Science topic

Polyploidy and Hybridization - Science topic

Polyploidy is a major evolutionary process in eukaryotes—particularly in plants and, to a less extent, in animals, Fungi and Chromalveolata. Polyploidization and hybridization are closely interrelated processes: allopolyploidy necessarily arises through interspecific hybridization associated with genome doubling, while although autopolyploidy may arise without intraspecific hybridization (i.e. only through genome doubling), many autopolyploids also originated through intra-specific hybridization.
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Publications related to Polyploidy and Hybridization (42)
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DNA markers are an essential tool for the detection and evaluation of genetic variations, a central theme in genetics and biology. Effective markers must be highly reproducible, polymorphic, accurate and efficient to profile. We developed multiple dispersed nucleotide polymorphism (MNP) DNA marker and an efficient MNP genotyping method called MNP-S...
Article
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Background 2n pollen play a strong competitive role in hybridization and breeding of multiploids in Rosa hybrida. The ploidy inheritable characteristic of ‘Orange Fire’ × ‘Old Blush’ were analyzed. Result The results of the cytological observations indicated that 2n pollen developed from the defeated cytoplasmic division or nuclear division in the...
Article
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Nucleolar dominance is related to the expression of 45S rRNA genes inherited from one progenitor due to the silencing of the other progenitor’s rRNA genes. To investigate nucleolar dominance associated with tetraploidization, we analyzed the changes regarding the genetic traits and expression of 45S rRNA genes in tetraploidy hybrid lineage includin...
Article
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Cotoneaster Medik. (Rosaceae, Maloideae) is distributed in Europe, North Africa, and temperate areas of Asia except Japan. Members of the genus exhibit considerable morphological variation. The infrageneric classification is also obscured by polyploidy, hybridization, and apomixis. In this study, phylogenetic analyses were conducted to test infrage...
Chapter
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In a very general sense, hybrid can be understood to be any organism that is the product of two (or more) organisms where each parent belongs to a different kind. For example; the offspring from two or more parent organisms, each belonging to a separate species (or genera), is called a “hybrid”. “Hybridity” refers to the phenomenal character of bei...
Article
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The fern genus Cheilanthes (Pteridaceae) has perplexed taxonomists for more than two centuries. Complex patterns of evolution involving rampant morphological convergence, polyploidy, hybridization, and apomixis have made the taxonomy of this group especially difficult. Fortunately, recent phylogenetic analyses have helped to clarify relationships a...
Article
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Rye (Secale cereale) is closely related to wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare). Due to its large genome (∼8 Gb) and its regional importance, genome analysis of rye has lagged behind other cereals. Here, we established a virtual linear gene order model (genome zipper) comprising 22,426 or 72% of the detected set of 31,008 rye gene...
Article
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Polyploidy, hybridization, and agamospory have been considered important mechanisms in fern speciation. By integrating the methods of cytology, molecular phylogeny, and morphology, we examined the origins of polyploid species in the Pteris cretica group, which comprises five agamosporous taxa and six sexual species. Phylogenetic analysis was conduc...
Article
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The present paper reviews mechanisms producing complicated patterns of variation withinHieracium subgen.Pilosella. The taxonomic complexity of this subgenus is due to highly variable basic species and intermediate (hybridogenous) species. The most important sources of variation are polyploidy, hybridization and (mostly) facultative apomixis of the...
Article
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Small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs), small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), and trans-acting siRNAs (ta-siRNAs), mediate gene expression and epigenetic regulation. While siRNAs are highly diverged, miRNAs and ta-siRNAs are generally conserved but many are differentially expressed between related species and in interspecific hybrids and allopolyploid...
Article
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Premise of the study: The evolutionary history of Leucaena has been impacted by polyploidy, hybridization, and divergent allopatric species diversification, suggesting that this is an ideal group to investigate the evolutionary tempo of polyploidy and the complexities of reticulation and divergence in plant diversification. Methods: Parsimony- a...
Chapter
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Aloe vera is a medicinal plant used since ancient times and cultivated in many warm regions of the world. A large amount of active ingredients and therapeutic properties are known in A. vera; however, research for genetic improvement is recent and limited by the form of vegetative propagation. The low genetic variability of A. vera has been overcom...
Article
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The complex study, including allozyme variability and cytometry of hybrid populations of green frogs Pelophylax esculentus (L., 1758) complex has confirmed that the only region of Ukraine where allodiploid are encountered frequently is the Severski Donets basin (9% of all hybrids). In other areas, only two polyploidy hybrids (0.9%) and one probably...
Article
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Variation in genome size in a particular taxonomic group can reflect different evolutionary processes including polyploidy, hybridization and natural selection but also neutral evolution. Using flow cytometry, karyology, ITS sequencing and field surveys, the causes of variation in genome size in the ecologically and morphologically diverse high-And...
Article
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Deciphering species relationships and hybrid origins in polyploid agamic species complexes is notoriously difficult. In this study of cheilanthoid ferns, we demonstrate increased resolving power for clarifying the origins of polyploid lineages by integrating evidence from a diverse selection of biosystematic methods. The prevalence of polyploidy, h...
Article
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Genetic improvement of grain amaranth requires great deal of research for analysis of plant structure, developing suitable plant type, formulation of rational plant breeding approach, restructuring of plant by polyploidy, hybridization to generate genetic variation and new combinations. Additional resources are needed to initiate and expand applied...
Article
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Polyploidy, hybridization and variation in mating systems are central issues for a deeper understanding of animal evolution. The Iberian species Squalius alburnoides represents an example combining all three phenomena. Previous studies showed that S. alburnoides populations are mainly composed of triploid and diploid hybrid forms (mainly females),...
Article
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Arenaria sect. Plinthine is an easily distinguishable morphologically cohesive group encompassing 14 species and five additional subspecies. To explore phylogenetic relationships and search for phylogeographic patterns in a group that is restricted to the western Mediterranean, independent and combined analyses of four datasets (morphological chara...
Article
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An open access copy of this article is available from the publishers website. Evolution in the genus Pratia (Campanulaceae) has been studied using a variety of techniques. The distribution of chromosome races in P. angulata has been plotted and results suggest that although they generally occupy different geographic areas there are large areas of o...
Article
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The Hawaiian endemic mints constitute a major island radiation, displaying a remarkable diversity of floral, fruit, and vegetative features. Haplostachys and Phyllostegia have flowers associated with insect pollination, whereas Stenogyne has flowers typical of bird pollination. The three genera had been thought to be closely related to East Asian m...
Article
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Analyses of meiotic and mitotic chromosomes were undertaken in 16 taxa of Echinocereus belonging to 12 species and all seven taxonomic sections (sensu Taylor). Chromosome numbers are reported for the first time for eight taxa, and previously published chromosome counts are confirmed for the remaining eight. Both diploid and polyploid counts were ob...
Thesis
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Chromosome numbers and karyotypes were determined in 16 taxa of Echinocereus belonging to 12 species and all seven taxonomic sections (sensu Taylor). Chromosome numbers are reported for the first time for eight taxa, and previously published chromosome counts are confirmed for the remaining eight. Both diploid and polyploid counts were obtained. El...
Article
To increase the volume of production of vegetable protein feeds, meadow clover plays an important role. In the conditions of Western Siberia, a late-ripening variety based on the diploid SibNIIK 10 was created by the polycross method. Together with the Federal Research Center "VIK named after V.R. Williams", as a result of a combination of mutagene...
Article
At the present stage of science development, breeding of new varieties of plants using modern, including molecular methods, is one of the main links in the intensification of the agricultural industry. Rye is no exception in this respect. This is a traditional strategic crop for Belarus, that largely determines the country’s food security. In the p...
Thesis
Salinity is a critical challenge facing productivity of crops around the world, causing major reduction in growth, yield, and quality. It is necessary to produce varieties with the ability to tolerate salinity. However, the lack of genetic variation among H. vulgare genotypes prevents progress in developing salt tolerant varieties. H. bulbosum is a...
Article
Background: Species in the genus Morus (Moraceae) are deciduous woody plants of great economic importance. The classification and phylogenetic relationships of Morus, especially the abundant mulberry resources in China, is still undetermined. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions are among the most widely used molecular markers in phylogenetic...
Article
Parthenogenesis, the development of unfertilized eggs resulting in the exclusive production of female offspring, is rare in animals relative to sexual reproduction and is mainly reported in invertebrates. It has been hypothesized that polyploidy, hybridization and endosymbiont infections are its major causal events but the mechanisms triggering ase...
Article
For creating new cultivars of red clover it is necessary to use traditional and modern methods: polyploidy, mutagenesis, heterosis and ecological breeding. These methods have been used in breeding for a long time, but it was necessary to modify them to the cultivation of red clover considering its biological fea-tures (perennity, length of vegetati...
Article
Dogroses represent an exceptional system for studying the effects of genome doubling and hybridization: their asymmetrical meiosis enables recombination in bi-parentally inherited chromosomes but prevents it in maternally inherited ones. We employed fluorescent in situ hybridization, genome skimming, amplicon sequencing of genomic and cDNA as well...
Preprint
The genomes of newly formed natural or artificial polyploids may experience rapid gene loss and genome restructuring. In this study, we obtained tetraploid hybrids (4n=148, 4nJB) and triploid hybrids (3n=124, 3nJB) derived from the hybridization of two different subfamily species Carassius cuvieri (♀, 2n = 100, JCC) and Megalobrama amblycephala (♂,...
Article
Polyploidization and hybridization are the key components in plant evolution leading to the formation of new species/cultivars with improved traits. Allium L. (Amaryllidaceae) is an economically important genus encompassing great diversity in various morphological characters, particularly in its life forms along with bulbs and rhizomes. The convent...
Article
Diploid and triploid hybrids of large yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea, Pc) and Miiuy croaker (Miichthys miiuy, Mm) were produced by interspecific hybridization. The result showed that Pc (♀) and Mm (♂) can be successfully crossed and hybrid offspring of normal hatch rate were produced. In contrast, a lower fertilize and hatch rate were produce...
Article
Polyploidy, hybridization, and agamospory have been considered important mechanisms in fern speciation. By integrating the methods of cytology, molecular phylogeny, and morphology, we examined the origins of polyploid species in the Pteris cretica group, which comprises five agamosporous taxa and six sexual species. Phylogenetic analysis was conduc...
Article
A general survey on the basis of nr and cpDNA demonstrates that Achillea (incl. Otanthus) is monophyletic. Relevant for the Bulgarian flora are the Achillea sections Anthemoideae and Achillea (=Millefoium, incl. Filipendu/inae) with 3+ 16 species. New country records are A. kotschyi and A. asplenifolia. Surveys of available and new information on c...
Article
In order to predict how species will respond to global climate change, scientists must understand the relationships between traits, fitness, environments and distributions. Niche theory provides a useful framework. Niche breadth describes the range of environmental conditions necessary for population growth. Among these conditions, climate is espec...
Article
The following aspects of Asphodelus karyology are analysed: base number, polyploidy, chromosome size, chromosome morphology, satellited chromosomes, structural heteromorphism, karyotype asymmetry and karyotype evolution. The base number 0 ×= 14 is common to all species except for A. refractus, which has the derived ×= 13. Three ploidy levels occur,...
Article
A comprehensive introduction to vascular plant phylogeny, the Third Edition of Plant Systematics reflects changes in the circumscription of many orders and families to represent monophyletic groups, following the most recent classification of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. The taxonomic evidence described includes data from morphology, anatomy, em...
Article
Amelanchier obovalis and A. canadensis (Rosaceae: Maloideae) are similar taxa with overlapping geographical ranges on the Atlantic Coastal Plain of the United States. Conflicting circumscriptions, polyploidy, hybridization, and agamospermy may have contributed to the taxonomic confusion in these species. In this study I perform a morphometric exami...
Article
In the early 1930s, the synthesis of Darwinian natural selection, mutation, and Mendelian genetics gave rise to the paradigm of ‘modern Darwinism’, also known as ‘neo-Darwinism’. This has contributed greatly to our understanding. But increasing knowledge of other mechanisms, including endosymbiosis, genetic and genomic duplication, polyploidy, hybr...
Article
The family Brassicaceae is well known for its large variation in chromosome numbers, common occurrence of polyploids and many reports of interspecific gene flow. The present review summarizes studies from the past decades on polyploidization and hybridization events, recognizing them as important evolutionary forces in the family. Attention is draw...
Chapter
Sympatric and parapatric speciation refer to the origin of species in the absence of complete geographic isolation between the diverging taxa. Until recently, most biologists believed that geographic isolation was an obligatory stage in the development of most species, i.e. most species originated in allopatry. However, new empirical and theoretica...