Science topic

Polyploidy - Science topic

The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
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Publications related to Polyploidy (10,000)
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Background Merlin’s grass ( Isoetes , Isoetaceae, Lycopsida), is the extant remnant of the isoetalean wood-producing lycopsids that originated during the Paleozoic, possibly in aquatic or boggy habitats. Modern day species are aquatic, semi-aquatic or terrestrial and occur almost worldwide. They display little morphological variation; the lobed cor...
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Polyploid breeding is an effective way to improve ornamental traits of horticultural plants. Colchicine, an anti-mitotic agent, is widely used to induce 2n gametes in horticultural plants, allowing for the production of polyploid plants through sexual hybridization. Based on an understanding of flower bud development and meiosis in pollen mother ce...
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The prevalence of polyploidy in wild and crop species has stimulated debate over its evolutionary advantages and disadvantages. Previous studies have focused on changes occurring at the polyploidization events, including genome-wide changes termed “genome shock,” as well as ancient polyploidy. Recent bioinformatics advances and empirical studies of...
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The cosmopolitan Botrychium lunaria group belong to the most species rich genus of the family Ophioglossaceae and was considered to consist of two species until molecular studies in North America and northern Europe led to the recognition of multiple new taxa. Recently, additional genetic lineages were found scattered in Europe, emphasizing our poo...
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The Balkan Peninsula is widely acknowledged as one of the centers of European biodiversity and a major glacial refugium for plant species. Its extensive geographic heterogeneity and diverse mosaic of habitats, coupled with relatively high environmental stability over long periods, have enabled the diversification of lineages and simultaneously fost...
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Sugarcane crop constitutes one of the most vital sources of sugar and bioenergy globally; however, higher level of polyploidy makes its genome editing an intricate task. Recently, genome editing has become easier with CRISPR/Cas9 system that uses Cas9 to target sequence-specific regions and introduce double-strand breaks into the target region. Thi...
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Structural variations (SVs) are larger polymorphisms (>50 bp in length), which consist of insertions, deletions, inversions, duplications, and translocations. They can have a strong impact on agronomical traits and play an important role in environmental adaptation. The development of long-read sequencing technologies, including Oxford Nanopore, al...
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Polyploidy, a numerical alteration of the karyotype, is one of the most important mechanisms in plant speciation and diversification, but could also be detected among populations, the cytotypes. For example, Psidium cattleyanum, a polyploid complex, has chromosome numbers ranging from 2n=3x=33 to 2n=12x=132. Polyploidization causes an increase in D...
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Satureja mutica is a tetraploid and perennial semi-bushy plant cultivated for different medicinal purposes. To induce polyploidy, two-leafed seedlings were exposed to different concentrations (0.00, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 % w/v) and durations (6, 12, and 24 h) of colchicine. The seedlings were then transferred to a culture medium for recovery and propa...
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Dioecy is rare in flowering plants (5–6% of species), but is often controlled genetically by sex-linked regions (SLRs). It has so far been unclear whether, polyploidy affects sex chromosome evolution, as it does in animals, though polyploidy is quite common in angiosperms, including in dioecious species. Plants could be different, as, unlike many a...
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Solanales, an order of flowering plants, contains the most economically important vegetables among all plant orders. To date, many Solanales genomes have been sequenced. However, the evolutionary processes of polyploidization events in Solanales and the impact of polyploidy on species diversity remain poorly understood. We compared two representati...
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Meiosis is a specialized cell division during reproduction where one round of chromosomal replication is followed by genetic recombination and two rounds of segregation to generate recombined, ploidy-reduced spores. Meiosis is crucial to the generation of new allelic combinations in natural populations and artificial breeding programs. Several plan...
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In this work, we studied the generation and rising of polyploid cancer cells as a product of mechanical stress. To this purpose, MCF7 breast cancer cells were cultured on 2D ( i.e . flasks, or flat hydrogels), and in 3D milieus ( i.e . Spheroids, or immobilized within alginate-gelatin microbeads, named in this work as tumor-like microcapsules), and...
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Polyploidy, which arises from genome duplication, has occurred throughout the history of eukaryotes, though it is especially common in plants. The resulting increased size, heterozygosity, and complexity of the genome can be an evolutionary opportunity, facilitating diversification, adaptation and the evolution of functional novelty. On the other h...
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The evolution of chromosome number and ribosomal DNA (rDNA) loci number and localisation were studied in Onobrychis Mill. Diploid and tetraploid species, as well as two basic chromosome numbers, x = 7 and x = 8, were observed among analysed taxa. The chromosomal distribution of rDNA loci was presented here for the first time using fluorescence in s...
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Background: The non-proliferating polyaneuploid cancer cell (PACC) state is associated with therapeutic resistance in cancer. A subset of cancer cells enters the PACC state by polyploidization and acts as cancer stem cells by undergoing depolyploidization and repopulating the tumor cell population after the therapeutic stress is relieved. Our aim w...
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Genetic characteristics of populations can have substantial impacts on the adaptive potential of a species. Species are heterogeneous, often defined by variability at a range of scales including at the genetic, individual and population level. Using microsatellite genotyping, we characterize patterns underlying the genetic heterogeneity in marine m...
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Zanthoxylum armatum and Zanthoxylum bungeanum, known as "Chinese pepper", are distinguished by their extraordinary complex genomes, phenotypic innovation of adaptive evolution and species-special metabolites. Here, we report reference-grade genomes of Z. armatum and Z. bungeanum. Using high coverage sequence data and comprehensive assembly strategi...
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Allotetraploid cotton ( Gossypium ) species represents a model system for the study of plant polyploidy, molecular evolution, and domestication. Here, chromosome-scale genome sequences were obtained and assembled for two recently described wild species of tetraploid cotton, Gossypium ekmanianum [(AD) 6 , Ge ] and Gossypium stephensii [(AD) 7 , Gs ]...
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Malignant features such as the acquisition of metastatic ability, stemness of cells, and therapeutic resistance of cancer cells are associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) accompanied by changes in motility and morphology. Recent reports implicated that the formation of polyploid giant cancer cells (PGCCs) in human malignancy correl...
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As phylogenetic networks become more widely studied and the networks grow larger, it may be useful to “simplify” such networks into especially tractable networks. Recent results have found methods to simplify networks into normal networks. By definition, normal networks contain no redundant arcs. Nevertheless, there may be redundant arcs in network...
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Asexual reproduction is assumed to lead to the accumulation of deleterious mutations (Mullers ratchet), and reduced heterozygosity due to the absence of recombination. Panagrolaimid nematodes display different modes of reproduction. Sexual reproduction through distinct males and females, asexual reproduction through parthenogenesis found in the gen...
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Somatic polyploidization, an adaptation by which cells increase their DNA content to support cell and organ growth, is observed in many mammalian cell types, including cardiomyocytes. Although polyploidization is beneficial in many contexts, progression to a polyploid state is often accompanied by a loss of proliferative capacity. Recent work sugge...
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Somatic polyploidization often increases cell and organ size, thereby contributing to plant biomass production. However, as most woody plants do not undergo polyploidization, explaining the polyploidization effect on organ growth in trees remains difficult. Here we developed a new method to generate tetraploid lines in poplars through colchicine tr...
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Polyploidy is an important generator of evolutionary novelty across diverse groups in the Tree of Life, including many crops. However, the impact of whole-genome duplication (WGD) depends on the mode of formation: doubling within a single lineage (autopolyploidy) versus doubling after hybridization between two different lineages (allopolyploidy). R...
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Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is a special crop plant that underwent anthropogenic evolution from a wild grass species to an important food, fodder, and energy crop. Unlike any other grass species which were selected for their kernels, sugarcane was selected for its high stem sucrose accumulation. Flowering in sugarcane is not favored since flowering...
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Polyploidization, whereby an organism inherits multiple copies of the genome of their parents, is an important evolutionary event that has been observed in plants and animals. One way to study such events is in terms of the ploidy number of the species that make up a dataset of interest. It is therefore natural to ask: How much information about th...
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Cenchrus ciliaris is an apomictic, allotetraploid pasture grass widely distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions of Africa and Asia. In this study, we aimed to investigate the genomic organization and characterize some of the repetitive DNA sequences in this species. Due to the apomictic propagation, various aneuploid genotypes are found,...
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Background Interspecific postzygotic reproduction isolation results from large genetic divergence between the subgenomes of established hybrids. Polyploidization immediately after hybridization may reset patterns of homologous chromosome pairing and ameliorate deleterious genomic incompatibility between the subgenomes of distinct parental species i...
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Fouquieriaceae consists of a single genus Fouquieria with eleven species occurring in arid and semiarid regions in Mexico and the southwestern USA. A recently developed phylogeny based on chloroplast DNA sequences provided strong support for the monophyly of the genus and the evolutionary species relationships. However, details of its evolutionary...
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Species radiations, despite immense phenotypic variation, can be difficult to resolve phylogenetically when genetic change poorly matches the rapidity of diversification. Genomic potential furnished by palaeopolyploidy, and relative roles for adaptation, random drift and hybridisation in the apportionment of genetic variation, remain poorly underst...
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A high-quality transcriptome is required to advance numerous bioinformatics workflows. Nevertheless, the effectuality of tools for de novo assembly and real precision assembled transcriptomes looks somewhat unexplored, particularly for non-model organisms with complicated (very long, heterozygous, polyploid) genomes. To disclose the performance of...
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The development of multiple chromosome-scale reference genome sequences in many taxonomic groups has yielded a high-resolution view of the patterns and processes of molecular evolution. Nonetheless, leveraging information across multiple genomes remains a significant challenge in nearly all eukaryotic systems. These challenges range from studying t...
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Polyploid induction is of utmost importance in horticultural plants for the development of new varieties with desirable morphological and physiological traits. Polyploidy may occur naturally due to the formation of unreduced gametes or can be artificially induced by doubling the number of chromosomes in somatic cells. In this experiment, a protocol...
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An evaluation of the ameliorative effect of pomegranate peel extract (PPE) in counteracting the toxicity of iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3-NPs) that cause hepatic tissue damage is focused on herein. Forty male albino mice were haphazardly grouped into four groups as follows: the first control group was orally gavage daily with physiological saline...
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Unisexual animals are commonly found in some polyploid species complexes, and most of these species have had a long evolutionary history. However, their method for avoiding genomic decay remains unclear. The polyploid Carassius complex naturally comprises the sexual amphidiploid C. auratus (crucian carp or goldfish) (AABB) and the gynogenetic amphi...
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Phylogenomics and Systematics of Overlooked Mesoamerican and South American Polyploid Broad-Leaved Festuca Grasses Differentiate F. sects. Glabricarpae and Ruprechtia and F. subgen. Asperifolia, Erosiflorae, Mallopetalon and Coironhuecu (subgen. nov.) Abstract: Allopolyploidy is considered a driver of diversity in subtribe Loliinae. We investigate...
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Background: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) oncomodulation, molecular mechanisms, and ability to support polyploid giant cancer cells (PGCCs) generation might underscore its contribution to oncogenesis, especially breast cancers. The heterogeneity of strains can be linked to distinct properties influencing the virus-transforming potential, cancer typ...
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Murine trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) have shaped placental research by providing resources for investigating trophoblast subtype specialization. Trophoblast giant cells (TGCs) are large polyploid cells, which undergo repetitive rounds of DNA replication without intervening mitosis by a process called endoreduplication. Endocrine and paracrine funct...
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In this research, the production of superior genotypes via the polyploidy induction method in two citrus species involved the tissue culture of stem nodal segments of Mexican lime and sour orange. The variables included various concentrations of colchicine (0, 125 and 250 mg L⁻¹), which were added to the MS medium, and different durations of exposu...
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The current global platelet supply is often insufficient to meet all the transfusion needs of patients, in particular for those with alloimmune thrombocytopenia. To address this issue, we have developed a strategy employing a combination of approaches to achieve more efficient production of functional megakaryocytes (MKs) and platelets collected fr...
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Invertase (INV, EC3.2.1.26) is involved in carbohydrate partitioning by irreversibly hydrolyzing sucrose into fructose and glucose. INV genes that are specifically expressed in anthers are closely related to male fertility but they have not been identified in wheat. In this study, we identified 130 INV genes in wheat with uneven distributions on 21...
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Abscisic acid (ABA) is a vital stress hormone of plants in coping with adverse environmental conditions, such as drought stress. Sensitivity of seed germination to exogenous ABA treatment could be linked to varied drought stress responses in different plant species. Polyploid and outcrossing nature of alfalfa makes it an extensive reservoir of gene...
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The potential of whole genome duplication to increase plant biomass yield is well-known. In Arabidopsis tetraploids, an increase in biomass yield was accompanied by a reduction in lignin content and, as a result, a higher saccharification efficiency was achieved compared with diploid controls. Here, we evaluated whether the results obtained in Arab...
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Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is one of the important pulse crop in India, having chromosome number is 2n=24 and family is Leguminaceae. Peas are a valuable vegetable for vegetarians and fruits and seeds, both green and mature, are rich in starch, proteins. Mutation is the ultimate source creating variation and Breeder always want wider variability among...
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Combinations of correlated floral traits have arisen repeatedly across angiosperms through convergent evolution in response to pollinator selection to optimize reproduction. While some plant groups exhibit very distinct combinations of traits adapted to specific pollinators (so-called pollination syndromes), others do not. Determining how floral tr...
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Sources of new genetic variability have been limited to existing germplasm in the past. Wheat has been studied extensively for various agronomic traits located throughout the genome. The large size of the chromosomes and the ability of its polyploid genome to tolerate the addition or loss of chromosomes facilitated rapid progress in the early study...
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Background The metabolic engineering of high-biomass crops for lipid production in their vegetative biomass has recently been proposed as a strategy to elevate energy density and lipid yields for biodiesel production. Energycane and sugarcane are highly polyploid, interspecific hybrids between Saccharum officinarum and Saccharum spontaneum that dif...
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Oil-body-membrane proteins (OBMPs) are essential structural molecules of oil bodies and also versatile metabolic enzymes involved in multiple cellular processes such as lipid metabolism, hormone signaling and stress responses. However, the global landscape for OBMP genes in oil crops is still lacking. Here, we performed genome-wide identification a...
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Breeding for dwarfism is an important approach to improve lodging resistance. Here, we performed comparative analysis of the phenotype, transcriptome, and hormone contents between diploids and tetraploids of poplar 84K (Populus alba × P. glandulosa). Compared with diploids, the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and gibberellin (GA3) contents were increase...
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Grapevine (Vitis spp.) is one of the most important socio-economically important plants in the global scale, and the need for its breeding is increasing. In viticulture, mutation is more promising than crossbreeding in breeding new genotypes from natural genetic diversity. Polyploid plants outperform their diploid relatives in several respects. In...
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Polyploid cells demonstrate biological plasticity and stress adaptation in evolution; development; and pathologies, including cardiovascular diseases, neurodegeneration, and cancer. The nature of ploidy-related advantages is still not completely understood. Here, we summarize the literature on molecular mechanisms underlying ploidy-related adaptive...
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Polyploidy is widespread as evident from many species of eukaryotes like animals, plants, and lower unicellular eukaryotes, but in strong contrast, prokaryotes are believed to be monoploid/ haploid and contain a single copy of the genome in the form of the small circular chromosome. There are some exceptions to monoploidy like D. radiodurans, Borre...
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The induction of 2n pollen is an important technique for breeding polyploid plants. Here, we observed meiosis in the pollen mother cells (PMCs) of six Phalaenopsis cultivars and attempted to induce 2n pollen. The meiotic stage was related to flower bud length. During meiosis, Phalaenopsis cultivars with flower widths of approximately 20–40 mm and 5...
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Structural chromosome rearrangements involving translocations, fusions and fissions lead to evolutionary variation between species and potentially reproductive isolation and variation in gene expression. While the wheats (Triticeae, Poaceae) and oats (Aveneae) all maintain a basic chromosome number of x =7, genomes of oats show frequent intergenomi...
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Polyploidy, defined as the coexistence of three or more complete sets of chromosomes in an organism’s cells, is considered as a pivotal moving force in the evolutionary history of vascular plants and has played a major role in the domestication of several crops. In the last decades, improved cultivars of economically important species have been dev...