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In my current research on the lived experience of ageing in extreme poverty, I am trying to illustrate something connecting the discursive social process of 'Othering'. But I am struggling to find a term that can best define the reverse process of 'Othering'. What it could be in one/two words? Your contribution is much appreciated.
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If 'othering' is treating people as different / outside the 'norm' then the opposite might be 'normative acceptance'.
As in - 'the othering of group is compared to the normative acceptance of group b'.
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Hello guys.
I am searching for a postcolonial novel where the characters develop double consciousness or any novel that I apply Frantz Fanon's theories on. Where he explores the problems of identity of the black people in the white society. I would really appreciate if you can suggest a work.
Best regards.
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You are welcome dear@Ali Mohammed
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Good Day!
I was thinking whether Edward Said's theory and his writings on anthropology represented the death of anthropology or a new life through the awareness of important concepts such as representation, (we) versus (them). I think that the post-colonial Theory provided an important vision for anthropology and literature, so what do you think about post-colonial Theory and its Impact on anthropology?
Wishing everyone a Happy New Year!
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Happy new year Dr. Heba.
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I'm looking at the relationship between silence and corruption and how these are used to marginalize the Other
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Thank you for the answer
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Analysing the repertoire of power impact of primarily economic and political instruments preferred by postcolonial leading actors, a banal idea comes that the economic dominance of individual countries and macro-regions becomes crucial because of creating the prerequisites for redistributive gains or competitive advantages. These advantages can be called "leadership rent". This concept borrowed from the political economy literature demonstrates that the group of developed countries predetermines the nature and pace of development of the world economy and acts as a natural "centre of gravitation" to emerging economies.
These centres of gravitation often use personalised relations between the dominant and the dependent; and, it is usually attributed to cultural grounds. I'm trying to use patron-client relations as an explanatory model. My argument comes from the observation that since patronage supposes to be imprinted in polity behaviour and affects the way how these polities represent their interests, this instrument is utilised by leaders-patrons linked to their clients by the strong historical and cultural ties resilient to radical political transformations.
So the question is could we stretch the concept of patronage from electoral behavior to a strategy for acquiring, maintaining, and exacerbating political power from patrons? Are there any important research that I possibly miss?
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A very interesting approach
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I am currently pursuing my PhD in Postcolonialism and wanted to get more texts related to the same topic with respect to what it has done to the Culture, Society and the Environment in India.
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Hi! These are older, but useful, references that center on subaltern studies. As you know, your topic will have to be narrowed down and maybe some of these references will help you review important theoretical issues to keep in mind and point you to scholars you find most helpful/want to engage with.
Best wishes,
Chakrabarty, Pipesh. "Postcoloniality and the Artifice of History," Representations 37: 1-26, 1992.
Chatterjee, Partha. Nationalist Thought and the Colonial World: A Derivative Discourse? London: Zed Books, 1986.
1997 "Listening to the Subaltern: the Poetics of Neocolonial States," Poetics Today 15(4): 643 658, 1994.
Guha, Ranajit. "On Some Aspects of the Historiography of Colonial India." In Selected Subaltern Studies, Ranajit Guha & Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, eds. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988. pp. 37-44.
"The Prose of Counter-Insurgency." In Selected Subaltern Studies, Ranajit Guha & Gayatri Chakrovorty Spivak, eds. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988. pp. 45-84.
"The Small Voice of History." \nSubaltern Studies IX: Writings on South Asian History and Society, Shahid Amin & Dipesh Chakrabarty, eds. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1996. pp. 1-12.
Prakash, Gyan. "Subaltern Studies as Postcolonial Criticism," The American Historical Review 99: 1475-1490, 1994.
"Writing Post-Orientalist Histories of the Third World: Indian Historiography Is Good to Think." In Colonialism and Culture, Nicholas B. Dirks, ed. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1992. pp. 353-388.
Ranger, Terence. "Power, Religion and Community: The Matobo Case." In Subaltern Studies VII. Partha Chatterjee & Gyanendra Pandey, eds. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1993. pp. 221-246.
Said, Edward. "Foreword." In Selected Subaltern Studies. Ranajit Guha & Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, eds. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988. pp. v-x.
Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty, "Can the Subaltern Speak?" In Marxism and Interpretation of Culture. Cary Nelson & Lawrence Grossberg, eds. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1988. pp. 271-313.
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I think the colonial anthropologists applied it in respect to groups of people who were not yet exposed to the "outside world". So with the growing awareness of mutual intelligibility, among ethnic groups, "tribe" in their context becomes narrow and loses a sense of universality.
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I think this deconstruction should not effect in reduction of point of reference (the number of groups we could call tribes in an isolationist terms). The crux of the matter is to think about tribes in antinaturalist and relationist terms following Morton Fried (as mentioned above).
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I am trying to use this theory in my research, and I need some kind of advice on what aspects I need to focus on in the transcripts of my participants. Please share with me any books or articles that can be helpful.
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Ellen Rooney's The Cambridge Companion to Feminist Literary Theory is the most approachable guide available for both literature students and those new to field.
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Hi everyone,
As part of a project on (the postcolonial aspects of) the prediction of juvenile crime in the Caribbean, we are writing about the occurrence of silence in ethnography. We are interested in how the ethnographer's own stance and manners during fieldwork hamper the voice of participants, as well as in the postcolonial dimensions of this process. We noticed for instance that in our own study at a juvenile detention centre in Willemstad (Curacao), our own conceptions of childhood (and the way we asked questions about it) stood in the way of the young detainees to speak their mind.
Who has suggestions that can help us out with (more general) literature on the production of silences in ethnography? They would help a lot, thank you.
Kind regards,
Paul Mutsaers
Radboud University, the Netherlands
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I want to clear the postcolonial approach to read the literature. In my above-mentioned research, what are the basic (hypothetical) questions that should be addressed in research?
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How are these literary formulations themselves being reshaped along a sectarian/secular divide? In what capacity can nonviolent resistance through art combat sectarian violence on the ground?
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The analysis of the poems (al-Fusha and others) sung by Fayrouz will reveal many of these formulations, because they are collected between groups in the Arab country that suffers from sectarian differences the most. Thus art reveals this through songs, revolution poems, cinema, and sometimes novel
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we lost a large number of intellectuals, critics and writers during the years from 2003-2020.
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I believe it is imperative to work on a some form of a literary anthology to register all the literary works that depicted the turning point in the history of the country and how the American invasion of Iraq and its aftermath were portrayed in the works of Iraqi writers (dead or still alive). It is a promising and massive project but it is not an impossible task. There is a bad need for volunteers to start working on such project. It is a national obligation!
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What does the text reveal about the problematics of post-colonial identity, including the relationship between personal and cultural identity and such issues as double consciousness and hybridity?
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Try to read "Can the Subaltern Speak?" Spivak discusses the lack of an account of the Sati practice, leading her to reflect on whether the subaltern can even speak. Spivak writes about the process, the focus on the Eurocentric Subject as they disavow the problem of representation; and by invoking the Subject of Europe, these intellectuals constitute the subaltern Other of Europe as anonymous and mute. Reading Edward Said should help critics like you understanding this topic. All the best!
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hello there,
who can help me in writing as essay about a critical analysis of Kincaid’s Lucy from Postcolonial Feminist Perspective. I want a critical analysis in terms of male gaze and colonization in the novel, not a plot summary.
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Post colonial Africa influence on political behaviour
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This is a complex issue former colonies are entangling with. Any way,Africans have decolonized long a go. But the post colonial behavior shows colonialism has lingered on in different form now. It has left its imprints in different institutions then put in place by former colonial administrators. In some the colonial masters' language remained influential. In others such as French former colonies the currency system is another feature. The political system that former colonies experience these days is a copy or seem to be copy from their former masters. They are dictatorship in western democratic lipsticks. Former colonial powers pitting one group against the other in a kind of underworld approach has complicated political situations such in sub-Saharan Africa. Remember what is behind coups by military and counter coups...
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I am studying Modern English Novel, spcifically postmodern and postcolonial novel. I am very indecisive about determining a topic. Is there anybody recommending me about a topic relating with postmodern English novel? Best regards,
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(Research) companions may be a good starting point to navigate the extensive critical literature on postmodernism and/or postcolonialism, and identify the main lines of enquiry. If something captures your attention, and you develop a liking for a more specific topic or author you may want to investigate further by reading both the novels and the critical work. Then, by all means, you should discuss it with your supervisor.
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Recently, the Aymara intellectual Silvia Rivera Cusicanquí (Bolivia), has pointed out that "the decolonial is a fashion, the postcolonial a desire and the anti-colonial a struggle." Through this, she posits that in the face of the exhausted epistemological horizon of Eurocentric modernity there is a renewed interest in the knowledge that emerges in the context of the struggles for decolonization, however, there is no real political commitment on the part of scientists. The author points out: "the decolonial is a very recent fashion that, in some way, usufructs and reinterprets those processes of struggle, but I think it depoliticizes them, since the decolonial is a state or a situation but it is not an activity, it does not imply an agency, nor a conscious participation. I put the anti-colonial struggle into practice in fact, in some way, delegitimizing all forms of objectification and ornamental use of what is indigenous by the State. All of these are processes of symbolic colonization. "
I am interested in hearing and reading critical opinions about the decolonial turn in academic fashion. My question arises from some observations:
a) Epistemological violence in the social sciences that is claimed to be decolonial continues to be exercised from the Eurocentric "epistemological ratio". Where Latin America becomes a simple field of study. And where those of us who reflect from within the struggles for decolonization are erased from the map of knowledge production, since our texts are not referenced or academic extractivism is simply generated stealing local knowledge, exercising new forms of "indigenous folklorization".
b) The main references of decolonial thought are located in universities in hegemonic countries. The intellectual activists of Latin America who have a conscious ethic and struggle with social movements are excluded from the circuits of intellectual debate.
c) An important fracture of decolonial studies occurs in the defense of the Nation State and the progressive left governments of Latin America, such as Evo Morales and Maduro, and a rejection of radical left or indigenous proposals that are raised from anti-state perspectives , libertarian and autonomous.
d) The depoliticization and lack of ethics of many researchers who claim to be decolonial, who through practices of academic extractivism seek to scrutinize indigenous knowledge, have been financed with multi-million dollar research projects, financed by companies and state research corporations (Por example mitzubichi corporation), and whose impacts have contributed nothing to the struggles of those who dispute the territory.
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Speaking as an early career academic from the Global South, Africa to be specific, I think characterizing decolonial (decolonisation/decoloniality) scholarship as a fashion is very simplistic. Decolonial scholarship is a war/struggle for epistemic freedom. It is a struggle to have multiple centres of knowledge. It is about unlearning the predominantly Eurocentric forms of knowledge and methodologies in order to learn inclusive methodologies, to be able to have our own styles of writing and framing our knowledge perspectives. A lot of our knowledge and scholarship is sidelined in the knowledge industry that follows a Eurocentric script. We need to be acknowledged as centres of knowledge instead of exporters of raw data and importers of theories.
The biggest challenge we have is that we were produced by the very same Eurocentric system that has taken away our epistemic freedoms. That is why we have to continuously unlearn in order to learn. So there is agency in the decolonial scholarship, it is not fashion at all.
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Me, Nimruji (IIM Calcutta) and Gavin Jack (Australia) are co-editing a book on South Asian post-colonialism. This book is part of a series 'Managing the Post-Colony' which will be published with Springer. It is a six-volume edited book series that will present cutting-edge, critical, interdisciplinary, and geographically and culturally diverse perspectives on the contemporary nature, experience and theorization of managing and organizing under conditions of postcoloniality. Please see the concept note attached with this email.
We are soliciting chapter contributions from scholars in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives and Nepal.
If you would like to know any further information about this book, kindly reply to my message or message me privately.
Regards
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This is a very interesting topic. The context of South Aisa would bring new dimensions to this topic. I am very interested to be a part of this book project. arif_et1226@du.ac.bd
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Post colonialism and South Asia.
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You might just go through your list of references to see in which journals the more recent papers were published and perhaps look at the references in those papers too.
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I found a problematic stream in my research field (International Management), but IM doesn't usually use extensive source criticism such as humanities would. Does anyone know some research that covers fields such as:
- ideological bias of authors
- citations in inaccessible languages
- non-scientific sources (e.g. popular science)
- eclectic bibliography
I know that some textbooks for e.g. PhD students might cover this passim, but are there any journal articles that covers this? Especially interested in critical (e.g. postcolonial) views on the problems of "non-Western" sources.
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There are many scientific criticisms of scientific works, according to the approach used in the research, and the most famous curriculum in scientific research:
1- The historical approach: The critic examines the influences that influenced the scientific work, such as studying the surrounding environment, the social and cultural conditions, and the previous and contemporary events.
2 - The method of deductive or deductive: It connects the mind between the introductions and results, and between things and reasoning; on the basis of logic and mental reflection, it begins with the colleges;
3 - Inductive approach: It represents the opposite of the past; it begins with the particles, bringing them to the general laws. Experimental approach: It is the experiment that relies on the basis of research work, away from logical premises, historical conditions, or mental development
We must take care of these approaches in order to achieve accurate scientific criticism
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I actually have this question as an assignment and need to do a detailed job on it. Kindly share your ideas on this.
Thank you in expectation
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Read on Neocolonialism in Africa, it will answer your questions. The works by Claude AKE, Kwame Nkrumah, Walter Rodney, Eme Ekekwe, Austin Ekelegbe (of the Uniben), Ikena Nzimiro, Mark Anikpo, Gunder Frank, Immanuel Wallerstein, Vladmir Lenin etc, thoroughly investigates and expose colonialism and Neocolonialism.
Personally, African States are nothing but appendages of the (former) colonial capitalists of Europe and North America. The concept of the FAILED State in Africa, particularly Nigeria, should also come to your mind.
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I seek some conversations with readers of Purple Hibiscus concerning the link of Papa Eugene's violence, piety and his amazing generosity. Does his violence and stringent piety erase his generosity, or does his giving redeem his mistakes somehow and make him a flawed human being; nonetheless human? Moreover how is Papa Eugene violence linked to the violence of the military state of Nigeria of his time? I would very much appreciate to hear how other readers interpret Papa Eugene.
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Any paper being written?
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The Third World academic dependency means the dependency of ideas, technologies, theories and concepts, media of ideas, aid and investment in education to Europeans and Americans.
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In most developing countries academy productivity at almost every field of knowledge derives from public institutions, so the profile of such element is dependent of national or regional policies. 'Third wolrd' nations suffer from academy / research programs that frequently lack of idoneity, global-orientation and long-term scope. In order to overcome barriers for academy expansion a new order of policy-makers interested in elevating academic / research profile of a given country have to develop long-term planning emphasizing local priorities and global trends,
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If someone has worked or working please suggest some reading too.
Thanks.
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Nuhu Yaqub thank you so much for very interesting comment.
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One of the postcolonial issues that discussed most is the question of identity
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I highly recommend reading a book called Identity, Ethics, and Nonviolence in Postcolonial Theory: A Rahnerian Theological Assessment by Susan Abraham.
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I would like to read extensively Maghrebean novels (written in or translated to English) that can be considered as anti-colonial by showing a kind of resistance to the French colonial power & that endeavor to either show an identity crisis in this area or assert a particular identity.
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Am working on the Sahara as a connective space, rather than an unbridgeable border, or void. Therefore, sub-Saharan literature should be seen as a legitimate source for the Maghreb and vice versa. Well worth reading The Palm Wine Drinkard in the original if you can find it - another excellent work. Have plenty here that might help - will get in touch asap
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I am working on an article about teaching practices/pedagogy in peace and conflict studies, with a point of departure in a postcolonial stance, and are looking for research attending to this.
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You might check the Judith Reppy Institute for Peace and Conflict Studies at Cornell University ( http://pacs.einaudi.cornell.edu/ )
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Looking at the answers provided on the question as to the best approach to effective teaching of literature, I find that most colleagues proceed by way of theory, whether post-colonialism or structuralism, new criticism and close reading, new historicism, or some other. It seems, therefore, we are all agreed on theory as an irreplaceable instrument of reading and teaching. So the question really is one of which is the most reliable instrument. So I would ask, are there theories that apply across the board to all forms and genres, without discrimination as to time and place of origin?
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Interesting question.
On the one hand, a theory may seem to imply a universal tendency, by appearing to attend to basic, generalisable tenets. However, at the same time, most theories tend to project or delineate a particular canon of work, through which they are best able to justify their own premises.
This apparently circular process is not inevitably a vicious one, as Ricoeur explains more than once in his presentation of the "hermeneutic" cycle, in the context of his preferred theory of phenomenological hermeneutics (or if you prefer, hermeneutic phenomenology!)
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It has become commonplace to refer to colonialism, or some of its declinations such as post-colonialism or coloniality, as general terms to situate contemporary social exclusion, marginality, and resistance. This conceptual choice has the great advantage of drawing attention to historical continuities between contemporary structures and the centuries-long reproduction of structures of domination. However, is it possible that the conceptual strength of this lumping also hinders our ability to understand the specific modalities of social injustice in various contexts and in different historical moments? Is it possible that this choice leads us to conflate, for example, colonialism, imperialism, capitalism, and modernity, as an overly coherent project? Your thoughts will be most welcome!
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Such a good question! Martin Hebert points to an issue that was identified (under the term decolonization) in Tuck & Yang's (2012) article, "Decolonization is not a Metaphor." As those authors write, "Decolonization brings about the repatriation of Indigenous land and life; it is not a metaphor for other things we want to do to improve our societies and schools." Yet, as Martin pointed out, the lumping together of separate but related concepts provides authors with a convenient way to talk about a vast array of social issues with some coherence. At the same time, though, that lumping leaves authors open to criticisms about ignoring the concerns posed by capitalism, imperialism, and so forth. And as a conceptual "shorthand," it may serve as an erasure of some of the exact problems that use of a colonial or decolonizing analytic lens may strive to illuminate.
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I have been looking for application of critical theory to some Indian English texts
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Surely it would depend on whether what you want to say could be arrived at using structuralist poetics? Too often we think that 'truth' - or what we want to say - is the product of a method, a box of philosophical or literary-theoretical tools, instead of that method being the best, or inevitable or most convenient, way of expressing the insight or inspiration which pushes us to write. We make theory, not the other way round, not so?
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Specifically, can it be applied to the abuse of minorities by the powerful?
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Depends how you come at it , what you are trying to prove or disprove pease bear in mind id ego superego, race , attitude , there are always two sides to poverty and it's more deeper than empowerment i hope you can do it justice
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I am reading Homi Bhabha and ubiquity of these two terms has mystified me.
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Supplemental remark: Homi Bhabha uses many concepts from many authors, but sometimes ideas are not very clear, in my understanding, so the question must be developed within a theoretical or linguistic network of his ideas.
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please introduce me the related resources in this regard.
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In Edward W. Said’s Orientalism, he resists the notion of one human nature – as does Michel Foucault in his works. Said used a local history (of the East) to make a universal claim.
Foucault wrote genealogies of power in his analysis of institutions, but his cases were somewhat cherry-picked. Foucault believed he was seeing what others were not in his own positive unconscious. Foucault wrote a lot on ‘ruptures', as he was also interested in the idea of origins and turning points. In Beginnings: Intention and Method, Said elaborates on this issue, making a distinction between ‘origins' and ‘beginnings'.
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I'm looking for articles, books, etc.
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Dear Crystal,
If contemporary literature is what you are looking for then I would recommend the work of Ratna Kapur, which intersects the four fields you are interested in (postcolonial theory, citizenship, migration and feminism). I think the following article would be particularly elucidating since it does well in grounding the theory in concrete examples of the way in which citizenship and current policies of recognition are reminiscent of colonial discourses which interpellate migrants in India. That said, her work mainly develops in the context of law.
Kapur, Ratna. 2007. The Citizen and the Migrant: Postcolonial Anxieties, Law, and the Politics of Exclusion/Inclusion. Theoretical Inquiries in Law Vol. 8, num. 2.
In addition, the work of Tianna S. Paschel has been essential in studying from a postcolonial-oriented (without being a per se postcolonialist analysis) perspective the quest for ethnic-racial rights in Latin America. Borrowing Pierre Bordieu's methodology, she theorizes the 'becoming' of black political subjects in the region.
Paschel, Tianna. 2016. Becoming Black Political Subjects. Princeton University Press.
I have myself thoroughly studied the question of citizenship and recognition and have provided a critique of the Western liberal canon in addressing the demands for liberation of indigenous peoples in Latin America. My colleague and I published an article entitled: Epistemological Blindness or Violence: Liberal Multiculturalism and the Indigenous Quest for Autonomy (2015). This could be helpful, too.
Please let me know if I can be of any help in your project or if I can provide any more literature suggestions.
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Does anyone know of some key studies that have applied postcolonial media theory in studying how former colonial powers’ media frame news events in their former colonies? I’m working a project that looks at how French and British media frame socio-political tensions in their former colonies. I just need pointers. Thanks for your help.
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@Alejandra Gaitan-Barrera, thank you so much for your response. I am focusing on a former French and British colony in Africa. France and Britain colonized Cameroon at the same time, and now socio-political tensions (deeply rooted in the colonial history /legacies) are tearing the country apart. So I am looking at how the media in Britain and France is framing a current socio-political tension in that country.
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I'm looking for specific novels to include in a chapter on my PhD thesis, and am trying to circumvent my wild goose chase. The novels should fulfil all (if possible) or as many of the criteria below:
  • published post-1980
  • written by a woman
  • British colonial context - thematically in the text or biographically outside the text
  • Thematically concerned with London (if only partially)
No suggestion is too obvious: please make any recommendations you can think of. If you can make clear which criteria they fulfil, that would be really useful.
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Ilavenil Meena Kandasamy is a poet, fiction writer, activist and currently one of India’s boldest and most badass young voices. Most of her works are centered on feminism and the Caste Annihilation Movement of the contemporary Indian milieu. She holds a PhD in Socio linguistics and has published two anthology of poems, “Touch” and “Ms Militancy”, and a novel “The Gypsy Goddess”. Her most recent work -“When I Hit You Or A Portrait Of The Writer As A Young Wife” is a dazzling and provocative novel of an abusive marriage.
,
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I am writing a research paper for my international relations studies on theories of international relations. In this paper I analyse critique from a postcolonial perspective on the neorealist theory of nuclear weapons (how they should be able to maintain peace through a deterrent strategy). In the last part of the paper I then question whether we should from now on combine these two theories or if that combination is even possible considering that theories can not explain everything and that they are just abstractations of reality. I am looking for more literature on this matter.
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Of course you can. Theories are essentially world views or lenses through which we examine and try to make sense of something. The best researchers actively look to more than one theoretical framework for insight. I tend to prefer a social constructivist approach to the study of political phenomena, but I find value in the Critical Theory approach, neoliberalism and even realism. Together, they help me develop a deeper understanding and holistic outlook. Any academic who is so wed to a single theoretical lens that he or she cannot find value in other approaches is, in my view, stunted.
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For my theoretic paper for the Theories of International Relations course I am taking, I am writing a paper that wants to critique the Postcolonial 'anti-Western' discourse regarding the current backlog of African countries in the globalization process. I am looking for ways to incorporate the question how African Africa is and if Postcolonialism can be nuanced, furthermore I am looking for scholarly articles or other publications regarding this subject. I was wondering whether there are people out here in the field who might also have done research on this field or similar, who can help me out!
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Emma, there is so much material on what you seek. However, I am constrained as to what I can share because the best material I have found on the matter is a forthcoming book which an A-list publisher has on her stable but which I was privileged to edit. if the tenure of your research lasts till the book's content can be brought to you, I would willingly do so. I however have posers: whose world is the post-colonial world? From the World treaties to multi-lateral organisations and other global bodies that determine direction and move the world; who really controls these and how democratic is democracy?
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In this respect, radicalism associated with identity refers to any `essential` attitude that attempts to reject the `other` who is different from the self. In fact, this kind of fundamentalism has led to several civil wars as well as disintegration especially in the third world.
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In relation to 'plural and inclusive identities' and 'rejection of the 'other'' I think it is worth keeping in mind the nuances within these pluralities (see, for example, Sara Ahmed on multiculturalism and 'stranger/danger' in her book Strange Encounters 2000). I do not think we can find 'real causes,' but awareness of the histories which have inform these radicalisms linked to identity might shed light on the factors that we must pay attention to (in order to have a more fully understanding of the conflict). 
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In my own work on cultural crossing, I have tried to offer a detailed analysis of how readers experience descriptions of cultures that are not their own. Once you think about it, "culture" is an intangible and fuzzy term. Cultural studies has argued this for a long time, of course. But when we as postcolonial critics talk about cross-cultural or trans-cultural experiences, are we not tacitly simplifying the concept of culture to a point of distortion? Can we argue about any aspect of cross-cultural studies without assuming that it is possible to arrive at a definition of culture consisting of a list of characteristics? I have the impression that the only unambiguous comment about culture that can be made is that it appears to be a universal. 
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When human begins live together, as a society, in a particular area, they form several key habits and norms by which they live their life. Culture is the knowledge, language, values, customs, belief, food, attitudes, religion, morals that are passed from person to person and one generation to the next. Dominant culture consists of several sub cultures. Each sub culture provides its members with a different set of values and expectations. They share these norms with one another and collectively, this is called a culture. Culture is a collective phenomenon. Culture is a way of acting, a way of behaving; It is continually changing and dynamic. Culture is not inherited, it is learned
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I quote from the Encyclopedia Britannica on the concept of "state capture."
State capture, the domination of policy making by private, often corporate, power.
In the second half of the 20th century, the concept of state capture was used in the early critique of the pluralist theoretical framework in political science. According to pluralism, a multiplicity of interest groups prevents any particular group from being dominant. However, the counterargument was that interest groups are not equally endowed with resources. Many commentators argued that business represents a very strong power system—far stronger than any other social group or institution—that challenges and threatens to dominate public power. The term capture describes how public bureaucracies had become dominated by strong and powerful interest groups. In a context characterized by a complex multitude of interest groups, the bureaucrats tend to deal with the best-organized groups as a way of reducing complexity.
--pause quotation
The concept of pluralism employed here is what is called "interest-group pluralism," and which contrasts with alternative conception of social or cultural pluralism. It seems that continued emphasis on understanding society in terms of competing interest groups has tended to convert particular societies into configurations of contending interest groups.
The article on "state capture" continues:
State capture has been used in the critique of corporatism as well. Corporatism refers to the permanent representation of well-organized hierarchical interest groups in the state apparatus, a phenomenon that may be seen as a way of the state giving in to specific interests. Both the critics of pluralism and the critics of corporatism argue that private corporate power must be controlled by democratic institutions.
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The concept of "corporatism" is somewhat wider than may be suggested in this passage. "Corporate" elements, surely, may be public or private, and still capable of exerting undue influence on policy. For example, one may think of the "military-industrial complex" as a "corporate" element, partly public, partly private, partly popular, but capable of maintaining itself against democratic criticism by its institutional momentum and political connections. Much the same may be said of the national security state. But once we observe the role of such public agencies in terms of their political influence over policy, then a larger range of public and public-private institutions may also come to be considered, insofar as such agencies are capable of capturing policy in such a way as to ignore broader public interests.
The Britannica article also comments on "state capture" in post-colonial and post-communist societies:
In the literature on postcolonial societies, the concept of state capture refers to rulers favouring their own ethnic or regional groups rather than the nation as such; the state is thereby captured by a specific group. A weak state may be the most prone to be captured by interest groups or even by strong individuals. A relatively strong, institutionalized state may therefore be necessary in order to avoid state capture. An institutionalized party system also may be important, for where parties are weak, traditional forms of elite interaction tend to prevail, enabling elites to capture the state apparatus.
State capture has also been related to the post-communist region where it described a policy process dominated by powerful oligarchs that belonged to the old nomenklatura elite. Experts studying this phenomenon have defined state capture as a situation in which decisions are made to appease specific interests, maybe even through illicit and nontransparent private payments to public officials, rather than to suit the national interest aggregated and mediated through a democratic process. State capture takes place when the basic rules of the game are shaped by particularistic interests rather than by the aggregated national interest.
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I take it that undue emphasis on the phenomenon of interest group pluralism and interest-group competitions within any society may convert the purely descriptive approach in political science into an implicit approval of the excesses of political competitions for private and institutional gain --thus submerging the public good and broader conceptions of the public interest. But the dangers of policy capture focus critical attention on the idea of a society based on interest-group pluralism.
For the Britannica article, see:
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State capture is an ancient phenomenon and can be traced back from the current form employed by corporate interests and oligarchs through modern ideologues, medieval kings and Roman emperors to name but a few. 
Kings and dictators have been notorious throughout history for attempting to shape the state not only in their own interest but occasionally in their own image.  The concept of a legacy displays this well.  The most famous (or infamous) example being that of Louis XIV who said not only  L'Etat, c'est moi. but also Je m'en vais, mais l'État demeurera toujours.
Even in the modern state with the separation of powers concept the executive is constantly attempting to ‘capture’ control.   In the UK our Supreme Court has just ruled yet another alteration of the law ultra vires where our previous Lord Chancellor had introduced arbitrary fees, without recourse to Parliament to bring cases to tribunal.
Governments of the UK over the last several decades have made repeated attempts to push the boundaries of secondary legislation which ultimately undermines democracy in order to place political control over the legislature and the judiciary .
State capture is also very much a favourite of conspiracy theorists, who make regular assertions that the world is run by a sinister cabal of corporate interests such as The Bilderberg Group, freemasons and a whole range of imagined ‘brotherhoods’  While there is little doubt that huge corporations exert influence over government little evidence has ever emerged of these conspiracies.
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I'm interested in the language used in supposedly "objective" scientific literature and depictions of countries in the Global South, particularly in Africa. 
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Thank you Dr. Hakim Abdi for your interesting question.
And thank you also to Dr. Reza and Dr. J.C.Tiago for the answers.
I mention that 3 links doesnt work. Is it possible to reactivate them ?
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I have been asked this question several times. My answer was (more or less) that there is no real difference concerning the theoretical background - it is more about the geographical place, where the different ways of thinking were developed. The decolonial branch is Latin-american, closely tied to the "Grupo Modernidad/Decolonialidad" (even if it does not exist, as its members claim) around people such as Mignolo or Quijano. The postcolonial branch is older and has been developed in India and/or by Indians, tied to groups such as the "Subaltern Studies Group". What do you say? Is post-colonial and decolonial thinking basically the same? Is the decolonial branch a copy, an adaptation of the Indian theories?
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The obvious difference is that while both theories criticize colonial rule on the so-called "Third-World" countries, each theory emerged in different socio-historical contexts. But the more important difference is that Decolonial Theory takes on a more profound approach to Colonialism than Post-colonial Theory. Among other things, Decolonialism proposes that "Coloniality of power" (Quijano, 2000) did not end with Colonialism, that is to say,  the Modern capitalist World-system imposes a racial/ethnic classification of people around the world as a basis of its power structures, and that directly relates to the international division of labor where places like (what is now called) Latin-America take on the roll of exporting primary resources. This process goes on long after direct Imperial rule (political rule) is abolished.
Capitalism is viewed as a system that only came to exist thanks to the colonization of (what is now called) Latin-America and the exploitation of its natural resources that served as the material basis of Europe’s industrial revolution, and also thanks to the construction of an “otherness” different from the white European subject that came with colonization, interpreting capitalist power structures as a "heterachy", not like a base/superstructure system in classic Marxist Theory, nor like a cultural significance system, like in Post-structural/colonial Theory. Here, Decolonialism is influenced by, on one side, Latin-American Marxist Dependence Theory and World-system Theory, and, on the other, by Post-colonial/Post-structural discourse critique, while at the same time challenging them for being rooted in Cartesian dualism that draws a binary opposition between discourse/economy and subject/structure. Culture and political economy are always intertwined, one is not derived from the other (Castro-Gomez, 2007).
Decolonialism also proposes that Coloniality is "the other side of the coin” of the European Modenity proyect, that territories like what is now called Latin-America are not “premodern”, but rather have been included in that same Modernity proyect but in a “subalternized” (not sure if that’s the correct word for it in English) position. Modernity cannot exist without Coliniality, just like in Capitalism there cannot be a wealthy class of people without a simultaneously empoverished class, and that happens at both the national and international level.
From the critique of European Modernity from this position, emerges a critique of political, economic, social and cultural thought constructions influenced by European epistemic criteria and a call for the construction of a new epistemology "from the South". Post-colonial Studies are challenged by Decolonialism for maintaining European points of reference (the above mentioned Cartesian dualism) even though they also criticize Modernity, with authors like Santiago Castro-Gomez calling for the need to “decolonialize postcolonialism”.
There are a lot more things to say about the differences between Decolonialism and Postcolonialism (for example, Decolonialism's roll on the critique of Development Theory as a whole) but I think these are, more or less, the main elements.
PS: Rajamanickam's comment (with all due respect) is a very good example of what Decolonialism criticizes. It also shows a fair amount of ignorance of Latin-American history, or better yet, a very colonialized knowledge.
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Emphasis should be on postcolonial dramatic literature that addresses contemporary realities of any given society.  
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Dear Obiorah Ekwueme,
I am rather into prose and poetry (Heinrich von Kleist's 1811 narrative "Die Verlobung in St. Domingo") than drama, but I definitely would suggest that you read the article "Of mimicry and man: The ambivalence of colonial discourse" by Homi K. Bhabha (in his book "The Location of Culture", NY, 1994/2004). He read Fanon. Bhabha's texts are very inspiring and will help you in any postcolonial analysis.
Best regards,
MLT
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The literature I have read around 'personal identity' are very Eurocentric. It's difficult to find non- Western texts that use the categories of 'personal' and 'social' to discuss identity.
Postcolonial, decolonial and anticolonial literature seem to focus on Identities as 'multiple', 'fractured' and 'fluid' so maybe I'm searching using the wrong terminology?
Any ideas?
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You might try searching variations on "personhood" and "self", which are terms used in medical anthropology and cross-cultural psychiatry.
These authors might get you started:
Comaroff & Comaroff (2001) On Personhood: An Anthropological Perspective from Africa, Social Identities, 7:2, 267-283, DOI:10.1080/13504630120065310
Moore-Gilbert, B., 2009. Postcolonial life-writing: culture, politics, and self-representation. Routledge. https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=mkh8AgAAQBAJ&lpg=PP1&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=false
Vaughan, M., 1991. Curing their ills: Colonial power and African illness. Stanford University Press. https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=yfqkuCN_JuwC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false (Chapter 5, in particular)
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I would appreciate recommendations of short videos (available online), for teaching about International Relations theories at an introductory level, particularly on Social Constructivism and post-positivist approaches (e.g. Post-Structuralism, Post-Colonialism, Feminism). Many thanks!
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Hi Reuben!
Long time indeed… I hope all is well with you. Many thanks for the links (I knew already about the ones from Open.edu, but not the other ones).  Check these: “Theory in Action” series, including short videos with summaries of key IR theories (e.g. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UnKEFSVAiNQ); videos on IR concepts by UBC (e.g: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sjr5NuZv2e4); series “Conversations with History” including interviews with IR authors: http://conversations.berkeley.edu/
Best wishes!
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 How can we look at this issue of changing relationships keeping in view the contemporary Indian English Fiction?
i am in need of answer for this question in postcolonial perspective.
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I am a single mom. I migrated (technically I am "sojourner", but I moved here without plans to return to the US) to China with my two daughters: I am currently still in China.  From experience, it changed my relationship with my older daughter.  After we arrived and were trying to adapt to a very different culture than our own (European-Americans living in China), my older daughter really struggled to fit in at school.  She was in 6th grade.  Her difficulty to adapt is partially a function of her age and development.  Leaving her friends was very difficult.  We all grieved, leaving the US behind.  But the transition was the hardest on her.  She felt an acute social isolation-- all her school mates were Chinese.  In contrast, I have colleagues and coworkers from the US to talk to and relate to.  My younger daughter has adapted fairly easily.  The change in the relationship that happened as my daughter got progressively anxious and depressed was that she withdrew from me and shut me out.  I ended up having to make arrangements for her to move back to the US with her dad, because it got to a point where I thought she was in emotional trauma.  Not having her live with me is a huge shift in our relationship.  I cannot talk to her every day or care for her.  Previously, we were very close.  The culture shock for us was deeply felt.  My children are followed, touched, stared at.  People follow us to take our pictures.  And social mannerisms are very different than we were used to.  Feel free to connect with me and ask me personal questions.  Best wishes on your project.
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I am looking for texts that have argued that in order to achieve decolonialisation it is necessary to reject the colonial language and adopt subaltern or indigenous languages instead. I know that a major voice who has made the argument is Ngũgĩ wa Thiong'o in "decolonising the mind", but I wonder which other theorists within the subaltern/decolonization tradition have made the same argument about other contexts and languages? 
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In Aotearoa - New Zealand, perhaps this might be of interest to you: 
Skerrett, M.E. (2012) Counter colonization through Maori language revitalization in Aotearoa/New Zealand. University Park, PA, USA: 20th Reconceptualizing Early Childhood Education Conference, 4-7 Nov 2012. Access via UC Research Repository. (Conference Contributions - Full conference papers)
and
Skerrett, M. (2012) Deterritorialising geopolitical spaces and challenging neoliberal conditions through language revernacularisation in Kohanga Reo. MAI Journal 1(2): 146-153. http://www.journal.mai.ac.nz/ content/deterritorialising-geopolitical-spaces-and-challenging-neoliberal-conditions-through-languag. Access via UC Research Repository. (Journal Articles)
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Plays of Mahesh Dattani
Techniques
Themes
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Instead of talking about postcolonialism its better if we talk about neocolonialism. The times have changed and this postcolonialism does not have much effect. Rather it has taken a new form which is more required to be explored. The brain drain, diaspora, east west encounter, hybridization of culture have become more important with the changing scenario. These can also be found in Indian English drama. 
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I'm looking at philosophers who criticize the Lusophony.
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I hope it 's not too late but I suggest   that you read Miguel Vale de Almeida: 
Portugal's Colonial Complex: From Colonial Lusotropicalism to Postcolonial Lusphony. Link : http://miguelvaledealmeida.net/wp-content/uploads/2008/05/portugals-colonial-complex.pdf
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I'm conducting my PhD studies about the impact of Post-colonialism on education with special reference to Early Childhood Education. Not a lot of literature about that unfortunately. However, I would be interested in reading about Primary, Secondary or Tertiary Education and Post-colonialism if anyone has any links. I hope to conduct my fieldwork in Malta, Barbados and Granada. Any info is greatly appreciated.
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I cannot comment on the countries you mention, but in South Africa (and perhaps Zimbabwe and Zambia and elsewhere) there is a language controversy. Even today - several decades after the end of (what we might call?) colonialism - many Bantu children are still growing up with only a superficial command of their mother tongue - i.e., their knowledge of English is very much better, particularly when it comes to writing essays and reading advanced texts. The authorities in KwaZulu-Natal are trying to remedy this - but they seem to be focussing more on university undergraduates rather than on schoolchildren. Stephanie Rudwick (who is in Research Gate) has published the results of her investigations. To solve the problem, the South African government really needs to work from the bottom upwards (rather than from the top downwards) - i.e., they should be introducing rigorous and disciplined teaching of Zulu in KwaZulu-Natal primary schools... I am sure Stephanie would be glad to give you more details.
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One of my lines of investigation is the study of the processes of acculturation and education in Spanish Guinea, the current Equatorial Guinea when it was a colony of Spain. I believe that it would be interesting to be able to compare the characteristics of the colonial Spanish system to other European countries African colonies.
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Thank you, I share his point of view, but my question wa goin in the line of finding lines of investigation realized or in process in bring over of this type of studies.
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I am working on the travel books and engravings in the Age of Exploration, I am focused on the Spanish Expeditions and the vision of Nature in a colonial sense. I would like to know if anyone know about any existing study about repetition and alterity in Engraving (beyond the required reading like Derrida, Deleuze, Benjamin, etc.). Thanks!
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Estamos en contacto
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Can anyone give me some good (preferably must-reads in Political Science) works of democratization theory in postcolonial settings? Much of the major democratization theories are extracted from the Western experiences; I am looking for work that explains democratization elsewhere.
Thank you! 
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Over the past decade, three researchers (using different regime and demographic measures) have determined  that the timing of the ascent to stable liberal democracy is statistically associated with the age structure of the population.  In fact, using this theory, I published two papers in 2008/09 that predicted the rise of "one, maybe two liberal democracies" in North Africa between 2010 and 2020. Although I was laughed off the podium for making that prediction in a US State Department-sponsored event in 2008, that prediction came true this year, with Freedom House's assessment of Tunisia as "Free".  
Each author has his own narrative, yet the statistics are (I feel) very convincing.  The method is being introduced (in trials) as an early warning and planning tool.  I've attached two early publications. One is in press in J. Intel. Analysis. 
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I'm interested in thinking the criticism of Lusophony, CPLP and the Francophonie.
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Hello Diego,
Since I live in Brazil, which was a Portuguese colony until 1922, I can only comment about what I know about how Portugal dealt with the locals and what was Portugal's policy in regard to the recently discovered lands which she occupied in the 1500s.
It is beyond any doubt that after Pedro A. Cabral discovered the Brazilian territory, all Portuguese expeditions sent here had the sole purpose of exploiting the new lands' natural resources. Brazil was rich in mineral ores and precious stones. The so-called "bandeiras" had the only function to discover where they existed. Once found, specially in what became the Minas Gerais state (General Mines, the name itself says a lot), for several centuries the Portuguese court explored them and hauled that immense richness back home.
Furthermore, before the trafficking of slaves from Africa, the Portuguese colonizers enslaved the local Indians, ill-treating them as later they did the same to the black slaves brought by force to the Brazilian "fazendas" in Portuguese hands.
In fact, Brazil's independence happened because the locals, descendants of Portuguese people, but having already acquired their own national identity as "Brazilians," revolted against Portugal's exploitation, taxation and political-military occupation. And, ironically, a Portuguese ruler - Don Pedro I - declared that independence as he congregated with the locals' feelings.
Similar abuses happened in all territories (terras d'além mar) that Portugal colonized. Just as a more recent example, the Mozambican independence revolution last for 10 years (1964-1974), as a result of the frustration amongst many Mozambicans, who saw the foreign rule as a form of exploitation and mistreatment, which sole purpose was to advance Portuguese economic interests. And the Mozambican independence was reached mainly because of the Carnation Revolution in 1974, which finally ended the Salazar era and created democracy in Portugal.
Therefore, if Margarido is very critical about Lusophony, he has good reasons and many similar examples to base his criticism. I recommend you read this paper, which speaks about Angola and clarifies why Margarido is so critical about the Portuguese dealings with colonized lands:
Les Porteurs : forme de domination et agents de changement en Angola (XVIIe-XIXe siècles)
Full text found here:
Interestingly, along the last two centuries, Brazilians kept no demurs in regard to Portugal and maintained very friendly relations with the Portuguese people an attitude which persists to our days. Subliminally though, the typical Brazilian jokes about the Portuguese seem to evoke some hidden bad feelings. Something for social psychologists to study and explain :-)
Be well and good luck in your research
Tom
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Postcolonialism theory, Identity formation
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The study of sociolinguistics can be a start. The quest for authenticity in sociolinguistics extends back to the earliest precursors of the field in dialectology and anthropology. Both of these tields were founded on the belief that the scholarly gaze must be cast back from modernity to a prior time —or at least to a place out of modern Western time — in order to make sense of the modern present. In this way, authenticity as a bond to the past emerged as a quintessentially modern concept. Such a theoretical commitment to the historical continuity of past and present surfaced in somewhat different ways in each field, but in both cases this 'desire for origins' (as Frantzen 1990 terms a similar phenomenon in the history of Old English studies) led to a concerted effort to valorize via scholarship an earlier epoch imagined as directly tied to — yet irrevocably sundered from — the present day.
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I'm writing a paper on racial identity construction in the Mexican Inquisition using Bhabha as my theoretical framework. I just need a little clarification on these concepts.
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Ms Christy, understanding Homi Bhabha is a difficult job, as he is more complex than Spivak and cannot be placed in a particular paradigm. He is also known as a theoretical anarchist.  You need to understand first, Edward Said's concept of post colonial location and representation and then go beyond it.  
Let me use some simple language: The colonizer wants to control the subjects(?) colonized(!) by imparting knowledge, through surveillance and creating stereotypes.   He(may be She) cleverly leads the "natives" into his (her) "system" of administration, while pretending to incorporate the local cultural practices.  Now, the "colonized" learn gradually that  though they are in the same system of the colonizers, they are always the "other."  
Believe me, it is not that simple as I said.  You need to get into post colonial debates.
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Post colonial theory
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Post colonial theory enables to unearth the reasons behind current social reality. Be it democracy, politics, relationship between countries (like commonwealth) etc. Everywhere we can observe the impact of colonial residue. Since, decolonization has remained a 'unfinished agenda' in various aspects. This includes language, ways of knowledge generation, understanding of the reality, definitions of development, socio-economic parameters and such many more. Hence, post colonial theory can definitely be applied to examine such interactions between post colonial states.
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A great deal of valuable research has been done on the basis of Mill's work on epistemologies of white ignorance. In particular, I find Melissa Steyn's (2012) work on white ignorance among narratives from the Apartheid Archives quite illuminating. But my own interest is on the way themes of white ignorance may (or may not) be traced among university students born in or just before 1994. There are, of course, many ways of eliciting data from students, and one needs to select the most appropriate collection method in terms of one's research focus. Is anyone else (in or outside South Africa) working specifically on white ignorance among university students?
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23rd April 2014
Hi Marthinus,
I will try to give you a better answer, if time allows.
Kind regards,
Johan (JT) Nel.
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I've already considered Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness, but I may need some more material. Perhaps some Travel Literature?
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There you go Christopher!
CMENAS 520
Bibliographic Resources
on Orientalists and Orientalism
`Aqiqi, Najib. al-Mustashriqun / Najib al-`Aqiqi. Bayrut, [Matba`at al-Ittihad], 1937. (Buhr PJ 63 .A64)
-- al-Mustashriqun; bahth `an al-istishraq ladá jami` al- umam mundhu fajruh min alf `am ilá al-yawm / Najib al- `Aqiqi. [Cairo] Dar al-Ma`arif bi-Misr, [1947.] (Buhr PJ 63 .A64 1947)
`Azmah, `Aziz. Ibn Khaldun in modern scholarship : a study in orientalism / Aziz al-Azmeh. 1st ed. London : Third World Centre for Research and Pub., 1981. (D116.7.I13 A961 1981)
'Abd al-Karim, Ibrahim. al-Istishraq wa-abhath al-sira' lada Isra'il / Ibrahim 'Abd al-Karim. al-Tab'ah 1. 'Amman : Dar al-Jalil, 1993. (DS 119.7 .A13 K38)
Ackerman, Gerald M. American orientalists / Gerald M. Ackerman. (Orientalistes ; v.10.) Courbevoie : ACR, c1994. (ND 210 .A2511 1994 (FINE ARTS))
Ahmad, Laylá `Abd al-Latif. Edward W. Lane : a study of his life and works and of British ideas of the Middle East in the nineteenth century / by Leila Ahmed. London ; New York : Longman, 1978. (DS61.7.L26 A29)
Ahmad, Layla 'Abd al-Latif. Edward W. Lane : a study of his life and works and of British ideas of the Middle East in the nineteenth century / by Leila Ahmed. London ; New York : Longman, 1978. (DS61.7.L26 A29)
Ahmad, Muhammad Khalifah Hasan. Athar al-fikr al-istishraqi fi al-mujtama'at al-Islamiyah / Muhammad Khalifah Hasan Ahmad. al-Tab'ah 1. al-Qahirah : 'Ayn lil-Dirasat wa-al-Buhuth al- Insaniyah wa-al-Ijtima'iyah, 1997. (DS 36.82 .O3 A46)
Al Ahmad, Jalal. Gharb'zadigi : maqalah / Jalal Al Ahmad. Chap-i 2 ba tajdid-i nazar. Tihran : Intisharat-i Ravaq, [1978?] (DS266 .A31 1978)
-- [Gharbzadigi. English] Occidentosis : a plague from the West / Jalal Al-i Ahmad ; translated by R. Campbell ; Hamid Algar, editor. (Contemporary Islamic thought. Persian series.) Berkeley [Calif.] : Mizan Press, 1984. (DS316.4 .A323 1984)
-- [Gharbzadigi. English] Plagued by the West = (Gharbzadegi) / Jalal Al-e Ahmad ; translated from the Persian by Paul Sprachman. (Modern Persian literature series. no. 4) Delmar, N.Y. : Center for Iranian Studies, Columbia University, 1982. (DS316.4 .A323 1982)
Arberry, A. J. (Arthur John), 1905-1969. British orientalists London, W. Collins, 1943. (Buhr PJ 63 .A66)
-- Oriental essays; portraits of seven scholars. London, Allen & Unwin [1960] (PJ 63 .A67 1960)
Azm, Sadik J al-Istishraq wa-al-istishraq ma`kusan / Sadik Jalal al-Azm. al-Tab`ah 1. Bayrut : Dar al-Hadathan, 1981. (Buhr PJ63 .A75)
Badawi, 'Abd al-Rahman. Mawsu'at al-mustashriqin / 'Abd al-Rahman Badawi. al-Tab'ah 1. Bayrut : Dar al-'Ilm lil-Malayin, 1984. (PJ63 .B45)
Bahi, Muhammad. al-Fikr al-Islami al-hadith wa-silatuhu bi-al-isti`mar al- Gharbi 1975 (Buhr BP 161.2 .B15 1975)
-- al-Mubashshirun wa-al-mustashriqun. [196-] (Buhr BP 172 .B15)
Behdad, Ali Split Orientalism: the micropolitics of modern representations Of Europe's Other (England, France). 1990. (SERIALS/MICROFORMS DISS FILM 28030)
Behdad, Ali, 1961-. Belated travelers : orientalism in the age of colonial dissolution / Ali Behdad. (Post- contemporary interventions) Durham, N.C. : Duke University Press, 1994. (DS 61.6 . B441 1994)
Benjamin, Roger, 1957-. Orientalism : Delacroix to Klee / Roger Benjamin, curator and editor ; Mounira Khemir, guest curator and contributor, Photography ; Ursula Prunster, guest curator and contributor, Australian art ; Lynne Thornton, contributor. [Sydney] : Art Gallery of New South Wales, 1997. (FINE ARTS N 8217 .E8 B46 1997)
Berko, P. Peinture orientaliste = Orientalist painting / P. & V. Berko, Philippe Cruysmans ; préface de Philippe Roberts-Jones. Brussels : Editions Laconti, c1982. (FINE ARTS ND192.E48 B52)
Beyond Orientalism : the work of Wilhelm Halbfass and its impact on Indian and cross-cultural studies / edited by Eli Franco and Karin Preisendanz. (Poznan studies in the philosophy of the sciences and the humanities, 0303-8157 ; v. 59) Amsterdam ; Atlanta, Ga. : Rodopi, 1997. (B 809.8 . P88 v.59)
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Can we talk about a postcolonial archaeology?
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How very eloquent and insightful an answer, Dr. Kamal. You have gone far beyond tumor and surgery! I shall certainly go thru the "Handbook of Post-colonial Archaeology. Jane Lydon (Editor); Uzma Z. Rizvi (Editor)" to learn more about the subject!
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Colonizer’s objective of providing a Western Education was to promote cultural assimilation by introducing English way of life and English value system. Aim of such education system is to form a class of persons “Indian in colour, but English in taste, in opinion, in morals and intellect.” (Coomaraswamy A: 1946) The colonial Government and Missionary education alienated the young generations from traditional cultures, including religion, value system, language, literature, social occupational structure, and dress sense, making them “captive minds” of colonizers. (Alatas: 1974)
As long as the colonized nations follow the western education system, they will not be able to revive traditional knowledge or to safeguard cultural identity.
How can we introduce alternative forms of education? Is it practical in a world of increased globalization and homogenization?
Notes and References-
Ananda Kethish Coomaraswamy (1946) ‘Indian Culture and English Influence: An Address to Indian Students and Their Friends’, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, January 1944. New York: Orientalia. (P:31)
‘The Captive Mind’ according to Syed Hussein Alatas (1974) is ‘uncritical and imitative mind dominated by external sources, whose thinking is deflected from an independent perspective (P: 692) Quoted in Alatas, Syed Farid (2006) Alternative Discourses in Asian Social Science: Responses to Eurocentrism. New Delhi: Sage Publications (P.47)
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I think it is more than only combine knowledges, it is to decolonize the mind, recognizing the coloniality of knowlege
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There are written literatures in Amharic, Oromo, Tigringa and English Languages in Ethiopia and the mainstream in Amharic is so diversified
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Thank you very much Lourido!