Posture and Balance

Posture and Balance

  • Elena Seminati added an answer:
    What is the smallest Leg length Discrepancy we can diagnose quantitatively, are there other factors to consider for asymmetry in lower extremities?

    I am biased as the innovator of The Inclined Posture.

    I am looking to develop and support research to answer these questions as not much exists.


    Elena Seminati

    I investigated lower limb asymmetries in elite distance runners using MRI, trying to correlate asymmetries with the cost of transport, but I didn't find any correlation, probably because the asymmetries were very small. Only differences higher than 2 cm can influence the energetic. Here the paper if it can be useful also for the references maybe.

    Anatomically Asymmetrical Runners Move More Asymmetrically at the Same Metabolic Cost PLOS ONE.

    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We hypothesized that, as occurring in cars, body structural asymmetries could generate asymmetry in the kinematics/dynamics of locomotion, ending up in a higher metabolic cost of transport, i.e. more ‘fuel’ needed to travel a given distance. Previous studies found the asymmetries in horses’ body negatively correlated with galloping performance. In this investigation, we analyzed anatomical differences between the left and right lower limbs as a whole by performing 3D cross-correlation of Magnetic Resonance Images of 19 male runners, clustered as Untrained Runners, Occasional Runners and Skilled Runners. Running kinematics of their body centre of mass were obtained from the body segments coordinates measured by a 3D motion capture system at incremental running velocities on a treadmill. A recent mathematical procedure quantified the asymmetry of the body centre of mass trajectory between the left and right steps. During the same sessions, runners’ metabolic consumption was measured and the cost of transport was calculated. No correlations were found between anatomical/kinematic variables and the metabolic cost of transport, regardless of the training experience. However, anatomical symmetry significant correlated to the kinematic symmetry, and the most trained subjects showed the highest level of kinematic symmetry during running. Results suggest that despite the significant effects of anatomical asymmetry on kinematics, either those changes are too small to affect economy or some plastic compensation in the locomotor system mitigates the hypothesized change in energy expenditure of running.
      Full-text Article · Sep 2013 · PLoS ONE
  • Christopher McCrum added an answer:
    Can you recommend a (short) journal to introduce novel method in gait kinematic research?

    I was working on novel method of quantification of interlimb coordination during walking in human.  Since this is a new method, I was hesitant to mix it with a clinical study that it is involved before the method is established.  We are hoping to write a short method paper for it but not sure the journal of options.  For example, neuroscience letters are known to have a quick review time but not sure if there are better options. 


  • Christopher McCrum added an answer:
    Which parameter related to the Center Of Pressure (COP) is better when measuring postural balance?

    The center of pressure (COP) is the point on a surface where the total sum of the resultant forces can act with the same magnitude of the force which is distribuited on the surface of an object. Measuring the COP has been used in biomechanics as a way to measure the postural balance in humans. There's been created variables or parameters related to the COP, in order to measure postural balance (e.g. COP Velocity, COP Displacement, COP Trayectory). Some studies have used one or more of this parameters with the purpose of investigate postural balance. But Which of this COP parameters is more usefull to reflect the COP behavior? Are there better parameters than others or maybe each parameter is better measuring balance in an specific task or context?

  • Malarvizhi Devadasan added an answer:
    Is deep squatting as resting position good/badfor posture and back health?

    And why?

    Malarvizhi Devadasan

    My Dear Diana

  • Dennis Shavelson added an answer:
    How much of an anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) is obstacle crossing during walking?

    I have knowledge, not so deep, about APA, when there are internally or externally originated perturbations during standing still or during gait initiation. But when I think about obstacle crossing (simple stepping over an obstacle), I can't make what parts of this motion (either with a shorter or a longer step is preferred before crossing) include APA. Also is there any compensatory postural adjustment (CPA) involvement after crossing the obstacle? Or the whole obstacle crossing is an entirely different phenomenon, not related to APA or CPA?

    Dennis Shavelson

    Interesting subject.

    Perhaps APA and CPA's can be used to train the CNS to be more adaptable and/or responsive to retraining and biofeedback after injury and/or biomedical engineering of the lower extremity?


  • Chad Macias added an answer:
    Are there significant differences in the Influence of cognitive task performance on postural control under unstable balance conditions?

    I would like to know whether Increasing attentional demand by implementing a cognitive task concomitant with a unstable balance condition should have a greater influence on postural control, comparing two different groups non-athletes and athletes, both young male, 20 – 30 years old. 

    Chad Macias

    Unstable surface training is one of the most commonly used protocols. Proprioception on an unstable surface leads to an efficient weighting capacity of sensory signals that down-weights the proprioceptive signals from the ankle and up-weights the proprioceptive signals from more proximal segments of the paraspinals thus not targeting ankle proprioception and in the process reinforcing the temporary neuroplastic changes that lead to chronic instability.................. "Results show that on foam, the effect of triceps surae vibration on mean CoP velocity was significantly smaller than on a solid surface, while for paraspinal musculature vibration the effect was bigger on foam than on solid surface. Similar effects were seen for mean CoP displacement as outcome. Exercises on unstable surfaces appear not to target peripheral ankle proprioception. Exercises on an unstable surface may challenge the capacity of the central nervous system to shift the weighting of sources of proprioceptive signals on balance"

    "Ten healthy subjects were instructed to stand as still as possible on a force plate during 40 secs on three different surfaces: (1) stable, (2) unstable-unspecific (foam), and (3) unstable-specific (inspired from rearfoot anatomy). Muscular vibration was applied on the paraspinals and fibularis muscles. The unstable-specific support surface was associated with higher fibularis muscular activity and greater postural perturbations when fibularis muscles were vibrated than the unspecific-unstable surface. Balance control on unstable-specific support surface maintains the relevance on muscular proprioceptive signals originating from ankle and increases ankle evertor muscle activity"

    Up-weighing the proprioceptive signals from more proximal segments of the paraspinals will further reinforce the neuroplastic changes that occur rapidly in response to injury and then become chronic..............."There are associated changes also found in the meso-limbic pre-frontal areas in subjects with chronic MSD some which may pre-dispose the injury. The neuroplastic changes may occur rapidly in response to injury causing adaptive changes that may help in the protection and healing response. However, these changes may persist and no longer perform their intended function contributing to the development of chronic disability and dysfunctional pain with enduring neuroplastic changes along the neuroaxis of pain resulting in peripheral and central sensitization, in the sensorimotor areas affecting perception and motor behavior, and in the meso-limbic prefrontal areas influencing emotional, attentional and cognitive processes. In some musculoskeletal conditions the responsiveness and somatotopic organization in S1 and M1, including changes in excitability, the blurring of the representation of anatomical structures and a shift in the representation of muscles within somatotopic representations are present. These changes in properties, function and organization within the CNS often correlate with the severity and duration of pain, functional changes including aspects of motor control, psychological traits associated with the chronic pain states, and can be predictive of prognosis"

    Here it is shown that training on one balance device only improved performance on that specific balance device - there was virtually no transfer to another balance challenge....."In summary, 2weeks of balance training resulted in highly task-specific effects, no transfer even to very similar tasks was observed. Therefore, we recommend identifying and training exactly those tasks that need improvement"

    Also, vestibular contributions to body orientation and to spatial localization of auditory and visual stimuli as well as their processing in the superior cerebellar peduncle being impaired by LAS is something I have not viewed in any literature to date but if you have any I would love to check it out. Now as far as distinguishing the somatosensory and vestibular systems it is a common practice to have the subjects perform the testing with their vision occluded. Balance and postural control is comprised of the somatosensory system (which includes joint proprioception) vision (which is visual proprioception, and tells you your head orientation and motion relative to other objects) and your vestibular system (head relative to gravity/motion). So the study was trying to cut out vision and have the subjects only use their somatosensory (joint proprioception) and vestibular systems, that was the purpose of the authors having the eyes occluded.

  • Rebecca K Robins added an answer:
    Which is the minimum sampling rate required to perform an acceptable balance recording?

    In several studies which aim is to test or evaluate static or dynamic balance, is usual that the measuring tool are force plates, platforms or pressure insoles. In order to perform the balance recording, the researchers have to set the appropiate settings, which includes the sampling rate. Some studies had reported sampling rates ranging from 200 to 1000 Hz or more, depending on the tool.

    Having in count that each one of the main sensory systems involved is supose to react and modulate balance at very low frequencies (compared to the sampling rate that the measuring tools usually have in most of the studies), is it really necessary to set the sampling rate to high?

    Rebecca K Robins

    Hi Javier, 

    This article may be helpful to you. It looks at both sampling frequency and filtering techniques in relation to static balance control. 


    Rebecca Robins

  • Jan van de Rakt added an answer:
    Is balance training important in non-athletes adults?

    It is widely studied the importance of balance training in older people, but what evidence is there to train balance in youth and adult non-athletes? Any paper to review it? Thank you so much.

    Jan van de Rakt

    This article has "prove "it

  • Christos Nikolopoulos added an answer:
    Would you recommend any pressure sensors or baropodometers?

    In my research I want to measure: gait, pressure, inclination and force.  I have reviewed some accelerometers and found a lot of limitations for the purpose of research.  Would you have any recommendations for any tools or methods to understand these measures?  I have reviewed some instruments that are priced way to high for a small university budget.  Please share your opinions. 

    Thank you!

    Christos Nikolopoulos

    Very cheap option is the MATSCAN with the usual accuracy problems like all the other systems. Anyway absolute values is rubbish for plantar pressure measurements. Pressure pattern is more important. The best and most accurate is the Sheffield Dynamic Pedobarograph by far. For the EMED is the same problems like MATSCAN or RS SCAn etc bkz of the sensors problems.....

  • Ali Mollazadeh Sadeghioon added an answer:
    What are the different ways by which you can calibrate FlexiForce sensors?
    Can anyone who has already worked with these sensors share their calibration setup details? How was the calibration carried out? How were the data obtained? Was there any need of applying any linearisation techniques?
    Ali Mollazadeh Sadeghioon

    I also extensivley used FSR during my PhD. Remember two points while dealing with them. 1. FSRs have a Drift when the load changes which can take some time to settle 2. the response rate is not linear if you want to work in a large range  have these two in mind and you can calibrate them specifically for the weight range of your application

  • Amélia Pasqual Marques added an answer:
    Does anybody know any studies related to the center of pressure (COP) in the descent of stairs?

    There are lots of papers about researchers which investigated how does the COP behave in some postures (like unipedal or bipedal standing), and functional activities (like walking) on healthy population. Another activity related to the daily living is going up and down stairs, which of course allow us to get to some point (high or down in a building, for example) in case there is not an elevator or other devices that allow us to get there. Furthermore most of the buildings around us (even our own houses) have stairs on them, so we have to deal with that structure.

    There are some studies which have investigated the kinetic and kinematic parameters, angles and other properties related to the stair descent. I´m interested in knowing how the COP parameters (Ap/Ml Displacement, Velocity, and trace length) behaves in this activity

    Amélia Pasqual Marques

    I send the suggestion: the article - Dynamic postural stability andmuscle strength in patellofemoral pain: Is there a correlation?

    Adress -

  • Damien Dupré added an answer:
    Is there a database of posture pictures?

    I am looking for a database of different posture pictures like fist, arms openly raised, hands and arms put straight forward to put away someone etc..

    Does anyone know of any database (real people or generated pictures)?

    Best, Martin.

    Damien Dupré

    Yes sure, and I found the review, I email you all of that!


  • Javier F Garzón added an answer:
    Is the Average Center of pressure (COP) displacement a different variable compared to the Standar Deviation of the Center Of Pressure Displacement?

    Different variables (or parameters) related to the center of pressure has been created to determinate how the human postural control (or postural balance) is manteined or modified on a different situation. One of this variables is the displacement of the Center Of Pressure (COP) wich is gived in milimeters. 

    When we use different devices to measure this parameter, those devices usually give us two different values: the average of the COP displacement and the Standar Deviation of the COP displacement. As i Understand, the average of the COP displacement is an intermediate value set from a group of different values, while the Standar Deviation of the COP displacement is a value set from the variability of different values. My question is: Should we use the Average and the standar deviation of the COP as two different variables, having in count that they come from the measure of the same parameter (COP displacement)?

    Javier F Garzón

    First at all, i´m sorry cause i wasnt able to answer til now, and
    thank you very much, to all of you ... you really help me to make a better analysis and consider some topics i didn´t even thought about before ...

    We want to make an assesment of the balance with pressure insoles ... the device and software give us some parameters related to the COP displacement (COP velocity, COP trace length, average COP, and Standar Deviation of COP). We want to show each of these parameters as a different variable in the results of some future research, but we are not sure about if the average COP and the Standar Deviation of the COP are the same parameter or not, because the software show it as 2 separate values, even if - i guess - they came from the same data.

  • Anna Ogonowska-Slodownik added an answer:
    What are the truncation rules of IPAQ long form variables?

    When scoring and cleaning long form IPAQ data, do you truncate all variables to the stipulated 180 minutes? Or just leisure time variables? The guide is not quite clear.

    Anna Ogonowska-Slodownik

    Hello Cynthia

    I think this question has already been answered. See the link below



  • Emil Berengut added an answer:
    Is there any research out there investigating how improved cervical proprioception affects other characteristics such as function or balance etc?

    I can't seem to find any, anything would be much appreciated.

  • Erik A Wikstrom added an answer:
    Which data can I explore through the center of mass (CoM) displacements?

    The study of CoM is very important, mainly to investigate the coordination between posture and movement. It's an interesting device which can help us to identify, for exemple, the postural control, the postural adjustments, or the overall subject's behavior through analysis of body segments. However, how can we interpret the CoM data results? In this specific case, amplitude and speed in A/P or M/L directions.

    Erik A Wikstrom

    Hi Marcelo,

    As mentioned in the other responses, there are a number of outcomes which can be used to assess the COP, as a surrogate for COM.  Most of these same outcomes can be applied directly to the movements of the COM as well.  But to your question of how to interpret the movement and speed of the COM, it depends on the lens through which you are looking.  For example, using a more traditional paradigm (i.e. linear measures such as velocity or sway) greater sway and/or greater sway velocity would be interpreted as worse balance due to the individual's inability to control their COM.  However, non-linear paradigms (e.g. time-to-boundary, entropy) view variability as a natural and needed function of a healthy organism.  Having said that, research has suggested that their may be a healthy level of variability while too little or too much may be indicative of a constrained sensorimotor system. 

    I hope this helps


  • Md Arif Reza Anwary added an answer:
    Can anyone recommend some pressure insoles for gait analysis in adults?
    I need wireless pressure insoles for a study of gait disorders on elders.
    Md Arif Reza Anwary

    Hi, I am also looking for wireless insoles with inertial and pressure sensors. Please let me know if you have already found it. Kind regards, Arif

  • Frédéric Noé added an answer:
    What is the most accurate device to measure foot sole skin temperature in human subjects?

    I'm questioning about the accuracy of infra-red devices...

    Frédéric Noé

    Thank you very much Hamdy!

  • Amrit Sorli added an answer:
    Do you have experience using inertial measurement units to assess postural balance and center of mass displacement? Where do you place the sensors?

    I'm trying to assess postural balance without using force plates and IMUs seem to be a good choice, but we don't have plenty of publications about this method.

    Amrit Sorli

    We know that the amount of matter of pra-kilogram on the Earth surface and on the Mars surface is the same. Which is value of inertial mass of pra-kilogram on the Mars surface?

  • José Manuel Valdés Reyes added an answer:
    Does anyone know some relationship between Temporomandibular Disorders and body posture?

    Temporomandibular Disorders and body posture

    José Manuel Valdés Reyes

    Dear Dr Brian A Rothbart is very interesting!!!

    Thank you very much

    Cordially JM

  • Francesco Patti added an answer:
    What is the role of exer-gaming in gait training of stroke patients ?

    Exer gaming has good effect on upper limb function after stroke, but i want to explore the effect of exer gaming on gait. So how it would be beneficial and what type of gaming would help ? 

    Francesco Patti

    All effects when we work in rehabilitation seem positive; ideed if we do something, I can expect an improvement; improvement could be perceived by the patients and not objectivelly measured.

    I would like to know if we have an answer about this focus

    the carry on effect

    the echological value of any rehabilitative treatment

    anatomical and/or neuroradiological changes driven by rehabilitation;

    head/to head studies comparing standard versus exergames or virtual reality approach performed with rigorous methodological procedures

  • Kadek Heri Sanjaya added an answer:
    How can I identify good body posture by using an electronics mechanism?

    Standing and sitting body posture?

    Kadek Heri Sanjaya

    I think you need to define the meaning of good body posture related to the specific activity performed. Then you need to limit what kind of instruments do you want to use to assess the variables you want to measure, such as EMG, force plate, etc. With regard to subjects, the difference due to race, age, sex, etc. are also very important. Basically, you will not be able to find the best posture for all of the population and for all the activities performed. There will be some trade-off.  

  • Vasile Surducan added an answer:
    Could a posture chair (sitting at an angle of around 20degrees to open the hips and straighten the spine) directly improve condition?

    Moreover, not necessarily improve the condition but stop irritation and aggravation and thus improve the patients wellbeing and enabling recovery and strengthening of the supporting muscles. 

    Vasile Surducan

    If the spinal curvature is already caused by kyphosis and scoliosis which already damaged the intervertebral disks, from my own experience (and not a research) in accord with the study above, a posture of about 110 degrees with lumbar support (see the disk pressure.jpg posted by David) is  lowering the pain. The best chair I found is this one: 

    However, even sound weird and sci-fi, the spine illness (except maybe traumas caused by accidents) is a problem of energy flow through the body rather  than caused by an incorrect mechanical position. That's why a person who suffers from spine issues and is permanently nervous and stressed will not find any sitting position without pain.

  • Krishnan Umachandran added an answer:
    If you could create an LMS to support your teaching, what would it look like?

    As teachers, we are often forced to use Learning Management Systems (LMSs) that do not satisfy the needs and expectations of ourselves and our students.  Yet, for some reason or another, they permeate our institutions.

    Imagine you were involved in the creation of a new LMS. We want YOU to be involved in building an LMS that will best serve you, your students and your institutions. 

    Help us build an LMS that you and your students will love.  What would you change, what would you add, and what could you do without of your current LMS?  More importantly, what purpose would you want the LMS to serve? We have already started building Goodio, but we want to tailor it to your needs.

    Join the mission to change the delivery of online education.  Visit to register for our launch on January 2016.   In the mean time, please provide us your input to build the product that YOU actually want to use.


    Founder - Goodio Inc.

    Krishnan Umachandran

    One evaluation project is taking shape in RG network, interested ones can value add.

  • Marcelo Guimarães Silva added an answer:
    How can We measure muscle length in patients with upper cross syndrome?

    exact procedure with validity and reliability. 

    Marcelo Guimarães Silva

    Hi Mr. Urrehman,

    The most important assessment tool is static postural assessment, which will reveal the characteristic protracted scapulae, medially rotated humeri, hyperkyphotic upper thoracic spine, and an anterior head posture (hypolordotic lower cervical spine and a hyperlordotic upper cervical spine). Upon palpatory examination, tightness and the likely presence of myofascial trigger points (TrPs) will be found in the locked short muscles listed above.  So, I think that you should to measure from origin to insertion of the muscle you want taking it to measure that allows maximum stretch, or in the another preestablished measurement level. 

    I hope this helps.

  • Piet van Loon added an answer:
    What are the most common tests to measure the postural regulation and the balance regulation in sports and clinical assessment?

    I search for tests which con mesure these variables in laboratory and field conditions.

    Examles: Timed-up-and-go-test or Tetraxometrie

    Piet van Loon

    Good or normal balancing in otherwise healthy children is dependant on having a true optimal body posture and a optimal stretched nervous system that allows the complete ROM of the whole system. If you are "stiff" the balancing processes cannot achieve optimalisation.  The growth of both systems, the skeleton in its natural curved appearance and the CNS The majority of children do not reach both , mainly by the passive sedentary lifestyle from birth on ( discongruent neuro-osseous growth relations)  The spine as the chassis of our body cannot develop properly to the most natural curvature because of a lack in extension, stretching in backward direction leading to kyphotic changes in first the thoracolumbar spine.

    Along this line of anatomic -physiologic thinking ( Form follows function) there are some simple tests described that can offer insight in this widespread malalignement leading to the biggest socioeconomic burden in countries, where the "western lifestyle"with its chairs and electronic devices.

    We are now in a process to validate these ( simple clinical) tests :1. straight leg raising tests in children, separate and together( to test refectory spasm of the core muscles),

    2 sitting posture test of the trunk with stretched legs on a coach and sitting on the edge ( mobility and correct-ability of deformation)  

    3. bending test forward and assessment from lateral: finger -floor distance as a measure for neuromusculair tightness and assessing the form of the flexed spine< in modern youth almost 70% do have an abnormal  curvature with angular kyphosis ( wedged vertebrae) and round backs ( underdevelopment of the discs) . 

    There is world to be win to get proper balancing as the most natural proof of good postures and a optimal relaxation of the CNS back in growing children. The German orthopedic world around 1900 succeeded in this task by implementing orthopedisc schoolgymnsatics, orthopedic schoolfurniture and widespread knowledge on good bodily development  amongst all parents , schoolteachers and their strong preventive medical apparatus.

  • Amélia Pasqual Marques added an answer:
    Does anybody knows a posture analysis software?

    I am looking for posture analysis software. Kindly suggest me some posture analysis software which are freely available for use.

    Thank you in advance for your attention to this matter!

    Amélia Pasqual Marques

    There are a software free - SAPO

    You can see in  -

    Best wishes


  • Dragan Marinkovic added an answer:
    How can I measure static balance with Nintendo Wii Fit balance board ?

    I want measure static balance with stand on Nintendo Wii Fit balance board and evalate Center of  File ressure (COP)

    Dragan Marinkovic

    From my experience wii fit is very good measuring tool especially for children.   

    Hamdy Elsaid abd elhamed Elnawasry put some great article about using wii fit.

    wish luck in your research.


  • Anthony G Gordon added an answer:
    What are the signs of dizziness in an infant, and does this have serious developmental consequences?

    The only information I know on this is from West C Lectures on the Diseases of Infancy and Childhood, Lond Med Gaz 1847;39:881-5:

    "If the child be young it will often seem relieved by being carried about in its nurse's arms, and while she is moving will cease its wail for a time, but begin again the moment she stands still.  You will somtimes observe, too, that if moved from one person's arms to those of another, or even if its position be but slightly altered, a sudden expression of alarm will pass across its features; the child is dizzy, and afraid of falling".

    Have these observations ever been replicated?  Could such resistance to movement have serious developmental consequences?  Have similar abnormalities been noted in any specific developmental disorder?

    Anthony G Gordon

    What about long term effects in developmental disorders, other than congenital deafness, or even in the normal population?

About Posture and Balance

For those interested in a variety of issues related to the control of posture and balance.

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