Science topic

Power Electronics - Science topic

Power electronics is the application of solid-state electronics for the control and conversion of electric power. It also refers to a subject of research in electrical engineering which deals with design, control, computation and integration of nonlinear, time varying energy processing electronic systems with fast dynamics.
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Any researcher who is interested in working together in the field of Powers Electronics & Drives, Converter & Inverter Design, MPPT Techniques, Solar Photovoltaic Systems, Microgrid, EV Charging Stations. And also interested in publishing good quality paper. Kindly contact me. And also here Give your suggestion and feedback.
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Yes sir, I'm interested..
I would like to work on Multi-level converters
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To generate minicore from core collection.
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Use chrome to convert Korean to English which helps you in downloading
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I have designed a Buck converter hardware setup, using MITSUBISHI IGBT MODULES
CM150DU-12H, L=2mH, C=1000uH, Dutycycle=50%, input voltage = 30, in this scenario am getting output voltage same as input voltage, even though by changing the duty cycle????  any solutions for this?
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followed
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Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation
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Computer Aided tools like LTSpice, PSpice, OrCAD etc., are available , but check this link which can help you in which they provided a Matlab Package for FPGA (Hardware ) implementation
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I am looking for a circuit design of a 200 watts ultrasonic homogenizer.
I would appreciate if you share any data about this
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Hello everyone!
I'm trying to implement 4 step commutation for AC-AC choppers using FPGA board from Xilinx (Spartan 6). The 4 step commutation code works perfectly fine on the FPGA and the output from the FPGA board has been verified on oscilloscope as well. The input to FPGA comes from Dspace microlab box( rti1202).
However, when I try to give the pulses from the FPGA board to the gate drivers (NCD57001) and try to verify the output of the gate drivers for 4 step commutation, one of the states of four step commutation gets missed and instead 0000 state appears.
I expect the output of FPGA to be exactly replicated by the gate drivers but there's a difference in the results. (files attached)
The propagation delay of gate drivers is 90nsec. The DESAT pin of the gate driver has been grounded at the output. Four gate drivers receive pulses from the 4 output pins of FPGA. The input grounds of all the gate drivers are connected to the output ground of FPGA.
Can anyone please suggest some solutions?
TIA
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Hi Ronaq,
thanks for sharing your solution!
So, on the positive side, your problem is solved; on the negative side, we'll never know why the NCD57001s behaved as they did. :-)
Good luck with your project!
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Different software for simulation have different benefits. What would be the most popular programs for the simulation of power electronics?
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There are no of Simulation tools available like
PSIM
MATLAB
MultiSim
I had used all the above simulations tools...all have their own advantage
But now I am using MATLAB/Simscape/Power system library
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I need to design and simulate a power supply(generator) to drive 6 transducers. power of each transducer is 50 watts and they work at 40khz frequency.
can you please share a design of such generator with me?
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If you have never set up or repaired switching power supplies or converters, then I do not advise you to undertake the design and manufacture of a generator for an ultrasonic transducer. Try using ready-made DIY kits. Or, for the beginning, learn the schemotechnics of such ready-made kits.
Try to search "Ultrasonic DIY Generator"
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I want to learn about analysis and design of resonant converters but where do I start? Do you have any recommendations about books, articles, webinars, videos that cover this topic and you found it usefull?
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Nedmohan book is the best
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What is the best low-cost FPGA for power electronics modulation and control?
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Welcome!
I think there is no FPGA for power electronics specifically. FPGAs are used to implement logic functions and building blocks for reprogrammable and reconfigurable applications. They are designed for low power consumption and high speed such that they work at the lowest possible power supply.
In smart power ICs there is a digital core which is normally lower power circuits.
Then they are interfaced to the switching power circuits by high voltage digital circuits. Such as the 4000 CMOS logic family or special driver circuits.
It is always so that there is a buffer circuits between the low power core and the power switching circuits.
Best wishes
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As an electrical researcher, which journal would you choose as your preferred journal for publishing your research, if possible?
This selection includes a maximum of three journals (in order of preference) and the selection criteria can be based on any of the trends (power system, power electronic, smart grid, etc.).
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IEEE!
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I have a power supply which is consists of a flyback and a circuit.
It is a dual output power supply that have 3 wires in output(a. ground wire, b. 4kv, c. 8kv).
in put voltage is 220v and the power of this power supply is 50 watts.
I need to simulate this power supply in ltspice or any similar software so I need to know the specs of the flyback transformer.
how can I find the specs of this transformer without destroying it? :D
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Dear Ju Cheng ,
To see the list of the specifications of the flyback transformer please refer to the paper in the link:
Best wishes
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Hello Everyone,
I want help to evaluation efficiency of DC-DC power converter with Matlab/Simulink. Is there any block for the calculation? Please share any ideas regarding this.
Thanks
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In general, the efficiency of a power converter (AC-DC or DC-DC) is assessed by comparing its input power to its output power. To be more specific, the converter's efficiency is determined by dividing its output power (Pout) by its input power (Pin).
For MATLAB, these tutorials might help:
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There are two types of ultrasonic transducers: piezoelectric and magnetostrictive.
My question is:
Can the same power supply(generator) used for piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers be used for magnetostrictive ultrasonic transducers without loosing performance?
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Hello Ju Cheng ,
Perhaps the most direct way to drive the coil surrounding the magnetostrictive material would be to use a high power audio amplifier such as those used to driver moving coil speakers in a stadium. The input to the power amplifier could be a variable frequency sinewave generator.
I also found an interesting European patent that touches on your question, see attached document.
Regards,
Tom Cuff
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Is it possible to replace a flyback transformer with a common transformer in a high voltage power supply by modifying the circuit? and if yes, what kind of modifications are needed?
I ask this because making a flyback is harder than making a common transformer.
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There are 2 answers :
1. Theoretically : Yes, however you need a circuit modification.
- The flyback uses a transformer with air gap. A normal transformer does not have this.
- You can create an isolated dc/dc convertor with a normal transformer, at the cost of an extra inductor, an extra winding and an extra diode. I think it is called the 'forward' convertor.
2. Practically, what you show in the pictures:
- On the left: This is a low-frequency transformer, mains, max. 400 Hz frequency. (with very good iron.)
- On the right : A ferrite transformer, typically used in the horizontal drive circuit of a Cathode Ray Tube television. In these televisions, the horizontal drive circuit :
a. It controls the left-right sweep of the electrons in the tube. The standard is such that the frequency where it operates on, is about 16 Khz. (Depends on the TV standard used.) As such, you CANNOT change the core to an iron core.
b. Usually, this circuit is also used as the power convertor for the whole TV. Apart from the windings for the left-right movement of the electron beam, there are windings for a multitude of voltages in the TV. The most 'visible' of these is the high-voltage (10 kV for black/white, 30 kV for color) to accelerate the electrons toward the screen. The 10 kV, that is straight, single diode rectifier. For the 30 kV, usually a diode voltage tripler is used. Note that, in the picture, the 'bulky' look for the right transformer is caused by this 10 kVolt winding. This needs lots of isolation, creep distance etc. Note that a normal ferrite transfomer, nowadays operating at ~100 to ~200 Khz is much more compact than a 50-60 Hz transformer.
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I want to make a magnetostrictive ultrasonic transducer for homogenizing applications.
I also want to make its power supply by myself.
I need some references (papers, patents, reports, books videos, etc.) that can help me in this way.
I would appreciate your help
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The ultrasonic piezoelectric transducer operates on the concept of the converse piezoelectric effect. When electricity is supplied to a piezoelectric material, it undergoes physical deformations that are proportional to the applied charge.
However, Magnetostrictive transducers are made up of a large number of nickel (or other magnetostrictive material) plates or laminations that are placed in parallel, with one edge of each laminate affixed to the bottom of a process tank or other vibrating surface. A wire coil is wrapped around the magnetostrictive material.
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hello,
--- Is it possible to always get the maximum power that can be fed from a pv panel if i am imposing a stable voltage at a certain value on DC bus (by a certain controller) ?
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Yes Dear Sarah Kassir , I completely agree with my colleagues Bashar Hamad Ameer L.Saleh , it can be done.
Best regards
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Is it sampling frequency of control loop or some kind of resonance frequency of the system ??
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The frequency response, or variations in magnitude and phase as a function of frequency, is depicted using Bode graphs. This is accomplished using two semi-log scale charts. The top plot is usually magnitude or "gain" in decibels (dB). The bottom plot represents a phase, which is usually expressed in degrees.
A Bode plot /ˈboʊdi/ is a graph representing a system's frequency response in electrical engineering and control theory. It is frequently a mix of a Bode magnitude plot, which expresses the amplitude of the frequency response (usually in dB), and a Bode phase plot, which expresses the phase shift.
In electronics, frequency response is a quantifiable measure of a system's or device's output spectrum in response to a stimulus that is used to define the system's dynamics. It is a measure of the amplitude and phase of the output in relation to the input as a function of frequency.
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Hi everyone,
I am using a TMS320f28377d DSP module for my system (multilevel inverter) which requires generating 24 PWM signals. The good thing in this DSP is that it can generate 24 PWM signals. I am using 8 PWM signals per phase. There is a 120 degree phase shift between the three phases and this by default is done because of the reference signals (Va_ref, Vb_ref, and Vc_ref). I want to make a 180 phase shift between two signals in each phase. For example between PWM#1 and PWM#10.
By referring to the manual I am using the following code:
// Setup Phase
EPwm1Regs.TBPHS.bit.TBPHS = 0. ; // Phase is 0 degree
EPwm1Regs.TBCTL.bit.PHSEN = TB_DISABLE; // Disable phase loading
EPwm10Regs.TBPHS.bit.TBPHS = PwmPeriod * 0.5 ; // Phase is 180 degree
EPwm10Regs.TBCTL.bit.PHSEN = TB_ENABLE; // Enable phase loading
The 0.5 index indicates the phase shift is 180. However, my signals are not 180 inverted. I hope you share your knowledge if you have some answers to my concern. Thank you in advance.
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thank you Mr. Devinda Molligoda
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Take an example, where a battery is to supply two power electronic converters separately. If we switch the contacts of the battery from one converter to the other using two contactors, will it create a significant loss in the converter paths? How much will the efficiency get affected by this method (using contactors)?
What are the other problems that can arise, like the effect in control (due to the resistance or any other component of the contactor)?
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Make sure that (1) the contactors haaveRC networks to absorb transients and (2) the system is proof against the condition of both contactors being open or closed (by some fault condition). For safety!
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Which research area in Power Electronics will make for a good Master thesis in the field of Power Electronics? Would be obliged if someone can inform me about the ongoing scope of such research projects. I am searching for a good research proposal for my Master thesis in the domain of Power Electronics. 
Would be obliged, for your help.
Regards
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One of the main topics of the power electronics is the power flow control from the renewable electricity sources such as solar and wind to the grid where one has to maximize the power transfer and deliver pure waveforms to the grid. Such transfer needs global control to control also the power delivered to the grid.
Also ramping up the power is required.
Best wishes
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I need to write my masters thesis in area of power Electronics can anyone tell me which topics in power Electronics will be good to have research on it. Thanks
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Dear Usama Dar ,
I think one of the main topics in power electronics is developing a global power flow control in the grid connected PV generators for microgrids. While ramping up the power for a house hold grid connected generators. In this global control the load side is also controlled.
Best wishes
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Drones are being improved in many different ways according to their applications. Perhaps, what are the Power electronics Improvement that can be done in the system of the drones In the future?
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I think the most important issues of power electronic circuits for the Drones are:
High conversion efficiency such that one has to save every watt.
Very compact implementation of the circuits to save weight and size.
So, the cooling process must be very effective.
The last issue id the requirement of high reliability to withstand the harsh conditions. So, redundancy is needed for high reliability.
I would advise you to use the new power devices which withstand high operating temperature and work at high power densities such as SiC and GaP.
Best wishes
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What are the diverse effects of Power factor on the Battery as in state of charge and battery current and voltage and life of the battery
Electric vehicles
Power electronics
Ev charger
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The power factor has no appreciable effect on the battery charging process since it is a characteristics of the battery charger itself. The battery charger draws a current from the grid which is phase shifted from the mains voltage. The power factor is = cos phi where phi is the phase shift in the circuit of the charger.
The grid must supply aa apparent power = active power/cos phi.
This has adverse effects on the power generators which must generate a larger power than that consumed and also it must transport it the site of the load leading to power loss and greater cost of the generators.
The system which affects the battery is the batter charge controller.
For more information please follow the paper in the link:
Best wishes
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Hello ,
how can i plot the same figure ( desired figure ) for Required leakage inductance with respect to operating power rating and phase shift for DAB converter i tried so many times i think i have problem with my Matlab code , can anyone help me with it ,
thanks
I'm sharing my MATLAB code and ( desired figure )
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finnally i found a solution
close all , clear all ,clc
%% parameters %%
P=1000:70:4000; phi=0.174:pi/50:pi/2; f=250e3; Vo=300; Vg=33.33; n=3/4;
%% Required leakage inductance with respect to operating power rating % and phase shift for DAB converter
[X,Y]=meshgrid(P,phi);
L=((pi*Y-Y.^2)*Vo*Vg)./(2*pi^2*f*n*X);
figure
h=surf(X,Y,L)
colorbar
title('Required leakage inductance with respect to operating power rating and phase shift for DAB converter')
xlabel('Power (W)')
ylabel('Phase shift (rad)')
zlabel('Inductance (H)')
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A combined topology of two converters with common elements is to be designed, where switching between the two converters can be done only when required (no importance of frequency of switching here). After switching ON/OFF each of the converters will be controlled differently and they will be completely independent.
So if contactors are used, conduction losses would be higher. Even if semiconductor switches are used then we need a bidirectional and bipolar arrangement of switches, the number of switches will increase and the conduction loss in them will also be present.
So I want to know what can be the other methods for this one-time switching because I want the path to be like the simple conductor with minimum or no additional losses. Or what kind of switching would be best here?
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Isn’t there resonance amongst fresuencies of « common elements » and of « converters setting » ?
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I am madhav kumar, I have competed B.Tech (Electrical & electronics ) from Techno India in 2017 and masters in power electronic specialization from Birla institute of technology mesra Ranchi in 2019.
After my masters degree, I started trying for a government job. But due to Corona there was no vacancy and my age limit also expired. Now I want to go further with research. But I can't understand anything, what should I do?
My masters degree project is "Parameter estimation and implementation of maximum power point tracking algorithm for solar photovoltaic system".
I have also done "V/F control of Three phase Induction Motor" with my partner.
I have published 3 IEEE conference paper.
Please give me a proper suggestion and help which is good for my future??
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Hi. Apply for PhD and continue your education. Then after that everything will be easier for you.
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I) How do I measure common mode voltage in matlab simulation?
II) After knowing the value of the common mode voltage, how do I see the behavior of this voltage together with the stray capacitance generating the leakage current?
III) For example, with this circuit (a), where would I have to measure to get these graphs of common mode voltage and leakage current (b)?
Figures: M. N. H. Khan, M. Forouzesh, Y. P. Siwakoti, L. Li, T. Kerekes and F. Blaabjerg, "Transformerless Inverter Topologies for Single-Phase Photovoltaic Systems: A Comparative Review," in IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 805-835, March 2020, doi: 10.1109/JESTPE.2019.2908672.
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In simulation take the average of the pole voltages.
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I'm working on an induction motor drive with a scalar controller. As inverter modulation, I utilized both SVM and SPWM. I discovered that if the frequency and output fundamental voltage from SVM and SPWM are the same, the THD is about the same. The result can be seen in the image attached herewith. Can anybody explain why the THD is the same? Is THD only determined by the amount of fundamental voltage generated? Any literary references would be much appreciated.
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Yes, I have already worked on improving the power quality of three-phase inverters by comparing 3 methods (SPWM, SVPWM and SHE PWM).
the best method was the SHE PWM which eliminates harmonics and gives a very low THD
Concerning your question, in another work, I made a comparative study between the vector and sinusoidal PWM, I found almost the same value of distortion (THD) for different switching frequency, but in the SVPWM, the switching losses decreases which increases the value of the fondalmental (I made a simulation under MATLAB and I validated the results experimentally by the FPGA tool (RT-Lab).
Kind regards
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Hello,
I have a question regarding the zero-sequence voltage injection in three-phase SSTs with bypassed modules in a failure case. I investigated some literature and it is clear that only the fundamental harmonic can shift power between the 3 arms (for power balance).
A 3rd harmonic is often used to reduce the peak arm voltages (-13.4%). However, I investigated asymmetrical fault cases and a 5th and 7th harmonic can help tofurther reduce the arm voltage by a small percentage like 5% (so less redundant modules are needed):
My question is: Do you know other methods to handle asymmetrical fault conditions in cascaded H-bridges or SSTs? Can I handle grid-imbalances like module faults, since the modules in the phase with an over-voltage have to transmit more power (if no zero-voltage injection takes place)?
I thank you for your suggestions and ideas.
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Or do you have experience in three-phase systems with a floating star point?
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Can i take matlab workspace value (time and voltage with non uniform sample distance) and plot in simulink`s scope?
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use excel sheet
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Hello
Anyone who has experience with operating a bidirectional DC-power supply as a load. I have an "ITECH6006C-500-40" and plan to operate a set-up with two motors as described in the simple sketch attached. I was primarily wondering if can directly just connect the 3-phase rectifier bridge (https://no.rs-online.com/web/p/bridge-rectifiers/0462130/) between the generator and the DC-supply(sink)? Are there any need to reduce the ripple output of the rectifier? I tried to simulate a simplified model in Simulink where I had the load represented by a resistor or a current source. See attached figure. The input current is alternating, though it does have harmonics.
best regard
Sveinung Attestog
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The nominal speed of my 4-pole motors are 3000 rpm. So the output voltage wil have a frequency of 100 Hz and after passing through the rectifier the ripple will have a fundamental frequency of 600 Hz. This exceeds the maximum frequecy of 200 Hz the DC-supply/sink can handle, which the maufacture ITECH recently informed me. So the filter is needed to recude the voltage ripple. But when I set a capacitor across the rectifer DC output terminals, the input current gets amplitude peaks that is 2 to 3 times larger than the average value of the output current. I also obsered this with experiment.
Is there a filter which is less harsh on the input? Smaller pk-pk amplitude and less smaller harmonics magnitudes relative to the fundamental component.
The attaced figure show the input (yellow) and output (blue) of voltage (top) and current (bottom). The output/load current is set by a current source.
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I am interested to work in the field of power electronics Converter & inverter, Renewable Energy, Solar Photovoltaic System, Battery management, fast charging proces, electrical vehicles, etc
Can u suggest me some topics and area, which one good and easy to publish journal & completed my PHD in within 3yrs..
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thank you mr. Madhav kumar, my suggestion is that you take the topic of increasing power in pizzoelectrics through vibration, can be sent to the international energy journal, indexed by Scopus Q3. # Healthy greetings
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I'm simulating different modulation techniques based on the mentioned topology.
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IGBT
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Respected Prof. Dr. XXXXXXX;
I hope you are doing well and are in good health. My name is Engr. Muhammad Muneeb. I am currently studying in 7th-semester and doing BSc Electrical Power Engineering from The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. I am maintaining a 2nd position in the session with a CGPA of 3.80/4. My 7th semester will be completed at the end of Jan 2021 and my 8th semester by the end of June or mid of July 2021. During my undergraduate, I have worked on semester projects to actualize and implement the theoretical knowledge of Control systems, Power Electronics, Electronic Devices & circuits, High Voltage, AC & DC machines, and also Signal processing and digital signal into practical work. I have worked on mini (semester) projects like Digital Thermometer using Arduino, Obstacle avoiding Robot using Ultrasonic sensor and currently working on Single-phase Smart Grid Tie Inverter as my Final Year Project. I am also doing research and will publish a paper with one of my department teachers; who is doing a Ph.D. in Electrical Power Engineering.  I just saw a Post XXXXXX on the Facebook group regarding a research position for the Master's Program in Machine learning and robotics-related field at XXXXXX University. I have also read about your projects and achievements. I am very enthusiastic to conduct research and pursue MS under your supervision.  I have attached my Cv and transcript (currently only 5th semester available) with this email and looking forward to hearing from you soon. Also if you need anything else from me please ask me as well. I shall be thankful for your response. Sincerely, Muhammad Muneeb Whatsapp : +923030788740 WeChat: +923357915880 Skype: muneeb.mazhar1
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Omar H. Abdalla
Dear i have sent an email with my Cv and Cover letter to the provided email, but no reply.
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I am looking for new interesting fields to do research on power electronics.
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Control and optimization of soft-commutated converters
Diagnostics of power electronic converters
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When mosfet is turned off there is a reverse voltage across body diode and the depletion region of drain-source diode(Cds) gets charged. As for the diode, it is forward biased and there is no stored charge across its depletion capacitance(Cj). When we turn on the mos the stored charge in Cds gets dumped into the channel of mosfet and gets wasted and the Cj gets charged. During the turn off transition of mos the Cds gets charged now and the charge stored in Cj gets discharged through the load. Here it is said that the energy lost during turn on transition is 0.5(Cds+Cj)(Vg^2). From my understanding I think that the lost energy is of the energy stored in Cds and Cj discharges its energy back to the load(during the turn off transition of mos). But that doesn't add up with the result given here. Please correct me if I am wrong and explain what is going on.
Thanks in advance
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You are being deceived by an inaccurate and incomplete model. There are two capacitances associated with the diode, D: 1) the depletion/junction/transition capacitance, Cj, which only exists when the diode is zero and reverse biased; and 2) the diffusion capacitance, which stores the minority carrier charge, but only exists when the diode is forward biased. These two capacitances are both in parallel with the diode. Note the caveat given in the diagram: "assuming linear capacitances". That is referring to the fact that Cj should actually be written as Cj(V) because it is a nonlinear function of the reverse voltage difference across the diode.
When the MOSFET is turned on, it shock excites the LCR circuit into a damped oscillation. The circuit oscillates because of L and C, and it is a dampled oscillation due to the load resistor R. In order to prevent a negative voltage difference from appearing across the load R, a clamping diode D is in the circuit. When the damped oscillation attempts to reverse direction, the clamping diode becomes forward biased and essentially stops the oscillation.
Now, as you mentioned, when the MOSFET is turned off, its Cds is charged to the voltage difference, vg. The clamping didoe, D, will have its diffusion capacitance charged to a value somewhat less than vg, depending on the degree of damping from the load R, when the damped oscillation attempts to reverse direction. At this point, the MOSFET is turned on, again, discharging Cds, and reverse biasing diode D which discharges its diffusion capacitance - not its diffusion/transition/junction capacitance.
There is a lot being left out of the description of the boost converter.
Regards,
Tom Cuff
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In this circuit the capacitor is junction capacitance of diode and ringing takes place here. The third plot is voltage across diode. As the stored minority charge inductor is stored with negative current and it need a path to flow. My doubt is where does this current actually(physically) flow? I mean the junction capacitance is modelled from the depletion region meaning that it will flow through diode again but diode cant conduct in negative direction. Please explain me what is exactly going on here and tell me where am I going wrong.
Thanks in advance
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Please provide us with a better picture of your circuit and better pictures of your three waveforms. As it stands, it is very difficult to see any details.
Regards,
Tom Cuff
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Hi,
I am designing the DC-DC converter (Buck) in Cadence. The compensation has been calculated and the simulation in time domain is very okay at different load/line conditions. In order to verify the stability of full design, the analysis of phase margin/gain margin using SpectreRF; particularly using PSS/PCA or PSS/PTSB) has been widely used and recommended.
I have make some effort to simulate but this work has not been succeeded yet.
Anyone have experienced this work? If yes, it would be very nice if you recommend some tutorial or related documents.
Really appreciate your help
Sincerely,
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P. Toledo , we can let simulator to choose "decide automatically"
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My doubt is when we intend to negative voltage from sinusoidal voltage as shown in the picture below, how does T3,T4 conducts when they are reverse biased(in positive half cycle). Graphically, Vout = (-V) makes sense but how would these thyristors even turn on with the gate pulses if they are reverse biased?
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You have inductive load which return energy and polarises mentioned tyristors
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Hi,
Can anyone guide me on which cheap FPGA kit can I used for linear as well as non-linear type controller implementation in Power Electronics Applications?
Thanks
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@Rohit Kumar Jain's Can I use it for implementing an MPC controller for Power Electronics Converters?
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How machine learning can be used in power electronics and power system for application ???
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You could check out this link:
talking about AI in the smart grid, for example predicting peak power consumption. AI can also be used to predict battery degradation: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8255938
Cheers, Raoul
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I am working on the design of an auto-adjustable 25khz 2000W ultrasonic generator(power supply).
I will use that to generate the ultrasonic power of a welding system.
"auto-adjustable" means that it can find the right working frequency of the transducer by getting feedback from piezo stacks.
I am looking for books or websites or papers that can help me in my work.
If you have a circuit design designed for this purpose, I would be grateful if you could share it with me.
thanks
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[Images are attached at bottom]
I am currently working on a buck converter controlled by two different control methods, Reinforcement learning applied to find PID values & a lead-lag compensator. The controllers are designed and perfectly fit the transfer function system but once applied to the circuit system things go astray.
As can be seen from the image below of the graphs (1) and (2) show to be outliers in comparison to there transfer function counterparts.
I do not know why the disparities are occurring since the transfer function system and circuit system are not far off one another. I can provide the proof of this if wanted. I can supply the Simulink file also if wished. Any help in the right direction is appreciated. I currently think integral windup may be taking place but I am not sure.
Thanks in advance
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It is difficult to answer, because I cannot see how the real buck converter is modelled. But several possible explanations are:
a) If the converter is non-synchronous (i.e. with a diode), than one problem could be that there could be a change in operation modes form DCM to CCM and vice versa during start up. The modelled transfer just describes CCM mode.
b) Another effect would be, that the transfer function modells are linearized small signal representations and therefore depend on the operating point. Therefore in the modelled transfer function the gain may be changing (as this depends on the steady state duty cycle).
c) If the circuit model has limiters (e.g. maximum duty cycle reached or a current limit is implemented) than the real model response will deviate from the ideal transfer function characteristic. E.g. if your duty cycle signal command signal d increases to valus d>1, than in the real buck converter the value will be limited to d=1 and this will show a delayed startup (as your pictures indicate). In contrast the "ideal" transfer function model without limits will not see any problem with unrealistic d>1 (or even d<0). Transfer function models without limiters can shown severe deviations from reality, especially during large signal transients.
Therefore, I think you should check:
a) that the value of the control variable d (duty cycle) will be in the range 0<d<1 (and eventually limit it to this range)
b) not test a startup transient, but a small signal step in steady state (e.g. small transient) to test your controllers.
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I am trying to design a PR controller to control the output voltage of a single-phase H bridge inverter having unipolar SPWM (fundamental frequency=50Hz and switching frequency=20kHz).
Can anyone please suggest to me a simple way to find Kp Kr values for the PR controller?
Your answers would be very helpful and I appreciate your help.
Kind regards, Silpa
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I am trying to model a DAB converter and I need to observe the power transfeered to the load side on varying the phase shift between two bridges, hence I couldnt take a constant load e.g resistance.
So i am planning to add a energy storage element e.g battery or something to notice in the change in out voltage and then power delivered.
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there is battery block in matlab.
would you tell me how did you rectify this issue, my guess is it is because I am doing it in open loop thats why its is not controlling the output with respect to input.
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I am working on a standalone DC Microgrid with PV and Battery with a load interfaced to a common DC bus through power electronic interfaces. The interface of battery is a non-isolated bidirectional DC-DC converter, through which the DC bus voltage is being regulated at a reference value(48 V in our case). Now under the case of variable irradiance and variable load, I am experiencing spikes in voltage especially at the instants of load changes. The filter design of the power electronic interfaces has been proper. Can someone help me in solving this problem?
The DC bus voltage variation is attached. The loading pattern is also attached.
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I agree with last answers advised to add PI controller
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I am working on a project in which I need to control the duty cycle of the pulse given to mosfet in an AC to DC converter.The mosfets are connected to LCL filter to give a regualted 5V.The output voltage and a reference of 5V error is taken and a compensator is connected.The output is compared using PWM and then sent to mosfet.Do we need mosfet driver in between?What kind of mosfet driver should I use in multisim?Can I get any reference?Should we solve this using bode plot?Should I use PID controller to decrease the error and should I simulate in MATLAB using PID controller ?As I find it easy
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Hi,
It would be that this reference can help:
PD: Matlab implementation codes are available.
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If an inductor of X mH is being incorporated in an LC / LCL filter, what should be the core type assuming that the carrier frequency of sine pwm would be around 4 kHz?
Will it be a ferrite type core or CRGO? Why?
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The design of the inductor and the core material selection in the LCL or LC filter of an inverter is dependent upon the carrier frequency of the PWM.
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I am preparing a layout for designing a cloud platform (IoT application) for a battery management system. The voltage, current and temperature of the battery would be recorded. The data from the BMS would be sent via hardware such as Raspberry Pi, etc. and Cloud could be any (Google Cloud IoT / Microsoft Azure / Amazon). Since everything is on design phase, What could be the possible challenges to this application? Are the data fetched on time or time delay estimated is to be done??
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Hi Ravi, you can check the work from our group in developing the cloud battery management systems:
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Hello Folks
I am a recent graduate and started my career in the Power Electronics field. It's really great field and I am lucky to get an opportunity to learn PCB design, control of power supply, reliability analysis. My study background more related to power engineering and I want to be an expert in Analog Electronics, Digital Electronics, and Embedded control systems. Can you please anyone guide me for each field (Analog, Digital Electronics, Embedded system) what resources I should use? It would be really great help
Thanks
Avi
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Hi Avi,
The best book I had during my university years was this one:
It covers almost every hardware topic from low noise analogue to digital and power electronics. It even touches on embedded software but that part might be a bit dated now. This will give you a really good overview of many topics.
The best book I found for embedded software is this one:
Chapter 13 takes you from the simplest of round-robin programs up to a real time scheduler in a few simple steps. Schedulers are the basis for most operating systems and they are essential if you want to do any real-time control of anything.
When you get around to designing PCBs then ignore anything you might read in data sheets and application notes. Look at any book written by Ralph Morrison, especially this one:
Despite the name it's an invaluable source of information on how to route a PCB to get your design to pass an EMC test. High power / high frequency switching circuit (like power electronics) need careful attention to layout and Ralph's theories on PCB design really work but are often contrary to other books on the subject.
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As the penetration of grid-connected solar energy increases, is it technically possible to replace most of the conventional power generations including coal, gas and natural gas in modern power grid? Is there any critical technical challenges we need to overcome? There are various researches ongoing such as virtual inertial (VI)-based inverter, maximum power point tracking (MPPT) and hybrid energy storage system (ESS) to address voltage/frequency instability, IV & PV non-lineality and solar energy non-availability during night time respectively.
Plus, there are many technologies like artificial intelligence (AI), smart grid, blockchain and other advanced terminologies available for solar energy. From these perspectives, will the solar energy eventually replaces conventional power generation or it will be limited as a supplementary energy source for existing power system which is ideal for remote and vast area?
Welcome to exchange your valuable perspectives on the future of solar energy.
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Please see my road map for the transformation from conventional to PV generation in the paper at the link:
Best wishes
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I have tuned the PI controller for the voltage control loop and inner control loop. But the problem is that it is not stable from a wide variation in the load/bus voltage. On the DC bus, there is a boost converter connected which is used to transfer power from renewable generation.
While Tuning considering rated load (separate/isolated) the operation is good. But on connecting it with DC Bus (microgrid) it is not working properly.
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Maybe you would like to take a look at the following paper:
Codes to reproduce results are available and robust stable PI controllers were successfully tuned.
Best
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How does connecting a capacitor across switch in converters contributes toward reducing losses?
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In fact, there is a parasitic capacitance across MOSFET’s junction. There will be an energy loss of 0.5cV^2 when switching at non-zero voltage. This loss will be significant when switching at high frequency. Therefore, every ZVS converter topology has to include this capacitor in the circuit when doing analysis.
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Journals with review time of 3-4 weeks and publication time of <6 months.Impact factor journals >1.
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IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics ( JESTPE) and IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics are both pretty fast. First review expected within a month and a half. Final publication in 6 months.
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I modeled a PV panel (Voc = 37.7V and Isc = 8.72A) in simulink with Rs and Rsh being dynamic. I tried to use it with a buck converter and a resistive load. The controlled current source cannot work without an input capacitor, I added a capacitor of 50*10^-6. It works fine but with an overshoot of 20A. Also, when I changing the load resistor a little bit , I get output current of 12A. You can see the picture below.
Did anyone face this issue?
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There is also this problem i face while implementing mppt, you should keep the resistance of the load resistor less than the minimum resistance of pannel(which is when there is maximum resistance) or less than vmpp/impp. Otherwise it doesn't work.
I also suggest you try the pv array block that already exist in simulink library. Try searching "pv array" in simulink library
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I have noticed my battery SOC keep on increasing even before I close the switch between Constant current source and battery ! Any idea why this is happening ? Tried manually deleting the connection between CC source and battery then it's staying at same soc and no battery voltage rising happens.
Attached model and result waveforms screenshot
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The solution for the current source is to switch the current source it self. That is to use instead of a continuous current source an interrupted current source. Which means the current source will a pulse source.
Best wishes.
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Unfortunately on the section of Manuscript Subject I could not find the WPT subject.
In case it is not possible to submit a manuscript on IEEE (Transactions on Industrial Electronics) for the mentioned field, could you please suggest me some other IEEE transactions journals which have higher impact factor than ( IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics ) for the field of WPT for EVs. Thank you so much
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Yes it should.. search in other catagories too
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I have a grid connected 5KW system with 16 panels, with individual panel rating ranging from 36-40 V at 8 A connectedin series give approximately 500-600 V at 8 A. In times of power outage, the Inverter usually supplies power to the load. In absence of a battery unit how do we limit the excess power produced. We thought of using a buck converter to minimize production in such power outage scenarios, but using a buck converter for close to 2KW or 3KW is practically impossible and not cost effective.
I did think of using a voltage reference based power limit control, but the inverter's MPPT is not taking the reference votlage. The inverter in question is a commercial one made by Growatt solutions with an inbuilt MPPT control.
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The grid connected inverters controls the output current from the inverter. So, you need only to set the reference current of the inverter to a smaller value.
For more information about the output power grid connected inverter please refer to paper in the link:
The other solution could be implemented in the design phase where one divide the array into two equal parallel strings. In this way one can connect only one of the two strings to the input of the inverter when the load is reduced.
Best wishes
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Dealing with LLC resonant converter simulation and would like to plot the efficiency curve. How Can I do that ? eff = Pout/Pin ( Pout I can calculate from Output voltage and current but input current seems to be partial sinusoidal and cannot deal with any calculation !)
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You can use the following link:
Copy the IGBT model from here and use it with your DC converter. You can use any IGBT's datasheet to update the library. Efficiency calculation and plotting is also shown in the given model. Hope it will help.
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Hi, I'm trying to simulate a grid connected Pv inverter model using fuzzy logic controller by generating pulse from Dq0 voltage component. For filter I used LCL filter. I need some help.
1. I'm putting 769V PV input but getting 885V output which is more than input. Output power is 25KW for 50KW input. I'm not using any MPPT method and calculated DC link capacitor for 700V and getting 885V as well on dc link. Is this a problem?
2. When I simulate I'm getting huge reactive power flowing. If I fix this using Three phase reactive load THD of current goes very high up and system efficiency decreases. How can this be solved?
3. D-axis voltage in pu is 0.85 and Q-axis voltage is -0.5 instead of 1 and zero. Need help in this area also.
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Design and simulation of fuzzy controller for a grid connected stand alone PV system
December 2008, DOI: 10.1109/ICCCNET.2008.4787740
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the dc-dc converters has two transfer functions , control to output and line to output TF. which one is used when design a controller? and which one is used to test step response?
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I agree with Aparna Sathya Murthy
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Dear Colleagues, I have single phase inverter  connects photovoltaic array of rating 10 kW with the grid at 220 V/50 Hz. I need to design the filter inductor that couples the inverter with the grid. The switching frequency of the inverter is 10 kHz. Can anyone advise me about the best core material and the design procedure or any reference in that issue? Thank you very much. 
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The best core material is ferrite. For calculate the inductance, you can by using the simple equation of a buck DC/DC converter.
Regards,
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Hello Guys
This is my first post on the Research gate, thank you for the help. I am working on TI TMS320F28379D, I need three triangular signals with 120-degree phase shift for my experiment to give it to the control card, Anyone has any idea about to generate on Hardware?
Thanks
Avi
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If allowed to make them with other electronic elements, first build three-three square waves by IC 4017 according to the following link:
Now use three simple analog circuits to make triangular from each square wave according to the following link:
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Are there any advanced control strategies which could directly handle the non linear system for controller design, without doing any sort of linearization? Please give specific suggestions in this regard. Also please suggest some good sources to learn about the advanced nonlinear controller design for power electronic converters.
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Active disturbance rejection control
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With increasing trends of Artificial Intelligence on various domains, I am looking for some applications pertaining to the use of AI in power electronics / power systems fields. Valuable inputs are highly solicitated...
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The following documents show exemples of its application.
Artificial Intelligence Techniques for Smart Grid Applications
María-José Santofimia-Romero, Xavier del Toro-García, J. López-López
Published 2011 Engineering
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Hi,
While learning about different algorithms such as Regression, Clustering, Classification, etc. in Machine Learning in different domains such as Medicine (Patient data analysis, etc.), Market analysis, etc. I wonder, how these algorithms could be implemented in Power Electronics or Grid Applications? Any ideas?? Are there any datasets available similar to the ones in UCI ML repositories??
Thanks in advance.
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In my opinion the AI can be applied in different sector , Computer Versions (Robotic), Automotive sector(Autonomous vehicle's), economics (financial)....etc.
For Grid Applications that you can do it the smart Network for gesture the power Electric or surveying the Sun for the most energy for stocks in batteries to do it With Deep Leraning.
I hope that be Clair. @Ravi Verma
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For a switched-mode power supply, can volt second balance be applied to capacitor voltages too at different operating modes or is it only restricted to inductors?
Is it technically correct to express capacitor voltages in terms of the inductor, so as to apply VSB?
Please explain in detail!
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Afaq Hussain thanks for nicely putting it up. As an additional understanding exercise, would recommend you, P. Arvind, to study the waveform of current through the inductor in an SMPC device. You will see, that during one mode (ON/OFF), the current rises and during the other mode, it falls down. Now, in steady-state, the average current through an inductor is constant. This means, the amount of rise and fall of current in the two different modes should be equal in magnitude, thereby canceling the overall change in current. Note that the rise and fall of the inductor current would be equal to the rate of rise multiplied with time of rise and rate of fall multiplied with time respectively. But, we know that rate of rise/fall of inductor current is proportional to the voltage across the inductor. So basically, the product of voltage across inductor during ON mode and rise time, and the product of voltage across inductor during OFF mode and the fall time, add up to zero, in other words, "Balance" out. Hence the name, inductor volt-second balance. Now, it is important to note that this 'balancing-out' happens only in steady-state when the average current through the inductor is constant. It might interest you to know, that during the transient state, inductor volt-second balance is not a valid phenomenon. I hope this helps. Thanks for reading.
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I am planning to connect the batteries in series to obtain 800 V DC and interface it with the AC bus using only the voltage source inverter (VSI).
If I do so, what are the practical implications?
Is it advisable to connect the battery energy storage to the AC bus using only the inverter, and without a bidirectional DC-DC converter?
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Hi,
On the face it, the idea sounds perfectly valid. I want to add a few points you can add to your checklist before proceeding.
Practical implications:
1) you have no power converter interface, you are saving on a lot of devices, but there is no intermittent energy storage element, like an inductor or capacitor. This means all the harmonic currents flow from your battery directly, which can have considerable ESR. You may want to consider putting a DC link capacitor, after looking at the ESR numbers for battery and caps, and comparing the cost advantage.
2) You mentioned bidirectional converter. When you run the inverter on a battery, you automatically assume that the battery voltage is stiff and can sink or source power. So you can bidirectional power flow in this case directly from the battery. However, beware that you might accidentally pump active power into the battery overcharging it beyond the rated limits. Just a suggestion. Please have a look at the numbers and make sure the scenario never occurs in your application. Again, having a DC link cap, and using diodes, you can ensure unidirectional power flow from battery if necessary.
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I want to use multiple DSTATCOM in my project,thus it's price is very important to be minimum.This device is the same with single phase inverter, but it injects reactive current only to the connected node in parallel to the 1-phase load.could anyone please inform me./thanks/
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Yes, if possible u can also contact to Semikcron, they will share you exact price list of STATCOM.
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