Science topic

Power Electronics - Science topic

Power electronics is the application of solid-state electronics for the control and conversion of electric power. It also refers to a subject of research in electrical engineering which deals with design, control, computation and integration of nonlinear, time varying energy processing electronic systems with fast dynamics.
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I am currently doing some research on hybrid simulation technique of power electronized power grid and there are some basic concepts I want to know. I want to know whether the word "PD" in this article means phasor domain or phasor dynamic?
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Jiahao Chen In the context of power systems and simulation, "phasor domain" and "phasor dynamic" simulations refer to different modeling approaches, and understanding their differences is crucial for accurate power system analysis. Phasor Domain Simulation: Frequency-Domain Analysis: Phasor domain simulation, also known as steady-state phasor simulation, is primarily used for analyzing the steady-state behavior of the power system. It operates in the frequency domain. Sinusoidal Steady-State: Phasor simulations are suitable for situations where the electrical quantities, such as voltage and current, vary sinusoidally at a fixed frequency (e.g., 50 Hz or 60 Hz in AC power systems). Complex Phasor Representation: In this approach, electrical quantities are represented as complex phasors, which include magnitude and phase angle information. Phasors simplify the analysis of AC circuits by treating sinusoidal signals as complex numbers. Static Elements: Phasor domain simulations are well-suited for studying the steady-state behavior of elements like transformers, transmission lines, and loads. They do not capture transient or dynamic effects. Phasor Dynamic Simulation: Time-Domain Analysis: Phasor dynamic simulation, on the other hand, operates in the time domain. It is used to model and analyze dynamic responses and transient behavior in the power system. Transient Analysis: Phasor dynamic simulations are employed when studying phenomena like fault analysis, system disturbances, and transient stability. These simulations capture how the system responds to sudden changes. Detailed Time-Step Modeling: In phasor dynamic simulations, electrical quantities are represented as functions of time and time-stepping algorithms are used to calculate their values at each time step. Complex Behavior: Phasor dynamic simulations account for the complex interactions and behaviors that occur during transient events, making them essential for assessing system stability and protection schemes. In summary, the key difference between phasor domain simulation and phasor dynamic simulation lies in the analysis focus and the representation of electrical quantities. Phasor domain simulations are concerned with steady-state analysis in the frequency domain, while phasor dynamic simulations are used for transient analysis in the time domain. Depending on the research or analysis objectives related to power electronic power grids, one or both of these simulation techniques may be employed to gain insights into different aspects of the system's behavior.
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We have implemented and installed a grid-connected PV inverter in two different locations. In the first location, it works well, but in the second location, the line voltage to the cubicle body increases and the inverter surge arrester burns. The earth resistance in both cases is below 1 ohm, which indicates that the earthing system is good. I know that high-frequency harmonics are generated by power electronic devices and can cause leakage currents and neutral-earth voltage, but I cannot find the difference between the two conditions. I would appreciate any suggestions you may have.
in the attached pic :
Yellow: line to cubicle body ( which is earthed)
Blue: line-to-line voltage
Green: inverter current
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Please check the surroundings. If the earth around inverter is having many installations with leakage currents the Ground potential itself increases.
Check system Ground/neutral voltage wrt Earth at both locations. This may give hint.
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it was available in previous version under (S-Function-Simcoupler) simcoupler provides interface between PSIM and Matlab/Simulink for co-simulation.
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gooooz!
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It is desired to study dynamic performance of three phase induction motors when started using a soft starter. Which software is more suitable to model soft starters of induction motors, that enables variation of the triggering phase angle, and enables studying dynmaics of starting?
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Thank You so much dear Mr.
Rana Hamza Shakil
Your answer is very helpful.
I did not come through the built in models of soaft starters in MATLAB and PSCAD. They are most propably in newer versions in these software packages. My you please share these models. Thank you so much in advance.
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Any researcher who is interested in working together in the field of Powers Electronics & Drives, Converter & Inverter Design, MPPT Techniques, Solar Photovoltaic Systems, Microgrid, EV Charging Stations. And also interested in publishing good quality paper. Kindly contact me. And also here Give your suggestion and feedback.
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We can do some collaborative work on solar power generation forecasting
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Suggest one MPPT algorithm for solar photovoltaic systems which is not mentioned in this paper or which is better performance compare to other algorithms..
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Hello, I have a PWM signal having a variable frequency. I need to remove high frequencies from PWM. For example, I want to stop frequencies above 20kHz and can pass frequencies below 20kHz. Any idea how to design this technique in MATLAB Simulink?
Thank
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Yes, you can use a Triggered Subsystem in MATLAB Simulink to implement a low-pass filter on a PWM signal. The Triggered Subsystem allows you to execute a block of Simulink model when a specific condition is met, which in this case would be the PWM signal exceeding a certain frequency threshold.
A high-level overview of how you can design this technique in MATLAB Simulink is:
1 - Generate the PWM signal: Start by generating the PWM signal that you want to filter. You can use appropriate blocks or functions in Simulink to generate the PWM waveform based on your requirements.
2 - Measure the frequency: Use a frequency measurement block or algorithm to measure the frequency of the PWM signal. This could be achieved using techniques such as zero-crossing detection or FFT analysis.
3 - Compare with the threshold: Compare the measured frequency with the desired frequency threshold (20 kHz in your case). You can use a Comparison block or an if-else condition to make this comparison.
4 - Triggered Subsystem: Inside the Triggered Subsystem block, design the low-pass filter. You can use standard Simulink blocks, such as a Discrete-Time Integrator and a Discrete-Time Transfer Function block, to implement a simple low-pass filter. Adjust the filter parameters based on your desired cutoff frequency.
5 - Connect the subsystem: Connect the output of the Triggered Subsystem to the appropriate output in your Simulink model, so that the filtered PWM signal can be utilized for further processing or analysis.
6 - Configure the Trigger: Set up the trigger condition for the Triggered Subsystem. In this case, the trigger condition would be the comparison result from step 3.
7 - Simulate and analyze: Simulate the Simulink model and observe the filtered PWM output. Verify that the frequencies above 20 kHz are effectively attenuated while the frequencies below 20 kHz are passed through.
It's important to note that the specific details of your implementation may vary depending on your PWM signal source, sampling rate, desired filter characteristics, and any other additional requirements. Experimentation and fine-tuning may be necessary to achieve the desired filtering behavior.
By utilizing the Triggered Subsystem and appropriate filter blocks, you can implement a low-pass filter on a PWM signal in MATLAB Simulink, removing high frequencies above the specified threshold while allowing frequencies below it to pass through.
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Which microcontroller is best to learn for power electronics-based applications? One of the most popular microcontrollers is Texas Instruments TMS320f28379D but there is no video tutorials covering from basics.
How to learn Embedded programming for different microcontrollers??
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When it comes to learning embedded programming for power electronics-based applications, there are several microcontrollers that you can consider. While the Texas Instruments TMS320F28379D is indeed a popular choice, it may have a steeper learning curve due to the lack of comprehensive video tutorials covering the basics. However, there are other microcontrollers that are commonly used in power electronics and have more extensive learning resources available. Here are a few options:
  1. Arduino: Arduino is a widely popular platform for learning embedded programming. It is beginner-friendly and has a large community with abundant tutorials and projects. While Arduino is not specifically designed for power electronics applications, it can still be used effectively for prototyping and learning the basics.
  2. STM32 series (STMicroelectronics): The STM32 series offers a range of microcontrollers suitable for power electronics applications. They have excellent documentation, comprehensive libraries, and a large user community. STMicroelectronics provides development boards and tools that make it easier to get started.
  3. Raspberry Pi: While Raspberry Pi is primarily known as a single-board computer, it can also be used for embedded programming. Raspberry Pi boards offer more computational power and can be used in applications where advanced control algorithms or user interfaces are required alongside power electronics.
To learn embedded programming for different microcontrollers, here are some general steps you can follow:
  1. Study the basics: Start by understanding the fundamentals of embedded systems, including microcontroller architecture, programming languages (such as C/C++), and basic electronics concepts.
  2. Choose a development board: Select a microcontroller platform or development board that suits your requirements. Consider factors such as available documentation, community support, and compatibility with power electronics peripherals.
  3. Learn the development environment: Familiarize yourself with the software development tools provided by the microcontroller manufacturer. This typically includes an Integrated Development Environment (IDE) and associated compilers, debuggers, and programming software.
  4. Explore tutorials and projects: Utilize online resources, such as official documentation, tutorials, and community forums, to learn step-by-step examples and projects. These resources can provide practical insights into embedded programming for specific microcontrollers.
  5. Practice and experiment: Start small by writing simple programs to control GPIO pins, read sensors, or communicate with other devices. Gradually build up your knowledge and skills by working on increasingly complex projects.
  6. Refer to datasheets and reference manuals: Microcontroller datasheets and reference manuals are invaluable sources of information. They provide detailed specifications, register descriptions, and application-specific guidance.
  7. Join communities and forums: Engage with communities and forums dedicated to embedded programming and microcontrollers. Participating in discussions, asking questions, and sharing your projects can enhance your learning experience and provide valuable insights.
Remember that learning embedded programming is an iterative process. Start with smaller projects, gradually expand your knowledge, and embrace hands-on experimentation to gain proficiency over time.
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I am happy to share my new paper related to EV applications, which is currently an emerging area of research. I request everyone to please share my paper with your knows or groups.
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A hybrid energy source-based BLDC (Brushless DC) motor drive can be an efficient solution for electric vehicle applications. In this type of system, multiple energy sources are used to power the BLDC motor, which provides better efficiency and performance.
The most common hybrid energy source-based BLDC motor drives use a combination of a battery and an ultracapacitor as energy sources. The battery provides a stable and continuous power supply to the motor, while the ultracapacitor provides short bursts of high-power energy. This combination allows the motor to achieve better acceleration, regenerative braking, and overall efficiency.
The control system of the hybrid energy source-based BLDC motor drive is crucial to achieving optimal performance. The system must be able to monitor and manage the energy flow between the battery and ultracapacitor, as well as control the speed and torque of the motor.
Overall, a hybrid energy source-based BLDC motor drive is an efficient and reliable solution for electric vehicle applications, providing improved performance and reduced energy consumption.
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If you are willing to work in MPPT then I suggest you to follow this paper. This paper helps you to choose the best MPPT algorithm for your system.
cation/369600395_Comprehensive_Review_of_Conventional_and_Emerging_Maximum_Power_Point_Tracking_Algorithms_for_Uniformly_and_Partially_Shaded_Solar_Photovoltaic_Systems
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Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) is a technique used to optimize the output power of photovoltaic (PV) solar panels. There are several MPPT techniques available, including:
  1. Perturb and Observe (P&O) - this method involves periodically perturbing the operating point of the PV panel and observing the corresponding change in the output power. The direction of the perturbation is then adjusted to reach the maximum power point.
  2. Incremental Conductance - this technique is based on the fact that the maximum power point corresponds to the point where the slope of the PV panel's I-V curve is equal to the negative of the panel's incremental conductance.
  3. Fractional Open Circuit Voltage (FOCV) - this method uses the open-circuit voltage of the PV panel to estimate the panel's maximum power point. The panel's output voltage is then adjusted to match the estimated voltage.
  4. Constant Voltage (CV) - this technique involves maintaining a constant voltage across the PV panel and adjusting the panel's output current to reach the maximum power point.
  5. Model Predictive Control (MPC) - this method uses a mathematical model of the PV panel and the MPPT system to predict the panel's behavior and adjust the operating point accordingly.
The choice of the best MPPT technique depends on the specific application and the characteristics of the PV panel. In general, P&O and Incremental Conductance are the most commonly used techniques, as they are simple and effective for most applications. However, for more complex systems or panels with non-linear characteristics, MPC may be the best option. Ultimately, the best MPPT technique will depend on the specific requirements of the application, such as efficiency, cost, and complexity.
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I am considering applying to US universities and I am interested in power electronics related to electric vehicles.
your answers are highly appreciated.
Thanks.
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Please note that
The best book
I found on Power Electronics
Was by
MIT, Boston, Mass.
USA
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Hi all,
In matlab, we are able to find many features in the control system design applications but it always requires specifying the system inputs and outputs to be able to generate its A, B, C, D matrices. However, for an autonomous microgrid, the system has no inputs and outputs which means we only have the A matrix only. How to get the A matrix ? and how could we avoid specifying those inputs/outputs while linearizing the model ?
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For an autonomous microgrid, the system does not have any external input or output variables as it is a self-contained system that operates independently. To obtain the state-space model for the microgrid, you need to determine the A matrix, which describes the behavior of the system in the absence of any input or output.
One approach to obtain the A matrix is to use the mathematical model of the microgrid that includes all the system components and their interactions. This mathematical model may be obtained through first-principles modeling or system identification techniques. Once the mathematical model is obtained, the A matrix can be extracted by neglecting the input and output variables.
Another approach is to use the small-signal model of the microgrid, which is a linear approximation of the system around its operating point. In this approach, you have to assume that the system is operating at a steady-state and small perturbations around this operating point can be modeled as linear. The A matrix can then be obtained by linearizing the system equations around the steady-state operating point.
To linearize the system, you can use the linearization function in MATLAB, which allows us to linearize the system without specifying the input and output variables. The function takes the system equations and the operating point as inputs and returns the A matrix.
In summary, to obtain the A matrix for an autonomous microgrid, you can either use the mathematical model or the small-signal linearized model. You can use the linearization function in MATLAB to linearize the system without specifying the input and output variables.
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Is there anyone with expertise in coding or who has worked on a hybrid algorithm or optimization technique-based MPPT algorithm? I would like to collaborate with him to publish a quality research paper if he is intrested.
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contact me
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There is two pin in the power input port of 7sj62 siemens numerical overcurrent relay. The two pin of the port can be energized by both 110 V DC and 230 V ac. There is electronics product in the relay, so a dc to dc converter must be there. My question is how can the power supply differentiate wheather a DC or AC supply is given in the same port and take necessary action accordingly. (Such as if 230 VAC is given how can it realise and use a rectifier and then DC to DC converter and when 110av DC is given how can it realise and skip the rectifier and directly fed to dc to dc converter?)
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Taking ground as reference for 220 AC and Negative for DC supply via Peak detector ….
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Hello ALL,
Can anyone help me with the details of
Power Electronics based Scopus indexed Q1 Journal that publishes at the earliest.
Thank You...
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Durga Prasad one thing I forgot to highlight is that some of the journals are open access and charge a nominal publication fee for quick publications, most of them are not peer reviewed and hence fake. Most of the students got trapped just because they want to publish quickly with less amount involved. Do not forget to check for the MJL before sending your work to any journal.
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I have simulated a DC-DC converter with a switching frequency of 10 kHz. I need to obtain the averaged values of the measured signals like capacitor voltage and inductor current by filtering the switching measurements. I've tried using the Simulink "Mean" block with a frequency of 10kHz, but as can be seen in the following picture, it does not result in the averaged signal, which should be a straight dc signal(the red curve) as the converter is in steady state. Can you provide a reference that introduces a systematic way to obtain the average value of a switching waveform?
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You can use a real pole with the following transfer function:
H(s)=1/( 1 + s/w0) )
where w0=2*pi*f0, and make f0 = ( 5~10)*10 kHz
If the "Mean" is a real pole (low pass filter), set the frequency to 50 ~ 100 kHz.
Good luck!
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Please share the link
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I. Alhurayyis, A. Elkhateb and J. Morrow, "Isolated and Nonisolated DC-to-DC Converters for Medium-Voltage DC Networks: A Review," in IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 7486-7500, Dec. 2021, doi: 10.1109/JESTPE.2020.3028057.
This paper might help you.
Kind Regards,
SVK Naresh.
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I want to know your thoughts, experience and suggested literature on the topic of the best way to develop a new electronics product in today's world.
1. What are the steps a designer should take in the process of developing a new electronics product? Why? How?
2. What should he strive to accomplish in each development step? What should the results be?
3. What tools should he use to enchance his work?
4. Where can he learn more about the suggested development process?
Thank you all in advance for helping all the young and aspiring engineers with your knowledge
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A major key is to understand basic electronic fundamentals. This would provide a foundation for new products.
The YouTube video clips about electronics, labeled NDAcademy, provide that foundation.
The website "Electronics.FoxPing.com" provides links to those YouTube video clips.
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There are several voltage DC-DC boosting techniques, and each technique has several approaches and circuits with their own advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, it is quite debatable which boosting technique is good for voltage conversion since some have common advantages and disadvantages.
Nowadays, it has become a general trend among reviewers to reject the article with the reason that "another converter has better voltage gain with fewer components" without looking at the actual superiority of the proposed converter. For example, if the author compares the proposed converter with 10 recent similar converters, then reviewers say the author didn't compare with 11, 12,... converters and reject the article without looking at the main approach.
The question is, is it only about the high voltage gain and a smaller number of devices without looking at the ratings of the devices? Obviously, no.
How to deal with reviewers like this one who try to divert the path and contribution of an article? Another sad story is that the editor gives the decision without understanding whether the given comments are relevant or not.
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Sorry, this is the correct reference:
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In terms of short circuit capability, IGBT used in UPS/motor drive/welding/white goods/PFC are required.
For Inductive Heating, there are mainly two topologies (shown attached): half-bridge and single-ended. Why SC capability is not required here?
Thank you in advance!
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Power is proportional to I2 so the current is carefully controlled. Under normal operating conditions only load current can flow. There can be no overcurrent. There is only a need for a fuse in the main line if the transistor(s) fail.
I would not be surprised if a manufacturer takes a shortcut and relies on the circuit breaker supplying the appliance. Just to save a few cents.
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The parameter values include things like resister, capacitor or inductor values already present in the circuit. For now I have come across software's that can run circuits on loop but with changing voltages and not the parameter values itself. And if there is no such software, is there a short cut in making a 100 of the same circuit but with different parameter values. Any help in the matter would be appreciated!
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With SPICE in all its variants (we're using LTSpice), this is possible. (But don't ask me how to parameterize - this is my colleague,s ball park 🙂)
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Any researcher who is interested in working together in the field of Powers Electronics & Drives, Converter & Inverter Design, MPPT Techniques, Solar Photovoltaic Systems, Microgrid, EV Charging Stations. And also interested in publishing good quality paper. Kindly contact me. And also here Give your suggestion and feedback.
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Yes sir, I'm interested..
I would like to work on Multi-level converters
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To generate minicore from core collection.
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Use chrome to convert Korean to English which helps you in downloading
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Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation
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Computer Aided tools like LTSpice, PSpice, OrCAD etc., are available , but check this link which can help you in which they provided a Matlab Package for FPGA (Hardware ) implementation
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I am looking for a circuit design of a 200 watts ultrasonic homogenizer.
I would appreciate if you share any data about this
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Hello everyone!
I'm trying to implement 4 step commutation for AC-AC choppers using FPGA board from Xilinx (Spartan 6). The 4 step commutation code works perfectly fine on the FPGA and the output from the FPGA board has been verified on oscilloscope as well. The input to FPGA comes from Dspace microlab box( rti1202).
However, when I try to give the pulses from the FPGA board to the gate drivers (NCD57001) and try to verify the output of the gate drivers for 4 step commutation, one of the states of four step commutation gets missed and instead 0000 state appears.
I expect the output of FPGA to be exactly replicated by the gate drivers but there's a difference in the results. (files attached)
The propagation delay of gate drivers is 90nsec. The DESAT pin of the gate driver has been grounded at the output. Four gate drivers receive pulses from the 4 output pins of FPGA. The input grounds of all the gate drivers are connected to the output ground of FPGA.
Can anyone please suggest some solutions?
TIA
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Hi Ronaq,
thanks for sharing your solution!
So, on the positive side, your problem is solved; on the negative side, we'll never know why the NCD57001s behaved as they did. :-)
Good luck with your project!
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I need to design and simulate a power supply(generator) to drive 6 transducers. power of each transducer is 50 watts and they work at 40khz frequency.
can you please share a design of such generator with me?
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If you have never set up or repaired switching power supplies or converters, then I do not advise you to undertake the design and manufacture of a generator for an ultrasonic transducer. Try using ready-made DIY kits. Or, for the beginning, learn the schemotechnics of such ready-made kits.
Try to search "Ultrasonic DIY Generator"
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I want to learn about analysis and design of resonant converters but where do I start? Do you have any recommendations about books, articles, webinars, videos that cover this topic and you found it usefull?
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Nedmohan book is the best
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What is the best low-cost FPGA for power electronics modulation and control?
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Welcome!
I think there is no FPGA for power electronics specifically. FPGAs are used to implement logic functions and building blocks for reprogrammable and reconfigurable applications. They are designed for low power consumption and high speed such that they work at the lowest possible power supply.
In smart power ICs there is a digital core which is normally lower power circuits.
Then they are interfaced to the switching power circuits by high voltage digital circuits. Such as the 4000 CMOS logic family or special driver circuits.
It is always so that there is a buffer circuits between the low power core and the power switching circuits.
Best wishes
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I have a power supply which is consists of a flyback and a circuit.
It is a dual output power supply that have 3 wires in output(a. ground wire, b. 4kv, c. 8kv).
in put voltage is 220v and the power of this power supply is 50 watts.
I need to simulate this power supply in ltspice or any similar software so I need to know the specs of the flyback transformer.
how can I find the specs of this transformer without destroying it? :D
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Dear Ju Cheng ,
To see the list of the specifications of the flyback transformer please refer to the paper in the link:
Best wishes
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Hello Everyone,
I want help to evaluation efficiency of DC-DC power converter with Matlab/Simulink. Is there any block for the calculation? Please share any ideas regarding this.
Thanks
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In general, the efficiency of a power converter (AC-DC or DC-DC) is assessed by comparing its input power to its output power. To be more specific, the converter's efficiency is determined by dividing its output power (Pout) by its input power (Pin).
For MATLAB, these tutorials might help:
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There are two types of ultrasonic transducers: piezoelectric and magnetostrictive.
My question is:
Can the same power supply(generator) used for piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers be used for magnetostrictive ultrasonic transducers without loosing performance?
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Hello Ju Cheng ,
Perhaps the most direct way to drive the coil surrounding the magnetostrictive material would be to use a high power audio amplifier such as those used to driver moving coil speakers in a stadium. The input to the power amplifier could be a variable frequency sinewave generator.
I also found an interesting European patent that touches on your question, see attached document.
Regards,
Tom Cuff
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Is it possible to replace a flyback transformer with a common transformer in a high voltage power supply by modifying the circuit? and if yes, what kind of modifications are needed?
I ask this because making a flyback is harder than making a common transformer.
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There are 2 answers :
1. Theoretically : Yes, however you need a circuit modification.
- The flyback uses a transformer with air gap. A normal transformer does not have this.
- You can create an isolated dc/dc convertor with a normal transformer, at the cost of an extra inductor, an extra winding and an extra diode. I think it is called the 'forward' convertor.
2. Practically, what you show in the pictures:
- On the left: This is a low-frequency transformer, mains, max. 400 Hz frequency. (with very good iron.)
- On the right : A ferrite transformer, typically used in the horizontal drive circuit of a Cathode Ray Tube television. In these televisions, the horizontal drive circuit :
a. It controls the left-right sweep of the electrons in the tube. The standard is such that the frequency where it operates on, is about 16 Khz. (Depends on the TV standard used.) As such, you CANNOT change the core to an iron core.
b. Usually, this circuit is also used as the power convertor for the whole TV. Apart from the windings for the left-right movement of the electron beam, there are windings for a multitude of voltages in the TV. The most 'visible' of these is the high-voltage (10 kV for black/white, 30 kV for color) to accelerate the electrons toward the screen. The 10 kV, that is straight, single diode rectifier. For the 30 kV, usually a diode voltage tripler is used. Note that, in the picture, the 'bulky' look for the right transformer is caused by this 10 kVolt winding. This needs lots of isolation, creep distance etc. Note that a normal ferrite transfomer, nowadays operating at ~100 to ~200 Khz is much more compact than a 50-60 Hz transformer.
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I want to make a magnetostrictive ultrasonic transducer for homogenizing applications.
I also want to make its power supply by myself.
I need some references (papers, patents, reports, books videos, etc.) that can help me in this way.
I would appreciate your help
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The ultrasonic piezoelectric transducer operates on the concept of the converse piezoelectric effect. When electricity is supplied to a piezoelectric material, it undergoes physical deformations that are proportional to the applied charge.
However, Magnetostrictive transducers are made up of a large number of nickel (or other magnetostrictive material) plates or laminations that are placed in parallel, with one edge of each laminate affixed to the bottom of a process tank or other vibrating surface. A wire coil is wrapped around the magnetostrictive material.
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hello,
--- Is it possible to always get the maximum power that can be fed from a pv panel if i am imposing a stable voltage at a certain value on DC bus (by a certain controller) ?
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Yes Dear Sarah Kassir , I completely agree with my colleagues Bashar Hamad Ameer L.Saleh , it can be done.
Best regards
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Is it sampling frequency of control loop or some kind of resonance frequency of the system ??
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The frequency response, or variations in magnitude and phase as a function of frequency, is depicted using Bode graphs. This is accomplished using two semi-log scale charts. The top plot is usually magnitude or "gain" in decibels (dB). The bottom plot represents a phase, which is usually expressed in degrees.
A Bode plot /ˈboʊdi/ is a graph representing a system's frequency response in electrical engineering and control theory. It is frequently a mix of a Bode magnitude plot, which expresses the amplitude of the frequency response (usually in dB), and a Bode phase plot, which expresses the phase shift.
In electronics, frequency response is a quantifiable measure of a system's or device's output spectrum in response to a stimulus that is used to define the system's dynamics. It is a measure of the amplitude and phase of the output in relation to the input as a function of frequency.
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Hi everyone,
I am using a TMS320f28377d DSP module for my system (multilevel inverter) which requires generating 24 PWM signals. The good thing in this DSP is that it can generate 24 PWM signals. I am using 8 PWM signals per phase. There is a 120 degree phase shift between the three phases and this by default is done because of the reference signals (Va_ref, Vb_ref, and Vc_ref). I want to make a 180 phase shift between two signals in each phase. For example between PWM#1 and PWM#10.
By referring to the manual I am using the following code:
// Setup Phase
EPwm1Regs.TBPHS.bit.TBPHS = 0. ; // Phase is 0 degree
EPwm1Regs.TBCTL.bit.PHSEN = TB_DISABLE; // Disable phase loading
EPwm10Regs.TBPHS.bit.TBPHS = PwmPeriod * 0.5 ; // Phase is 180 degree
EPwm10Regs.TBCTL.bit.PHSEN = TB_ENABLE; // Enable phase loading
The 0.5 index indicates the phase shift is 180. However, my signals are not 180 inverted. I hope you share your knowledge if you have some answers to my concern. Thank you in advance.
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thank you Mr. Devinda Molligoda
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Take an example, where a battery is to supply two power electronic converters separately. If we switch the contacts of the battery from one converter to the other using two contactors, will it create a significant loss in the converter paths? How much will the efficiency get affected by this method (using contactors)?
What are the other problems that can arise, like the effect in control (due to the resistance or any other component of the contactor)?
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Make sure that (1) the contactors haaveRC networks to absorb transients and (2) the system is proof against the condition of both contactors being open or closed (by some fault condition). For safety!
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Which research area in Power Electronics will make for a good Master thesis in the field of Power Electronics? Would be obliged if someone can inform me about the ongoing scope of such research projects. I am searching for a good research proposal for my Master thesis in the domain of Power Electronics. 
Would be obliged, for your help.
Regards
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One of the main topics of the power electronics is the power flow control from the renewable electricity sources such as solar and wind to the grid where one has to maximize the power transfer and deliver pure waveforms to the grid. Such transfer needs global control to control also the power delivered to the grid.
Also ramping up the power is required.
Best wishes
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I need to write my masters thesis in area of power Electronics can anyone tell me which topics in power Electronics will be good to have research on it. Thanks
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Dear Usama Dar ,
I think one of the main topics in power electronics is developing a global power flow control in the grid connected PV generators for microgrids. While ramping up the power for a house hold grid connected generators. In this global control the load side is also controlled.
Best wishes
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Drones are being improved in many different ways according to their applications. Perhaps, what are the Power electronics Improvement that can be done in the system of the drones In the future?
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I think the most important issues of power electronic circuits for the Drones are:
High conversion efficiency such that one has to save every watt.
Very compact implementation of the circuits to save weight and size.
So, the cooling process must be very effective.
The last issue id the requirement of high reliability to withstand the harsh conditions. So, redundancy is needed for high reliability.
I would advise you to use the new power devices which withstand high operating temperature and work at high power densities such as SiC and GaP.
Best wishes
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What are the diverse effects of Power factor on the Battery as in state of charge and battery current and voltage and life of the battery
Electric vehicles
Power electronics
Ev charger
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The power factor has no appreciable effect on the battery charging process since it is a characteristics of the battery charger itself. The battery charger draws a current from the grid which is phase shifted from the mains voltage. The power factor is = cos phi where phi is the phase shift in the circuit of the charger.
The grid must supply aa apparent power = active power/cos phi.
This has adverse effects on the power generators which must generate a larger power than that consumed and also it must transport it the site of the load leading to power loss and greater cost of the generators.
The system which affects the battery is the batter charge controller.
For more information please follow the paper in the link:
Best wishes
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Hello ,
how can i plot the same figure ( desired figure ) for Required leakage inductance with respect to operating power rating and phase shift for DAB converter i tried so many times i think i have problem with my Matlab code , can anyone help me with it ,
thanks
I'm sharing my MATLAB code and ( desired figure )
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finnally i found a solution
close all , clear all ,clc
%% parameters %%
P=1000:70:4000; phi=0.174:pi/50:pi/2; f=250e3; Vo=300; Vg=33.33; n=3/4;
%% Required leakage inductance with respect to operating power rating % and phase shift for DAB converter
[X,Y]=meshgrid(P,phi);
L=((pi*Y-Y.^2)*Vo*Vg)./(2*pi^2*f*n*X);
figure
h=surf(X,Y,L)
colorbar
title('Required leakage inductance with respect to operating power rating and phase shift for DAB converter')
xlabel('Power (W)')
ylabel('Phase shift (rad)')
zlabel('Inductance (H)')
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A combined topology of two converters with common elements is to be designed, where switching between the two converters can be done only when required (no importance of frequency of switching here). After switching ON/OFF each of the converters will be controlled differently and they will be completely independent.
So if contactors are used, conduction losses would be higher. Even if semiconductor switches are used then we need a bidirectional and bipolar arrangement of switches, the number of switches will increase and the conduction loss in them will also be present.
So I want to know what can be the other methods for this one-time switching because I want the path to be like the simple conductor with minimum or no additional losses. Or what kind of switching would be best here?
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Isn’t there resonance amongst fresuencies of « common elements » and of « converters setting » ?
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I am madhav kumar, I have competed B.Tech (Electrical & electronics ) from Techno India in 2017 and masters in power electronic specialization from Birla institute of technology mesra Ranchi in 2019.
After my masters degree, I started trying for a government job. But due to Corona there was no vacancy and my age limit also expired. Now I want to go further with research. But I can't understand anything, what should I do?
My masters degree project is "Parameter estimation and implementation of maximum power point tracking algorithm for solar photovoltaic system".
I have also done "V/F control of Three phase Induction Motor" with my partner.
I have published 3 IEEE conference paper.
Please give me a proper suggestion and help which is good for my future??
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Hi. Apply for PhD and continue your education. Then after that everything will be easier for you.
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I) How do I measure common mode voltage in matlab simulation?
II) After knowing the value of the common mode voltage, how do I see the behavior of this voltage together with the stray capacitance generating the leakage current?
III) For example, with this circuit (a), where would I have to measure to get these graphs of common mode voltage and leakage current (b)?
Figures: M. N. H. Khan, M. Forouzesh, Y. P. Siwakoti, L. Li, T. Kerekes and F. Blaabjerg, "Transformerless Inverter Topologies for Single-Phase Photovoltaic Systems: A Comparative Review," in IEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 805-835, March 2020, doi: 10.1109/JESTPE.2019.2908672.
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In simulation take the average of the pole voltages.
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I'm working on an induction motor drive with a scalar controller. As inverter modulation, I utilized both SVM and SPWM. I discovered that if the frequency and output fundamental voltage from SVM and SPWM are the same, the THD is about the same. The result can be seen in the image attached herewith. Can anybody explain why the THD is the same? Is THD only determined by the amount of fundamental voltage generated? Any literary references would be much appreciated.
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Yes, I have already worked on improving the power quality of three-phase inverters by comparing 3 methods (SPWM, SVPWM and SHE PWM).
the best method was the SHE PWM which eliminates harmonics and gives a very low THD
Concerning your question, in another work, I made a comparative study between the vector and sinusoidal PWM, I found almost the same value of distortion (THD) for different switching frequency, but in the SVPWM, the switching losses decreases which increases the value of the fondalmental (I made a simulation under MATLAB and I validated the results experimentally by the FPGA tool (RT-Lab).
Kind regards
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Hello,
I have a question regarding the zero-sequence voltage injection in three-phase SSTs with bypassed modules in a failure case. I investigated some literature and it is clear that only the fundamental harmonic can shift power between the 3 arms (for power balance).
A 3rd harmonic is often used to reduce the peak arm voltages (-13.4%). However, I investigated asymmetrical fault cases and a 5th and 7th harmonic can help tofurther reduce the arm voltage by a small percentage like 5% (so less redundant modules are needed):
My question is: Do you know other methods to handle asymmetrical fault conditions in cascaded H-bridges or SSTs? Can I handle grid-imbalances like module faults, since the modules in the phase with an over-voltage have to transmit more power (if no zero-voltage injection takes place)?
I thank you for your suggestions and ideas.
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Or do you have experience in three-phase systems with a floating star point?
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Can i take matlab workspace value (time and voltage with non uniform sample distance) and plot in simulink`s scope?
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use excel sheet
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Hello
Anyone who has experience with operating a bidirectional DC-power supply as a load. I have an "ITECH6006C-500-40" and plan to operate a set-up with two motors as described in the simple sketch attached. I was primarily wondering if can directly just connect the 3-phase rectifier bridge (https://no.rs-online.com/web/p/bridge-rectifiers/0462130/) between the generator and the DC-supply(sink)? Are there any need to reduce the ripple output of the rectifier? I tried to simulate a simplified model in Simulink where I had the load represented by a resistor or a current source. See attached figure. The input current is alternating, though it does have harmonics.
best regard
Sveinung Attestog
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The nominal speed of my 4-pole motors are 3000 rpm. So the output voltage wil have a frequency of 100 Hz and after passing through the rectifier the ripple will have a fundamental frequency of 600 Hz. This exceeds the maximum frequecy of 200 Hz the DC-supply/sink can handle, which the maufacture ITECH recently informed me. So the filter is needed to recude the voltage ripple. But when I set a capacitor across the rectifer DC output terminals, the input current gets amplitude peaks that is 2 to 3 times larger than the average value of the output current. I also obsered this with experiment.
Is there a filter which is less harsh on the input? Smaller pk-pk amplitude and less smaller harmonics magnitudes relative to the fundamental component.
The attaced figure show the input (yellow) and output (blue) of voltage (top) and current (bottom). The output/load current is set by a current source.
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I am interested to work in the field of power electronics Converter & inverter, Renewable Energy, Solar Photovoltaic System, Battery management, fast charging proces, electrical vehicles, etc
Can u suggest me some topics and area, which one good and easy to publish journal & completed my PHD in within 3yrs..
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thank you mr. Madhav kumar, my suggestion is that you take the topic of increasing power in pizzoelectrics through vibration, can be sent to the international energy journal, indexed by Scopus Q3. # Healthy greetings
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I'm simulating different modulation techniques based on the mentioned topology.
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IGBT
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Respected Prof. Dr. XXXXXXX;
I hope you are doing well and are in good health. My name is Engr. Muhammad Muneeb. I am currently studying in 7th-semester and doing BSc Electrical Power Engineering from The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. I am maintaining a 2nd position in the session with a CGPA of 3.80/4. My 7th semester will be completed at the end of Jan 2021 and my 8th semester by the end of June or mid of July 2021. During my undergraduate, I have worked on semester projects to actualize and implement the theoretical knowledge of Control systems, Power Electronics, Electronic Devices & circuits, High Voltage, AC & DC machines, and also Signal processing and digital signal into practical work. I have worked on mini (semester) projects like Digital Thermometer using Arduino, Obstacle avoiding Robot using Ultrasonic sensor and currently working on Single-phase Smart Grid Tie Inverter as my Final Year Project. I am also doing research and will publish a paper with one of my department teachers; who is doing a Ph.D. in Electrical Power Engineering.  I just saw a Post XXXXXX on the Facebook group regarding a research position for the Master's Program in Machine learning and robotics-related field at XXXXXX University. I have also read about your projects and achievements. I am very enthusiastic to conduct research and pursue MS under your supervision.  I have attached my Cv and transcript (currently only 5th semester available) with this email and looking forward to hearing from you soon. Also if you need anything else from me please ask me as well. I shall be thankful for your response. Sincerely, Muhammad Muneeb Whatsapp : +923030788740 WeChat: +923357915880 Skype: muneeb.mazhar1
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Omar H. Abdalla
Dear i have sent an email with my Cv and Cover letter to the provided email, but no reply.
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I am looking for new interesting fields to do research on power electronics.
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Control and optimization of soft-commutated converters
Diagnostics of power electronic converters
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When mosfet is turned off there is a reverse voltage across body diode and the depletion region of drain-source diode(Cds) gets charged. As for the diode, it is forward biased and there is no stored charge across its depletion capacitance(Cj). When we turn on the mos the stored charge in Cds gets dumped into the channel of mosfet and gets wasted and the Cj gets charged. During the turn off transition of mos the Cds gets charged now and the charge stored in Cj gets discharged through the load. Here it is said that the energy lost during turn on transition is 0.5(Cds+Cj)(Vg^2). From my understanding I think that the lost energy is of the energy stored in Cds and Cj discharges its energy back to the load(during the turn off transition of mos). But that doesn't add up with the result given here. Please correct me if I am wrong and explain what is going on.
Thanks in advance
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You are being deceived by an inaccurate and incomplete model. There are two capacitances associated with the diode, D: 1) the depletion/junction/transition capacitance, Cj, which only exists when the diode is zero and reverse biased; and 2) the diffusion capacitance, which stores the minority carrier charge, but only exists when the diode is forward biased. These two capacitances are both in parallel with the diode. Note the caveat given in the diagram: "assuming linear capacitances". That is referring to the fact that Cj should actually be written as Cj(V) because it is a nonlinear function of the reverse voltage difference across the diode.
When the MOSFET is turned on, it shock excites the LCR circuit into a damped oscillation. The circuit oscillates because of L and C, and it is a dampled oscillation due to the load resistor R. In order to prevent a negative voltage difference from appearing across the load R, a clamping diode D is in the circuit. When the damped oscillation attempts to reverse direction, the clamping diode becomes forward biased and essentially stops the oscillation.
Now, as you mentioned, when the MOSFET is turned off, its Cds is charged to the voltage difference, vg. The clamping didoe, D, will have its diffusion capacitance charged to a value somewhat less than vg, depending on the degree of damping from the load R, when the damped oscillation attempts to reverse direction. At this point, the MOSFET is turned on, again, discharging Cds, and reverse biasing diode D which discharges its diffusion capacitance - not its diffusion/transition/junction capacitance.
There is a lot being left out of the description of the boost converter.
Regards,
Tom Cuff
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In this circuit the capacitor is junction capacitance of diode and ringing takes place here. The third plot is voltage across diode. As the stored minority charge inductor is stored with negative current and it need a path to flow. My doubt is where does this current actually(physically) flow? I mean the junction capacitance is modelled from the depletion region meaning that it will flow through diode again but diode cant conduct in negative direction. Please explain me what is exactly going on here and tell me where am I going wrong.
Thanks in advance
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Please provide us with a better picture of your circuit and better pictures of your three waveforms. As it stands, it is very difficult to see any details.
Regards,
Tom Cuff
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Hi,
I am designing the DC-DC converter (Buck) in Cadence. The compensation has been calculated and the simulation in time domain is very okay at different load/line conditions. In order to verify the stability of full design, the analysis of phase margin/gain margin using SpectreRF; particularly using PSS/PCA or PSS/PTSB) has been widely used and recommended.
I have make some effort to simulate but this work has not been succeeded yet.
Anyone have experienced this work? If yes, it would be very nice if you recommend some tutorial or related documents.
Really appreciate your help
Sincerely,
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P. Toledo , we can let simulator to choose "decide automatically"
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My doubt is when we intend to negative voltage from sinusoidal voltage as shown in the picture below, how does T3,T4 conducts when they are reverse biased(in positive half cycle). Graphically, Vout = (-V) makes sense but how would these thyristors even turn on with the gate pulses if they are reverse biased?
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You have inductive load which return energy and polarises mentioned tyristors
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Hi,
Can anyone guide me on which cheap FPGA kit can I used for linear as well as non-linear type controller implementation in Power Electronics Applications?
Thanks
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@Rohit Kumar Jain's Can I use it for implementing an MPC controller for Power Electronics Converters?
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How machine learning can be used in power electronics and power system for application ???
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You could check out this link:
talking about AI in the smart grid, for example predicting peak power consumption. AI can also be used to predict battery degradation: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8255938
Cheers, Raoul
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I am working on the design of an auto-adjustable 25khz 2000W ultrasonic generator(power supply).
I will use that to generate the ultrasonic power of a welding system.
"auto-adjustable" means that it can find the right working frequency of the transducer by getting feedback from piezo stacks.
I am looking for books or websites or papers that can help me in my work.
If you have a circuit design designed for this purpose, I would be grateful if you could share it with me.
thanks
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In an expression of apparent power (S= VI*), why is conjugate of current considered?
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I was also searching for this answer, so far, I'm putting this with an example as follows:
We all know that we need to consider the phase difference between voltage and current.
Let's say, V=220<30 degrees, and I= 5<10 degrees. [ '<' is for angle symbol]
The phasor multiplication formula: A<x * B<y = A*B<(x+y)
WIthout conjugate, S=(220*5)<(30+10). Therefore, I'm not taking the difference between the phases.
Now if I take the conjugate, the conjugate of 5<10 is 5<-10
Then, S=(220*5)<(30-10). Therefore, I'm considering the phase difference now.
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[Images are attached at bottom]
I am currently working on a buck converter controlled by two different control methods, Reinforcement learning applied to find PID values & a lead-lag compensator. The controllers are designed and perfectly fit the transfer function system but once applied to the circuit system things go astray.
As can be seen from the image below of the graphs (1) and (2) show to be outliers in comparison to there transfer function counterparts.
I do not know why the disparities are occurring since the transfer function system and circuit system are not far off one another. I can provide the proof of this if wanted. I can supply the Simulink file also if wished. Any help in the right direction is appreciated. I currently think integral windup may be taking place but I am not sure.
Thanks in advance
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It is difficult to answer, because I cannot see how the real buck converter is modelled. But several possible explanations are:
a) If the converter is non-synchronous (i.e. with a diode), than one problem could be that there could be a change in operation modes form DCM to CCM and vice versa during start up. The modelled transfer just describes CCM mode.
b) Another effect would be, that the transfer function modells are linearized small signal representations and therefore depend on the operating point. Therefore in the modelled transfer function the gain may be changing (as this depends on the steady state duty cycle).
c) If the circuit model has limiters (e.g. maximum duty cycle reached or a current limit is implemented) than the real model response will deviate from the ideal transfer function characteristic. E.g. if your duty cycle signal command signal d increases to valus d>1, than in the real buck converter the value will be limited to d=1 and this will show a delayed startup (as your pictures indicate). In contrast the "ideal" transfer function model without limits will not see any problem with unrealistic d>1 (or even d<0). Transfer function models without limiters can shown severe deviations from reality, especially during large signal transients.
Therefore, I think you should check:
a) that the value of the control variable d (duty cycle) will be in the range 0<d<1 (and eventually limit it to this range)
b) not test a startup transient, but a small signal step in steady state (e.g. small transient) to test your controllers.
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I am trying to design a PR controller to control the output voltage of a single-phase H bridge inverter having unipolar SPWM (fundamental frequency=50Hz and switching frequency=20kHz).
Can anyone please suggest to me a simple way to find Kp Kr values for the PR controller?
Your answers would be very helpful and I appreciate your help.
Kind regards, Silpa
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I am trying to model a DAB converter and I need to observe the power transfeered to the load side on varying the phase shift between two bridges, hence I couldnt take a constant load e.g resistance.
So i am planning to add a energy storage element e.g battery or something to notice in the change in out voltage and then power delivered.
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there is battery block in matlab.
would you tell me how did you rectify this issue, my guess is it is because I am doing it in open loop thats why its is not controlling the output with respect to input.
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I am working on a project in which I need to control the duty cycle of the pulse given to mosfet in an AC to DC converter.The mosfets are connected to LCL filter to give a regualted 5V.The output voltage and a reference of 5V error is taken and a compensator is connected.The output is compared using PWM and then sent to mosfet.Do we need mosfet driver in between?What kind of mosfet driver should I use in multisim?Can I get any reference?Should we solve this using bode plot?Should I use PID controller to decrease the error and should I simulate in MATLAB using PID controller ?As I find it easy
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Hi,
It would be that this reference can help:
PD: Matlab implementation codes are available.
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If an inductor of X mH is being incorporated in an LC / LCL filter, what should be the core type assuming that the carrier frequency of sine pwm would be around 4 kHz?
Will it be a ferrite type core or CRGO? Why?
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The design of the inductor and the core material selection in the LCL or LC filter of an inverter is dependent upon the carrier frequency of the PWM.
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I am preparing a layout for designing a cloud platform (IoT application) for a battery management system. The voltage, current and temperature of the battery would be recorded. The data from the BMS would be sent via hardware such as Raspberry Pi, etc. and Cloud could be any (Google Cloud IoT / Microsoft Azure / Amazon). Since everything is on design phase, What could be the possible challenges to this application? Are the data fetched on time or time delay estimated is to be done??
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Hi Ravi, you can check the work from our group in developing the cloud battery management systems:
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Hello Folks
I am a recent graduate and started my career in the Power Electronics field. It's really great field and I am lucky to get an opportunity to learn PCB design, control of power supply, reliability analysis. My study background more related to power engineering and I want to be an expert in Analog Electronics, Digital Electronics, and Embedded control systems. Can you please anyone guide me for each field (Analog, Digital Electronics, Embedded system) what resources I should use? It would be really great help
Thanks
Avi
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Hi Avi,
The best book I had during my university years was this one:
It covers almost every hardware topic from low noise analogue to digital and power electronics. It even touches on embedded software but that part might be a bit dated now. This will give you a really good overview of many topics.
The best book I found for embedded software is this one:
Chapter 13 takes you from the simplest of round-robin programs up to a real time scheduler in a few simple steps. Schedulers are the basis for most operating systems and they are essential if you want to do any real-time control of anything.
When you get around to designing PCBs then ignore anything you might read in data sheets and application notes. Look at any book written by Ralph Morrison, especially this one:
Despite the name it's an invaluable source of information on how to route a PCB to get your design to pass an EMC test. High power / high frequency switching circuit (like power electronics) need careful attention to layout and Ralph's theories on PCB design really work but are often contrary to other books on the subject.