fibrosis? If you agree which would be your strategy of study?
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I think to evaluate the liver fibrosis is easy and practical
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It is a pragmatic study of tweets for some political leaders and I need to count the words are phrases used by each of them. Thanks.
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For quick simple checks old good AntConc should be enough:
You can also have a look for other corpus linguistics tools if you need more sophisticated stuff.
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We are developing a test for ad-hoc (ad-hoc) and scalar implicatures (SI) and are showing 3 images (of similar nature) to the participants: image, image with 1 item, image with 2 items.
Eg. Plate with pasta, a plate with pasta and sauce, a plate with pasta, sauce and meatballs.
A question for an ad-hoc is: My pasta has meatballs, which is my pasta?
Q. for an SI is: My pasta has sauce or meatballs, which is my pasta? (pasta with sauce is the target item since we are testing pragmatic implicatures, where 'or' means 'not both'.
The item that causes many difficulties in making up questions is the image without any items, ie. plate with pasta. How do we phrase the question so that it elicits this image as a target response, without using too complex syntax?
Negation; "My plate has no sauce or meatballs", "My plate has only pasta, no sauce and no meatballs", seems like a complex structure to introduce as a counterbalance to the other type of items.
Has anyone tested something similar, without negation? We would be grateful for any kind of tips and hints.
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Could you just say: my plate has plain plasta?
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I am doing a study on analyzing and interpreting the sociopragmatic features of approximately 350 Facebook posts shared by Kurdish speakers in Kurdistan Region, Iraq. For presenting the different pragmatic intentions or associative meanings behind Kurdish speakers’ posts, the collected corpus will be categorized into social, economic, political, health and religious topics, which will be translated into English for the purpose of study. Also, for assuring the seriousness and danger of COVID-19 among Kurdish speakers, a questionnaire of five questions has been created on www.forms.app and sent to 1185 participants via SNSs, namely Viber and Facebook messenger.
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One of the goals of the scientific platforms, including Research Gate, is to help researchers to update their knowledge regarding the recent developments in research in their area of study. We can help new researchers by suggesting titles or topics for research and in this way we can promote spreading knowledge and it would be another way for connecting researchers all over the world. Moreover, some researchers may co-author some topics as well as brainstorm ideas in their areas. I'll start with some topics that might be interesting for some researchers in the field of "translation" and I expect others to contribute. Thanks a lot in advance for your contribution. And I think you will get lots of thanks from such researchers.
1.Metonymy as a pragmatic style for politeness in religious texts with reference to translation.
2. Naturalness in translation: advantages and disadvantages.
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Definitely we should help each other
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I want to focus on the field of pragmatics in my monograph, however, I want to study it from an angle that helps me in the future concerning my teaching career OR AT LEAST BE RELEVANT. What are your suggestions?
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An interesting idea could be to look into how Moroccan EFL learners produce L2 speech acts.
Good luck!
Cheers,
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Pragmatically, AL/ML is not more than some well defined algorithms!
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Hello Seyyed, very good question. We just finished one study on AI in CPS (check it out, its open access: ), and the CPS elements as we know them from 2015, have already evolved in a different format. So.. basically old tech is obsolete and cost more to maintain and secure, than upgrade to new systems. I guess by 2025, everything that we install today, will be obsolete, with the new DL algorithm replacing old ML algorithms.. technology waits for no man :)
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What did you mean by X?
How can we know what the speaker means without asking him/her? What are the criteria that help us know the intended meaning?
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The maqam and its clues, as well as the state of the speaker at the time of the speech, with reference knowledge of the person of the speaker are all important matters in determining the speaker's intentions
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Hi guys!
I have a question on a framing effect-like issue. Well, everyone of us has the immediate feeling that there's a huge difference between saying - for instance - "you should respect the environment" and "we should respect the environment", or also "the environment should be respected".
The difference might lie in how such sentences are interpreted by our minds and of course it affects the compliance to the described behavior (i.e., "respect the environment").
I'm convinced that I'm no genius and there must be a huge literature behind such an effect; but I'm not skilled in these themes, so I'm calling for help. Any clues?
P.S.: I know that nudge units and behavioral interventions teams in general promote the "make it personal" magic recipe to increase compliance, but I wonder where such strategies come from. I'm particularly interested in understanding the differences between "you should /we should", that is how grammatical phrasing (i.e., switching the person in the phrase) affects the interpretation and the relative compliance.
thanks in advance for any help
all the best,
Alessandro
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(1) You should do X / (2) we should do X / (3) X should be done — note that this is about deontic utterances, which are performative. They have no truth value but have variable speech act force. That FORCE stems from the authority that backs up the speaker in context. In (1), the back up is, basically: "...because I say so!" = personal authority. In (2), there is a collective morality behind the speaker. And in (3), there is an appeal to rationality, so the speaker speaks in the name of what he thinks is best according to impersonal logics and knowledge.
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I define the research philosophy for my research phenomenon that is the impact of the disruptive innovation in the hotel industry as epistemology. But, I'm not sure how to justify the rationale behind the approach to philosophy.
The research paradigm is pragmatic as I am studying travellers' behaviour and the market experts' conviction on the existing phenomenon using a mixed-methods approach.
so will it be called subjective? That's what I have understood so far.
Any advice or suggestions are welcome.
Thanks!
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How would you explain objectivism and subjectivism in a business research?
There is a clear criterion: research relies on subjectivity if the researcher believes that facts are constructed in his mind, while objectivity means that facts stem from the subject. if you do not distinguish or do not care about this issue this means that you adopt pragmatism.
Regards
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Consider the pragmatic research principle in gesturing the research process and its methods
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They want everything to be defined, and many - to be measured.
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Hi everyone. I'm actually doing a study on the teaching of sociolinguistic competence. I'd like to know what you think of research on the area of sociolinguistic competence. I noticed that more people focus specifically on speech acts. I understand that speech acts also falls under pragmatic competence. I have an opinion that maybe people prefer to do studies on speech acts (and not other aspects of sociolinguistic competence) because they are more easily measurable and observable. What do you think?
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As far as I understand your question, there is a thin line between sociolinguistic competence and pragmatic competence. Rest, I agree with Jinan F.B Al-Hajaj that we can hardly think of sociolinguistic competence as an autonomous.
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Based on pragmatic philosophy , I want to analyse internal conversations as a driver to engagement. I am using narrative inquiry as QUali method. And planning to use secondary data as Quanti due to time constraint which will be utilised in narrative analysis.
Can I independently interpret Quali and QUantitative and not go for comparison ?
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Yes, you will move from inductive to deductive. However, in order to generate hypotheses you would need to do a full scale qualitative study. That would convert your design from qual --> QUAN to QUAL --> QUAN. But note that this second design is difficult to do because it requires that the qualitative segment be both capable of standing on its own and be directed by the goals of the quantitative study.
In the more basic version of qual --> QUAN you would already have the goals (hypotheses etc.) in place for the QUAN study, but you would need the qual study to help you determine how to measure the relevant variables. In particular, it is rare to plan for a QUAN study without having set of research hypotheses in mind.
If you don't have any idea what variables you will need to measure or how they will be related to each other in the QUAN study, then you might consider a design like: qual --> qual --> QUAN. In that case, the first qual study would be for hypothesis generating and second one for developing measures. In this case, the reason for not doing just one qual study is that it is hard to determine how to measure something when you don't even know what you want to measure.
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Hello everyone,
I am dusting off my knowledge on adaptive control for my research. I came across with a concept that I did not quite get back then and is still elusive to me: persistence of excitation. After looking in many places, I always found the expression for the condition with the integral of the regressor matrix upper and lower bounded. However, I do not get the intuition of the meaning and why the persistence of excitation condition is formulated like that. Any comments on this will be greatly appreciated.
Thanks in advance!
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What are the differences between achievement test and proficiency test?
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Both measure cognitive ability of learners. However, performance test is teacher-made test or researcher-made test while achievement test is a standardized test mostly prepared by examination bodies.
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My thesis is about Miscommunication, confusion and impoliteness in second/foreign language classroom. For this research, I need to gather data from classroom interaction. Here are three questionnaires about interaction in the classroom of English/Spanish and Italian as FL/SL. Please could you share them with language students? Your cooperation is highly appreciated. For any question, please do not hesitate to contact me: cristina.gadaleta@hud.ac.uk English: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLSdIQyN4ikkpIQ7eNM7il6vTxNP78SltxQlo4Z7SloQacGJNvw/viewform?usp=sf_link Spanish: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLSf9Ib2iPNXhgzDNgKriwbiODAXweLNAkyVv48Al_0sAIo0KoA/viewform?usp=sf_link Italian: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScRediqYPWzdV2Yj4WqUpGFUxDlZ1Yo6c_3Sq7kCVapXjsHZw/viewform?usp=sf_link
Acknowledge: Mugford, G. (2019). Addressing difficult situations in foreign-language learning : confusion, impoliteness, and hostility. New York, NY: Routledge.
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Really,highly,valuably needed.
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My thesis is about Miscommunication in second/foreign language classroom.
For this research, I need to gather data from classroom interaction.
Here are three questionnaires about interaction in the classroom of English/Spanish and Italian as FL/SL. Please could you share them with language students? Your cooperation is highly appreciated. For any question, please do not hesitate to contact me: cristina.gadaleta@hud.ac.uk.
Italian: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScRediqYPWzdV2Yj4WqUpGFUxDlZ1Yo6c_3Sq7kCVapXjsHZw/viewform?usp=sf_link Acknowledge: Mugford, G. (2019). Addressing difficult situations in foreign-language learning : confusion, impoliteness, and hostility. New York, NY: Routledge.
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I think miscommunication originally based on the indivual differences among those learners.Some are at a high level of language development mastering all the fundamental skills fully while on the other hand some are so poor and inexperienced concerning the basics of lang.
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The whole PhD project will be conducted (in a palliative care context) in phases using a combination of questionnaires, interviews, focus groups and possibly reference groups along with analysis of conversations between clinicians and patients and an audit of patient records. I intend to use a pragmatic approach using both inductive and deductive analyses. The parts of the study may potentially stand alone, but better triangulated with a synthesis at the end. I keep going back and forth between calling this mixed methods and multi methods. I thought I nailed it when I called it multi-stage mixed methods!
Then I came across this little gem regarding case study research that was written in the same context as my study (palliative care):
"To understand the nature of case study research, it is useful to conceptualize it as an approach to research rather than a methodology in its own right. In other words, when considering the phenomenon of interest and the research questions it raises, the case study researcher selects the methodological position most suited to answer the particular research questions. The methods used in case study research are pragmatically – rather than paradigmatically – driven". Rosenberg, J. & Yates, P. (2007).
Using this logic, can I identify my study as using a pragmatic case study design, and not even touch upon qual/quant/multi/mixed method at all?
If so, are there any other references to substantiate this position?
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With regard to "using a concurrent mixed methods design that demands to collect the two strands of data concurrently, analyze separately and converge afterward," I would not say that pragmatism does not cover this design. Instead, I would say that this is weak design, so it would be wise to consider alternative designs if they are available.
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When I try to review theories about word meaning within a broad-sense concept-related manner, I find that there are only few scholars who regard word meaning as concept, including Fodor, Bloom, Borg. In contrast, there are many who conceive word meaning not as concept but as conceptual schema or template, including most of Cognitive Linguists and Relevance Theorists.
Thus, I am wondering whether there are more scholars in "word meaning is concept" camp? Can Plato's Idealism be included, a seeming "label" view?
Great thanks.
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Hi Qiao
There are various possibilities for what these underspecified entities might be: a special kind of ‘lexical’ concept, a pro-concept, a schema or procedure or set of constraints on the kind of contentful concept they can be used to express/communicate.
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Actually, for every text to be translated there is a kind of translation that's very suitable for that text. For example, scientific texts should be semantically translated because the accuracy of meaning in such a case is of top priority.Literary Texts, on the other hand, can be communicatively managed. In other words, the meaning in this case is not of top priority but it goes hand in hand with the form which is very important too.
It could be added that political discourse is characterized by a lot of playing on words' meanings. In other words, politicians, in most situations, try to use certain words and expressions with opposite meanings. Such being the case, the pragmatic approach should be depended on when it comes to rendering political discourse.
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Translated into what?
And how?
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I am currently designing an intervention (injury surveillance system) to be implemented within an organization. This research (following a pragmatic paradigm) will follow a multiphase mixed methods research consisting of QUAL -> QUANT -> QUAL.
The initial qualitative part will be conducted through interviews with the stakeholders of the organization in order to understand their perspectives with regards to the intervention; to identify barriers and facilitators to implementing the intervention and to design the intervention that best fits with the organizational needs.
My question is this: I am not sure which qualitative approach do I have to consider in this first part of the study. I am approaching this study from a pragmatic world view and hence I do not know whether this part requires a specific qualitative approach.
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I agree with David L Morgan and Dean Whitehead that the most important thing to define is why you choose Pragmatism as the paradigm for your research. For example, I also conducted a multiphase mixed methods design for my doctoral research, which included an intervention. But while Pragmatism was the umbrella paradigm for the overall design of my research (w/ 4 research phases in total), the different phases of my project adopted different paradigms. For instance, whereas the phases with a QUAL priority adopted a constructivist stance, the ones with a QUAN had pragmatic stance.
The reason why I adopted pragmatism as the Overarching umbrella was precisely because one of its fundamental principles was paradigm integration, i.e. the synthesis of quantitative and qualitative standpoints. In short, the eclectic of pragmatism partners well with the multidimensionality of mixed methods multiphase designs, by allowing us the allocation of different paradigms along the different research phases of multiphase designs.
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English Literature is a common discipline in the universities in South Asian countries. Quite often, the practitioners in the field and the learners as well are faced with an irritating question of 'relevance' of literature in general and English literature in particular in the shaping of national identity. Our query is does literature have a pragmatic impact on the national and societal lives of the people? Do the literature Depts contribute to the development of the nation and if yes, how?.
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I think that's a very good question. Obviously, being an Australian of Irish descent, I can only draw direct experience from looking at how it has informed the various traditions of countries that are closely related to my own culturally.
However, in saying that, with reference to your question I feel like it would be helpful to draw on some of our neighbours in the Oceanic region. In the general region of Melanesia, the emergence of written literature in countries like Vanuatu, Fiji and Papua New Guinea (though not, perhaps, necessary in shaping the culture up until its fairly recent emergence, largely due to the prevalence of oral literature) I believe may have an important role in shaping the future of the cultures there.
Now, while all of these countries don't perhaps have a prevalence of exclusively English literature (with many being in native languages, pidgins, creoles, Hindi and French as well) English is the most commonly spoken language in all three, and therefore, also the most commonly read (although popular literature and print media is usually quite balanced in its split between native languages and English).
As in a lot of the literature of colonised regions, a lot of the new literature coming out of the Melanesian region is postcolonial and is in many ways grappling with the shock and trauma of colonialism. For this precise region, I believe it will be integral in shaping the culture moving forward. While the university systems there, which have been integral in fostering these literatures are fairly young, as are the literatures themselves, the writing is beginning to diversify in terms of publications as well as emancipate itself somewhat from academia, leading to more widespread adoption of writing.
While Melanesia has a rich cultural history that does not in any way "need" developing, and likewise there is no "need" for the English language or literature unto itself, in terms of making use of what is already there, I believe that given its widespread adoption (which thankfully has not led to extinction of the native languages) and likewise the adoption of the written form CAN have a pragmatic effect on their cultural development as it is, to some extent, a lingua franca and can assist in the ease of sharing stories.
As for how literature departments at universities have, given that they were integral in developing a written tradition, I would say that at least in the case of Melanesia, the relevance of the literature department cannot be dismissed.
Now certainly this cannot be applied in all cases, and to all non-native-English-speaking nations, developed or otherwise, I believe that the South Pacific region does show a way in which the relevance and pragmatic capacity of literature can be argued for.
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Today I learned about Alex Eskin, at U of Chicago, and his Magic Wand Theorem which was recently awarded $3 million in 2019 Breakthrough Prize in Mathematics. The results of this theorem are based on the work by Alex Eskin and the late Maryam Mirzakhani, submitted in 2013
The rewarded breakthrough theory claims that its results are of enormous importance for studying dynamical processes in the Universe, however, the theory is "not easy to explain". This is further discussed in , where the author Anton Zorich states " One can observe certain common phenomena in large classes of dynamical systems; in particular, ideal billiards might be interpreted as toy models of a gas in a chamber. Such toy models allow to elaborate tools to study original dynamical systems of physical nature."
My question is, why have a geometric toy model to study dynamical processes, when you can have a real and simple dynamical model, known as the globotoroid, to address these processes?
It seems, Magic Wand Theorem is another example of hard to explain mathematical theory, which provides a "useful tool for physics". Can we be more real and pragmatic, or this is perhaps not academic enough? For instance, my recent addresses more realistically the topics Magic Wand Theorem attempts to do.
Incidentally, I also used the term "Magical Wand" im my 2015 YouTube video, https://youtu.be/gbPaG9AHZfg, where I show how to wrap growth data, in this case the market data, onto a spheroid. Interesting coincidence in the use of term.
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Dear Igor Bayak,
Thank you for your comments, and recommendations.
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“Emoción en la interacción digital: de los recursos lingüísticos a los emojis, memes y stickers”
Pedido de contribuciones
Envío de las propuestas: hasta el 15 de julio de 2019
Notificación de contribuciones aceptadas: 31 de octubre de 2019
La Revista de Estudios del Discurso Digital (REDD) invita a investigadores que trabajen en lengua española a enviar manuscritos para su segundo número, cuyo tema central es “Emoción en la interacción digital: de los recursos lingüísticos a los emojis, memes y stickers”. El objetivo de este número especial es atender a diferentes recursos y estrategias que los usuarios emplean para canalizar la expresividad en las interacciones digitales (escritas y orales). Desde los primeros recursos textuales que se emplearon (abreviaciones, mayúsculas y minúsculas alternadas y otras estrategias de escritura creativa) a los diferentes recursos multimodales que las interfaces ofrecieron, los usuarios han desarrollado un repertorio de estrategias pragmáticas para canalizar sus intenciones comunicativas.
En este número se priorizarán los trabajos de alta calidad que describan y analicen algunas de las siguientes temáticas en relación a una o más plataformas (redes sociales, correo electrónico, etc.) y/o tipos textuales (textos breves, chats, post/comentarios, mensajería instantánea, etc.):
1. Evolución diacrónica de los recursos expresivos.
2. Usos y funciones de emojis, memes, stickers, videos, etc. en la interacción digital.
3. Recursos expresivos en la interacción digital oral (videos, videollamadas, audios).
Los artículos podrán ser tanto reflexiones teóricas como análisis empírico de un conjunto de datos. En el caso de que utilicen corpus, estos deberán ser recolectados bajo protocolos éticos que salvaguarden la identidad de los interlocutores. Por otro lado, y dado que el principal interés de REDD es la lengua española, se valorarán los artículos que atiendan a la riqueza y variación inter e intralingüística del español empleado en las interacciones digitales. Asimismo, se invita a todos los interesados publicar en la revista a enviar propuestas para el segundo número de contenido general. El plazo de recepción de aportaciones para REDD se encuentra abierto durante todo el año.
Indicaciones para enviar manuscritos
Los manuscritos deberán ser enviados por vía electrónica mediante el Portal de Revistas UVa (Universidad de Valladolid, España), en la siguiente dirección: https://revistas.uva.es/index.php/redd.
Los artículos tendrán una extensión máxima de 15.000 palabras (incluyendo tablas, gráficos, ilustraciones y bibliografía) y respetar las normas editoriales de la revista. Se deberá enviar maquetado en la plantilla de REDD. Todos los textos que cumplan estos requisitos serán revisados por pares ciegos. La decisión de publicación será comunicada a los autores en un plazo máximo de tres meses.
Para informaciones adicionales, enviar un correo electrónico a revista.discurso.digital@uva.es
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Violeta Cautin-Epifani te envío por privado! :)
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What kind of model for a rural health care services can work in a low-middle income country? What are the common barriers and challenges to do so?
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To pervade the shared knowledge of these rural residents about information what is the right way to improve their living. By this, you will increase their social cognition and make them help themselves to cope with such problems. This is as far as the pragmatic challenges are concerned.
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For instance, how should a language teacher teach different speech acts, implicit meaning, etc.
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Notably, the pragmatic aspects of language use can be actualized by the anguage contexts. To this end, problem solving tasks fostering critical thinking and collaborative work such as discourse completion , role play, and consciousness raising activities engaging the learners in group work can make a difference.
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Rudeness may masquerade in different guises according to the pragmatic context of the utterance.
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You may consider 'mock politeness/impoliteness (e.g. Culpepper)!
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•My concern is that the quality of university education is in a deplorable state. For instance our university graduated can’t perform competently in the job market. It is also alleged they lack creativity in addressing work related challenges. Task; design, formulate, and execute a concrete, pragmatic approach that will offer a lasting solution to the problem of quality in university education. The solution you propose should be one that is comprehensive in nature, one that takes into account the interests of different shareholders.
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There are some universities that are trying to upgrade their teachers and students by providing them with training. But the major factor comes when the job companies want experienced person as a candidate. Everywhere there is a problem regarding experience, links, etc. So, completely we cannot say university is responsible for this. Job market also should be equally responsible for this.
Those who are the sufferers becoming entrepreneur and giving employment to others. This is the time to change the job market and universities.
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Hi, Im working on something that's related to disagreement strategies ( interlanguage pragmatics)
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Likert scale, as the name implies, is a scale measuring the opinion of respondents to a certain prompt on a questionnaire. Therefore, it is the researcher's choice to decide what type of likert scale ton adopt. Usually, researchers tend to use a five point likert scale for various purposes.
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In many situations and on different occasions, one may be linguistically rude.One may pragmatically insult someone else or issue different speech acts which reflect his rudeness.What kinds of speech acts can be used to express rudeness?
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Sarcasm, name calling, putting labels and slandering are examples of pragmatic rudeness. Silent treatment and ignoring someone (for example when an audience member asks a question) are also other examples.
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I am looking for a syllabus/textbook that I can use to teach a new course on discourse and pragmatics, which can cover the following:
1) introducing the basics of pragmatic theory
2) introducing the basics of discourse analysis
3) covering corpus-driven analysis of discourse, preferably complemented by the use of some user-friendly free software for English discourse analysis
4) broadening into some other related discussions such as inferential/cognitive pragmatics, CDA, literary stylistics, CA and rhetoric, and possibly special DA for language documentation and archiving.
would very much like to hear about others' experience and suggestions
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I think it is better to design a new syllabus with chapters chosen from different sources .It will be more enriching
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I'm just curious if that's been made before.
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You can build a role play rubric including: clarity, right choose of vocabulary items, grammar, fluency, etc.
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Can non-native English speakers ( who are of course applied linguists) rate appropriateness of EFL learners’ speech act production elicited through Role-plays and Discourse Completion Tasks (DCT)? Would it be acceptable in Interlanguage pragmatics (ILP) research where recruiting native speaker raters could not be practical?
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hi. it depends . in my opinion, non-native speakers achieve some parts of pragmatic competence better than other parts. because they need using language in context. therefore, for non-native speakers , due to not less exposure to different structures in context, their judgment is not necessarily right in spite of a lot of exceptional cases. generally speaking, non-native and native speakers' views are different because of the diversity in the mount and type of exposure to structures enhancing pragmatic competence.
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I'm in the midst of a concentrated period of marking the work of undergraduate Education students - around a 100 mainly on-line but some face-to-face students to feed back to. It's approximately 25 minutes per script to read, reflect upon, and gather a mix of encouraging and constructively critical thoughts - so I know that I am in for the long haul in terms of the time commitment to this task.
I take my teaching seriously - designing professionally valuable and purposeful tasks, creating clear rubrics and applying assessment for learning principles to assessment design (for example being clear about learning objectives, embedding peer assessment, and providing examples to students of what success looks like).
I also try to model the feedback and commenting processes in my marking that we are looking to encourage in prospective teachers. Most feedback runs to six or seven lines and conforms to the feedback sandwich structure - or 'Two Stars and a wish' in simpler parlance. I highlight a rubric to show where students have achieved the various assessment criteria. I try to provide a comment as to how to improve next time.
Some colleagues say that we are wasting our time in this endeavour and boast of their achievement in reducing marking time so that they can get on and spend more time devoted to their research. And there is evidence that most students pocket the mark that they receive, pay little attention to the comments on their work and move on to the next unit's assessment task.
I try to maintain a line of professionalism that feedback matters; helping students progress and think matters; and that therefore a commitment to the formative components of assessment is essential. But are my more pragmatic colleagues right? Am I becoming a dinosaur in my thinking about assessment ideals in a mass-production world of higher education? Back to the marking...another 50 to go!
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As a student it is vital to have feedback for personal appraisal of one's performance on a given task. Especially in the on-line environment where face to face dialogue is not the norm. Feedback serves as guidance and a measure of assurance of goal attainment. Reading and research towards acquiring the knowledge, application and skills vital for the performance of the particular core interest, needs feedback for thoughts, tasks and ideas submitted. Thank you for providing that human face to the computer for your students. This virtual space can feel empty and intimidating at times, feedback help make one feel as part of a human learning community .
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Until today my analysis is based on kerbrat- orecchioni (from the poliphonic theory); Pragmatic theory of human communication, and conversation analysis
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Dear Maria,
I suggest two approaches:
  • Critical Discourse Analysis (with 4 different methodologies championed by Fairclough, van Djk, Wodak, and Gee). Each of these would bring you their tools and ways of analyzing discourse, especially of a political nature.
  • Critical Metaphor Analysis: Charteris-Black (2004) and Maalej (2007). For an application of metaphor to discourse, see Maalej (attached) and for an application of metaphor analysis to teachers' narratives (applicable also to interviews), see ALGHBBAN, BEN SALAMH and MAALEJ (2017, attached).
Hope this will help you.
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Ethics 101 (2005), John C. Maxwell holds that the Golden Rule should be accepted for:
1) being accepted by most people
2) is easy to understand
3) is a win-win philosophy (if held by others is good for you!)
4) is a way to run your life positively
5) therefore, should be accepted
Alternatively, the Golden Rule is pragmatic and cynical!
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I'm not sure of your point to be honest. If attacked by someone with a knife, the response might be to reply in kind, but as with all Golden Rule predictions, it tends to be reactive. You might say, if a father with a dependent family, the ethical position is self-protection. Ethical positions do not necessarily come with the territory, but, if you are saying that they are situational, then I agree-to an extent.
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As governments continue to be the primary source of funding in public higher education, line functionaries at these institutions are not completely free to oppose the institutional agenda. In many instances, the national institutions align to national goals and objectives not always reflective on THE or Shanghai rankings. Public policy makers are now concern with impact on communities and the society, with relevance over esoterics and with pragmatic solutions to ordinary problems. Is there a growing dichotomy between these ideals by public officials and the institutions' line functionaries?
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There is indeed a dichotomy between the line functionaries and the national agenda in public higher education. Most line functionaries save their faces and seats by dancing to the rhythm of the ruling government while handcuffing their valuable opinions, nailing them as it were, to the stake! Sincere academic officers in public higher education institutions who do not want to shut up and pulled like the helpless sheep are fingered and their offices stripped off them. Serious governments should embrace and welcome genius ideas from the line functionaries to improve the system rather than showing the exit for such hardworking and honest line functionaries.
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I am currently using the article titled 'The socioeconomic vulnerability index: A pragmatic approach for assessing climate change led risks–A case study in the south-western coastal Bangladesh' for a research proposal. However, i do not want to to use expert opinion in assigning weights to indicator, could anyone share views on this ?
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Thanks all, i end up using the equal weight system
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I need to do some background reading for a paper
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Thank you so much everyone.
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Dear friends, I would like to ask if it is possible to measure the level of pragmatic and interculture competences.
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Hello,
Notably, various data collecting instruments are used for measuring for measuring pragmatic and intercultural competences . The most common among them is the use of Discourse Completion Task (DCT). To this end, we should prepare a number of sociocultural scenarios enacting various speech acts which the participants should study carefully and write the correct response to each one. The goal of the researcher is to see to what extent the responses are acceptable to the cultural norms of the second language. The following links can provide you with more details.
Best of luck,
R. Biria
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I want to explore certain strategies higher education teachers use when talking with students and I'm considering using role-plays. Now, I don't know how many participants I should include in the role plays? How many role plays shall I make? I want my study to be fine statistically.
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I'm curious... Why are you considering using role-plays? If you are looking for pragmatic features in communication maybe the best option is to get real samples of teachers speaking with students. In role plays there are features that could mess with the data that your're looking for... 
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Precise and informative account is needed to show the similarities, interactions, and above the distinctions between the two disciplines.
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Pragmatics is a subfield in the philosophy of language, specifically those aspects of language that relate to the manner in which words are used to mean more than its literal decontextualized meanings and how we manage to understand such usage (e.g., implicatures, metaphors, etc.).
Discourse analysis is a term used to denote a wide gamut of analytic methods devised in order to uncover the manner in which knowledge may be derived from the examination of language use. This may include conversation analysis, narrative analysis, ethnomethodology, frame analysis and many others.
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Many pragmatic phenomena can be used successfully to carry out a pragma-stylistic study such as implicatures. What about Speech acts? 
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Hello Hani Al_Ebadi,
Indubitably, style has always been regarded as an essential part of rhetoric and oratory. It refers to the effective use of language for various pragmatic  purposes such as making statements, rousing emotions, and persuading others. As you have rightly observed, implicatures play a key role in various communicative events and are considered a pragma-stylistic feature of texture. Notably, the speech act theory suggested by Austin can serve as a practical analytical tool for investigating implicature- the act of implying a meaning beyond the literal sense of what is explicitly stated. The evidential basis supporting the utility of speech act theory for investigating implicature can be justified since speech acts are stylistically and pragmatically  utilized indirectly rather than directly. For instance,  a corpus on food offering in eastern and western cultures can be analyzed based on speech act theory.
Best regards,
R. Biria
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Any examples that demonstrate multimodal translation?
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Dear Dhafi Kasassbeh,
As you have rightly observed, the translation of multimodal texts is difficult because they combine two or more semiotic systems.  Notably, in modern multimodal environment, the  translators have to go beyond the linguistic level by considering macro-level characteristics such as  socio cultural, ideological and pragmatic aspects of text  exploiting various semiotic resources contributing to the  message created by ST writer. For more information, I refer you to  the following texts, which can hopefully provide you with what you are looking for.
Best regards,
R. Biria
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Hello Scholars, is it always the case that the modal verb 'would' expresses strong epistemic stance?
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In Halliday's systemic functional linguistics, the one that I'm most familiar with, "WOULD" has a medium value on the high, medium and low value cline, which says that the probability is higher than might/may/can/could, but lower than must/ought to. Some references: Halliday & Matthiessen 2014 Halliday's introduction to functional grammar (free PDF online) page 176-192; 695; or more directly go to Matthiessen 1995, Lexicogrammatical cartography: English systems, page 498. There are disagreements between different scholars on the value of probability (how high or low) a certain modal auxiliary expresses, but I think it better to keep in mind which perspective you are taking and adhere to it. I once struggled with this as well. Hope this is useful for you and good luck.
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Grice (1975) has mentioned a little bit about conventional implicature and a lot about conversational implicature. Because conventional implicature utilises lexical markers and grammatical markers, does conventional implicature still fall under the umbrella term of pragmatics? 
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Maybe my last contribution is not very helpful for you. Therefore I add the following bibliographical references where you find ideas which might be more helpful than mine:
Christopher Potts: The logic of conventional implicatures. Oxford 2005 (=Studies in Theoretical Linguistics, 7).
And, very interesting:
Mohamed Mohamed Yunis Ali: Medieval Islamic Pragmatics. Sunni Legal Theorists' Models of Textual Communication. Richmond, Surrey 2000. 
Bach repudiates at all the concept of conventional implicatures, cf.:  
Kent Bach: Semantic Slac. What is said and more (PDF; 124 kB). In: Tsohatzidis (Hg.): Foundations of Speech Act Theory. London u.a. 1994, S. 267–291.
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In 1989, I wrote a handbook for Administrators to support Integration of Children and Youth with Severe Disabilities into the Neighborhood School (Cutting edge, at the time)
After 30 years, it is time for the 2nd Edition, as challenges that existed then, are still omnipresent.
Request: 
A chapter, a story, a research article, personal / professional observations and promising practices for parents, teachers, government or school level administrators.
From developing countries, developed countries, 
Africa
North America,
Asia, 
Russia, 
South America
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OK dear, I will soon.
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Lemma lists represent a necessary tool in NLP. Despite lengthy investigation, I could not locate an Arabic lemma list that would be freely available, and the complexity of Arabic inflections means that the creation of one from scratch is no easy task and should only be undertaken once it is ascertained that none is already available.
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This is certainly not an exhaustive solution, but you can get a very substantial list of inflected forms and their lemmas from the Arabic Universal Dependency Treebank:
The Treebank contains about 242K lemmatized tokens, so I think those could be collapsed into a rudimentary lemma list covering quite a lot. The license is CC-BY-NC-SA, as shown here:
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Most of the studies looked at main/subordinate clauses to infer clausal architecture of a given language and how it has evolved over time. One of the most discussed topics is pragmatic domain and the interplay between syntactic structure and information structure, e.g. topicalization, clefting etc. Would you agree or disagree that infinitival clauses may be a better source to look at the word order change, as it is a reduced clause and we are not "distracted" by some stylistic variation? Looking forward for your opinions! Thank you!
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I would differentiate between grammar and semantics. From one side, I doubt that Infinitival Clauses or word order as syntactic elements play an important role in variation and change since grammatical rules are very specific for every concrete language.
From the other side, I would study their semantic meaning to get rid of language-dependence. For instance, in the emotion domain repetition of words must be studied to localize "hot spots". Below is an abstract from my PhD thesis (p.21):
[Leech & Svartvik, 2003] describe grammatical means to express emotions (the code of a mean referred to hereafter is designated in brackets): interjections (299), e.g. Oh, what a beautiful present!; exclamations (300a), e.g. What a wonderful time we’ve had!; emphatic so and such (300b), e.g. I’m so afraid they’ll get lost!; repetitions (300c), e.g. This house is ‘far, ‘far too expensive!; intensifying adverbs and modifiers (301), e.g. We are utterly powerless!; emphasis (302), e.g. How ever did they escape?; intensifications of negative sentences (303a), e.g. She didn’t speak to us at all; negative noun phrases beginning with not a (303b), e.g. We arrived not a moment too soon; fronted negations (303c), e.g. Never have I seen such a crowd of people!; exclamatory and rhetorical questions (304, 305), e.g. Hasn’t she grown! and What difference does it make?. Note that this thesis uses findings by [Leech & Svartvik, 2003] for appraising emotions.
Similarly, Infinitival Clauses or word order markers could be used as identification anchors to localize variation and change since they identify conspicuous points through the syntactic structure. I would assume there are also more grammatical elements in a language to be investigated comprehensively. Not only Infinitival Clauses that do not "distract" by some stylistic variation.
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We appear to be living in an age of evidence-driven pragmatic approaches. Many academics (in the humanities) now refer to the era of post-theory.
Based on your expert subject field, what have been the most helpful and/or the most damaging applications of a theory, or a theoretical model?
(I'm particularly keen to study examples from the sciences and the social sciences, as well as the humanities.)
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Probably the most detrimental theories are those that have dire consequences when applied to human health. In recent decades, theoretical models applied to symptomology has replaced pathophysiological pathway models so that symptoms of chronic disease have become medicalized--and the control of those symptoms, instead of rectification of underlying contributors or causes, have spawned whole new classes of medications. These medications, while financially profitable for investors, have become problematic to the populations which take them, because underlying factors are left unaddressed to cause continual degeneration while symptoms appear to be ameliorated. This yields a population that becomes dependent on the medications to make outcomes appear rectified on paper while underlying processes cascade into worsening disease over time. 
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I have become very interested in the complementation patterns of adjectives as my students make a number of errors in this area. I am particularly interested in adjective patterns containing infinitives and gerunds, but I would also like to know of studies which compare the latter to the pattern adjective+"that clause". Unfortunately, there are far fewer studies of adjective valency patterns in English than there are of verb or noun patterns.
Ilka Mindt's book on adjective complementation focusses on "that clauses."Tor Arne Haugen's articles on Research Gate provide an interesting discussion of what constitutes a valency pattern and of the possibility of predicting patterns from the semantics of the target adjectives. However, he focuses on adjectival patterns in Norwegian and points out that Norwegian has different valency patterns from English. Makoto Sumiyoshi's article “ Valency Patterns in Dictionaries” contains something on adjective patterns but far more on verbs. I have ordered Francis et al's book “Cobuild Grammar Patterns 2: nouns and adjectives” and expect to find it very useful but maybe slightly outdated.
Can anyone point me to other books, articles or conference papers on this area?
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Adjective complementation: a valency approach to making EFL dictionaries by Herbst, Thomas (Applied Linguistics, Jan 1, 1984, Vol.5, p.1) is a very good article. Start from there and you will not regret.
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At regular intervals, I measured the total number of fully extended leaves, the length and width of the last fully extended leaf and the sheath length. In addition, I know the total number of plants per unit area. Could you help me with a pragmatic equation to use for calculating leaf area index at regular intervals? Any recent study in east-africa or any tropics on this issue?
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You can use the equation given by Montgomery (1911) to calculate leaf area of maize from leaf length and width measurements:
LA =  L* W * A
 where LA, L, W, and A are leaf area, leaf length, leaf maximum width and a constant , respectively.  The value of the constant (A) is 0.75.  Once you calculate the total leaf area of all plants in a given area, you can calculate the LAI as the ratio of total leaf area  to the total land area available to the plants.  For tropical maize you can refer to Elings (2000).  You can also refer to the following sources for more information.
Mokhtarpour, Teh,H.C.B.S., Saleh, G., Selamat, A.B, Asadi, M.E., Kamkar, B., 2010. Non-destructive estimation of maize leaf area, fresh weight, and dry weight using leaf length and leaf width. Communications in Biometry and Crop Science 5 (1):  19–26.
Dwyer, L.M., Stewart, D.W. (1986). Leaf area development in field-grown maize. Agronomy Journal 78, 334–343.
Elings, A. (2000). Estimation of leaf area in tropical maize. Agronomy Journal 92, 436–444.
McKee, G.W. (1964). A coefficient for computing leaf area in hybrid corn. Agronomy Journal 56, 240–241.
Montgomery E. G. 1911. Correlation studies in corn. Nebraska Agr. Exp. Sta. Annu. Rep. 24:108-159.
Pearce, R.B., Mock, J.H., Bailey, T.B. (1975). Rapid method for estimating leaf area per plant in maize. Crop Science 15, 691–694.
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children will interact with  their community soon, so they need to now 'how to use languange'. However some of my colleagues say, children do not have to know pragmatic as they are simply children.
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Hi Yesika,
As I see it, an answer to your query should address the following questions: 1) Can Pragmatics be acquired by pre-schoolers? ; 2) Should it be taught to pre-schoolers?
1) Can Pragmatics be Acquired by Pre-Schoolers?
This is a very interesting question. In order to provide you with an answer that is relevant to your purposes we would need to know which ages you are referring to with the term "pre-schooler" and which aspects of Pragmatics you are talking about.
 In countries like Spain, in which children begin school in the same year in which they celebrate their third birthday, this could be taken to mean children under the age of two and under. In some other contexts, it could mean a lot later.
Some aspects of Pragmatics such as implicatures, or the principles governing the use of referential items, are not generally thought to be acquired by children of two or even  three. However, there is some evidence that other aspects, such as recognizing and using simple speech acts based on one word utterances or very short phrases, can be acquired by children under the age of three. 
There is quite an extensive literature to help you build up an idea of the ages at which different areas of pragmatic competence may be acquired. I am familiar with the following works, but there are many others: An Introduction to Language by Franklin et al;   The Routledge Pragmatics Encylopaedia;  Pragmatic Development in First Language Acquisition by Danielle Matthews; The Development of Pragmatics: Learning to Use Language Appropriately in Handbook of Language Acquisition edited by Bhatia and Ritchie.                                                                                      
2) Should Pragmatics be Taught to Pre-Schoolers?
The aspects of Pragmatics that a pre-schooler can acquire do not need to be taught, as children will pick them up through interaction. I don't think that developmental psychologists would sanction attempts to teach such aspects, in an attempt to move students more quickly through the developmental stages of pragmatic competence. In any case, I doubt that the teaching of Pragmatics to pre-schoolers would be at all feasible: even if pragmatic concepts could be taught without recourse to metalanguage, pre-schoolers would lack the reflective skills required to benefit from such teaching.                                        
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I am interested on references about syntax and pragmatics of mimetic indirect speech as a variety of indirect speech.