Science topic

Posture - Science topic

Posture is the position or attitude of the body.
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Someone has knowledge about the link between trigeminal neuralgia caused by postural imbalances, especially in the neck and head?
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Many studies have demonstrated the functional connection between the mandibular motor system and the cervical motor system (Clark et al., 1993; Igarashi et al., 2000; Zuñiga et al., 1995) that can possibly acknowledge the trigeminal system to adjust the cervical movements during mastication (Igarashi et al., 2000).
Then, dental occlusion has a repercussion upon proprioception and visual stabilization in human subjects (Gangloff et al., 2000). Many studies support the theory that dental occlusion affects posture, muscular strength and output (Moon and Yong-Keun 2011).
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Hi, is there any expert who works with Actigraph accelerometers (gt3x, gt3x+, wgt3x-BT). In one study we started using wgt3x-BT - data processing via Acti4 (Denmark soft). When replacing the wgt3x-BT device with the wgt3x+, the Acti4 software is not able to correctly recognize posture (sitting vs. lying). Probably due to different axis marking. Do you know if the gt3x+ has the same axes as the wgt3x-BT? Respectively, does anyone have any experience of processing data using a combination of 'gt3x+ or wgt3x+' and Acti4 software? Thanks for the help.
Jan.
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Dear Jan,
Please find the coordinate system on Actigraph wGT3X-BT in the attached picture.
Kind regards,
FrEd
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Dear
I am a fourth year dentistry student studying at the University of Ghent, Belgium. In my thesis I need to analyse data, but can't seem to find the appropriate statistical test.
First of all I want to compare tongue posture between 3 different groups. Tongue posture will be evaluated as a nominal variable (normal-convex tonge posture, low-flat tongue posture, low-convex tongue posture, inconclusive tongue posture). This will be evaluated in the sagittal plane and the frontal plane.
Secondly, I want to compare tongue function between the three groups in a quantitative analysis, between these 3 groups.
Would be great to hear your advice on this one.
Thanks in advance.
Kind regards.
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Your description is not particularly clear. I.suspect you wish to try to predict the tongue posture based on some other variables. If that's not the case you need to be more clear. If I.am correct you are looking for some type of logistic regression because your DV is nominal or categorical
I am.attaching a paper that gives an example of a similar but simpler situation. If I am incorrect then please ask again. Best wishes David Booth
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I am looking for a database of different posture pictures like fist, arms openly raised, hands and arms put straight forward to put away someone etc..
Does anyone know of any database (real people or generated pictures)?
Best, Martin.
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Sorry for the late comment. But I was reading the conversation. Does any of you know where to find normalized posturographic values- in some postures? Thank you
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I want to know the angle between C7 and acromion with respect to head, when a person is in normal posture .
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It helps in measuring the forward head posture. Helps in maintaining normal cervical curvature.
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Aim of this study is to set point whether different typ of gun holsters affect the body’s biomechanics and if so by choosing the right type of holster, influences on the posture can be reduced and postural deformity’s be limited or prevented.
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Thanks for your answer, unfortunately your file wont open.
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My project is to design work space for wheel-chair users (Disable people). For this I need a software for static and dynamic analyse on postures, load on different joints and other information. So, requested to provide a suggestion from experts.
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Sir, can I able to find force at joints of a working person using CATIA?
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Need to analyse the anthropological data of heavy-duty drivers for the fatigue calculation and a better seat design.
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Please have look on our(Eminent Biosciences (EMBS)) collaborations.. and let me know if interested to associate with us
Our recent publications In collaborations with industries and academia in India and world wide.
EMBS publication In association with Universidad Tecnológica Metropolitana, Santiago, Chile. Publication Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33397265/
EMBS publication In association with Moscow State University , Russia. Publication Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32967475/
EMBS publication In association with Icahn Institute of Genomics and Multiscale Biology,, Mount Sinai Health System, Manhattan, NY, USA. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29199918
EMBS publication In association with University of Missouri, St. Louis, MO, USA. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30457050
EMBS publication In association with Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, USA. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27852211
EMBS publication In association with ICMR- NIN(National Institute of Nutrition), Hyderabad Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23030611
EMBS publication In association with University of Minnesota Duluth, Duluth MN 55811 USA. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27852211
EMBS publication In association with University of Yaounde I, PO Box 812, Yaoundé, Cameroon. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30950335
EMBS publication In association with Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, PB, Brazil. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30693065
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroon. Publication Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31210847/
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 48080, Leioa, Spain. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27852204
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Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and NIPER , Hyderabad, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29053759
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and Alagappa University, Tamil Nadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30950335
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad , India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28472910
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Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and University of Calicut - 673635, Kerala, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23030611
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and NIPER, Hyderabad, India. ) Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29053759
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EMBS publication In association with Institute of Genetics and Hospital for Genetic Diseases, Osmania University, Hyderabad Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26229292
Sincerely,
Dr. Anuraj Nayarisseri
Principal Scientist & Director,
Eminent Biosciences.
Mob :+91 97522 95342
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While doing repetitive breathing in a standing position, kept my hands about two inches apart parallel to each other and concentrated on the centre of the palms. I felt the heat sensation for 10 seconds and then changed to the attraction (magnetic) when hands were kept at a distance of 3 inches. After visiting the temple, it was found to increase two more inches. The Ruler was used to measure the distance between the hands. Is it possible to mention the measurement technique as a Psychophysical approach?
Thanking You
Vinu V
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Detlef Ruschin Thank you so much.
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I am analyzing videos of conversational situations (persons are seated), and am now looking for a computer-based method / software to detect postures or movements from videos where no sensors have been used. I am familiar with Motion Energy Analysis, but am looking for a software where it is possible to detect the movement form (temporal dynamic structure and direction of the movement) as well as static postures.
Any kind of suggestions on movement and posture recognizing software are warmly welcome.
Thanks in advance,
Petra Nyman-Salonen
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Our instruments, which is a valid and reproducible, was designed to evaluate the position adopted in 9 dynamic postures and may help you.
Please, have a look on the following link:
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I am looking to investigate the impact of mindfulness exercises on posture and I was wondering if anyone can recommend or suggest any tools or scales they know of that can be used to measure posture?
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Dear Hannah, the following papers may help you: Singla D, Veqar Z. Methods of postural assessment used for sports persons. J Clin Diagn Res. 2014;8(4):LE01-4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4064851/pdf/jcdr-8-LE01.pdf
Paillard T, Noé F. Techniques and Methods for Testing the Postural Function in Healthy and Pathological Subjects. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:891390. https://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/891390/
Best wishes from Germany, Martin
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Does anybody have a dataset from a posture intervention that would allow for a correlation coefficient to be calculated between change in posture and change in pain? Particularly interested in forward-head posture and tension-type headaches.
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Here I attach a series of References on the subject:
  • Pope MH, Bevins T, Wilder DG, Frymoyer JW. The relationship between anthropometric, postural, muscular, and mobility characteristics of males ages 18-55. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1985 Sep;10(7):644-8. PubMed PMID: 4071274.
  • Franklin ME, Conner-Kerr T. An analysis of posture and back pain in the first  and third trimesters of pregnancy. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 1998 Sep;28(3):133-8. PubMed PMID: 9742469.
  • Nourbakhsh MR, Arab AM. Relationship between mechanical factors and incidence of low back pain. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2002 Sep;32(9):447-60. PubMed PMID: 12322811.
  • O'Sullivan PB, Mitchell T, Bulich P, Waller R, Holte J. The relationship beween posture and back muscle endurance in industrial workers with flexion-related low back pain. Man Ther. 2006 Nov;11(4):264-71. Epub 2005 Jun 13. PubMed PMID: 15953751.
  • Christensen ST, Hartvigsen J. Spinal curves and health: a systematic critical  review of the epidemiological literature dealing with associations between sagittal spinal curves and health. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2008 Nov-Dec;31(9):690-714. doi: 10.1016/j.jmpt.2008.10.004. Review. PubMed PMID: 19028253.
  • Smith A, O'Sullivan P, Straker L. Classification of sagital thoraco-lumbo-pelvic alignment of the adolescent spine in standing and its relationship to low back pain. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2008 Sep 1;33(19):2101-7. doi: 10.1097/BRS.0b013e31817ec3b0. PubMed PMID: 18758367.
  • Meziat Filho N, Coutinho ES, Azevedo e Silva G. Association between home posture habits and low back pain in high school adolescents. Eur Spine J. 2015 Mar;24(3):425-33. doi: 10.1007/s00586-014-3571-9. Epub 2014 Sep 12. PubMed PMID:  25212451.
  • Chaléat-Valayer E, Mac-Thiong JM, Paquet J, Berthonnaud E, Siani F, Roussouly  P. Sagittal spino-pelvic alignment in chronic low back pain. Eur Spine J. 2011 Sep;20 Suppl 5:634-40. doi: 10.1007/s00586-011-1931-2. Epub 2011 Aug 26. PubMed PMID: 21870097; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3175927.
  • Blog: https://www.bettermovement.org/blog/2014/does-bad-posture-cause-back-pain
  • Brinjikji W, Luetmer PH, Comstock B, Bresnahan BW, Chen LE, Deyo RA, Halabi S, Turner JA, Avins AL, James K, Wald JT, Kallmes DF, Jarvik JG. Systematic literature review of imaging features of spinal degeneration in asymptomatic populations. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2015 Apr;36(4):811-6. doi: 10.3174/ajnr.A4173. Epub 2014 Nov 27. Review. PubMed PMID: 25430861; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4464797
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Piriformis syndrome (PS) is an elusive, benign medical condition. Patients usually complaint deep-seated gluteal pain with some aggravating and relieving factors. Regarding aggravating factors, prolonged sitting on the affected side, affected side lying, posture change - standing from sitting, forward bending, etc. are common, whereas walking relives pain somewhat, especially in chronic cases. In acute PS, patients have pain relieving posture finding difficulty, physicians also get confused it with more prevalent low back pain diagnosis, namely prolapsed lumbar intervertebral disc (PLID).
PS is a disorder of exclusion of clinical mimics and it has no definite cause; in literature, lumbar spinal stenosis, leg-length inequality, professional dancers, fibromyalgia, previous fall, blunt gluteal trauma, etc. are mentioned as its risk factors. Sporadic case reports and our recent systematic review addressed infective cause of piriformis muscle injury, where patients complain of clinical features unlike of PS. In piriformis muscle (PM) infection, patients report of persistent deep gluteal pain that doesn't change with posture, patients also have fever and raised laboratory inflammatory markers (raised WBC count, ESR & CRP). Moreover, there may be characteristic MRI changes in the deep-seated gluteal and pelvic structures including PM. Pain medications & PM stretching exercise don't help patient anyway, they need antimicrobials as well; when antibiotics don't work, surgical drainage of PM is required. Like in PS, intra-lesional steroid is contraindicated here. If piriformis pyomyositis is left undiagnosed and untreated precisely, life-threatening consequences may be the outcomes, hence we can consider the piriformis pyomyositis as the PM emergency.
What do you think?
Suggested reading :
1. Siddiq AB, Danny Clegg, Hasan SA, Rasker JJ. Extra-spinal sciatica and sciatica mimics – a scoping review. Korean J Pain 2020; 33:305-317.
2. Siddiq AB, Rasker JJ. Piriformis pyomyositis, a cause of piriformis syndrome – A systematic search and review. Clin Rheumatol 2019; 38:1811-1821.
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Apart from the infectious problems, already described and warned, the "pseudo-sciatica" due to lesions of the piriformis,
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I am working on a ML project that recognize the posture using the webcam. So, i need a dataset of people sitting in front the webcam (studying, gaming, video calling...etc)
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Zekra Alamoudi i am working on same,not able to find dataset
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A recent study has suggested not to use the confidence ellipse area but instead a prediction ellipse area. However, both of these are in my mind inferences statistics. I think we simply should describe the ellipse area by a standard ellipse based on i.e. 90% of the datapoints. Am I wrong?
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Dear friends,
I would like to know if the ellipse area parameter provided by Kistler's MARS v3 software refers to Prediction ellipse or confidence ellipse?
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how can I calculate the moment of inertia and the damping Coefficient of human hip joint during the lifting tasks (squat posture)?
by use the anthropocentric information presented in the table in (Winter, 2009), I have got the estimation value of moment of inertia for the whole leg about the hip joint which is calculated by the moment of inertia of the lower limb about its proximal end, but it is not the exactly value moment of inertia during the lifting tasks (squat posture).
is there any way that I can determine the value accurately?
thanks in advance for all the response
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José Luis Sarmiento , sorry for late response,
however, after long search regarding to calculate moment of inertia of the hip joint, I have seen many works had been adopted the estimation calculation base on the anthropocentric information presented in the table in (Winter, 2009) and you can follow the same steps that Hossein Nabavinik mentioned above and you can get the estimation value of moment of inertia for the hip joint.
furthermore, you can also estimation value for the damping coefficient which has been experimented in some articles and it can give the approximate value.
please check these articles
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Passing to the Tensa hill station I came across lot of hooding/flex/ banner containing half naked black men with the posture of cutting tree with axes. On the top of the hill I saw many JCB are engaged in clearing forest and drawing under earth's natural resources.
Who is responsible for large scale deforestation?
Why this advertisement?
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Subhash Chavare Sir Partially agree with you because the man who is seen in the flex never be a party.
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My hypothesis is that diagnosing center of pressure on using pedobariagraphy with a goal of normalizing or optimizing the CoP as a treatment goal will eventually in too many cases, via biomechanical compensations driven up the posture, lead to new complaints n=1.
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The literature continues to use center of pressure as the gold standard in pedobariography in spite of the fact that no research has shown that improving the center of pressure on a pressure mat will do anything to improve any issues or the function of the feet and posture in cohorts.
Remember, the center of pressure is a made up value that has inter and intratester flaws.
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1. When studies on posture and MSDs are conducted, is it mandatory to write the pain parts in medical terminologies like Thoracic, Lumbar region for report writing or can it be in simple terms as back, neck, shoulder etc?
2. When talking about the height, reach and work surface, is it again a mandatory to write as buttock to popliteal height, or just in simple terms as seating distance between the stool and the edge of work surface?
Regards,
Geetha Suresh
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Hola Geetha;
En primer lugar, si es para un manuscrito como artículo científico, si le recomiendo utilizar dichas palabras, ya que esto realza más la parte clínica y patología ocupacional de la ergonómica en los trabajadores. Sin embargo, en los contextos académicos o que, no lo sean, si se puede utilizarlos como; cuello, dolor de espalda, dolor de muñeca, síndrome del manquito rotador, etc.
En segundo lugar, en la altura y la superficie del trabajo, es adecuado verlo de la forma más técnica como; asiento o entre la silla y el borde de la superficie de trabajo; siempre tenga en cuenta, que entre mejor sea la claridad de las palabras, el lector va a familiarizarse más con el objeto de una forma cognitiva.
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To all of my like minded colleagues:
Based on the fact that there has been a dearth of high level, peer reviewed study and research when it comes to lower extremity biomechanics over the past 2-3 decades, I am making the claim that all those practicing & researching this field must be suffering from Biomechanics Imposter Syndrome.
Personally, I feel this most when I am lecturing in front of hundreds of paying attendees at a conference interested in upgrading themselves in functional lower extremity biomechanics telling tell not to trust professional expert opinions as gospel when the best I can claim to have accomplished in my decades being called an international guru on the subject that I am no more than a professional expert myself.
Every time my peers posture (pun intended) away from the science and physics mandating that the foot is the primary functional organ of human stance & movement , they guarantee that at some moments in their lives, they sit alone knowing they suffer from BIS.
Is it time to stop "Waiting For The Evidence to Surface" that never will because of the archaic rules of evidence themselves and admit that biomechanics is both art & science and more one claims scientific mastery over it, the more he/she is on some level an imposter.
I suffer from BIS, Do You!
Dr Sha
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The fact that in two months there have been no replies on either side of The Biomechanics Imposter Syndrome (BIS) fence suggest that my hypothesis is correct.
I'm wondering whether or not The Novel Coronavirus Pandemic has any of you pondering biomechanics realizing that you have little to offer your clients/patients/research in terms of foundational lower extremity structure and function education and cohort formation?
I am willing to accept confidential emails/texts from colleagues willing to take their heads out from the sand.
Dennis
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Dear friends,
If anyone has the reference or the said dataset, kindly let me know thanks.
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Thank you Mr. Sundara and Mr. Shivam
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I am working on postural stability during static standing position in condition of using mobile phone and without mobile.
I need literature an suggestion for methods.
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Thnak you Dariusz...
and what you thinking on longitudinal monitoring of large group of participates via mobile app and using of data for science?
Dragan
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I am looking to do an image classification to detect aggressive body language from photos but I couldn't find any labeled data set online. I am mainly looking for photos of people with an aggressive posture, but if you find some general body language data set that would also help me in building the model.
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I am working on a project at which I have to estimate and then compare the posture of beginner skiing athlete to the professional skiing athlete from the frames or some videos. So, I need suggestions that which standards or parameters should I keep in my mind during comparison? Can anyone recommend me useful articles or links?
Thanking you in anticipation and looking forward to your courteous response.
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Is there anything of help here?:
Gilgien, M., Reid, R., Raschner, C., Supej, M., & Holmberg, H. C. (2018). The training of Olympic alpine ski racers. Frontiers in physiology, 9, 1772.
Tchórzewski, D., Bujas, P., & Jankowicz-Szymańska, A. (2013). Body posture stability in ski boots under conditions of unstable supporting surface. Journal of human kinetics, 38, 33-44.
Very best wishes,
Mary
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Hello,
I intend to run a replication. In this replication participants rank 4 persons in 4 different body postures. They rank them on intelligence, confidence etc.
For this study we have 4 picture sets with 4 pictures each. Each set has each posture and each person one time, but in different Combinations.
I want to know if being female or male on the picture or having a closed or open posture on the picture, influence the rankings.
I want to use a (binary) logistic regerssion
Now my question:
Can I use Logistic regression for this data?
To me it looks like, I do not have 200 participants, but 800 because each participant ranks 4 picture and each picture has a ranking position.
Would I hurt assumptions if I feeded spss like this,? The 800 'data points' are not independent, because every participant created 4.
Thanks for any help and advice!
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Hi,
If your outcome is to know the rankings based on the features like male or female, closed or open posture etc., please go through multi nomial logistic regression which gives you results with more than 2 results (i.e other than 0 or 1). Since your topic is specified and concentrated on ranking, multinomial logistic regression would fail since this does not account for the ordinal nature of the rankings. Therefore, there is special class of logistic regression called Ordinal Logistic Regression which would suit your problem the best. It has been tried on SPSS and best suitable on R.
If you are trying it in R, please scale your variables and proceed for the best performance.
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Dear Community,
I wondered if you have ever heard about studies that demonstrated a tendency to approach painful visual stimuli in term of posture ?
Also have you ever heard about such results differeing between subjective responses of participants in term of approach-avoidance feeling and objective postural measures ?
Thanks,
Harold Mouras
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The Erector Spinae muscle actually consists of three columns of muscles, the Iliocostalis, Longissimus, and Spinalis, each running parallel on either outer side of the Vertebra and extending from the lower back of the skull all the way down to the Pelvis. but which of them is so important and active during standing posture??and How could I recognize them for placing The EMG?
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Good question,
You have had some good resources provided by others and a recommendation regarding muscles having different moment arm potentials.
Trunk muscles are unique for even the superficial ones are innervated by multiple levels of the spinal nerves. So they can have variable activity (temporal onset etc.) superior and to inferior sites. They may also vary in their relative maximum amplitude. However, to characterize postural control you probably do want a good representation of muscle fibres that can produce moments in different planes, and then place electrodes with sufficient spacing to suggest they are sampling at least unique activity.
Work from our lab (Hubley-Kozey & Butler, 2012; Quirk & Hubley-Kozey 2015 (Human Movement Science)) show sites of the superficial lumbar multifidus, illiocostalis, and longissimus appear to have specific activity to different external moments. Using the protocol in those papers I would recommend a reduced set of the:
5 spinous process of the lumbar spine 2 cm lateral (L52) Multifidus
3rd spinous process of the lumbar spine 6 cm lateral (L36) Longissimus
1st spinous process of the lumbar spine 3cm lateral (L33) Illiocostalis
Guidelines to palpate the above sites are as follows. Identify either the L4/L5 space or the T12 spinous process (palpate along the bottom rib). Then identify the relative spinous process from there. To scale the sites to your participants the L36 is a guideline. Have the participant perform a prone back extension and you can feel in the lateral border of the longissimus in the posterior space between the bottom rib/ top of the pelvis. You can use that lateral border as a reference to if you need to move medial or lateral to the 6cm guideline.
Another commonly used site would be the latissimus dorsi which attaches to the lumbar fascia. The site referred by McGill and colleagues (for example Vera-Garcia et al 2006, JEK). Approximately located lateral to the 9th spinous process of the thoracic spine over the muscle belly.
Hopefully that is helpful for a good subset of back extensor sites.
Cheers,
Adam
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I am biased as the innovator of The Inclined Posture.
I am looking to develop and support research to answer these questions as not much exists.
Dennis
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I am sure that my response, in that it makes a point, also inherently carries with it the potential for the reader to choose to take offense. Nothing is shared in the spirit of arrogance or petulance, but with the certainty of one who has smacked my palm to my own forehead over my own ignorance.
1. Newton never said "equal and opposite and identical". The ankle possesses DRL, or divergent reactive leverage. In the direction of gravity, it manifests as a class 2 lever. In the reactive direction known in physics by the term "normal force" it manifests simultaneously as a class 1 lever. Both must be modeled accurately in motion analysis.
Question: are these truths not self-evident? If so, then if any research draws any conclusion based upon modeling that excludes either type of leverage, is not that research merely validated by flawed premises, and thus its soundness cannot be assumed?
2. Pain leads to biomechanical changes. This was proved by Pohl 2015 trying to replicate an earlier gait analysis of lesser glute weakening and inquiring about compensatory trunk lean. While kinematic changes were noted in the earlier study, none were seen in Pohl. He told me that there was tremendous resistance to him publishing due to... well... due to people not knowing everything about everything. You see, the earlier study used painful hypersaline injections to weaken the lesser glutes, but Pohl used a painless nerve block. While the other study showed changes, there was no kinematic change in Pohl's subjects. Now, before everyone gets their collective knickers in a twist, understand that Jacquie Perry got it wrong. There isn't one gait paradigm; there are two. Just like the new Chevy truck with a V8 that can also run as a 4 cylinder depending on terrain, the human body has TDGC, or terrain-dependent gait configurations. Only on level terrain do we fully extend the hip and knee in normal gait. Both gastroc and TFL require full extension to be allowed to participate. Where was Pohl's study? In a gait lab on level ground. Have the subjects walk down a hill and things change drastically.
3. Asymmetry leads to biomechanical asymmetry. Whether LLD or muscle, there will be an impact. Give it long enough and Davis' Law can mess with you and cause pain. Bell 2013 looked at short transfemoral amputees and long transfemoral amputees. Both walked with the same gait efficiency, but the short limbs had more trunk lean. While Bell stuck with "compensatory motions are inefficient", her data proves that the truth is "compensatory motions effectively preserve gait efficiency". But here's the point... at what cost? Does the greater trunk lean of the shorter TF amputee lead to back pain sooner? We don't know because Bell had the wrong assumptions.
Gentlemen, one cannot use a linear process in a situation with reactive elements. And everything with gait reacts. We must engage in abductive reasoning prior to either inductive or deductive reasoning. In the words of Carlo Rovelli, the theoretical physicist, "Before measurements, calculations, and meticulous deductions, science is above all about visions. Science begins with a vision. Scientific thought is fed by the capacity to "see" things differently than they have previously been seen."
What are you gentlemen missing? Perhaps that biomechanics itself is limited in its vision. Page 491 of Neumann's kinesiology textbook tells us that with the hip, regardless of whether it is the pelvis or the femur moving, we see the hip osteokinematics in anatomical position. Perfect! You see the pelvis as a class 1 lever. Except... if you have the capacity for vision, you might turn your head sideways 90 degrees and see the femur as a class 3 lever.
And folks... if you've never done that, you don't know what you're missing. You see, the hip is not the class 1 lever espoused by the AAOS and the ASB. It is a UCL, or a unified compound lever, which is multiple levers that are simultaneously supported by a ball fulcrum. For is not the femoral head a circle? Why must you limit your vision to only vertical when the very model violates Archimedes' Law of the Lever (glutes attach to femur, which is the fulcrum-thus the distance value is zero. The hip is mathematically irrational allowing it to include only vertical forces).
Or perhaps it's that biomechanics only utilizes a single simple machine when there are six from which to choose. For the man whose only tool is a hammer, the whole world is a nail. For the researcher whose only tool is a lever... but there is also a wedge, a pulley, an inclined plane, a wheel and axle, and a screw. If your only tool is a lever, you must protect it, you must limit it, you must isolate it. This is the case with "closed chain" movement. Dennis Shavelson , you will find this JOSPT editorial fascinating Closed chain was only supposed to refer to structures, not movement. By only having levers, we create our own errors. In a sense, closed chain allows us to make energy simply stop, in clear violation of the second law of thermodynamics. When we allow abductive reasoning and the vision of the dreamers, we realize that vastus lateralis acts as a heterogeneous wedge to counter the lateral thrust of the femoral lever at the hip.
Trust me... I know... because during transfemoral amputation, the IT band which holds everything in place is cut. Suddenly, the self-neutralizing horizontal forces acting at the hip manifest. And the answer of the AAOS was to remove the IT band and weaken the hip abductors in the name of "balance". Forever my patients have struggled missing 30% of hip power (Ryser 1988)".
Is there more? Yes... but I think I've said enough for today. With those facepalm epiphanies, I've come to be far more aware of unnecessary patient suffering.
My apologies if this appears disjointed. The flawed assumptions in biomechanics are so numerous that it makes it difficult to only address one. Suffice it to say that if your initial approach includes a fatal flaw, everything thereafter is vulnerable as well. While the actions of biomechanics are organisms... unless you are pushing against someone's foot instead of against the ground... those reactions are mechanisms and very different in nature than the organism. And the reactive nature of mechanisms, while foreign to most in healthcare, is all we know in prosthetics.
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Hello everyone,
about my new article I need to know more and more related views and doing better revision about ankle sprain in related to sport, motor command and balance control strategy
I used EMG, Force plate+ motion analysis to assess control of posture...
could you ready to collaborate as co-author?
this is before any manuscript state.
I look forward to hearing from you soon,
Best Regards,
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Hy Mehr
In a CCT I used a forceplate to control the balance (measured are the amount of movements in a given time) before and after OMT (osteopathic manual treatment)
Best regards
Joachim Kaufmann
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We are gathering information on the damaging effects of poor posture any recent research or leads can help us with our project thank you for your support and sharing your knowledge.
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Thank you - Poor posture it self dose not cause pain its the ramifications of muscle overload, bone and joint interruption that causes pain. If gradual enough (RSI) patients pain so low-grade almost not noticed. ( rare cases) All shifts and change in biomechanics of joints, bones and muscle coordination can affect the NS response and translate to various degrees of pain.
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Please I would like to get recommendations and advice regarding setting a new Gait and Posture Lab!! suggestion of company !
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Dear Dr. Elsayed,
You can find references of gait analysis systems (optical and inertial motion capture, electromyography and force plates) at the link below :
Some recommendations on the construction of a facility for the gait laboratory are described in the two attached files.
I hope this information is useful.
Best Regards,
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What is the type of fibres activated in this situation? Fast glycolytic fibres or all types within the same muscle? is the force distributed equally between different types of fibres?
What is the type of contraction? Isometric or Concentric?
What is the type of stimulation? Forward or inverse stimulation?
Is the Hill model still applicable in that case?
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A temporary external force upon the shoulder to meet the resistance, first would be concentric then isometric to meet the resistance if that is the goal. After an unplanned release of the external force then a concentric contraction followed by a rapid eccentric contraction via reflexive system. The amount and types of fibers would be related to the rate and amount of force provided as well as the ability and prior "training" of the specific person. This question is multifaceted and is not simple to answer, however, the references below may help you;
.Myers JB, Lephart SM. The role of the sensorimotor system in the athletic shoulder. J Athl Train. 2000;35:351-363
McIlroy WE and Maki BE. Early activation of arm muscles follows external perturbation of upright stance. Neurosci Lett 184: 177–180, 1995
Maki BE and McIlory WE. The role of limb movements in maintaining upright stance: the “change-in-support” strategy. Phys Ther 77: 488–507, 1997
.Myers JB, Riemann BL, Ju YY, et al. Shoulder muscle reflex latencies under various levels of muscle contraction. Clin Orthop. 2003;402:92101.
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How to choose and prefer between different companies?
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At the core of the question interfaces like Qualisys and Vicon all do the same thing as they're just tools. You should consider things like generating reports, easy integration with matlab, compatibility with other wearable sensors e.g. IMUs. I use Vicon and both the interface and support are great.
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We would like two asses postural sway using two Kistler force plates combined, so that the participant stays with one foot on each force plate. We need some advice on how to adapt our Matlab protocol. So far we have assesed postural sway using just one Kistler force plate and a Matlab protocol (Bey et al. 2018 "The data were acquired with the software BioWare 5.3.0.7 using a sampling rate of 200 Hz. The data were filtered using a 10th order digital low pass Butterworth filter at a 7 Hz cut-off frequency and analyzed with MATLAB (R2012a, 64 Bit, The Mathworks,Natick, USA)." Has anyone any idea what we need to do/how we need to change our Matlab protocol for a measurement with two force plates?
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Thanks very much, that was very helpful!
Best wishes
Kirsten
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Hi all,
I am trying to populate a CATIA manikin with preferred angles and zones of comfort in order to run an ergonomics analysis. However, I am struggling to decipher zones of comfort for sitting posture angles, particularly the ankles and hips. I have come across literature on driving but in my case I have manikins doing upper body tasks only. From what I have read I can gather what the optimal sitting position is but have found no indications as to how to go about segmenting comfort zones past certain angular thresholds.
Has anyone any data, experience or references for this that you could point me too?
Thanks
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Ideal comfort and energy efficiency is with a hip angle of 110º or even 120º with the thighs/femurs parallel to the ground and the sacrum and spine against the chair back at at this 110º to 120º angle. Not 90º.
However, 90º angle at knees and at ankles.
Do you need references/citations for this for your work?
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We often see positivism and constructivisim as opposed paradigme in conducting research study. I know that quantitative studies are the best data collection method we can use in a positive paradigme. That this mean that qualtitative methods are related to constructivism (or phenomenology). What are typical methods used in constructivism paradigmes. Thank you all for your feedbacks
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The poles of positivism and constructivism do not exhaust the possibilities as I argue in this
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The resuts of world wars are known to all. Today even after the lessons learned from major wars various countries are assuming a warlike posture and threatening the weaker nations. Why?
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Dear Nordin,
Thanks. Your answer is well balanced
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The cuff-based blood pressure (BP) measurement can be affected by patient posture, compliance, etc. I wonder if the the left ventricle blood pressure that causes opening of aortic valve (which is also before the blood ejection) is the true blood pressure. Just a thought. Is there any animal/modeling study about measuring BP from different locations in cardiovascular system? Thanks
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Thierry C Gillebert Thank you very much for your answer. It was really helpful.
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What is the best frequency when using a Woltring filter in a biomechanical analysis of a sitting posture?
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The paper as it stands offers a good account of a research project, but it needs much more attention to the broader sources for the ideas it draws on and to which it might make a contribution. As a minimum, I would ask the authors to rewrite the paper so that the readership might see how the work is positioned with respect to the problematics of the politics of globalizing knowledge production, the place of the kind of work they are doing in these processes, and the implications for what counts as knowledge and in whose interests this work serves. Also, the paper as it stands is not positioned strongly enough from a theoretical point of view- what are the disciplinary underpinnings and how does the research draw on and contribute to these
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Qi Song, I do not understand the matter of your discussion: what do you mean in more details?
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Please describe your opinion on this topic and suggest some literature.
Effects and mechanism of control during chewing gum in quite standing position.
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Mastication of chewing gum improved the postural stability during upright standing in some studies. Explanation may lay in activation of mastication muscles, condition of temporomandibular joint and trigeminal proprioception. I suggest this study to confirm the opinion:
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The Classic forward and backward facing seated position have been well understood from a comfort evaluation point of view. I am looking for comparative studies of the comfort evaluation by passengers of forward, backward and longitudinal orientations.
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Dear Dennis, I would be interested in both safety and comfort
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As a physio, I see links between these areas in practice and would like to know what evidence, if any, exists to support or refute any connections between
1) posture and pain
2) how breasts and bra-fitting can influence posture
3) how breasts and bra-fitting can influence pain.
Thanks!
Siobhan
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I am developping a wheel chair that moves the body without engine
so the body moves...even on a wheel chair, by just moving arms
regards
JEAN
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I have to run several simulation on which one of the entry data is the average (plus sigma) height of people at eye-level in two positions: Standing up and sitting down in an office chair.
Currently I have the average full height (plus sigma) of the population studied.
Any idea of how I can obtain those values ?
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Vertical distance upto eye level in both the posture (standing and sitting)
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I want to start indepth examination of postural deviations in patients with musculoskeletal disorders. Please suggest me a reliable and valid tool for the same.
Thank you😇
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I am working on the CMDQ scores and would like to get a answer from my fellow research gate members.
1. How to interpret the scores and the statistical analysis for CMDQ values?
2. Which graph suits best to show the pain points?
3. How do you compare RULA and CMDQ scores?
4. Is it necessary for a researcher to do both tools- RULA and CMDQ for Posture analysis?
Regards,
Geetha Suresh
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There is a very usefull paper about the German version of the CMDQ written by Steffi Kreuzfeld, available in a free access version: "German version of the Cornell
Musculoskeletal Discomfort Questionnaire (CMDQ): translation and validation"
[Steffi Kreuzfeld et al.]
In the discussion of the paper are very interesting facts also in statistics.
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I'm trying to document the insects, spiders, etc that live in or visit my backyard habitat. The other day this creature (or two of them, maybe in mating postures) showed up in the yard on a stand of goldenrod, which hasn't bloomed yet here. Can anyone tell me what it (they) might be?
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I am thinking these are the appendages of some arthropod. I can't make out the white material but am wondering if the owner of these legs was infected with a fungus and the rest of the body has been eaten or has fallen away, leaving behind a few legs.
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If a 73 year old patient presents to your clinic with chief concern of inability to eat. You find that the patient has unstable occlusion as a result of erosive tooth surface loss. Moreover the patient has a forward head posture with a stooping back.
Where should the final occlusion be set? and how?
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It's a tough situation. The patient that you have described is one who has a physical disability that compounds their condition So you can really feel for this person. But we have to make sure that we listen to them with empathy while at the same time thinking about offering solutions that are physical rather than emotional. When you say that patient is impatient and does not comply with splints I would agree that this is probably true but to a great extent if they don't comply with the splint therapy they may well never achieve successful treatment.
Sadly, we can't treat everyone. Some people are refractory to treatment. For some patients, if they can't identify the problem we will never know if there is a solution for it.
A good friend of mine, when speaking to patients will tell the patient that they understand that the patient has a problem but the patient needs to understand that it is their problem and it doesn't get any better by making it the clinicians problem. It becomes an ownership of the problem situation. I can never own the patient's problem, the best I can do is try to help them treat it. So, once again, coming back to the statement that the patient grows impatient with splint therapy this makes sense to me but I can only help to solve a problem that has been developing for years and years (was this patient in their 70s) but any solution that I offer the patient is not going to have the immediacy that they would so desire. This patient will frequently become a dental shopper rather than becoming a dental patient.
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I have crossed CCR2-CreERT2 mice (marks inflammatory monocytes; we received them from Becher's group) to a floxed-gene of interest. We are looking at inflammatory monocytes and they have a relatively high turnover rate, so we need to have the mice on tamoxifen for an extended period of time (about 4 weeks). This is similar to what has been reported from Becher's group (except those mice were on tamoxifen feed for 3 weeks).
Anyway, I have my first cohort of mice, and I've started to treat them with tamoxifen-feed (it's the tamoxifen-citrate at 40 mg/kg from Envigo, the lowest dose). All of my mice are heterozygotes for CreER, and there are littermates of either flox/flox, flox/+, or wildtype for my gene of interest in each cage. About two to three weeks in to treatment, most of the treated mice begin to develop hunched posture, but are active and alert. A few days later, 4 out of the 8 treated mice died. Only 1 of the 4 is flox/flox for my gene of interest, so I can't say that it is a gene effect. The only thing these mice have in common is that they are heterozygote for CreER.
Has anyone worked with these mice, or has experienced this type of tamoxifen toxicity? I'm not sure if it's a background issue. It is a dose that is standard and I am clueless as to why this is happening.
Thanks for your help!
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Hi Ashley,
Well, we didn't, but we have some ideas. Thanks for your suggestions!
All of the mice I happened to treat were females--it just happened to work out that way. I have no idea how the males will tolerate it, but assumed, since tamoxifen is an estrogen receptor modulator, that the females would have more side effects, but who knows.
We are now trying to initiate a 'rest' period for about a week before we put the mice on tamoxifen chow since our mice have to be transported to a different campus--so we thought that maybe the stress of the transport could have affected how they handled the treatment. I also have a cage of cre-negative mice that I will treat and then a cage with just cre/+ mice--so, if I will be able to parse out if this toxicity is due to tamoxifen in general (WT mice) or just a Cre issue (Cre/+) mice or a stress thing.
Thanks again!
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Dear Researchers,
I'm looking for recommendations on what type of interviews are best to discover a concept in social sciences that is very fuzzy, and nearly unexplored in the literature (could only find one peer-reviewed article on it). For research safety reasons (!), I'd rather not mention what the concept is, but I can say it manifests behaviorally at the individual-level through voice, posture, body language, etc. Since this is a concept at a research level zero, I wonder if doing structured interviews is advised? Or should we go with pure long interview types?
Thank you!
Margarida
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There is now a 3rd edition of this book (2014), with the authors listed as Brinkman & Kvale, since Kvale die some time ago.
The main difference between this book and Rubin & Rubin is that the latter has much more in the way of practical, "how to" content.
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I am trying to measure the drill string posture during the drilling in lab experiment. I found it is difficult to do it. Maybe high frequent camera is possible to do it, while it has a huge work to transfer the pictures to the data.
Could you provide me some measure method in rotating beam?
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Sorry for delay. Measure the posture can be perhaps only inclinometer, if you can not look on beam by video. All other sensors can allow an approximate estimate of the angle as a result of processing their readings. Can it use a rotating inclinometer for such an estimate? I do not know. It depends on its design. With your measuring ranges, you need a good accelerometer and mount it carefully (and / or calibrate well). Algorithms are probably not standard and seem not quite simple. Everything depends on accuracy.
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Can end-range cervical postures limit RCPmi activity?
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Dear Sarah,
Maybe the following papers will help you:
Hallgren RC, Pierce SJ, Sharma DB, Rowan JJ. Forward Head Posture and Activation of Rectus Capitis Posterior Muscles. J Am Osteopath Assoc 2017;117(1):24-31. http://jaoa.org/article.aspx?articleid=2595722
Hallgren RC, Pierce SJ, Prokop LL, Rowan JJ, Lee AS. Electromyographic activity of rectus capitis posterior minor muscles associated with voluntary retraction of the head. Spine J 2014;14(1):104-12. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1529943013006864
Hallgren RC, Rowan JJ, Bai P, Pierce SJ, Shafer-Crane GA, Prokop LL. Activation of rectus capitis posterior major muscles during voluntary retraction of the head in asymptomatic subjects. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2014;37(6):433-40. http://www.jmptonline.org/article/S0161-4754(14)00117-1/abstract
Best wishes from germany,
Martin
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I want to know about optimum angle of joints in anatomical positions (posture)
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My answer is no.
One of the ways to know if the joints of the lower extremity, for example the most visible knee, will be to visualize the knee from the middle plane and the transverse axis, to verify that visually the segments are aligned and there is no evidence Semi flexion or Hyper extension (Genu recurvatum). Otherwise the use of protractor will allow you to verify the amplitudes of the joint motion both active and passive.
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“Hemodynamics as a possible internal mechanical disturbance to balance” by Conforto et al. (2001, Gait and Posture 14, 28–35) studied this issue, but I’m interested in the question the authors asked in their publication: “Is this hemodynamic perturbation and its mechanical effect on the entire body quantitatively relevant within the process of balance control?” More specifically, could this effect be relevant in elite level rifle and pistol shooting, biathlon, archery,....?
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Look at cardiology paperworks related to simpato-vagal balance in heart rate variability (studies on RR and RT heart rate variability). You should be able to have some insight in the healthy volunteers during standup/tilting position and effect on blood pressure.
Today data collection can easily be achieved recording a dynamic ECG of the subject and observe the level of Heart rate variability. Hope it helps
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In designing school furnitures awareness regarding  biomechanics,muscle recruitment,loading and offloading is crucial to avoid postural issues in teenagers which ultimately leads to healthy future.
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Absolutely. In fact, such an approach should be done prior to the teen years.  Prevention of postural deficits is key.  By the teenage years, many bad habits and postural deficits may have already begun. Especially as children are utilizing computers on a regular basis in their education. To accommodate for differences in stature, I would recommend considering adjustability within any design............Hope this is helpful.
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Can you determine your organization's risk and compliance posture in near real time?
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This interestingly has a problem because of the nature of confidentiality involved with different levels of information for a organization of any nature because real time involves the monetary part.
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I have heard of Lowery's 5-item cluster ((1) a history of "catching" or "locking" as reported by the patient, (2) pain with forced hyperextension, (3) pain with maximum flexion, (4) pain or an audible click with McMurray's maneuver, and (5) joint line tenderness to palpation), just wanted to see what other clusters have proven successful for clinical examination
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Duly noted, thank you all! I have never heard of Homer's test until now, sounds fascinating! I also like the Thessaly's for its high specificity and joint line tenderness as criteria.
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I want to compare the performance of my athletes (14-19 years old) to normative data to know whether their time of the 30m flying is above average or not. Thanks in advance!
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While I don't have a definitive answer for you, here are some tips to help you out.
1) Find some normative data first, and then perform the same test with your athletes. Performing random tests and trying to find matching norms is more work than administering the specific tests where the norms are already known. Obscure tests are very hard to find normative data for.
2) Specificity is key here. What sport do your athletes play? Simply trying to match 14-19 year old data won't be very valid, as the sporting discipline must also be taken into account. Soccer players and swimmers, for example, will have different testing results.
3) Contact some local amateur sport teams and clubs in your local area, and ask if they would be willing to share some of their testing data with you. If they're in a good mood, maybe they'll remove the names and send you some data that could help you.
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I am looking for more recent studies developing Peter E. Bull's study of Posture (1987).  Any scientific/experimental validations of inferences of specific personality traits from posture and gait?
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You're welcome,
Here I attach you something related to pain inference and a recent study that develops an audiovisual deep residual network for multimodal apparent personality trait recognition.
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 contraction of skeletal muscles without changing the muscle length or moving the associated part of the body. 
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Dear Behnam,
Presumably this refers to human muscle in situ and isometric contraction recording in one or a group of muscle. There must be such studies done in the past, like in biceps brachii (elbow flexors), if useful!
Exp Neurol (1978) 62: p595-602. (Ismail & R)
KW
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And why?
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deep squatting can be maintained with a very good core muscle activation and so it should be good for the back
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Have you ever heard of medical or paramedical operators who are performing heart ultrasound scan ? I search about the best postures they can hold during this kind of medical exams ? Do you know of any survey ?
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No experiance 
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Camptocormia in PD
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Hi Abdul! This is still an issue in the literature. Some patients may have dystonia of the abdominal muscles but this is a minor mechanism, according to new data. Myopathy of extensor muscles is a major mechanism, but stil we don't know what causes this myopathy. Recently, it was pointed out how patients with camptocormia have more frequently vertebral diseases or ostheoporosis, but we don't know yet if this is the consequence of abnormal postures or a precipitanting factor. 
A new review on the topis is this:
Srivanitchapoom P, Hallett M
Camptocormia in Parkinson's disease: definition, epidemiology, pathogenesis and treatment modalities.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2016 Jan;87(1):75-85. doi: 10.1136/jnnp-2014-310049. Epub 2015 Apr 20.
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Morphogenesis is dependant of the functionalitiy of an organism from birth on.Form follows function.
Is there research available or in progress on the functional characteristics of the thoracolumbar spine in relation with the knowledge on early onset kyphosis ( malignement, bad posture) in children ?Due to the high incidence of back pain in children a search is made for correct etiologic factors
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Years ago, when doing scoliosis screening on pre-school children  I noticed that most of the time they had an asymmetric pelvis that tilted the sacrum laterally, unleveling the sacral base, initiating the lateral spinal curves and causing the scoliosis.  This may occur without painful symptoms.  Correcting the asymmetric pelvis with a manual posterior innominate rotation also corrects the scoliosis.
With normal gait in the long straddle position when the pelvis is asymmetrical the sacrum flexes laterally toward the side of loading to drive counter rotation of the trunk, which decreases the loading forces to the femoral head.
This is a commonly overlooked problem associated with low back pain when the line of gravity is shifted forward to the acetabular axis causing an anterior innominate rotation on the sacral axis with asymmetry and fixation. 
Tingren J, Soinila S: Reversible pelvic asymmetry, J of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, September 2006
DonTigny, RL:  A detailed and critical biomechanical analysis of the sacroiliac joints and relevant kinesiology: the implications for lumbopelvic function and dysfunction.  In Vleeming A, Mooney V, Stoeckart R (eds): Movement, Stability & Lumbopelvic Pain: Integration of research and therapy. Churchill Livingstone (Elsevier). Edinburgh, 2007, PP 265-279
 DonTigny RL: Pelvic Dynamics and the Subluxation of the Sacral Axis. CD-ROM. Bozeman, Montana, (c) registered 2001 and continuously revised through 2016
DonTigny RL: Sacroiliac 101: Form and Function - A Biomechanical Study. J of Prolotherapy. 3(1): 561-567, 2011 
DonTigny RL: Sacroiliac 201: Dysfunction and Management A biomechanical solution,  J of Prolotherapy, 3(2): 644-652, 2011
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In daily activities, arm movements are frequently performed to acquire objects. The demand to interact with objects necessitates anticipatory postural stabilization. So, I would like to know how we can investigate the adaptation of anticipatory postural control in a novel and unpredictable situation (e.g.
pushing an unknown weight, in older adults; or peforming a secondary manual task = dual task).
Thanks!
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In that case, you could place the subjects on a force plate and use the center of force to quantify their ability to stand as still as possible on one leg, and their distance to the target to quantify their performance in the second pointing task.
However, I would be careful with the instructions you give the participants with respect to task priority, as it has been shown that task performance depends on task priority and that older participants with higher fall risk tend to prioritize not falling over additional tasks. 
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Different variables (or parameters) related to the center of pressure has been created to determinate how the human postural control (or postural balance) is manteined or modified on a different situation. One of this variables is the displacement of the Center Of Pressure (COP) wich is gived in milimeters. 
When we use different devices to measure this parameter, those devices usually give us two different values: the average of the COP displacement and the Standar Deviation of the COP displacement. As i Understand, the average of the COP displacement is an intermediate value set from a group of different values, while the Standar Deviation of the COP displacement is a value set from the variability of different values. My question is: Should we use the Average and the standar deviation of the COP as two different variables, having in count that they come from the measure of the same parameter (COP displacement)?
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Dear Javier,
The different variables comprised traditional linear and non- linear methods as proposed by diverse authors [....]. Duarte & Freitas (2010) subdivided the parameterization methods roughly into two groups: First, the traditional parameters which refer to estimations of the overall size of COP excursions, second, structural posturographic and more sophisticated parameters which describe temporal pattern of the time series in a nonlinear manner [...]. The former ones are used as indicators of postural stability outlining COP displacements as random fluctuations. According to this theory, larger COP deflections are associated with less stable balance and in a next step with aging and disease. Consequently, the assumed random properties are treated as unwanted noise and averaged out. Temporal structures of the displacements are disregarded. In contrast, nonlinear methods determine the time de pendent structure of the time series. Against this back- ground, both analysis techniques create complementary information [...]. In my vision, these two parameters (average and SD of COP) are complementary, they are classified in the first group (traditional paraemters), however I prefer to use the SD of COP because the results are most complet. You will can to show the results of these two variables, but depending of the case it will be unnecessary. 
Look some papers which I sent to you. I believe they can clarify your ideas.
Best regards.
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I have come across data which states normal postural sway around ankle in degrees, however I have not found a data in centimeter. I have seen people using Lord's sway meter to measure the postural sway and plan therapy based on the data. without having a normative data how is it possible to conclude that the sway measured is abnormal and a treatment for decreasing the sway.
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In the early 1980s, I had the opportunity to work with Dr. Anne Shumway-Cook to develop an early postural sway biofeedback device.  In the course of our early clinical testing, one of the PTs on the team became pregnant, which posed the question, what happens to postural sway during pregnancy.  Because our device was an early prototype, we recruited another female therapist to act as a normal, and measured postural sway each day over 6 months.  (Our device measured sway area, and I don't have the absolute numbers any more.)
The really interesting finding was that, in our normal subject, the postural sway varied in a nice sine pattern with a period of 14 days.  We were never able to figure out what biological factor would result in a 14 day cycle.  I'd love to know.
The reason that this is relevant to your question is that the "normal" value varies over time.  If you institute a treatment at the peak of sway, and terminate at the minimum, you will think you have found a significant result, when in fact, it may just be normal variation.  Except for grossly abnormal sway, I'd be very cautious about any single-point measure.
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The study of CoM is very important, mainly to investigate the coordination between posture and movement. It's an interesting device which can help us to identify, for exemple, the postural control, the postural adjustments, or the overall subject's behavior through analysis of body segments. However, how can we interpret the CoM data results? In this specific case, amplitude and speed in A/P or M/L directions.
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Hi Marcelo,
As mentioned in the other responses, there are a number of outcomes which can be used to assess the COP, as a surrogate for COM.  Most of these same outcomes can be applied directly to the movements of the COM as well.  But to your question of how to interpret the movement and speed of the COM, it depends on the lens through which you are looking.  For example, using a more traditional paradigm (i.e. linear measures such as velocity or sway) greater sway and/or greater sway velocity would be interpreted as worse balance due to the individual's inability to control their COM.  However, non-linear paradigms (e.g. time-to-boundary, entropy) view variability as a natural and needed function of a healthy organism.  Having said that, research has suggested that their may be a healthy level of variability while too little or too much may be indicative of a constrained sensorimotor system. 
I hope this helps
Erik
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Relative involvement of different muscles in the postural changes and maintaining balancing needs to assessed, This will help us in creating the assessment of postural imbalances in normal individuals which can cause undue overload on few other joints like knee joint which would lead to  development of OA. Thus preventive measures can be adopted through postural training!
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Dear Kumar,
I sent to you two papers which I like very much! It's Winter's papers and I believe that you will can find a real responses of your question.   
In addition look also the classic book :
- Winter, D (1990) Biomechanics of human movement. New York: John Wiley. 
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Temporomandibular Disorders and body posture
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Dear José,
The evidence isn't entirely clear and show controversial results. However we know that the global posture deviations cause body adaptation and realignment, which may interfere with the organization and function of the temporomandibular joint. Indeed, different researchs show that the methodology applied will be the differential factor of your experiment. On the one hand, the insufficient number of articles considered of excellent methodological quality is a factor that hinders the acceptance or denial of this association. In the other hand, others researchs show that results suggest a close relationship between body posture and temporomandibular disorder, though it is not possible to determine whether postural deviations are the cause or the result of the disorder.  Anyway, I send to you some papers that can clarify your ideas!
I hope this help you.