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How many ways to capture radiative heat transfer and convert it into electricity?
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There is some work being done on carbon nano-structured surfaces which can collect a wide range of wavelengths. Aside from potentially improving on silicon based solar panels, there is also the possibility of collecting low grade waste heat in the form of IR radiation. Still early days though.
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One technology, carbon capture and storage (CCS), stands tall for its ability to help energy-intensive sectors like power generation and heavy industry reduce their emissions. In fact, the International Energy Agency has said without CCS, achieving the world’s lower-emission targets will be virtually impossible. While the technology isn’t new, it is increasingly coming to the forefront of the climate conversation. But what is carbon capture and storage?
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CO2 emissions are rising globally in a nearly monotonic way. The only significant changes in emission rates have been associated with global economic downturns, with no evidence that they will peak any time soon. While everyone should support the development of rational renewables, they have not and probably cannot substantially replace fossil fuels in many industries. Carbon capture is essential to the success of any realistic climate mitigation technology. Also, the term carbon capture is nearly universal, but what it really means is carbon dioxide capture (separation of CO2 from other gases, most commonly in fossil energy exhaust streams). Storage is isolating this carbon in some location where it does not reenter the atmosphere either by converting it to useful, non-volatile products or by sequestering it in geologic storage locations such as sealed, underground aquifers. The current emission rates of CO2 exceed the sum of non-fuel use of carbon by very large margins, so while CO2 conversion to products in rational ways has many advantages, it is hard to see how such activities could contribute at the same level as sequestration.
Full disclosure here that we have developed a much cheaper and energy efficient process (Cryogenic Carbon Capture(TM)), though this response is not specific to that or any other technology.
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Is this footstep power generation concept not considered due to its low efficiency?
Any novel methods to improve the power output?
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Thank you Hassan Nasser
I also agree with you Bhupendra Desai .
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It is well-understood that depends on the power system strength or system inertia in addition to the speed protection system settings.
I just would like to see some typical values for such imbalance either normalized or in MW.
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Allow me to para phrase the question; How much deviation in frequency ( steady state or dynamic) and for how long can the deviation be tolerated or allowed as per the code/standard of any specific power system. The largest credible contingency , the inertia , K , Frequency response characteristic , first stage of defence UFR, P,S T reserves etc etc would influence the number ; In Indian interconnect , reference contingency is taken as 4500 MW, Frequency deviation of 0.05 Hz is allowed ; FRC ranges from 15 GW-25 GW per Hz ; Hope this helps ;
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Hello everyone,
Class C oscillators have advantages of lower phase noise and power consumption. Searching in the literature I cannot find any single ended Class C oscillators. Though, there are Class C single ended power amplifiers. I was wondering if anyone have seen any single ended design, or even if it is possible to have or not?
I'll really appreciate your kind responses.
thanks
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Yasser Bigdeli Yes, it can be single ended, there nothing against it..
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Please Share IEEE 118 bus generator data ( especially Reactive power generation, Volatge phase angle ). In all website s Q generation at every bus is zero for all buses(Is it True) - Manpower as 118 case as reference.
how much real reactive power losses in IEEE 118 Bus system ( share any papers)
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Here is the generator data for the IEEE 118 bus test system.
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I have been working on Restoration Plan for the Eastern Grid of Bhutan. this project focuses on restoration procedures in case there is a total blackout in the system. I have been studying the frequency in each restoration step. however, I have not been able to plot the active power generated by each of the plants.
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You can right click on your generator and select define select RMS/EMT studies. After that select ampere current, voltage, or parameter. click enable. After that create curve VI instrument, then add the parameter on the last EMT/RMS selection.
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Stabilizing techniques for transistor amplifiers are well known, and as we know the frequency of operation we can make sure of stable operation in that band. However, in oscillators and specifically parallel oscillators which oscillation frequency is wished to be defined by feedback loop length (phase delay) we end up with existing multiple oscillation modes. e.g. equivalent series feedback mode at low frequency.
my question is that in such oscillators how can we make sure of other modes suppression? of course we can check startup condition for modes, how ever this is an analysis technique not synthesis.
my intuition is that as oscillation starts from DC we should keep amplifier stable all the way to oscillation frequency. but I am not sure.
I appreciate it if you share your experience with others.
thanks a lot
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From the control view, you have to keep your poles on the left side of the imaginary axis. This means that the amplifier has to be insulated from the oscillator or work at different frequencies. Also usually it is said that in a high-frequency world, the amplifiers oscillate while the oscillator does not!
As a result, I think your question can be answered if you let us more details such as circuit structure, desirable oscillation frequency, type of amplifier, oscillator, and feedback.
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I have a small topic on material research to fulfill at my university. I am very new to material science. Good Sources to research for material knowledge and suggestions for my above question is very much appreciated. Thank you in advance !!!
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In addition to various bronzes (not Brasses!), stainless steels can be used for this. There are advantages and disadvantages of these two material groups for the turbine impeller application.
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Is there any work being done on Tidal form of power generation?
If yes, how much work has been done?
If no, why hasn't there been any steps taken?
What are the factors that are acting as hindrance?
Can we see this form of power generation in future of Pakistan?
I need all the details regarding Tidal Power Generation in Pakistan.
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In comparison to other renewable energy sources, tidal power is yet to be operational in Pakistan. In Sindh, two locations are accessible to use tidal energy: a 170 km creek system in the Indus delta and two to five-meter tidal heights at the Korangi Creek.
According to research undertaken by the National Institute of Oceanography, the creek network in the Indus deltaic region, which stretches over 70 kilometers along the Arabian Sea, can create 900MW of tidal power on its own.
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Power Network Expansion Planning is the problem of deciding the new transmission lines that should be added to an existing transmission network in order to satisfy system objectives efficiently. It is one of the main strategic decisions in power systems and has a deep, long-lasting impact on the operation of the system. Several challenges such as deregulation, renewable penetration, large-scale generation projects, market integration, and regional planning are discussed in the literature to some extent.
In the context of the smart grid, what can be the potential future challenges in terms of different scenarios, applications, modeling, solution, and novel devices in the network?
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Two main problems in the perspective of SG:
*Integration of Microgrid, while considering uncertain factors and limitations of the present grid.
*Integration of charging stations for EVs taking into view users' profiles and traditional grid capacity.
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I am doing a project on power generation using multiple humps. Force is known. All the respective gear and shaft radii are known. y using this, this I can found torque using the relation T=F*l ...
I have a relation P=2 pi NT.. but in this relation power and rpm are unknown...
Is there anyway to find the power or rpm? Any other formula to find power with respect to rpm if available then please share.
Thanks
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First try to find the work done in required time and then proceed with "N"
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to electrify rural areas cost effective power generation is important. from those alternatives MHP generation using SEIG will fulfil the community power demand in lower cost. but SEIG hve the problem of voltage regulation during load variation. to regulate terminal voltage IG there are different way of classical controling method but how to control the voltage using artificial intelligence to andvance the controling system to protect power electronics equipments that are sensetive to voltage varation.
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Please note that you need a control system.
The output have a reference voltage that tries to keep no matter what the load is.
This is done using feedback control system.
The feedback control system can be
modeled using recurrent neural network.
For the feedback control system
please read my paper
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Hello everyone, I'm working on predicting PV system power generated using AI, so I need a database to train my model. Where can I find a database with minutes time step (less than hour, preferably 1 minute) of system power generated ?
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Hello
I have two transformers (each one is 63MVA) in one station. 132 MW generator was injected into this station successfully. If the second generator (132 MW) will be joined to the same station, how will it be that possible and performance of both generators?
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The total MVA rating of the transformers is 126 MVA. Theoretically, you cannot even operate the 132 MW at full load, as it is higher than the total MVA capacity of the transformers. In case, you want to connect the second generator due to economics or operational constraint, you have to make sure that the total generation does not exceed 126 MVA.
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Hello Experts. Generating solar energy using PV systems results always in the variable power generation due to the effects of intermittency. What parameter is mostly affected by solar intermittency on the grid and what techniques do grid operators use to mitigate such effects.
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Dear Amashisha:
At the first, I think the following link contains all the articles on the topic of your research:
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++
And you could benefit from this article about your topic:
"Renewable Energy Intermittency Explained: Challenges, Solutions, and Opportunities".
++++++++++++++expert's opinion++++++
Finally, I thought to add the following:
This illustrated one of the big challenges to renewable energy: they are intermittent energy sources. A coal power station can run as long as you have coal to shovel into its furnaces. Wind power only operates when the wind blows, and solar photovoltaics need cloudless skies to reach their full capacity. Surely, say the critics, too much renewable energy puts us at the mercy of the elements? The greater the percentage of wind or solar in our energy mix, the more likely we are to end up with rolling blackouts. It’s a logical question, but there are the following solutions:
1- The grid itself:
The first and biggest answer to this problem is the grid. Power stations feed into a national grid that balances inputs and outputs across the whole country. When demand rises, new capacity is brought online. At night, demand drops off and supply drops accordingly. It’s a highly versatile system, able to handle massive spikes in demand. The famous example is half-time during big football matches. The whistle blows, and everyone goes into the kitchen to switch on their kettles for a cup of tea, or opens their fridge for another beer. The National Grid refers to these as ‘tv-pickups’ and plans ahead for them so that the lights don’t go out.
It’s easy to take functioning power infrastructure for granted. If you’ve lived off-grid or in a developing country, you’ll know the luxury of not having to think about it. When I lived in Madagascar, the power levels dropped so low at night that we couldn’t switch on the TV. If you wanted to watch something that night, you had to remember to turn it on at about five o’clock and leave it on standby. By the time it had got dark and everyone had turned on their lights, there would be enough power to run it but not to turn it on. By day, you had to holler if you were going to boil the kettle. If you forgot, there would be wails from the office as someone lost their homework as the computer blinked off.
Those sorts of eccentricities don’t happen in Britain. At least not any more. The idea of balancing power supplies across the country goes back to 1926, and today the grid incorporates 181 major power stations and thousands of smaller installations. This infrastructure allows us to plug in a variety of variable energy sources, and the broader the network, the easier it becomes.
2- The super-grid:
You can broaden the network beyond our own borders too. Interconnectors already link our grid with France, Ireland and the Netherlands. There are plans to build links to Norway and Belgium too, and a feasibility study was launched last month to see if we could connect to Denmark. Iceland has far more geothermal capacity than it can use itself, and is investigating ways to export it to Britain.
None of this infrastructure is cheap, but the fact that we already have three international links proves that it isn’t prohibitively expensive either. Whether we can afford a Europe wide grid with links to North Africa is another matter, but you can see the advantages of spreading the net as wide as possible. If the sun isn’t shining here right now, it might be in Devon. It might be a calm day in London, but the wind is blowing in Scotland. Expand that principle South to Spain and north to Sweden, and you’ve got a wide variety of conditions.
3- Stabilising demand:
I’ve already mentioned the issue of peaks in demand. Some of these are unusual, like football matches. Others are regular, when people get up and make breakfast, or get home from work in the evening and turn on their lights and cook their supper. Coal power is one of the easiest ways to deal with these large peaks, as they can be switched on quickly. There are renewable energy equivalents, using biomass and incineration (or see hydropower below), but a better approach would be to avoid the extremes in the first place.
That be done through more efficient technologies – if everyone is switching on low-energy light bulbs at twilight, that’s a much lower step in demand than everyone switching on an incandescent. Another way of stabilising demand is through smart appliances that can read demand and respond accordingly. Fridges don’t run constantly, but maintain a steady temperature by switching the cooling mechanism on when needed. A smart fridge would time its cooling cycles to periods of low demand. A smart washing machine would automatically run off-peak when energy prices are cheapest. Samsung, LG and others already offer appliances with this kind of technology.
4- Energy storage:
Those living off-grid with their own solar or wind power rely on batteries to make sure that they capture energy when its there, and can use it later. That would be pretty useful in the national grid too, if we could store the solar energy from a sunny day to use it at night. Currently there’s no form of battery big enough to do that, but there are a few other options. One is pumped storage hydropower. When energy is cheap, water is pumped uphill to fill a reservoir. When needed, gates can be opened and it runs back downhill through turbines, generating electricity. This is the renewable energy way of dealing with demand spikes, and also a way of storing intermittent sources. Dinorwig power station is housed underground inside a Welsh mountain, and can bring 1.8GW of power online in 12 seconds.
If you haven’t got a suitable lake, the same thing could be achieved with rail cars, according to a California company. They’re developing a model where surplus energy is used to haul heavy rail cars uphill when wind or solar power is running at full capacity. When it drops off, the cars are released to roll back downhill, generating electricity on the way.
You can also ‘bank’ energy in the ocean, taking advantage of the pressure of the deep sea. A team at MIT suggest that large hollow concrete spheres could be sunk on the seabed near offshore wind turbines. Excess energy would be used to pump out the spheres. When the wind dropped, water would rush back in through a turbine.
Another form of energy storage is solar thermal. I’ve written about it before so I won’t go into detail here, but it essentially stores heat in molten salt, and allows solar power stations to carry on generating electricity through the night. This turns solar energy into a form of constant renewable energy.
5- Constant renewable energy:
Speaking of which, wind and sunshine are intermittent, but there are other natural forces that are much more predictable. Hydropower is one such source, using the steady flow of rivers. There are countries in the world that generate all their electricity from hydropower, and are thus enjoying 100% renewable energy. Hydropower is often overlooked because while it is renewable and clean, it isn’t always environmentally benign and has large capital costs. Large dams are often hugely destructive and displace entire communities. But there is good hydropower too, and I may have to dedicate a separate post to it.
There’s also a whole lot of energy to be sourced from the sea. Harnessing wave power is one approach, but doesn’t count as a constant renewable source because waves are variable. Tidal power does count however, as there’s always a tide. So far, tidal power requires a barrage across a suitable estuary. Like dams on land, dams across estuaries are just as controversial – see the running debate about the Severn Barrage. But there are simpler and smaller ways to harness tidal power too, placing turbines on the sea bed, or using the vertical movement of the tides rather than the vertical. Ecotricity are trialling a hybrid sea technology that uses sea swells to pump water onshore, which is a lot simpler than generating the electricity out on the open sea.
Geothermal provides another source of constant renewable energy. Britain has limited geothermal capacity, and is more useful for providing heat than electricity, but there is still untapped potential. The main reason that geothermal hasn’t been pursued in Britain is that it hasn’t been economical so far, but as the price of energy rises, it is becoming more viable. The Eden Project is pioneering a geothermal plant in Cornwall, the first of what it hopes will be a fairly substantial contribution from Cornwall’s ‘hot rocks’.
Biomass and anaerobic digestion (biogas) are two more renewable energy sources that are often overlooked. Biomass is best reserved for smaller and more localised energy generation, and the current practice of co-firing biomass with coal is a short term option. Biogas is generated from waste, so it doubles up as a useful way of dealing with rubbish otherwise destined for landfill, and its main waste product is a liquid that can be used as fertiliser.
6- Lowering energy use:
Even with these various technologies and techniques, renewable energy can never be a direct swap for fossil fuels. Coal, oil and gas are very dense forms of energy, and deliver a high energy return for energy invested. Renewable energy cannot match it, and if we are to rely on renewable energy more in the future, we will have to reduce our energy use. That’s entirely possible, given how inefficient our houses are, how much electricity is lost in transmission and how low our standards are for appliances.
Quite how far we need to reduce our energy use is debateable, but those assuming we can expand it or carry on as usual aren’t paying attention. The Zero Carbon Britain report, which aims for 100% renewable energy by 2030, assumes a 55% reduction.
I hope it will be helpful...
With my best regards....
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I'm working on a single chamber microbial fuel cell with air-breathing.
Its voltage already reached approximately 400 mV under OCV conditions, but when I used a 1000 ohm external resistor the voltage immediately drops to zero.
I already used a 10K resistor but the voltage hardly reached 30 mV and it's very low.
I don't know what the problem is!
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Indeed the external resistance should be comparable to the internal resistance. However, during the starting stage, the internal resistance is supposed to gradually decrease due to the development of functional microbial film on electrodes. So there is no rule, and you may yield different MFCs when apply different resistors.
There are some advices: The internal resistance depends on the surface area of the electrodes and the distances between the electrodes. If the area is huge and the distance is close, choose a resistor less than 1 k ohm, If not, choose more than 1k ohm. If you have no idea, just use any resistor and monitor the CCV for several days. For a conventional MFC, the OCV varies from 0.5 to 0.8. The CCV will decrease dramatically when loaded and slowly recover. If not recover, use bigger resistor; if no significant decrease, use smaller resistor.
Also depends on the purpose. If you want to obtain the maximum power output, the external resistance should be similar to the internal resistance. If the objective is the maximum exolectrogenic biomass growth, the external resistance should be lower to avoid current limitations. Exoelectrogenic activity is proportional to the current intensity; if your intensity is low (higher external resistance), exoelectrogens growth will be limited. When the cell is working at OCV (infinite resistance), intensity is zero and no exoelectrogenic activity is possible.
So you could benefit from these two valuable articles:
First....
"Microbial Fuel Cells: Influence of External Resistors on Power, Current and Power Density".
By: Kamau JM, Mbui DN, Mwaniki JM, Mwaura FB and Kamau GN.
Abstract:
The effect of external resistance on voltage, current, power, power density and current density is investigated in a microbial fuel cells using cowdung is investigated. This involves use of varying resistance resistors. The fuel cells
were operated under anaerobic condition for 9 days. PVC pipe was used to make a salt bridge using lamp wicks and potassium chloride. The obtained results indicated that the maximum voltage was on day 7 with 0.153 V across 33 kΩ resistor. The power was in the range of 0.000001 to 0.01 mW, current density was in the 0.1 to 23.29 mA/m2 range while the power density was in 7.5 × 10-7 to 3.1036 mW/m2 range.
And this is the second article:
"The Influence of External Load on the Performance of Microbial Fuel Cells"
By: Szymon Potrykus , Luis Fernando León-Fernández , Janusz Niezna ´nski
, Dariusz Karkosi ´nski.and Francisco Jesus Fernandez-Morales.
Abstract:
In this work, the effect of the external load on the current and power generation, as well as on the pollutant removal by microbial fuel cells (MFCs), has been studied by step-wise modifying the
external load. The load changes included a direct scan, in which the external resistance was increased from 120 Ω to 3300 Ω, and a subsequent reverse scan, in which the external resistance was decreased back to 120 Ω. The reduction in the current, experienced when increasing the external resistance, was maintained even in the reverse scan when the external resistance was step-wise decreased.
Regarding the power exerted, when the external resistance was increased below the value of the internal resistance, an enhancement in the power exerted was observed. However, when operating
near the value of the internal resistance, a stable power exerted of about 1.6 µW was reached. These current and power responses can be explained by the change in population distribution, which shifts to a more fermentative than electrogenic culture, as was confirmed by the population analyses.
Regarding the pollutant removal, the effluent chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreased when the external resistance increased up to the internal resistance value. However, the effluent COD increased
when the external resistance was higher than the internal resistance. This behavior was maintained in the reverse scan, which confirmed the modification in the microbial population of the MFC.
I have attached the pdf files ....
I hope it will be helpful...
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"THIS IS AN ABSOLUTELY SCIENTIFIC QUESTION"
Everything has a price, that is, everything has advantages and disadvantages. Nature doesn't give anything away for free!
In case of electrical generation of any kind, it always requires a lot of impact study. Enthusiasm often obscures clarity of actual impacts.
Tell us your scientific opinion about use of electric wind energy in tseas?
VERY IMPORTANT: Participate only if you are original, be yourself give your opinion, do not put links or texts from "Genio Google" or things found out there on the web! No one has any interest in stupid web answers, if that's the case, please be so kind as to ignore this debate!
SOURCE LINK:
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Dear friend, Professor Filipe Wiltgen!
Thank you very much for your interesting question!
Energy security is the most important factor in the development of a country, especially one that has a shortage of traditional resources. In this case, renewable energy is one of the possible ways to solve the problem, where a significant role is assigned to wind generators. Compact offshore wind turbines are already occupying their niche in the market and their share will grow. This can be confirmed by the advantages that are described in the above and other materials. At the same time, you need to take into account, for example, the problems of this winter in Texas and the dull look of frozen wind turbines with subsequent energy problems. And that means need balance, balance, and compliance!
Best wishes!
With deep respect, Vоlоdymyr Naumchuk
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I want perform a time series analysis on real time data of hydropower/hydroelectric power generation of different dams of India.
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This link will be of use to you:
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I am going to conduct a survey among the experts who are working in power plant construction projects in my country. So far I know, construction of 30 mega projects are going on. The targeted experts are 7-categories, for example, contractors, sub-contractors, vendors, project director (PD), project manager (PM), site engineer, and consulting engineer (or consultant). The other variables are project size in terms of power generation capacity, budget, project location, experts' experience (year), and academic qualification. Please suggest me in a precise way to save my time? I am now in a critical moment. I have a presentation just after couple of weeks. Thank you for your patience and time. 
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Dear, Muhammad Saiful Islam, this link will help you in your research:
Determining the sample size in a quantitative research study is challenging. There are certain factors to consider, and there is no easy answer. Each experiment is different, with varying degrees of certainty and expectation. Typically, there are three factors, or variables, one must know about a given study, each with a certain numerical value. They are significance level, power and effect size. When these values are known, they are used with a table found in a statistician's manual or textbook or an online calculator to determine sample size.
Choose an appropriate significance level (alpha value). An alpha value of p = .05 is commonly used. This means that the probability that the results found are due to chance alone is .05, or 5%, and 95% of the time a difference found between the control group and the experimental group will be statistically significant and due to the manipulation or treatment.
Select the power level. Typically a power level of .8, or 80%, is chosen. This means that 80% of the time the experiment will detect a difference between the control and experimental groups if a difference actually exists.
Estimate the effect size. Generally, a moderate to large effect size of 0.5 or greater is acceptable for clinical research. This means that the difference resulting from the manipulation, or treatment, would account for about one half of a standard deviation in the outcome.
Organize your existing data. With the values for the three factors available, refer to the table in your statistician's manual or textbook; or enter the three values into an online calculator made for determining sample size.
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Given with a calculated biomass potential energy, how can you calculate the Electricity Generation Potential in Giga Watt Hours (GWh) based on the Net Efficiency of the technology used for power generation (Steam engines: 10%; Gasifier + IC engine: 18%) and the total capacity of power generation in Mega Watts (MW) by taking a Load Factor of 50%.
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1 PJ is 277.78 GWh
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I am interested in some remarks regarding power generation from low-temperature resources, yet no up-to-date papers are available. Had you any information - I would be grateful for sharing.
best regards
Bartek
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Chena Hot Springs Resort uses two 200kW Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) geothermal energy power plants to generate energy, the first in Alaska. The resort moved the diesel generators used in the past to a backup role since July 2006, and it is successful in reducing the cost from 30 cents/kWh to 5 cents/kWh. The resort owners have plans to increase the powerplant's work output from 200 kW to 1MW. An increase to 730 kilowatts was accomplished.
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Recent researches have proved the improvement of power generation of Solar PV systems with water cooling mechanism. What can be the practical obstacles for this ...
What are the negative impacts of water-vaporizing solution ?
Is it cost effective ?
Thank you
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there are some practical solutions in germany. The main problem in our expirience is the vapor phase in using, regulation and safety control. This could be one point for some problems.
Best Regards
Torsten
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Can the current and voltage generated by the piezoelectric vibratory energy harvester be measured experimentally?In other words, can we measure the power generated by the piezoelectric vibration energy collector ?
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There are two options:
1. (Easier) Measure the voltage of a resistor placed into the piezoelectric eletrical terminals. Then, you have the value of the resistor and the measured voltage. Thus, it is possible to calculate the current by I=V/R.
2. (Harder but more comprehensive) Connect a frequency analyzer equipment into the terminals of the piezoelectric device. Then, it is possible to extract the frequency response (gain as function of frequency). Usually, frequency analyzers can provide voltage gain as function of frequency. You can also use a resistor as load in this case.
I hope this helps
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Colleagues, good afternoon! I was wondering what problem is the most urgent at the moment in the operation, design of gas turbines and combined cycle plants. Influence of gas turbines on the steam circuit, power reduction during summer power limitations. maybe the quality of fuel and self-contained liquids?volume_upcontent_copysharestar_border
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Many developing countries utilize various multiple methods for power generation. such as gas and oil turbine, windmill, thermal, nuclear, and hydroelectric depends on topography and natural resources.
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Dear Shahida,
I thought that Lebanon does not have hydroelectric power stations. But by searching in the web I found that Lebanon has hydropower stations. However these stations are relatively small in the order of 100 Mw.
To see the capacity of t he hydro power satins in Lebanon please refer to the link:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_power_stations_in_Lebanon
Best wishes
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As the penetration of grid-connected solar energy increases, is it technically possible to replace most of the conventional power generations including coal, gas and natural gas in modern power grid? Is there any critical technical challenges we need to overcome? There are various researches ongoing such as virtual inertial (VI)-based inverter, maximum power point tracking (MPPT) and hybrid energy storage system (ESS) to address voltage/frequency instability, IV & PV non-lineality and solar energy non-availability during night time respectively.
Plus, there are many technologies like artificial intelligence (AI), smart grid, blockchain and other advanced terminologies available for solar energy. From these perspectives, will the solar energy eventually replaces conventional power generation or it will be limited as a supplementary energy source for existing power system which is ideal for remote and vast area?
Welcome to exchange your valuable perspectives on the future of solar energy.
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Please see my road map for the transformation from conventional to PV generation in the paper at the link:
Best wishes
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I need to do short term forecasting of demand and generation of microgrid. I need real-time data of a microgrid consisting of historical and weather data on demand and generation. Thanks in advance for your responses.
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I'm trying to simulate a power generation cycle by adsorption / desorption of ammonia in salt / metal (SrCl2..MnCl2) in a bed. Does anyone know that can i use aspen adsorption or not?
i means it is possible to define the specific reaction between ammonia and for example SrCl2?
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You can easily interconnect/link Aspen Adsorption software with Aspen plus
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I'm a graduate student at McMaster University. Now, I'm doing a system optimization project. I'm interested in optimizing the energy storage system applied to Wolfe Island Windfarm. I'd like to make sure where I can obtain the exact power generated by the wind farm in each hour during the whole year. Also, I need the hourly power prediction (power commitment) data for the next hour.
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If you have more than one source of power generation, how to select the operating one and exclude another? What is the common technique for optimizing the power source? Is there a technique like this?
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ED - Economic Dispatch
UC - Unit Commitment
OPF - Optimal Power Flow
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This discussion aims to show how the world's investment in power generation is. In Brazil, the current investment is made more in photovoltaic and wind power.
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In Ecuador, the fossil energy source is widely used, because this is an oil exporting country. On the other hand, the most widely used renewable source of energy is hydroelectric, because the mountainous regions of Ecuador have favorable conditions for this energetic practice.
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With the trend of replacing fossil-fueled cars by electric vehicles, how much of the increase in electric power generation will be required to replace 1.2 billion existing cars, disregarding trucks and motorcycles in the coming years?
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Biofuels require crop land and water that would be better used for food production and also encourage monoculture. Not the best alternative. I have high hopes for eventual space-based solar power:
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Hello, everyone. Anyone know how to set power generated by the synchronous generator in PSCAD? I tried many ways, but don't understand what determines the limit of generated power.
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Hello, Alisher, your best bet in controlling the power generated is your phase angle and the terminal voltage. That's how I does mine. Go to the generator initial settings, input your terminal voltage in pu, and also the phase angle in rad or degree.
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Hi all,
I am looking for a source to download wind power generation data. The data should fulfill the following requirements:
- measured (not simulated) power generation
- of an individual wind turbine or farm (not country-level or TSO-level data)
- in hourly (or at least daily) resolution
- that spans at least one month (better multiple years)
- that is downloadable (I don't want to see the data, I want to use it)
- free of charge (for academic use)
The geographical scope is open but European data would be optimal. So far, I checked the following sources:
- https://www.energy-charts.de has data for two parks in Germany but I do not see a way to download it
- https://transparency.entsoe.eu has some data but one can only download one day at a time
- https://www.bmreports.com has detailed data for UK but again, downloads are only possible for one day at a time
Alternatively, recommendations for a Python library that can retrieve this kind of data are welcome (specialized libraries - not general web scraping libraries like Selenium, BeautifulSoup, etc.).
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Hello, I'm studying the potential of the renewable resources in power generation and I was wondering how can I calculate levelized cost of energy (LCOE)?
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Hope this helps,
sLCOE = {(overnight capital cost * capital recovery factor + fixed O&M cost )/(8760 * capacity factor)} + (fuel cost * heat rate) + variable O&M cost.
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I want to use Concentrating solar cell developed by Spectro lab, USA and wish sole guidelines for the same. Is it possible to store the power generated by these cells be stored by any type of batteries? which is the most suitable battery for this cell?
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Which type of following Indoor Noise Pollutants affect you the most?
o TV (Television)
o Air Cooler / Air Conditioners
o Power Generators
o Different home appliances
o Family conflict
o Refrigerators
Any other, please mention.
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Usually the TV, kitchen appliances and AC are the most common reasons for the in -house noises
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I'm currently using Nafion 211 for the proton exchange membrane in my microbial fuel cell experiment. I found lots of articles recommended to use Nafion 117 instead. My experiment was failed, there was no power generated by the fuel cell and I suspect the Nafion 211 can not facilitate the proton exchange in the MFC.
I'm wondering what the difference between 117 and 211 is and could Nafion 211 use for MFC?
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The thickness is difference, 117 is 7x more thicker. Thickness is 1 mil for 211 and 7 mil for 117: https://www.nafion.com/en/products/sulfonic-membranes
And 11 and 21 is Equivalent Weight - fraction between weight of dry membrane and number of sulfuric groups.
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I have data on power generation and other variables (e.g Irradiance, temp & wind speed) of last two years(on daily basis). I want to forecast the power generation using SVR so I need its MATLAB code which is easy to understand.
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Dear Mohammed,
Check the following link for the SVM Matlab toolbox.
It is easy to use.
Kind regards
Qin
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I am looking forward to work on System Modeling and Control theory in Power generation, Aerospace or in Robotics. This is a completely new field for me and i need to do a lot to build the foundation stronger to carry out innovative research. Currently, i am reading books to understand relevant concepts as well as i am reading latest research papers to be familiar with new research in the field. Unfortunately, i am still clueless about this new field.
I need some expert advises from experts in this field that how can i master the concepts and bring the concepts into something which is called innovation.
Looking forward to get the brief answers from you guys.
Thanks
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Dear Muhammad,
The more promising and externally challenging future for robotics in nuclear power plant (NPP). The key rationale of robotics application has always been to avoid human exposure to hazardous environments and tasks ranging from scrutiny and general maintenance to decontamination and post accidental activities. To execute these activities, robots need to incorporate artificial intelligence, improved sensors capability, enhanced data fusion and compliant human like leg and hand structures for efficient motions. Next generation robotic systems in NPPs are expected to work in full autonomous mode in contrast to the current semi-autonomous scenarios. Far future systems could deploy humanoid robots as well. This paper presents state-of-the-art of robotics developed for NPPs, associated challenges and finally comments on future directions.
Key challenges and future:
The primary challenge of robots in NPPs is to ensure safety with precision, reliability and repeatability for any kind of operation in any state at any time under any circumstances. This challenge is due to technological limitations in terms of on-board processing speed, power requirements and unavailability of integrated sensors and actuators, initial robotic systems were highly task specific with little intelligence. The robots were almost unable to cope with any other scenario for which they were not designed. The robotic units were designed with stationary bases and with specific and limited work space. To make use of nuclear power for the benefit of human being in a risk-free and undisruptive manner is another challenge. To achieve this status, in addition to development of superior state-of-art technology, we need to devise better plans and systems to cater for cataclysmic circumstances. Reactor with cooling towers is the most sensitive part of a NPP. Radiation danger in these parts imposes special attentions for all kind of operations in this region and thus this is probably the most desired area of deployment and use of intelligent robotic systems. The challenges in this particular region are coped using various existing branches of robotic units such as mobile robots, stationary industrial arm manipulators or hybrid robots.
System Model:
Simulators and computer modeling techniques are strongly recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).Here the scopes are dynamic model study of sensitive region reactor with cooling tower. Re-designed robot model efficiency studies with an addition of an extendable arm studies using appropriate payload capacity, environmental hardening, sealed mechanisms and wide range of tools.
Hope it help you out. You would like my explanation.
Ashish
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Synchronous generators are rated in MVA where as when we refer to a power plant we refer to their MW rating? Why is this so?
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In addition, MVA with a rated voltage of operation in kV, gives a direct indication of ampere based on which conductors are to be designed.
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Renewable utility-scale power generation, such as wind, solar, etc, has become much cost-effective and more and more important in the past few years. However, the lower energy transition efficiency and the periodic generating feature constrains the development of renewable energy. These years, energy storage has become a hot research topic. My questions are: Is energy storage really the solution of future energy? If the answer is yes, which kind of energy storage will be the best available technology or the most promising technology for utility-scale power generation? Are there any technical issues that constrain the application of energy storage technologies? When will energy storage technologies become widely applicable?
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In addition to the batteries and super capacitors there is hydrogen. Hydrogen can be obtained using water elecrtolyzers. The hydrogen can be stored and converted back to electricity using the fuel cells. This can be made with the efficiency of charging and discharging batteries. In Germany they make an appreciable advancements in hydrogen technology.
Hydrogen has several advantages as an energy carrier and fuel. It is easy to store, to transport and can substitute the fossil fuels.
Best wishes
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OPF; sensitivity analysis
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Thank you for your valuable replies. But would like to know, to what extent the parametric values may be changed for a metaheuristic for SA? Is there any definite rule?
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There are more number of power generation plants like steam, hydroelectric, nuclear, biomass, solar etc. The supply of power from these plants depends on the utilization. Each plant has some advantages and disadvantages for power generation. In this context, what could be the preferred power generation plant?
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Economical power plant is the one which has concern, need and availability of fuel. This economics will differ from place to place and country to country. In cold countries, thermal power plants are suitable, whereas in medium and hot countries, solar power would be advantageous.
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In Digsilent software,why are the values of current(pu) in a bus connected to this equipment different, when the "Nominal Apparent Power" in generator specifications and the "Rated Power" in transformer specifications are not equal?
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Thanks Dr.
I import and simulate the file sent me; but i have problem in simulation.
when i choose "Nominal Apparent Power" in generator specifications and "Rated Power" in transformer specifications equal of together, per unit currents will be equal.
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What is the benefit of using a physical model to model the power generation (i.el solar field with parabolic trough collectors)? A data-driven method could potentially achieve similar accuracy with massive training data?
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All physical models are based on the laws of physics and especially on thermodynamics. They are mostly used for design calculations. The benefit is, that you only need input data, no output data.
All empirical models are based on experimental results. The influencing parameters on the results are then weighted with different coefficients and incorporated into the solution algorithm as a mathematical equation. The coefficients are then adapted so that the calculation result matches the sea values. You need input and output data.
However, there are also the combinations of both models. E.g. in the partial load case mostly corresponding efficiency characteristics or characteristic arrays are used. The same applies to the fouling of heat exchangers. The extent of contamination cannot be measured, only the result, so that the overall heat transfer coefficient is supplemented by the fouling parameter.
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Hi Geoff, i'm interested in co-firing a brown coal power power plant with paper/packaging etc waste to yield bass load energy and biochar for agriculture. little/No CO2 emissions..any thoughts?...it be sub optimal power generation looking to strike a balance. Have you got time to chat
Me thinks you'd be the expert here
cheers
Richard
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Thanks Geoff (and others)
what if pulp/paper/packaging materials were pyrolysed with post-coal fired power station furnace gases to produce bio-char and other pyrolysis products?...i.e. the flue gases might provide a low oxygen input feed of some sort for an 'after burner'...might need to inject a [fair] bit of H2 too maybe?
...my goal here would be to use these power stations to actually reduce concentration of CO2 in air. ...and produce some C products ...biofuels, syngas and biochar ...any power production would be a bonus...Am i dreaming?...
cheers
Rich
PS: anyone know of a good industrial or pilot scale example of something like this
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Hello everyone.
I am trying to solve this problem where i need to calculate the optimum capacity of PGU in combined cooling heating system (CCHP) using Genetic algorithm.
I have these equations:
The natural gas consumption by the PGU with respect to time can be expressed using the following equation:
Fpgu_t = Epgu_t/ηpgu_t .........(1)
where Fpgu is the natural gas consumed by the PGU.
The efficiency of PGU which is ηpgu, can be calculated as follows:
ηpgu_t = a+bf_t+cf_t^2..............(2)
where a, b, and c are the constant coefficients, and f_t is the partial load rate with respect to time which is the ratio of electricity generated by the PGU to the maximum output (PGU capacity) and can be defined as:
f_t = Epgu_t/(Ecap)...........(3)
A common linear relationship exists between the gas consumption and electricity generated by the PGU , which is widely used to optimize the CCHP systems and is expressed as follows:
Fpgu_t = α×Epgu_t+β........(4)
here i have the values of a,b and c for equation 2 and α and β for equation 4. Also i have common linear relation between the fuel consumption (Fpgu_t )and electricity generated by PGU (Epgu_t) which i have attached.
Other than that i also have a load profile which will be used to calculate the optimum capacity of PGU.
Please anyone can help me with that? I have consulted many different journal papers but i am still very much confused in this part.
Please help. Thanks everyone.
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It's my pleasure, Taimoor Mohsin . I'm sure open for further scientific discussions in the future. I wish you all the best in your research!
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I really need calculations on steam electric power generator
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This is good to f calculate the efficiency of electric power generator efficiency. There are time is continuous variable which affects the efficiency. So many paper on O.T have discussion on the efficiency
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Dear fellow researchers,
is there anyone who has access to, or who can provide me with a good reference of, curves that can provide me with quantitative information about how the electric and thermal power generated by a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell in combined heat and power mode vary with the load of the fuel cell system?
To be more specific, what I would need are curves of the type:
electrical efficiency vs SOFC load
exhaust temperature vs SOFC load
exhaust mass flow vs SOFC load.
I am trying to test the potential use of an SOFC for transportation purposes, and it would be very helpful to have access to this type of information
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The difference between Diesel engine and SOFC is that Diesel engines have been commercialised for a long time. SOFC are still in development.
Best regards
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Currently, I am selecting a power generator for Dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. I am wondering between 02 devices: AC sinusoidal power generator or Pulse power generator. Which power supply device provides the best performance on the DBD reactor? And in accordance with the method of calculating discharge power DBD using V-Q curve Lissajous (Because I currently have high voltage probes 1000x and monitor capacitors. I don't want to use the high current probe to calculate the discharge power for some reason I don't have this device right now)
If I want to change both voltage V and frequency F for DBD reactor, I need to choose which power supply device. Please suggest me some specific power generator supplies.
I sincerely thank you and wish all the best!
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Utilization of solar energy is always one of the meaningful research areas. But most researches are about one or two utilization aspects, such as for cooling, heating, heat storage, power generation, water uptaking, and so on. Is there any completed or ongoing research about the integrated utilization of solar energy to combine all these applications into one whole system?
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It is not that wise to to combine all these applications into one whole system. Flexibility brings the opportunity, together with challenge and limitation. Think about that the solar heat could fully realize one technology but it cannot be used for the similar amount output by using other applications at the same time. Also the demands should be considered at the very beginning. If no heat and cooling demand, electricity could be a solution.
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Greetings,
I need for a simple document ( Paper ) explains the calculations of wind energy power generation..
Thanks
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I a simplified taught-course about wind power generation, it is important lecturer to signify that, based on the equation of power calculation: P = ½CAρv3 , the synergistic role of wind velocity is much more important (as power of "3"), than that of the other variables: "C" power coefficient, "A" the swept area, and, "ρ" the density of the air (all as power of "1"). Based on this notation, It can be also stressed out that even all other variables, C A ρ, are fairly satisfactory, wind power plants/generators cannot be installed at remote areas/sites where annual average wind velocity is lower than a certain value (commonly lower than 7 m/s).
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Now new term waste to Energy is getting heat in India. So want more information, how this Waste to Energy termed as Plasma Technology can help society to reduce risk of solid waste and develop with this new technology?
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In this technology waste materials from the society are used for power generation. This is a clean energy. This process is beneficial as it helps in making environment pollution free. For detail you can go through the following reference, which will be helpful.
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I have data on wind speeds stretching over 5 years. I want to use it to estimate average annual power generation capacity of a 5kW wind turbine.
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Thank you Ahmed Abdelhameed . The article is very helpful, thank you for making the text available so easily
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In February 2018, Trinidad and Tobago signed on to the Paris Climate Change Agreement.
The Ministry of Planning and Development has indicated that "Trinidad and Tobago is committed to conditionally reduce its cumulative carbon emissions by 15% in the power generation, transport and industrialised sectors by 2030".
What initiatives are underway to meet this commitment?
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Create carbon sinks through aggressive aforestation programmes. Reduce emission of GHGs through legislation and advocacy.
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I have a hard form of the book with me. I am looking to have a .pdf version of it. Please share any link where I can have it.
Thank you
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Hi Ahmad. Please give me your e-mail.
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Hi All
How exactly is the air or wet cooled condenser sized and controlled in a power plant?
For example, for a wet cooled condenser, is the design/nominal exhaust turbine pressure calculated based on the 1- max wet bulb temperature experienced onsite 2- average wet bulb temperature 3- or average max?
Also, while the plant is operating, say one day the wet bulb temperature was higher than the design value, do plant operators simply increase the cooling water flow rate to ensure the exhaust pressure is fixed or let the turbine exhaust pressure increase which would slightly hurt its power generation?
In other words, do we size and/or control the condenser such that the turbine exhaust pressure is fixed or the exhaust pressure is allowed to float based on weather conditions?
Thank you all
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The cooling water or cooling air determine the temperature and pressure of the condenser. The volumetric flow rate at that temperature and pressure determine the size.
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Let's talk about Dose of plasma!
How can we measurment it(in J.cm^-2)?
The energy that we talk about is plasma energy & it related to power of generator?
or we can use the light fiber or ICCD to take spectrum and then compute the energy of the gas(for example argon)?
Is the energy same as radiant exposure?
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So deduction:
For calculate W/cm2 we can measure cross section of the plasma bullet, then you measured output power of power supply
For J/ cm^2 the question is :"What's the energy?" Is it plasma's energy that we can calculate with the energy distribution function equation? So it's hard!!
I think another way is this: " We can assume that plasma is capacitor! So we can calculate the energy that stored by capacitor! We should have, output voltage and electrical charge of the electron!! So we should calculate the number of particles with velocity of Vx, Vy & Vz(we can find it with spectroscopy) & measure plasma temperature too(we should accuracy that we have cold plasma and temperature of ions can determinative the plasma temperature) ! Then we should find the product of two parameter(The number of particles and electron charge)
Am I right at all?
If I'm wrong, please let me know!
I think that i need discussion to understand the theory & experimental of this subject!!
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Many presidents in the Middle East in general and the Arab world in particular, assume power in general elections. But later on, they become dictators and remain in power for tens of years. They even change the terms and items of the constitution for their interests to remain ruling the country as if they are the only ones qualified to be presidents. Your comments are highly appreciated.
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Good discussion... Following
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Need of a wind energy data-set depending on features like generation amount ,climatic & weather condition,speed of wind etc.
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n 2016, the total installed wind power capacity increased to 54.6 GW (compared with more than 60 GW in 2015) to reach a total of 486.8 GW at the end of 2016. Wind power generation in 2016 was evaluated for 2015, according to the sources , from 3% of global electricity production, ie 841 TWh, to 4% of world electricity production, ie 950 TWh.
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Hello dear scholars,
in the context of the hydropower generation, what is the limit of power generation?
Should I see it limited by the nominal capacity of generators, from above?
Because, I see that in the Turbine Hill-Chart, and its safe operation region, it can produce way more than nominal capacity of the generators of the power plant.
let me know if I could not express my question, clear enough.
Thank you
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Hydro power plants work as peak load supplier. It means these plants regulate deficit power required to maintain power balance and system frequency. Therefore, power output of the units are anything within their minimum generation level to the maximum generation level. Also, some times such plants are used as base load supplier in which units operate at their maximum power limit. As the cost of fuel (water) is freely available, so, it is always advantageous to use as more hydro power as possible. However, water must to available with sufficient head to continue to rotate the turbine.
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Am investing the wind and wave activities over the Atlantic with view of ascertaining areas suitable for power generation. What are those factors I should consider?
You can also share with me relevants and helpful materials.
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ok
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Im doing research on temperature rise in solar cell during open circuit condition or partially loaded. Im sure that when solar cell is in open circuit the energy generated will be transferred as heat and the same will cause degradation of solar cells. Can you help me out with formula or methodology to find the rise in temperature when power generated in solar cells are unused? How long it will take to cool the developed temperature?
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The equations given by me are the same expressed by the the heat transfer equivalent circuit of the module given by Vladimir in his second comment. Also i gave an expression for heat transferred from the surface pf the panel mostly by radiation.
You can calculate the steady sate temperature of the module and you can also calculate the variation of the panel temperature with time.
The interesting thing here is that you can use the SPICE circuit simulator to solve for delta T of the module.
Best wishes
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We use solar pannel in roof top system for electrical power generation. I wants to know the size that panels.
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Length and Width – Although length and width varies slightly, most companies are manufacturing solar panels in standard sizes. The most typical size used for residential installations is 65 inches by 39 inches, while the common size for commercial applications is 77 inches by 39 inches.
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I'm currently working on a design of a hydroelectric system that can be free of environmental and economic concerns and reliable to operate in Ocean and Sea.
It is a huge project In planning. If you are an expert or have experience in this area, I would greatly appreciate your support to make this project happen.
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If you really want a powerful sea based hydroelectric plant, go to the Australian town of Broome and take a ride up the coast, which is (1) dotted with islands, (2) has only a slightly inclined sea bed and (3) has very high tides, You get the phenomenon of the 'horizontal waterfall' as the water rushes between the islands at speeds of tens of kph at times and is absolutely reliable all year round; it would give gigawatts, and maybe terawatts of power if fully tapped. Problem is, its absolutely nowhere near any place that requires such colossal levels of power. There was talk in the early 2000s of using it to electrolyse hydrogen and selling it to the US or China or somewhere - but the investment would have been enormous and the market in those days for hydrogen was tiny. It still isn't great)
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How do we calculate the voltage dip of a DG Set during the starting of the largest KW motor.?
What are the factors which effects the Vdip value.
Any relevant Standard which can be refereed preferably IEC/IEEE?
Once such formula for calculation the Vdip, I came across was
DG KVA raing required during Starting=1.1 * ((1 - Vdip) / Vdip) *( (Xd' + Xd') /2 )*starting KVA of Largest Motor
where,
Vdip- Voltage Drop during starting of largest motor (here Vdip is considered as 15% )
Xd' - Transient Reactance of the DG
Xd"- Sub Transient Reactance of the DG
Is there any relevant standard for the above formula.
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Dear Khalid,
I ask the same question that Voltage Dip Calculation for DG Sizing?
are you get any informations?
@ Khalid Jamal Shahid Khan
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I want to find paradigs which have been governing power generation during the history of this industry. For example, when country-coverning grids were replaced by local power stations and why?
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There are factors affecting the choice of a system configuration among the many possible ones.
Among these factors are:
-The demand
- the approved technology
- The availability and the reliability
- The system efficiency
- The system cost
- The effect on the environment
- Safety and controlability
- Ease of logistics
I think the power system as it exists today has been evolved to continuously improve the system performance among the time.
The system relies on large power stations, efficient transmission network based on high voltage transport and low voltage distribution network to satisfy the customers need.
Best wishes
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there are many ways to model the stochastic behavior of PV generation. however, for multiple solar DERs in a power system these random variable could be correlated. this is mostly due to the impact of intermittent weather condition . what is eh best method to model these correlation?
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I have created several simulated cloud cover animations for solar fields based on field measurements, such as http://dudleybenton.altervista.org/miscellaneous/simulated_clouds_over_solar_field.gif I also have several Monte Carlo simulations, implemented as Excel spreadsheets and in C. You will find a discussion of variability and uncertainty in this paper: http://dudleybenton.altervista.org/publications/Total%20Solar%20Field%20DNI%20Measurment%20Method%20for%20ASME%20PTC%2052.pdf I have done a lot of work with atmospheric data. It has been clearly demonstrated that random atmospheric data doesn't approximate actual data because the variables are linked through physical processes. It is possible to accurately approximate real conditions, but you must be careful to preserve the relationships between the variables, which you can deduce from historical data.
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Can experts working in gas turbine industry/academia explain about the key challenges to the future of gas turbine-based power generation?
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Nox, Efficiency increasing via TIT and CPD, avoiding unavoidable off-design degrating, Realable a fast dynamic models, accurate, robust and fast controller respond, hot section material improving, flexibility in load and frequency control, and so on... It is depenedent on your research line.
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I need a low to medium cost setup to measure solar energy over a long period to evaluate a site for installing small solar or hybrid power generation systems.
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Dear respected Irfan Ullah,
The equipments needed to measure solar energy at a site to be able to predict the output of solar panels are:
1. Pyranometer 2. Thermometer 3. Multimeter 4. Resistors 7. pyrheliometer
Best regards.
Kifilideen
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We are considering installing 30 MW SPV power generation facility, connected to 11 kV power grid. Th e system is required to supply energy upto 5 MWh during six to seven hours after sun-set per day. We are exploring practical options for neat and clean storage of electricity at the site. The site has more than 300 sunny days in a year. It is desired that system will be operated such that the battery bank will be charged on priority during the day, and excess power will be supplied to grid at the site.
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One viable concept is to integrate the the SPV with an electrolyzer and PEM fuel cell stack. The electrolyzer will convert the surplus electricity to hydrogen gas which can be stored as compressed gas in storage tanks. This stored hydrogen can then delivered (as a feedstock) to the PEM fuel stack to generate electricity on demand.
Hope this helps answer your question and good luck with your project.
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I know its very basic but I have data available for Solar Power Generation from Panels but they are in Watts. Available data is in 15 mins interval. While consumption data available is in Watt hours.
Here is the problem: Generation and consumption data are from different meters hence both have different resolution (timestamps) i wanted to plot these two parameters on same graph but due to difference in resolution i cannot convert Solar power into Watt hours.
How would i convert Solar power into energy (Wh) accurately?
Help would be appreciated. Thanks
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Dear Mahmood,
Following the discussion it became evident that your problem was solved by the answers of the colleagues.
But i want to stress that the kwh is an energy unit and the kw or watt is a power unit. The relation is simply:
kwh= integral of the power p in watts over the intended time interval Tdivided by 3600. If the power p is constant with time or if it is an average value pav and the time period is T in seconds, then