Science topics: EconPoverty
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Poverty - Science topic

Poverty is a situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.
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Would anyone be able to assist me with data on poverty in SSA countries? The countries are Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, and Togo
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Are you looking for a surveyor who would be interested to travel for data collection Or, secondary data availability that you are looking for?
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Imaging Adam Smith stating the theory of the perfect green market in 1776 instead of the theory of the perfect traditional market. This has current development implications in terms of current social, environmental and population issues. And this leads to the question: What are the main current negative implications of Adam Smith’s legacy? Why it turned out this way?
What do you think?
Please share your own ideas.
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1. Unsustainable Economic Growth: Adam Smith's perfect traditional market theory focused on economic growth as the ultimate goal, without any consideration for environmental protection or sustainability. This has led to a focus on unrestrained growth and over-consumption, which has had a devastating effect on the environment and has contributed to the climate crisis we now face.
2. Wealth Inequality: Adam Smith's theory of the perfect traditional market relies heavily on the concept of competition, which has created an environment of winners and losers in the economic arena. This has resulted in extreme wealth inequality, where the wealthy few have become increasingly richer while the majority of the population has become poorer. This wealth gap has been exacerbated by globalization and the free-market system, which has allowed the rich to take advantage of cheaper labor, resources, and products in poorer countries.
3. Exploitation of Workers: Adam Smith's theory of the perfect traditional market has allowed companies to exploit workers by paying them low wages and providing them with few benefits. This has resulted in a breakdown of the social contract between employers and employees, allowing companies to take advantage of their workers in order to maximize profits.
4. Poor Working Conditions: Poor working conditions are a direct result of the free-market system championed by Adam Smith. Companies are able to pay workers low wages, offer few benefits, and provide them with sub-standard working conditions in order to maximize profits. This has led to a decrease in job satisfaction and an increase in workplace stress and burnout.
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I was thinking of using a VAR model. can you direct me to other similar studies
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It depends on the nature of the time series data. If there is existed structural breaks than non linear analysis is favourable. Usually time series data has many fluctuations so you may use NARDL econometric approch.
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I will be glad if someone could suggest evidence-based recommendations for the most ideal HIV differentiated services model for children in sub-Saharan Africa, especially considering the peculiarities resource-constraints, poor access to facility-based services and poverty.
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Purity Mwendwa in Kenya we have adopted an Integrated Comprehensive Pediatric Care clinics linked to MCH
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The recent American election has brought Trump to the fore again, a man under investigation for his last term in office, and throughout the world autocracies have climbed to the forefront, some run by known criminals.
In addition, autocracies, according to Acemoglu and Robinson in Why Nations Fail (2012), advance poverty. Are we going backward, not just to more war?
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The most debatable problem with modern democracies is pertained to "the separation of powers principle" when the two main branches of a government (legislative and executive) get in the hands of a single political party through two related elections.
The said principle, being one of the most important principles of democracy, gets null in such a situation, and democracy can be considered have fallen into a patitocracy.
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Dear specialists, researchers, and practitioners.
As I am reading the literature on energy poverty issues, I cannot find any articles or books discussing the link between energy/fuel poverty and economic/energy economic theories.
I know that the approaches to analyze such phenomenon are based on the capabilities approach and energy/environmental justice, among others.
I am starting this discussion to hear your opinions, and points of view and maybe suggest books/articles that focus on energy poverty within the context of energy economics and economic theories.
Best regards.
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For the past 150 years, economics has been treated as a social science in which economies are modeled as a circular flow of income between producers and consumers. In this "perpetual motion" of interactions between firms that produce and households that consume, little or no accounting is given of the flow of energy and materials from the environment and back again. In the standard economic model, energy and matter are completely recycled in these transactions, and economic activity is seemingly exempt from the Second Law of Thermodynamics. As we enter the second half of the age of oil, and as energy supplies and the environmental impacts of energy production and consumption become major issues on the world stage, this exemption appears illusory at best. In Energy and the Wealth of Nations, concepts such as energy return on investment (EROI) provide powerful insights into the real balance sheets that drive our "petroleum economy." Hall and Klitgaard explore the relation between energy and the wealth explosion of the 20th century, the failure of markets to recognize or efficiently allocate diminishing resources, the economic consequences of peak oil, the EROI for finding and exploiting new oil fields, and whether alternative energy technologies such as wind and solar power meet the minimum EROI requirements needed to run our society as we know it. This book is an essential read for all scientists and economists who have recognized the urgent need for a more scientific, unified approach to economics in an energy-constrained world, and serves as an ideal teaching text for the growing number of courses, such as the authors' own, on the role of energy in society.
(Citation from link).
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Tax cuts to the rich is the prefer idea on how to promote and expand economic growth in supply side economics despite knowing it does not work as expected. Yet, this policy is usually the first choice in supply side run democracies like in the USA or now the UK when supply side promoters are in power.
Any policy that worsens inequality should be expected in practice to negatively affect economic growth as under extreme inequality or worsening inequality the traditional trickle down should be expected to be mute or not to work as intended. And this raises the question, tax cuts to the rich and the embudo effect, is that why the trickled down effect does not work as intended?
What do you think?
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Where is the evidence that supply side economics does not work with respect to inequality? In the private sector, supply side economics has been shown to work every time it is invoked. When Government becomes involved, there is economic distortion with respect to the types of programs instituted, which undermines inequality outcomes. Economies need innovators to "prime the pump" of real wealth spreading, where jobs are created, which decreases somewhat, so-called class inequality. Inequality, in the socialist sense, presumes the rich not reinvesting profits to grow business further. When there is "crony" capitalism, collusion between politicians and corporations occurs, which undermines innovation and initiative. We've seen this in the USA, where small businesses were crushed by government policies during the pandemic, but large companies were largely untouched. Undermining legitimate competition is a tool of crony capitalism, and is presently part of the so-called globalist "Great Reset".
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Are there any published work out there that would demonstrate that the intention formation model of Ajzen (Theory of Planned Behavior) works less well in poverty conditions?
Most of the resesrch so far seems to have been done among rather well-doing individuals (e.g. students in higher education), even when a study is conducted in developing country context. What about individuals living in poverty: does the TPB model explain the formation of intentions among people in poverty as well as it explain among individuals who live in 'non-poverty conditions'?
I would be especially interested in identifying a publish study that questions the explanatory power of the TPB in poverty condition, no matter what the intention is about.
Thanks in advance for your insights!
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Dear Erno
I did a work about TCP in my master degree. Now I'm trying to research about TCP and welfarestate in Brazil, but we doesn't have many paper's about this point. Thanks everyone for share the links.
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Less than 50% of Africans have access to electricity. Almost all power utility companies are operating below compacity leading to high energy poverty in the continent. Trade in electricity and gas is also not very high, mostly because of lack of production capacity from many African countries and also infrastructure to facilitate that trade. However, the continent has sunshine, wind, gas reserves and coal in abundance compared to other continents. Unfortunately, the sources of energy that Africa has in abundance has not been fully explored to the maximum levels. Given the above brief background, is it the right time for Africa to abandon fossil fuels in favor of clean and renewable energy?
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The development of African countries should go its own way, taking into account all the mistakes of developed countries, including the fashionable development of "green" energy (which was and remains very expensive). In any case, development should be comprehensive, relying on one's own resources and needs. And "access to electricity" without the development of the economy as a whole does not make any sense. Most likely, separate energy-industrial clusters should be created with a clear prospect of their expansion and merger in the interests of own population, not transnational corporations..
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Out of the 7.7 billion world population in 2020, more than 800 million people were undernourished, and more than 50 million were suffering from urgent food hunger. Over the next three decades, the world population is expected to grow by 25%, which mandates the need to adopt novel strategies to feed the world. From your point of view, what individual actions and/or novel research work may provide a solution to the aforementioned worldwide challenge?
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Sustainable food systems approach is the way to go. Enhance resilience, improve productivity, reduce food waste, ensure food safety and sovereignty, relax trade restrictions on agricultural inputs for developing countries, ensure equitable and effecient distribution of food and finally declare food security as a human right.
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Poverty is one of the economic statuses of people. There are some significant differences in the poverty of people in Developed countries and Developing countries. Poverty is a perception. It is an economic status symbol of society. To see the world in which so many "haves" and "have-nots". It is a status which is bestowed on people who have relatively little - even societies of plenty. That's why we probably can't really ever "remove poverty".
The poverty in Developed countries is totally different from the Developing countries. For example, in the US the people have a car, bank balances, secured food but they don't have a house to sleep at night. They used to sleep in the car itself. They are poverty people in the US.
The poverty people in developing countries do not have enough food, money, and assets but they have the house to live in.
Economic growth is the most powerful tool for reducing poverty and the poor people will fail to benefit those privileges given by the Government. The chances of removing poverty altogether are zero. The closer look at we get to ending poverty, the harder it is going to be to do it. Even though the Government is taking serious measures to remove poverty from society but it is existing again. That means the rate of growth of the poverty level can be reduced but not remove. Finally, we can differentiate them that Urban Poverty and Rural Poverty.
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Good answer Dear Dr. @Francisco Javier Gala
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Those who read the 1987 Brundtland Commission Report know that it was about sustainable development solutions to the social and environmental sustainability issues embedded in the traditional market model due to the assumption of social and environmental externality neutrality that had led to social problems(poverty, over population) and environmental problems(Pollution, environmental degradation) that the commission highlighted as the reason for the need to go, not half way from business as usual, but away from business as usual, and they gave us the definition of sustainable development, not of sustainability…..
But look at the UN related page below and its content:
“ Sustainability
Sustainable development requires an integrated approach that takes into consideration environmental concerns along with economic development.
In 1987, the United Nations Brundtland Commission defined sustainability as “meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” Today, there are almost 140 developing countries in the world seeking ways of meeting their development needs, but with the increasing threat of climate change, concrete efforts must be made to ensure development today does not negatively affect future generations.
The Sustainable Development Goals form the framework for improving the lives of populations around the world and mitigating the hazardous man-made effects of climate change. SDG 13: Climate Action, calls for integrating measures to prevent climate change within development frameworks. SDG 14: Life Below Water, and SDG 15: Life on Land, also call for more sustainable practices in using the earth’s natural resources. “
See we know, a) sustainability(optimization based) is not sustainable development (maximization based); b) The commission gave us a definition of sustainable development and not of sustainability as they saw the social and environmental issues created by the traditional market in terms of sustainable development thinking; c) that is why we have sustainable development goals, NOT sustainability goals.
We know the sustainability model is different than the sustainable development model and according to the model inconsistency principle sustainability and sustainable development can not be equated or defined one as the other or the other as the one.
But the UN defines sustainability as sustainable development there, a scientific inconsistency as it violates the theory-practice consistency principle.
Which raises the question, Do defining sustainability as sustainable development requires alternative academic facts? If yes, Why?
I think YES, what do you think?
Feel free to provide your own view when answering the question.
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On Climate Modeling: During the last few years, a number of publications have been already devoted to the evaluation of the CIMP6 models, on the basis of historical climate data over different time periods spanning from 1850 to 2014 (Bock et al. 2020, Brunner et al. 2020, Laurent et al. 2021, Cusinato et al. 2021, Ashfaq et al. 2022). Ashfaq et al. (2022) confirm the ability of CMIP6 models (37 ESMs) to robustly represent observed patterns of oceanic and atmospheric modes associated with natural forcing (NAO, ENSO, PDO). Similar results are reported by Cusinato et al. (2021) from 24 CMIP6 models. Bock et al. (2020) show that the CIMP6 models reproduce well the recent increase in temperature. These results appear to be consistent with CIMP6 models evaluation by Laurent et al. (2020) (29 ESMs).
Ashfaq, M., Rastogi, D., Abid, M. A., & Kao, S. C. (2022). Evaluation of CMIP6 GCMs over the CONUS for downscaling studies.
Bock, L., Lauer, A., Schlund, M., Barreiro, M., Bellouin, N., Jones, C., ... & Eyring, V. (2020). Quantifying progress across different CMIP phases with the ESMValTool. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 125(21), e2019JD032321.
Brunner, L., Pendergrass, A. G., Lehner, F., Merrifield, A. L., Lorenz, R., and Knutti, R.: Reduced global warming from CMIP6 projections when weighting models by performance and independence, Earth Syst. Dynam., 11, 995–1012, https://doi.org/10.5194/esd-11-995-2020, 2020.
Cusinato, E., Rubino, A., & Zanchettin, D. (2021). Winter Euro‐Atlantic Climate Modes: Future Scenarios From a CMIP6 Multi‐Model Ensemble. Geophysical Research Letters, 48(19), e2021GL094532.
Laurent, A., Fennel, K., Kuhn, A. (2021). An observation-based evaluation and ranking of historical Earth system model simulations in the northwest North Atlantic Ocean. Biogeosciences, 18(5), 1803-1822.
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While occupational social work is said to be quite recent origin, there are already signs that its relevance and applicability in the work place in development countries will become more pronounced given the fast changing and complex nature of the work place. I would like to hear from any scholar or researcher who has done research or practiced occupational social work in a developing country context.
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Hi!
I want to compare the poverty of a subpopulation of my country (indigenous people) to other countries' poverty. To do that, I have the per capita income of each individual of my dataset expressed in 2022 dollars. In order to make comparisons with the World Bank poverty measures, I think that I have to transform this variable so that it reflects 2011 PPP dollars and then just use the 1.90 poverty line to calculate the national poverty.
For my country, the PPP is 0.535 (related to 1 US dollar). Should I multiplicate my variable by this number? Also, how do I express it in real terms (that is, in 2011 dollars)?
Thank you in advance!
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Poverty itself broader area focusing on Income, Food, and many aspects.
Having only the Income aspects could get the exact the result of the individual's household of the respondents.
If you will collect of many variables that you can look at the Multi-dimensional poverty that will bring link of many cross cutting issues.
The measurements on consumption or material well being of the households in developing country or developed countries. It needs to be explained in detail.
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I am looking for the most workable recommendation(s) on how African countries can effectively combat the monkeypox disease which is gradually becoming a canker. Please bear in mind that most of these countries are HIPCs with massive problems of poverty and unemployment.
What do you suggest?
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Thank you Sir,
My study seeks to explore plausible means by which African countries can effectively combat the monkeypox disease amidst contemporary global socioeconomic challenges posed by the COVID pandemic and the Russia-Ukraine war.
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In my current research on the lived experience of ageing in extreme poverty, I am trying to illustrate something connecting the discursive social process of 'Othering'. But I am struggling to find a term that can best define the reverse process of 'Othering'. What it could be in one/two words? Your contribution is much appreciated.
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If 'othering' is treating people as different / outside the 'norm' then the opposite might be 'normative acceptance'.
As in - 'the othering of group is compared to the normative acceptance of group b'.
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What theory can be use to model poverty, unemployment, inequality and economic growth?
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Poverty
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Dear Rana H. Raheema .Generally, to get rid of poverty in any country , the following should’ve applied: 1.Eliminate corruption,
2.Support democracy and human rights,
3.Support health, education, industry and agriculture.
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I would like to know your opinion about the prisoners of geography around the world.
  • How to overcome the individualistic idea of ​​poverty?
  • What is the relationship between the poverty of the places and the poverty of the people?
  • How can one think of a general model to analyze the topic of local structures versus household poverty?
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I don't think people are necessarily prisoners of geography. Geography can place potential barriers to progress but these are not insurmountable. The factor of human agency and ingenuity tends to be ignored in studies of the link between place and poverty. Social, economic, political, historical factors as well as individual choices may offer more clues to the real roots of poverty than the place where one is born or lives.
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Poverty is a multidimensional concept and the dimensions of poverty are far beyond inadequate income, for example, poor health and nutrition, low education and skills, inadequate livelihoods, bad housing conditions, social exclusion and lack of participation. Money-based measures are but deprivations in other dimensions need to be considered because households facing multiple deprivations are likely to be in worse situations than income poverty measures suggest. I wish to know whether this index can be constructed at village level and what are the indicators and sub-indicator can be included in such an Index?
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I am not sure but very difficult, due to different indicators for Multi dimensional Poverty Index (MPI) such as health (Nutrition and child mortality rate), education, living standards and other important parameters.
Please also look at following link:
3. Multidimensional Poverty Index - Indicators and a Monitoring.
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I would like to know how the dependent variable is converted to have a value between 0 to 100.
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Thank you Jose-Ignacio and Michael but I am looking for specific stata codes for conversion of the dependent variable into a scale 0-100.
Yes, Michael, I do mean PMT and I have seen this document which gives explanation but I need stata commands to perform these
.
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I am looking for research that indicates that it is not objective factors but more subjective feelings that worsen subjective poverty. I would appreciate your help.
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the need to work from home, job insecurity, confinement and the necessary deprivation of liberty, have been important sources of uncertainty during Covid-19 in Italy, Spain and in Europe in general, it is for this reason that it would be interesting to examine the impact of the economic and social variables related to the new work and performance modality and its possible results that may or may not affect mental health, also due to the oscillating and experimental impositions of the respective governments that have contributed to destabilize the orientation of users within the imposed system.
Cf.
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Pro-Poor Tourism has been cited more often nowadays as one of the best methods to use Tourism to reduce poverty in developing countries especially. While these initiatives are really interesting on paper, are they really actionable, practical enough and do they have a meaningful impact on the poorest segments of the population they target?
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Pro-poor tourism could increase net benefits for the poor or direct profits back into the community by employing local staff and manufacturing. Existing studies have provided a theoretical understanding of how pro-poor tourism can produce environmental, economic, social, and cultural impacts.
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Dear Researchers,
Preliminary data of various studies showed the proportion of the population from Black (in New York), Asian (UK) and other minority ethnic backgrounds and people from low income are highly deprived with COVID-19. These groups reported higher COVID-19 mortality rates irrespective of population density. Furthermore, most of these minority groups are aged 50-79. Since the epidemic started, several studies have confirmed these findings. It is interesting to discuss the reasons behind these adverse outcomes and also share your experience about COVID-19.
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I am currently looking for a new research topic for my Ph.D. Specifically, what I did in MA courses was explore the determinants of vulnerability. Here, I consider poverty, covariate risk, and idiosyncratic (household-specific risks) as elements of vulnerability. Then, during my Ph.D. (near future), I want to do my research about land reform and climate change especially in the context of the philippine focusing on CARP and Livelihood by using panel data and some qualitative data. Does anyone have an idea about it?
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Dear Masahiko Jin,
You are planning to cover an interesting, important and developmental topic as part of your doctoral dissertation. I invite you to my discussion profile of the Research Gate portal, where various issues related to climate change, pro-environmental transformation of the economy, environmental policy, sustainable development, the impact of the pandemic on ecology, food security, sustainable organic farming, etc. have been taken up on my RG portal profile. also publications on specific issues of this issue.
Best regards,
Dariusz
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Also, please offer some variables which I can use them as economic stability.
I am working on a political economy subject as paper. my case study is OECD countries over 1970-2017
I need at least the data be available for a period between 1990-2017. while, the Gini, for example, is available just for 2003-2014 for Iceland.
Please offer some alternative variable for using as economic inequality and also some variable as a good index of economic stability
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Bonne Année 2022. Happy New year 2022
Merci si vous m'honorez en répondant à la question suivante.
Thank you if you honor me by answering the following question.
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Can anyone show me how the squared poverty gap index can be rewritten as H/n*[u2+(1-u2)CV2)] as in the picture. Step by step please. I have been struggling trying to figure out how to decompose it. Thank you very much.
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Bonne Année 2022. Happy New year 2022
Merci si vous m'honorez en répondant à la question suivante.
Thank you if you honor me by answering the following question.
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I am making a claim that low-income and sheltered women need help in providing hot nutritious meals for their children under the age of 18.
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There should be plenty on the web as poverty related to children has long been a fertile area of research. I support your claim and am sure you will find ample evidence. A good correlation and regression study would work well on this study.
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State by state poverty in Nigeria, 1970-date
Revenue allocations from 1970-date
Distribution of VAT across States since 1970-date
State by State contribution to the national revenue pool
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Economists have traditionally linked poverty to inequitable distribution of income, by linking the growing level of per capita income of GDP, which is the primary objective of economic policies, among others, and the decline of the number of poor people in society. However, the prevailing opinion today is that monetary indicators cannot be relied upon to measure poverty. Indeed, poverty is a complex and multidimensional phenomenon that results from the interaction of many economic, political and social conditions that exacerbate the deprivation faced by the poor. Economic growth is not a sufficient condition for poverty alleviation, but there must be expansion that can create new and adequate employment and income levels for all segments of society above the poverty line. Despite the difficulties in devising a practical measure of poverty that accurately reflects the magnitude of the phenomenon and so that households and individuals can be formally classified as poor, there are many attempts at economic thought, empirical studies, and practical practices of economic policies to measure the phenomenon.
Does the multidimensional poverty index provide a comprehensive and integrated measure of poverty?
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The Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) displays deprivation across 3 dimensions and 10 indicators: health (child mortality, nutrition), education (years of schooling), and living standards (water, sanitation, electricity, cooking fuel, floor, assets). It first identifies which of these 10 deprivations each household experiences, then identifies households as poor if they suffer deprivations across 1\3 or more of the weighted indicators. According to the Alkire Foster methodology, the MPI is calculated by multiplying together two numbers: the percentage of the population who are poor; and the average percentage of the weighted indicators that poor people experience (intensity).
More specifically it would reflect the following deprivations:
1. Adult or child malnourishment
2. Disrupted or curtailed schooling (a minimum of years 1-8)
3. The absence of any household member who has completed 6 years of schooling
4. Child mortality within the household within the last 5 years
5. Lack of access to safe drinking water
6. Lack of access to basic sanitation services
7. Lack of access to clean cooking fuel
8. Lack of basic modern assets (radio, TV, telephone, computer, bike, motorbike, etc.)
9. Lack of access to reliable electricity
Potential additional indicators to reflect the SDGs include work; housing; violence; social protection; quality of schooling; health system functioning; teenage marriage or pregnancy; solid waste disposal; birth registration; internet access; farm assets and a household’s vulnerability to economic shocks and those posed by natural hazards.
As a general rule, poverty and deprivations are typical of economies which have dysfunctional financial markets, high levels of corruption, as well as weak monetary and fiscal policies. Corruption is definitely the root cause of poverty-related issues, like income and standard-of-living disparities as well as increasing stratification of the population in terms of material well-being. Obviously, you have to prevent corrupt practices in order to improve living standards.
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What are the basic determinants for absolute poverty measurement?
How we will measure the absolute poverty in term of microfinance?
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See this article, it might be helpful
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What socio-economic policy is appropriate for reducing poverty and social exclusion in contemporary social market economies?
Please answer
Best wishes
Dear Friends and Colleagues of RG,
The issues of specific programs to improve the economic, financial, material and housing situation of households as key instruments of pro-development state intervention and significant components of the socio-economic policy of the state I described in the publications:
I invite you to discussion and cooperation.
Best wishes
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Gioacchino de Candia You are right, but not all dogs are the same.
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The economy of Singapore is highly developed. It has been ranked by World economic forum as the most open economy in the world.
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Why Singapore can become a developed country? (1) Singapore relies on the industrial and service sectors as its main economic activity and source of income. (2) 5Human resources in Singapore are excellent and have skills. (3) Singapore's strategic location makes it easy for the country to export its industrial products and import its various needs. (4) The Singaporean government always monitors the country's economic development and makes this a special concern.
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I want to do a paper about the poverty, but the data for many countries not available.
I need the indicator: Poverty headcount ratio at $1.90 a day (2011 PPP) (% of population) for Panel Middle-income countries.
which database has a data about poverty over period 1990 to 2020?
Thank you very much advanced !!!
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Hi everyone,
Please I'm writing on the menace of poverty in Nigerian, I'm looking for a collaborator. If you are interested let me know.
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Please have look on our(Eminent Biosciences (EMBS)) collaborations.. and let me know if interested to associate with us
Our recent publications In collaborations with industries and academia in India
and world wide.
EMBS publication In association with Universidad Tecnológica Metropolitana, Santiago, Chile. Publication Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33397265/
EMBS publication In association with Moscow State University , Russia. Publication Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32967475/
EMBS publication In association with  Icahn Institute of Genomics and Multiscale Biology,, Mount Sinai Health System, Manhattan, NY, USA. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29199918
EMBS publication In association with  University of Missouri, St. Louis, MO, USA. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30457050
EMBS publication In association with  Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, USA. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27852211
EMBS publication In association with  ICMR- NIN(National Institute of Nutrition), Hyderabad Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23030611
EMBS publication In association with  University of Minnesota Duluth, Duluth MN 55811 USA. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27852211
EMBS publication In association with  University of Yaounde I, PO Box 812, Yaoundé, Cameroon. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30950335
EMBS publication In association with  Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, PB, Brazil. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30693065
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and  University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroon. Publication Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31210847/
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and  University of the Basque Country  UPV/EHU, 48080, Leioa, Spain. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27852204
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and  King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Publication Link: http://www.eurekaselect.com/135585
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and  NIPER , Hyderabad, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29053759
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and  Alagappa University, Tamil Nadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30950335
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and  Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University,  Hyderabad , India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28472910
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and  C.S.I.R – CRISAT, Karaikudi, Tamil Nadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30237676
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and  Karpagam academy of higher education, Eachinary, Coimbatore , Tamil Nadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30237672
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and  Ballets Olaeta Kalea, 4, 48014 Bilbao, Bizkaia, Spain. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29199918
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and  Hospital for Genetic Diseases, Osmania University, Hyderabad - 500 016, Telangana, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28472910
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and  School of Ocean Science and Technology, Kerala University of Fisheries and Ocean Studies, Panangad-682 506, Cochin, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27964704
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and  CODEWEL Nireekshana-ACET, Hyderabad, Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26770024
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and  Bharathiyar University, Coimbatore-641046, Tamilnadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27919211
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and  LPU University, Phagwara, Punjab, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31030499
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and  Department of Bioinformatics, Kerala University, Kerala. Publication Link: http://www.eurekaselect.com/135585
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and  Gandhi Medical College and Osmania Medical College, Hyderabad 500 038, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27450915
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and  National College (Affiliated to Bharathidasan University), Tiruchirapalli, 620 001 Tamil Nadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27266485
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and  University of Calicut - 673635, Kerala, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23030611
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and  NIPER, Hyderabad, India. ) Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29053759
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and  King George's Medical University, (Erstwhile C.S.M. Medical University), Lucknow-226 003, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25579575
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and  School of Chemical & Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur, India Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25579569
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and  Safi center for scientific research, Malappuram, Kerala, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30237672
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and  Dept of Genetics, Osmania University, Hyderabad Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25248957
EMBS publication In association with  Institute of Genetics and Hospital for Genetic Diseases, Osmania University, Hyderabad Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26229292
Sincerely,
Dr. Anuraj Nayarisseri
Principal Scientist & Director,
Eminent Biosciences.
Mob :+91 97522 95342
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Malaysia's success story has been highlighted by the outstanding economic growth and social transformation.
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Overall perception of Malaysia is good progress in economic growth and development but the ground reality is totally different from the statistics.
I t could be the best factors like Physical or Environmental factor, Institutional factor and Personal factor or Demographic factor may influence the economic growth and development and to alleviate the poverty at the ground level.
The Physical or Environmental factor will determine the agricultural production and productivity will help to increase the export promotion in turn earn foreign exchange. Tapping agricultural resources will pave the way for the country's economic development activities.
Personal or Demographic factor includes the variables like sex, education, family size, dependency ratio have direct influence of the economic boost up in economic growth and development. Vocational education will teaches many new technologies and inputs to the poor households stakeholders to begin a new micro businesses ideas etc.
Regarding the Institutional factor will support the citizens who are living in poverty conditions can be identified by conducting the Baseline Survey.
Moreover, the Institutional factor has many variables such as Access to Market, Access to Mass media, ICT gadgets, Bank or Microfinance Institution to get micro loan to start petty businesses according to their capacity.
Self Help Groups and Microfinance Institution support for the poor like Grameen Bank in Bangladesh. According to Prof.Muhamed Yunus has introduced the Grameen Bank in the poverty stricken areas to draw the attention on poor people.
America, Australia are following the Grameen Bank Policy to rejenuevate the poverty conditions. The developing countries like India and other African countries have succeeded through Microfinance concept.
Moreover Public Private Partnership (PPP) have collaborated to promote the poverty stricken communities are the special attention is to be paid on this poverty issues.
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Due to the crisis in 2008, this theme is no longer exclusive to the poorest or considered on stage in developing countries.
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Hi Dr Roberto - Minadeo . The most important themes including:
Free education, free medical treatment, support for poor families, and allocations from the state to provide a decent life for the individuals.
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Is it possible to collect the primary data for the variables i.e., Energy Poverty and Energy Fuel Poverty? If, yes then please suggest the method. Also, please provide the information of the sources from where the above said data can be collected. In time series and panel form for the previous three decades.
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Any research available on 1st, 2nd & 3rd Wave of COVID-19, and different economic responses by Top 3 Suffering Countries (USA, Brazil & India) ?
I am looking for Economic Responses in Each Wave by the top COVID-19 suffering countries,
How it lead them to prepare for the another wave ( In Economic terms)
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Dear Prof. Masood Ahmed!
You pointed to an essential problem - the need for brand new datasets on the socio- economic factors impacting countries during this ongoing pandemic:
1) Anser, M.K., Yousaf, S.U., Hyder, S. et al. Socio-economic and corporate factors and COVID-19 pandemic: a wake-up call. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-15275-6 Free access:
2) Anser, M.K., Khan, M.A., Zaman, K. et al. Financial development during COVID-19 pandemic: the role of coronavirus testing and functional labs. Financ Innov 7, 9 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40854-021-00226-4 Open access:
Yours sincerely, Bulcsu Szekely
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Is t preferred to do multiple imputation to fill in the gap of missing data when estimating a poverty related data from povcal.net or we can take the overlapping average over some years..
Best Regards
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You may constitute an imputation strategy to replace missing values. For this, you have a wide range of univariate/multivariate statistical and machine learning alternatives. For practical examining of these, you may refer to R packages such as "accelmissing", "ForImp", "imputeMissings", "missRanger", and "VIM".
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some of countries has observed their absolute poverty incidence rate has been decreasing trend, but also increase in relative poverty incidence rate. Why it is happening? is it because of widening of the income inequality? can someone help me to understand this?
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As the economy grows, more people enjoy higher income which allows them to exceed minimum requirements for basic living needs. As a result, more people now live above poverty line and absolute poverty rate falls. However, economic growth pushes median income line upward. As the increase of median income is larger than the increase of income of the poor, more people now live below the median income line. Consequently, the relative poverty rate increases.
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Good morning everyone,
During my current research, I could discover some well-known indicators targeting these problems the question of Food Insecurity or the one of "Précarité alimentaire" (“food precarity” in English, a French concept that I highly encourage researchers to put their attention on it because it is interesting comparatively of the one of Food insecurity). Thus, I discovered the FIES, the HFSSM or INCA3 (for France). All these measurements have advantages but are also incomplete. Do you know other indicators (including new interesting ones) that be used or theoretically created to measure Food insecurity/precarity/poverty especially in developed country?
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Hai,
The following Ph.D. study may be useful for your reference.
Author: Pravin Prakash Kokane
University: Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune, India
Title: DIMENSIONS OF FOOD SECURITY IN NORTH KONKAN REGION OF MAHARASHTRA: A CASE STUDY OF PALGHAR DISTRICT
Good luck
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Hello all, surprisingly (to me) most of the research on social networks and poverty seems come out of the Europe, Asia and Latin America. In addition to Robert Putnam, is there anyone else you know doing case studies in the USA?
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Julius yes. I teach in Baltimore and am working on a social mobiltity- related book.
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Can you point me to papers and methods to assess the effects of a fictitious adoption of Universal Basic Income?
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Dear Carolina, this publication offers a general overview of conceptual and practical issues related to UBI:
Some papers study UBI from a general equilibrium perspective:
Other studies make comparisons between UBI and alternative poverty targeting instruments:
Some macroeconomic modelling:
I hope this is helpful. Best regards.
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I learn this problem for Azerbaijan and look for relevant article for another contries.
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Dear Sardar Shabanov,
For any region it is necessary to define poverty and the measurements of poverty and education. Depending on where poverty is measured, usually at household level, specific poverty dynamics within households become difficult to be observed and this is also related to the areas into consideration (rural, urban, etc).
Generally, we would expect a strong tendency for lower educational attainments
to be related with a higher household poverty. However, it is more likely that a household leaded by someone with no education or say primary education to be poorer compared to a household leaded by someone having received a tertiary education or any higher scientific level.
Econometrically and in model specifications endogeneity is an important issue,
Some good references:
Good luck with your research
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Humanitarian organizations, governments, and researchers are constantly involved in measuring poverty and reconciling it with economic growth. Still, there seems to be no solution to low-income/no-income, inequality, or poverty? The question above seeks to find a workable approach to dealing with low-income/no-income, inequality, and poverty.
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Income is defined by one's contribution to the economy. The more one contribution the.more the income. In turn, one's contribution is determined by factors of production one has, namely capital, land and labor. A handful of people are born rich, provided with abundant of all three factors of production by their parents. They don't even need to contribute their labor. Most of the rest are not so lucky,. They are born in poverty that they only have labor to contribute. They need to work hard, breaking their back every day, yet they cannot escape poverty.
In the long run, capital and land become so scarce that their value keep increasing. On the contrary, labor becomes over supplied that its value keep decreasing. Automation and modernization of production processes worsens reduces the value of labor even further. Today, the world see that the gap between the rich and the poor keeps widening.
The best solution is an appropriate tax policy. Tax reduces the income of the rich to help the poor catching up. The level of tax needs to be right that it doesn't discourage economic activity. On the other hand, the revenue collected needs to be enough to increase the productivity of the poor. Higher productivity boosts the value of labor.
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Lots of people think that world poverty is increasing, the poor get poorer, world hunger is expanding, food production is stagnating, and future prospects are even worse . Why? All figures tell otherwise. Exactly the opposite, in fact,
For recent periods (1960-2012, or 1980-2012 or 1990-2012, etc.) all the following are true according to existing data: Malnutrition prevalence is decreasing (WHO), child mortality rates are decreasing (UNICEF), per capita food production and per capita food consumption are both increasing (FAO), quality of average diet is improving (FAO), rate of undernourishment is decreasing (FAO), farm land productivity is increasing (FAO), prevalence of poverty is decreasing by any measure (World Bank, UNDP/Human Dev Index, and many academic studies). Asia is progressing fastest, followed by Latin America, and even Africa is also progressing fast since 1990-2000 (unlike precedent periods). Much yet to be achieved, of course, but the world is going forwards, not backwards. And projections for the future (e.g. FAO for 2050) envisage further improvement, even after accounting for climate change and other factors.
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Excellent answer dear prof Molly!, and also Dr Ahmad Khan ; The reality in my country and some other countries shows that ;There are millions of people in the world have next to no income, no help, no government support for people and the worst issue: NO HOPE!, We have struggled all the way through...., Do not like to be pessimistic and know that it is transition state to get the better future ,bright future....but now we are paying the costs!!!!
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I am looking for research on the topic indicated. I would be grateful for your help.
I am mainly interested in the dichotomy of feelings, subjective poverty and deprivation of needs.
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Hi
I have a question please,
If person has severe sensitivity, he can take vaccines against Corona or not
?
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The UN has recommended three broad policy actions to mitigate the global mental health impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. What sources of evidence, available pre-pandemic, may be particularly relevant to guiding the implementation of these recommendations in low-resource settings?
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Dear Ms. Tam!
You pointed to a very important case. I hereby searched articles that might be relevant in this regard:
Keynejad, R.C., Bentley, A., Bhatia, U. et al. Research, education and capacity building priorities for violence, abuse and mental health in low- and middle-income countries: an international qualitative survey. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-021-02061-5 Open access:
A case-study: Dana Alonzo et al. (2021). Mental health impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on parents in high-risk, low income communities, International Journal of Social Psychiatry 00(0), Early View, Open access:
A case-study: Markosian, C., Khachadourian, V. & Kennedy, C.A. Frozen conflict in the midst of a global pandemic: potential impact on mental health in Armenian border communities. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 56, 513–517 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-020-01996-5 Open access:
Yours sincerely, Bulcsu Szekely
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Poverty eradication is the primary goal of United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 2030.
Despite the various actions carried out around the world to put an end to poverty, it remains the main challenge to achieving sustainable development at a global level.
The aim of the question is to find out whether innovative measures could be considered, taking into account the changes that have occurred in the social and economic field, following the Covid-19 pandemic?
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Thanks for your answer. I understand what you mean and tend to agree with you, but do think that the definition of “poverty” should be taken into account here.
The issue of inequalities will be the subject of another questionnaire. However, we can ask ourselves whether inequalities are the cause or the consequence of poverty.
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What is the relationship between vulnerability and poverty as well as gender and poverty?
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All sectors subjected to suppression and oppression would lodge the poor and those who are regarded as the weaker sex under the label of "vulnerability"! Both face the tyranny of similar oppressors.
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If there are sustainability gaps, then there are market illusions as well as broken circular economic structures.
Hence there is a market illusion associated with red socialism/Karl Marx and with pure capitalism/Adam Smith as each of these models has specific sustainability gaps embedded in them.
Can you see these market illusions, the red socialism market illusion and the pure capitalism market illusion?
Please provide your own views on the question, I will appreciate that.
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Dear Lucio,
Yes, in its pure form, 100%. in terms of both models, neither of them ever existed and never really exists. There was and there is no real economy that would be 100 percent. socialist (according to the theory of Karol Marx) and there is no real economy that would be 100 percent market economy (according to Adam Smith's theory). while the currently existing economies mostly represent different formulas of the model of the social market economy as a mixed economy, i.e. containing specific private and public sectors related to each other in various configurations, market issues with central planning, market structures and public institutions, commercial economic entities and shaped and the socio-economic policy implemented by the government, including social policy, the market financial system present in modern economies (mainly the sector of commercial banks and investment funds) and the public financial system (public institutions, financial transfers, state budget and budgets of local government units), and private products offered on competitive markets and purchased by individual citizens, and public goods offered by the state to society and financed from the sources of the state finance system. In individual countries, the division of the economy into commercial and public sectors occurs similarly in the social market economy model, while in particular, there may be many differences.
Greetings, Have a nice day, Stay healthy!
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Background to Study & nbsp; Urban poverty and livelihoods has been the major concern of professionals in the built environment; such as urban economists and urban planners for many decades, which they considered as an & nbsp ;impediments to the physical development of most cities in the developing countries like Nigeria.
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The economic and social costs of chaotic housing on development The presence of dozens of tin houses at the entrance to various major cities, which have turned into background rules for the practice of many prohibitions, such as trafficking in drugs, prostitution and other illegal activities due to widespread unemployment and high indicators of lack of work opportunities [19]. Studies suggest that the growth of slums is mainly due to the failure to implement the laws on buildings as well as the protection of state-owned land in exchange for the reluctance of the relevant government agencies to implement, as well as the weak interest in regional development, which aims to redistribute the population of the country, and most importantly, the disruption of the housing market and the decrease in the supply of housing units. Inadequacy of supply with the quality of demand, as the proportion of economic housing in the total housing units decreases. These slums cause an increase in the economic and social costs incurred by the state and society alike. They also cause a decline in the results of many of the millennium goals and dimensions of human development, most of which are related to improving the health and social level of the population, and can be summarized as follows: The spread of diseases: Tin neighborhoods are considered a suitable environment for the transmission of diseases and infections due to the high rates of crowding and the lack of clean water sources and sewage channels for waste, in addition to the lack of attention to the general cleanliness of the area as a result of being considered informal housing areas. Malnutrition, and diseases such as chest diseases such as permanent inflammation of the bronchi. Tuberculosis due to lack of proper ventilation. Internal diseases such as malaria, diarrhea and intestinal worms due to the use of contaminated water. Mental illnesses: as a result of the existence of a culture of poverty and the inability to keep up with the outside world in terms of capabilities and standard of living, high birth rates and deaths: School dropout, assault on green spaces and agricultural lands: The increase in tin houses has led to an increase in the number of violations and attacks on green spaces and agricultural lands. Attempts to reduce the spread of informal settlements The reform processes of such a residential environment face very severe difficulty due to the complex urban fabric and the increase in population and construction density of these communities. Therefore, efforts to upgrade these areas have been limited to supplying these areas with public utilities (clean drinking water - sanitation - electricity) without extending to the planning aspects and spaces. Urban and social aspects of this community. In spite of that, this pattern has recorded some positives that can be used to direct this pattern towards urban methods that are commensurate with the urban fabric of cities, and in order for the state to avoid staying in the same closed circle, it seeks to implement a group of attempts to limit the spread of random housing.
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Have any of you tried creating an index of subjective poverty, but other than LPL or SPL?
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The Oxford Poverty & Human Development Initiative and the MPI are definitely important contributions, with respect to your query. Defining indicators for subjective poverty implies a value dimension (set of priorities in life) and the identifying of minimal cost of living in certain place. I lived in a place, where the rent for housing was well over a median income; most inhabitants were high finance people and went with their luxury car to work. As a simple bicycle driver, my subjective poverty in such an environment was definitely significant, but I always preferred fresh air and this is why I choose to live in that place.
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Modern technology is destructive: it has polluted the earth, the wáter and the air of our planet. Humanity has devastated the ecology of the whole world. Hundreds of animals and plants are now endangered species. Climatic change and global warming are now serious threats for the development of a sustainable life. Humanity has created very sophisticated weapons of mass destruction. War has become a very profitable business. Political and religious radicalism are real threats to the world's peace, as well as racism, hatred and all forms of discrimination. Hunger, poverty and social differences are sources of disease and conflict. All these human creations have become an almost uncontrolable monster that is pushing this world towards global destruction. 
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Thank you Christian for your answer. Artificial Intelligence and genetically modified humans are no more something that belongs to science fiction. The more it becomes a real possibility the more I dread. We are not God. I find it terrifying, especially the idea of creating genetically modified humans. Before that we have to survive the pandemic and its consequences.
Best,
Julio
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Most of the elder people in Africa is facing a lot of trouble concerning their welfare and they are affected by many difficulties, making them vulnerable to poverty. So the research about this issue a relatively scarce, what is demand a full intervention to clarify it. This is the reason for my question, What is the big problem that make elder people vulnerable in Africa?
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I believe that the old occupation caused a lot of damage to many African countries and entrenched extreme poverty.
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it is well established that unemployment affects poverty, but dose the opposite occurs ??
I need research papers about this correlation
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Thank you very much Nesrine Refaat for the interesting question.
I take the liberty of adding a few notions linked to this relationship.
Among the authors who disagree with the self-regulation of markets, there is a consensus on the deterioration in the labour market, associated with policies of structural transformation - asymmetries between the economic and the social, flexibility in labour relations, the level of the minimum wage in collective bargaining, training and employment insurance, etc. These resulted in an increase in unemployment, underemployment, overemployment and precarious employment. Workers expelled from the formal labour market face the loss of social protection and job stability through informal labour activities - as survival strategies. They also suffer a sharp fall in real wages and living conditions, and are largely below the poverty line. Thus informal subsistence employment has taken root in poor households as the only viable alternative - at least temporarily - to survive or escape poverty.
The identification of lack of availability of decent wage jobs for all who want them implies interpreting the phenomenon of poverty - whether quantified as monetary, extreme or multi-functional poverty - as being caused by systemic factors, not by individual deficiencies. In this way, unemployment can be seen as the engine of poverty and inequality, which are presented as proportionally related - since the mid-1970s in the developing countries, the poverty and unemployment rates have evolved in the same way. This is in line with Dhani Shanker Chaubey 's statement.
Although poverty is more common among people from families with little education or financial problems in their teens, 13.5 per cent of those who have never experienced financial difficulties in their adolescence are poor today - according to ILO estimates in 2013.
Neoclassical thinking refers to this phenomenon as a poverty trap. Based on the Myrdal concept of cumulative circular causation, econometric models are often used to calculate the probability of falling into poverty, and it is concluded that the persistence of poverty is strongly associated with unemployment. In this way, labour market failure is measured not only in terms of existing open unemployment rates. In addition, the increase in the level of discouraged workers is highlighted.
Unemployment is one of the manifestations of exclusion, in this case of employment, but it is not the only relevant dimension in which the concept has been used. In fact, social inclusion is the combination of what have generally been considered the three basic pillars of social integration in the Welfare State period: housing, family and work. Exclusion, as a dynamic, multi-dimensional and multi-causal process, which transforms, coexists and feeds back into the transformations of society, is a process and not a static situation, which is expressed in the field of work - unemployment, lack of income -, housing, health, residential segregation, etc.
In order to extend the discussion on some approaches used in public policies, referred to the concepts and measurements of poverty, exclusion and social vulnerability, I copy the link of an article associated to the topic: http://www.redaepa.org.ar/jornadas/viii/AEPA/B10/Busso,%20Gustavo.pdf -among the multiple existing bibliography regarding the development and debate of these concepts-
We look forward to further contributions. Greetings and available for anything you may wish to contribute.
Fernando (From Argentina)
Muchas gracias Nesrine por la interesante pregunta.
Me tomo el atrevimiento de sumar algunas nociones vinculadas a esta relación.
Entre los autores que descreen de la autorregulación de los mercados, se destaca el consenso en el deterioro registrado en el mercado de trabajo, asociado a políticas de transformación estructural – asimetrías entre lo económico y lo social, flexibilidad de las relaciones laborales, nivel del salario mínimo en las negociaciones colectivas, seguro de capacitación y empleo, etc.–. Estas tuvieron como saldo un incremento del desempleo, el subempleo, el sobreempleo y los empleos precarios. Los trabajadores expulsados del mercado de trabajo formal, enfrentan la perdida de protección social y estabilidad laboral, mediante la realización de actividades laborales informales –como estrategias de supervivencia–. Sufriendo además una fuerte caída de las remuneraciones reales y de sus condiciones de vida, pasando en gran medida a encontrarse en niveles por debajo de la línea de pobreza. Así el empleo informal de subsistencia ha tomado ascendencia en los hogares pobres como única alternativa viable – al menos transitoriamente–, para sobrevivir o salir de la pobreza.
El señalamiento de falta de disponibilidad de empleos con salario digno para todos los que lo deseen, conlleva interpretar el fenómeno de la pobreza –sea está cuantificada como pobreza monetaria, extrema o multifuncional–, como causada por factores sistémicos, no por deficiencias individuales. De esta manera, el desempleo se puede considerar el motor de la pobreza y desigualdad, presentados proporcionalmente relacionados –desde mediados de los setenta en los países en vías de desarrollo, el índice de la pobreza y la de tasa desempleo evolucionan de la misma manera–. Lo mencionado se encuentra en línea con la afirmación de Dhani.
Aunque la pobreza es más frecuente en las personas con familias de escasa formación o con problemas económicos en su adolescencia, no obstante, el 13,5% de quienes nunca han padecido dificultades económicas en su adolescencia hoy son pobres –según estimación de la OIT en 2013–.
Desde el pensamiento neoclásico se hace referencia a este fenómeno como trampa de pobreza. A partir del concepto de Myrdal de causación circular acumulativa, se suele incorporar modelos econométricos para calcular las probabilidades de caer en la pobreza, y se concluye que las persistencias de la pobreza están asociadas fuertemente al desempleo. De esta manera el fracaso del mercado de trabajo se mide no sólo en función de las tasas de paro abierto existentes. Además, se destacan, el incremento del nivel de trabajadores desanimados.
El desempleo es una de las manifestaciones de la exclusión, en este caso del empleo, pero no es la única dimensión relevante en la que se ha utilizado el concepto. De hecho, la inclusión social es la combinación de lo que generalmente se ha considerado como los tres pilares básicos de la integración social en el período del Estado Benefactor: vivienda, familia y trabajo. La exclusión, como un proceso dinámico, multidimensional y multicausal, que se va transformando, coexiste y se retroalimenta con las transformaciones de la sociedad, es un proceso y no una situación estática, que se expresa en el ámbito laboral –desempleo, ausencia de ingresos–, en la vivienda, la salud, la segregación residencial, etc.
Para ampliar la discusión sobre algunos enfoques utilizados en políticas públicas, referidos a los conceptos y mediciones de pobreza, exclusión y vulnerabilidad social, copio el link de un artículo asociado al tema: http://www.redaepa.org.ar/jornadas/viii/AEPA/B10/Busso,%20Gustavo.pdf –entre la múltiple bibliografía existente respecto al desarrollo y debate de estos conceptos–
Quedamos a espera de otros aportes. Saludos y a disposición en lo que consideres que pueda colaborar.
Fernando (Desde Argentina)
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The policy area is Poverty eradication in South Africa and the policy issue is What should be done to: Combat high levels of poverty that are persistent in the Eastern Cape resulting in sluggish development?
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I think you can visit the website of the "journal of developing areas".
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Esteemed researchers,
I will need more insights and justifications into using "per capita consumption expenditure" as a measure of poverty.
Please refer me to applicable papers.
Thanks as always.
Ngozi
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I think that the consumption pattern is considered somewhat a measure or an indicator of the pattern of income distribution, and this may give an indication somewhat of the level of poverty or disparity in the distribution of income, if you will
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What certification options exist, which would be the most appropriate to certify small productions of poor families, do you have any experience. What is your opinion about certification companies, are they really an option for small scale producers?.
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Hi everyone! I'm doing my master thesis on the effect of childhood poverty* (IV) on switching behaviors in adulthood (DV), and I am expecting an increase in the DV only in currently financially stressful situations (M) for people who grew up poor. My issue is, my moderator is categorical with only two categories (low difficulty/high difficulty) and when I run model 1 with financial difficulty as W I get strange results that the effects of the predictor (childhood poverty) are not significant at any of the two values (i.e. conditions) of the moderator even though their interaction is (p < 0.10)? See Effects1.png
I tried running it the other way around, with childhood poverty as the moderator and the results made more sense and confirmed my hypothesis. However, from what I can gather this output only gives me the results of the conditional effects of highly financially stressful situations (Cond =1) at different values of childhood poverty. (See Effects2.png) I understand that low financial stress situations would be 0, hence the effect would just be the main effect of childhood poverty, but as the simple slopes graph indicates there's a huge difference in the low condition between the participants who experienced childhood poverty and those that didn't.
Is there a way I can get the effect sizes of low financially stressful situations at different values of childhood poverty, or should I just use the main effect size of childhood poverty as justification for the blue line in the simple slopes? Many thanks!
*We defined childhood poverty as "childhood financial scarcity" hence the name of the variable ChScarc and the reverse scoring of it (positive childhood scarcity indicates growing up poor)
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Dear Linda, there are several things you should keep in mind when interpreting your data / results
- Statistical significance does not mean practical relevance. Even if you have a significant result, this does not mean that this is of any relevance. And the other way around is also true: you did not mention the sample size, but the p-value is directly dependent on the sample size. This means: even if your model would give you the true effect (e.g. the regression coefficient) and this would be of a size that is meaningful to you, in a small sample the p-value may be above the magical .05.
- Therefore, my question is how large was the sample size and did you make an a priori power analysis to ensure that your sample size is large enough to detect the interaction effect you think is of practical relevance (and this i tricky, because it has been shown that the interaction term has a lower power, i.e. you need larger sample sizes, as compared to simple additional predictor variables)?
-Did you have any idea, how large your expected effect size should be to be of practical relevance, in the first place?
-You were asking for effect sizes? I am surprised, since regression coefficients ARE effect sizes! And if you need an overall effect size, use R or R^2
- Having said the things above, you should be not surprised that your interaction effect is not significant. But look at the results you have. Think about the effect sizes, i.e. the regression coefficients and understand how they interrelate. Have a look at the Hayes book, if you are using PROCESS anyways. Again, interpretation is tricky within the moderation framework, since they are conditional effects, not main effects.
-Did you center the your metric predictor? Since you seem to be interested in the effect of the lower order predictors, due to multicollinearity they may lose power. This does not effect the inference on the interaction, but may help with the zero order predictors. Therefore, the p-value of your IV may be inflated due to multicollinearity.
-Now, what do you find confusing more specifically? The results are what they are. It may happen that the results are not how you intended that they will be!! If you forget for a moment about the p-values and just interpret the results. They tell you
a) If your moderator is zero (ie low difficulty), the relation between childhood poverty and switching behavior is negative. With each increase by 1 unit in poverty, switching behavior decreases by .21
b) If your moderator is one (high difficulty) switching behavior increases by .15
Both effects are not significant, therefore, you have no evidence for any effect at all (which may not be interpreted as evidence for the H0!!).
If you switch the moderator/predictor, the overall model does of course not change, since moderation is symmetrical and does not distinguish between these two variables, but PROCESS will only give you the simple slopes for values of the specified moderator. Here you see, that
c) that there is no evidence that low and high difficult situations differ in their impact on switching behavior for low and medium childhood powerty. (but for low it is really close to nominal zero, whereas it is postive for medium)
d) You found evidence that they differ under conditions of high childhood poverty, BUT since the interaction was not significant, you have also not sufficient evidence that there is a differential effect at all (like a single post hoc t-test although your ANOVA was not significant)
Taken together, you should think about the effects in your sample and if your sample size was large enough as planned. If your effects seem promising, collect a new, larger sample, appropriate for your intended effect (not which you found!, but for the smallest effect size of interest -->SESOI). You may not use your sample again of course (unless you would use Bayesian statistics!).
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The promise of the Green Revolution was that it would end hunger through the magic of chemicals and genetic engineering.  Dealing with the  root causes of poverty that contribute to hunger takes a very long time, somehow it has contributed some extent. But how far it is ecologically sustainable?
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I agree with Ghose Bishwajit
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I have calculated Watt's index and wants to draw it against time. So i really appreciate if any one knows a stata command to draw poverty exit time graph?
Thanks in advance!
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I am also looking forward to it.
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Patrilineal society and women's economic status
Property grabbing and women's extreme poverty
Land ownership and the women's agricultural production
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it's in your question : women's poverty in patrilineal cultural practices cultural practices: what is the relationship?
suggestion-- compare it to women's poverty in nonpatrilineal cultural practices, general/neutral or matrilineal or both
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Under normal liberal democracy there is war between several views on how to advance the common good either at the expense of the minority(e.g. traditional liberal democratic parties) or at the least cost possible to the minority(e.g. traditional liberal conservative parties). ...War here simply means " a usually heated conflict between competing ideas....".
In normal liberal democracies, science plays a central role, and if science is not followed or it is partially followed or it is ignored completely and things go bad, the opposition party will use that rational in the next election and the incumbent party may spin the reality, but the buck stops there…and the people decide at election day….
Hence, liberal normal democracies of all sorts are incompatible with authoritarianism.
When we have an extreme liberal democracy such as USEXIT or Trumpism, the whole thing changes….extreme liberal democratic outcomes should be expected to align better with authoritarianism than with normal democratic thinkers,,,
I can see several reasons why that is the case, which leads to the question, Which are the central links between extreme liberal democracy and authoritarianism/dictatorships?. Can you see them? Or What do you think?
Please express your views on the question.
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No worries Michael, I appreciate your comments, and I am here to share ideas and learn too.
Have a nice day
Lucio
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With so much resources and manpower in a number of African countries, millions of people are still sadly trapped in poverty and hunger. What is required of those countries to change into sustainable developed countries?
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In my opinion the developing countries should investing in Education sector: which is the most important way to improve health in developing countries is by educating citizens. Educating people enables them to obtain safer jobs, increased health literacy, take preventive healthcare measures, avoid riskier health behaviors and demand better-quality health services.
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The link between poverty and life expectancy is fairly obvious looking at the population of different States.
People with low incidence of extreme poverty live longer ? Do poorer states drag down life expectancy?
Inviting discussions....
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Dear Tishree
Thank you very much for your interesting question.
It is often pointed out that the purpose is not to increase life expectancy, but to increase the expectation of active or disability-free life - the functional capacity and degree of independence.
There is a special interest on the part of gerontologists and other specialists in the higher age groups such as centenarians and "supercentenarians" - people aged 110 and over - given the potential they assign to "genetic keys" or habits that favor longevity and healthy aging. The latter group highlights the narrowing of the gap that separates men and women, attributing to the masculinization of some women's habits some responsibility in this interesting phenomenon (PETO et al., 2006, p. 151).
In recent decades, some discrepancies have arisen regarding the difficulty of reducing mortality at very advanced ages, linked to non-communicable diseases. The number of people aged 80 or older in the least developed countries increased more fivefold between 1980 and 2017, the United Nations estimates, considering it to rise to 8.5 million in 2030 and 21.2 million in 2050 (United Nations, 2019). This implies facing challenges in economic and social terms, and the accompaniment of effective public policies, to achieve a prologued life with dignity, autonomy and quality.
However, the literature is controversial about the quality of the age statement of elderly people - very old people often tend to add some years. For example, the case of Christen Jacobsen Drakenberg, who turned 146 years old (RICA, 1885), is mentioned in the literature.
Sorry if the content does not fit your question, and apologies for the extension. Greetings
Fernando
-PETO, R.; LÓPEZ A. D.; BOREHAM J. y THUN M. (2006). Mortality from Smoking in Developed Countries. 1950-2000. Spain (2nd ed). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
-RICA, N. C. C. S. C. (1985). Duracion de la vida: capítulos seleccionados del libro de Dublin, Lotka y Spiegelman Length of Life.
-World Population Ageing (2019): Highlights (ST/ESA/SER.A/430).
Estimada Tishree
Muchas gracias por tu interesante pregunta.
Se suele remarcar que la finalidad no es el aumento de la expectativa de vida, sino el aumento de la expectativa de vida activa o libre de discapacidad –la capacidad funcional y grado de independencia–.
Existe por parte de los gerontólogos y otros especialistas, especial interés por los grupos de edad más elevados como los centenarios y “supercentenarios” –las personas de 110 años o más– , dado en el potencial que le asignan a las “claves genéticas” o hábitos que favorecen la longevidad y el envejecimiento saludable. Se destaca en este último grupo el acortamiento de la brecha que separa a hombres y mujeres, atribuyéndosele a la masculinización de algunos hábitos de la mujer cierta responsabilidad en este interesante fenómeno (PETO et al., 2006, p. 151).
En las últimas décadas se plantean ciertas discrepancias respecto a la dificultad de la reducción de la mortalidad en edades muy avanzadas, vinculadas a enfermedades no transmisibles. El número de personas de 80 años o más en los países menos desarrollados aumentó más cinco veces entre 1980 y 2017, las estimaciones de Naciones Unidas, consideran que aumentara hasta 8,5 millones en 2030 y 21,2 millones en el año 2050 (Naciones Unidas, 2019). Esto implica enfrentar desafíos en términos económicos y sociales, y el acompañamiento de políticas públicas efectivas, para conseguir una vida prologada con dignidad, autonomía y calidad.
No obstante la literatura es controversial respecto a la calidad de la declaración de la edad de las personas añosas –las personas muy ancianas a menudo tienden a agregarse algunos años–. Por ejemplo se alude en la literatura el caso de Christen Jacobsen Drakenberg quien, llego a cumplir 146 años de edad (RICA, 1885).
Perdón si el contenido no se ajusta a su pregunta, y disculpas por la extensión. Saludos
Fernando
-PETO, R.; LÓPEZ A. D.; BOREHAM J. y THUN M. (2006). Mortality from Smoking in Developed Countries. 1950-2000. Spain (2nd ed). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
-RICA, N. C. C. S. C. (1985). Duracion de la vida: capítulos seleccionados del libro de Dublin, Lotka y Spiegelman Length of Life.
-World Population Ageing (2019): Highlights (ST/ESA/SER.A/430).
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Apart from poverty and economic factors, what motivates people to destroy the environment and natural resources?
I think the lack of proper education and planning matters in the environment's destruction. I want to know the opinions of other experts.
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Thanks for the helpful answers from all my friends and experts
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What are the best models in machine learning to perform Geospatial analysis especially poverty mapping.
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It will depend on the dataset you have. But as