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Polymeric Biomaterials - Science topic

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in some journals it is given as density increases? is it rite
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Density decrease as I found many studies
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Tried low MW PEG for example, PEG 200. Had very good results but its viscosity is still much higher than the acceptable range.
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how to decrease viscosity of oil dispersion agrochemical
sample ?
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In the leaching process,Why does NaCl settle despite sieving?
How can we understand how much solvent the system needs?
And, how can enhance the mechanical strength in this process and find the optimum solvent?
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Dear Hamta Kordbacheh; I believe this source may be helpful
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Project is based on biodegradable materials.
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Actually in order to know that one of the important things is the properties of polymer you use. And as you said you are asking it for "bone regeneration" you cannot know it without doing preliminary experiments either in vitro or in vivo or both. Your question is is so wide and "unknown"
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Hi. I was able to synthesize hydrogel by crosslinking polyvinyl alcohol with borax and by reinforcing with a filler (silica from rice husks and cellulose). One week after my synthesis, however, the gels became dehyrdated and turned into a thin film.  How can I avoid this?
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Dear Ruth,
The best way to prevent hydrogels from dehydration is to keep it in a sealed container at the low-temperature condition. If you want to keep it for a long time you may consider adding extra water to the container and weight the hydrogel every couple of days.
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I'm trying to make PCL aligned fibers.
I've tried to adjust voltage, flow rate and needle-collector distance.
Parameters :
- 15% PCL in acetone (weight/volume)
- Needle-collector distance: 5 to 20 cm
- Voltage: 5 to 20 kV
- Flow rate : 1 to 10 mL/h
- Rotating speed: 500 to 2400 rpm
I manage to get fibers (at the lowest rotation speed) but they are not aligned.
I've tried to reduce flow rate, but still the rotation speed is too low and thus fibers are not aligned enough.
Above 500 rpm I can't manage to get a Taylor cone, and the droplet/jet constantly moves and solidifies.
I've read publications using similar parameters to mine and getting aligned fibers, what am I missing ?
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Thank you very much to both of you for your help.
Changing the solvent is not an option, but I will try to wrap the drum with aluminium to see if it makes a difference.
Otherwise I've managed to get fibers at 2000 rpm using lower concentration, and playing around with voltage. They are not perfect yet but it's getting better. Thanks again!
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Hi everyone, I'm currently working on bone-targeting polymeric nanoparticles for treatment of osteoporosis. Just wondering what kind of human osteoblast (or other bone cells) are best suitable for the cytotoxicity test. I've bought primary human osteoblast from sigma but found it growing extremely slowly. I've also tried MG-63 cells but it was criticised as a cancer cell (not suitable for examination of nanoparticles cytotoxicity). Is there a human osteoblast cell line that is not cancer cells and growing fast? Could anyone give me a clue? Thank you very much!
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This line might be worth exploring https://www.atcc.org/Products/All/CRL-11372.aspx
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I haven't found much literature on wound assays performed on an electrospun scaffold, was wondering if anyone is currently trying to optimise or successfully have done?
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I have been trying to find an answer to your orignial question, with no luck. Did you happen to find a solution?
Kind Regards,
Nick
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Is it possible, a rigid or flexible foam be OK during the producing procedure but after long time, during the using or utilizing, it shows undesirable properties?
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Yes, as stated earlier, they do break down over time. esp if exposed to physical stresses, air or light. When sealed in air-tight, light proof areas, the degradation process may be very slow (depends on the exact polymeric foam mix used and intended application). As long as the foams are not subject to compression or physical force, their physical properties should be fine for most applications.
Examples:
  • In insulation applications the goal is to trap air pockets. Under normal conditions, the foams are not subject to mechanical stresses.
  • For a sofa cushion, they are subject to physical compression in use. This results in break down of the foam over time requiring replacement.
Over time, their insulating values usually drop a bit and this type of information is published/documented from different foam suppliers.
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I have accessibility to a cheap source of plexiglass scraps. I am thinking to a recycling projects and producing new products based on PMMA recycling. What is your suggestion for PMMA recycling? What can we make from recycled plexiglass which has both economic value and innovation??
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PMMA cannot be easily recycled & it is not usually collected for such a purpose. Recycling a plastic proceeds if it is worthwhile doing in regard of cost & ease of processing and getting reasonable profit after the effort that is done.
It is possible to get the methyl methacrylate monomer from PMMA solid waste by depolymerization but this process is energy-intensive.
It is unfortunate that there is no relevant research on "facile" recycling of PMMA although PMMA is almost non-biodegradable as a waste. In some places, they try to get rid of it by pyrolysis.
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I work with polymeric nanoparticles,
they have about 0,1 polidispertion index,
but the distribution is from 60 to 456 nm.
In this case, can I use Z-average result or just diameter average?
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Z-average and polydispersity index (PDI) values are two important parameters for DLS analysis. Since your samples have low PDI values (below 0.3) which indicates nearly monodisperse samples, then z-average can be used. Z-average provides a reliable measurement of the average size of a particle distribution for monodisperse samples.
However, if the samples are too polydisperse, then z-average will not be reliable. In that case, size distribution analysis would be a better option.
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In reference to the fish collagen what is technical difference between the fish collagen, hydrolysates of fish skin collagen and Fish Collagen Peptides in terms of physical and chemical properties.
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Hello Zohaib
The isolation of collagen from fish skin is a good opportunity for seafood industries to convert their waste into a valuable product for which there is a global demand. Generally, the collagen extraction from skin fish comprises three steps consisting of acid or alkaline treatment followed by extraction, and purification. Collagen is a triple helix macromolecule with an average molecular weight of 300kDa, composed of three chains of polypeptides known as α-chains that folded around each other. During hydrolysis, the protein breaks into smaller peptides known as hydrolysate, which is more accessible for different human body physiological functions. A number of different techniques such as autolysis and thermal or enzymatic hydrolysis have been used for the production of fish byproduct hydrolysates. Nevertheless, enzymatic hydrolysis is recognised as the most economical approach for recovery of proteins from fish processing waste and the protein hydrolysate from this method is a peptide mixture
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Hello!
What is the best solvent for Polyactivetm polymer (77 wt % of PEO (1500 g/mol) and 23 wt % of PBT)?
I should make at least 3 wt.% solution to cover PSF support. So the solvents shouldn't affect polysulfone. Any suggestions?
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 I might try DMF/EtOH/H2O
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free radical polymerization using PEG-ABCPA as macroinitiator
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Thanks Amin Shavandi for the papers and suggestion. i will look into that. thanks again.
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Hi
We're just trying to fabricate PVA/Chitosan & PEO/Chitosan electrospun fibers. The used solutions were:
Chitosan Solution:1wt% chitosan in 5% v/v glacial acetic acid
PVA Solution:5wt% PVA in distilled water
PEO Solution: 1wt% PEO in 5% v/v glacial acetic
Subsequently, the solutions were blended in order to obtain different proportions of PVA/Chitosan & PEO/Chitosan solutions.
The problem is that we couldn't obtain any fibers and we have just observed some particles on the collector.
We think that the viscosity of our solutions are so low and this problem is because of low concentration of chitosan in the initial solution. But firstly, as a lot of references have reported, we made a 3wt% chitosan in 5% v/v glacial acetic acid. The prepared solution was so viscose that we couldn't even stir it and it was like a solid gel.
We are using medium molecular weight chitosan with the molecular weight of 190,000-310,000.
What is the solution?
Thank you very much in advance
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As you said, because of the viscosity increased after increasing of chitosan concentration you may choose appropriate state of solution by varying its amount there. Just try to decrease it as 2% or even 1.5% in the mixture.
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.if we add before then there might be chances of denaturation due to composite synthesis at high temperature?
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thank you mam
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The polymer consists of lysins
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Dear all,
I don't know how sampling is done (from mice blood), but I think it is quite easy to follow the products that result from this degradation by spectroscopic and/or chemical titration of simple amino acids for exemple. Regards
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I have created oil in water emulsions and have performed a particle size analysis using a Zetasizer Nano series. I'm getting the units d[4:3] "volume moment mean" and I don't understand the physical meaning of this unit. I realise that this is "weighted" towards the volume distribution, but in that case why not use d[3:0]? Hope you can help :)
Best Regards
Frederik 
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Take a look at the attached.  And this:
February 16th, 2017 Basic Principles of Particle Size Analysis http://tinyurl.com/zo6mfgz
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why is polyacrylamide hydrogel cant be considered as superabsorbent polymer while copolymer polyacrylamide can be considered superabsorbent polymer?
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Light crosslinked Polyacrylamide gel is flexible enough to swell in water.
However:
-the functional groups in the polymer chain should undergo protonation/deprotonation at mild conditions, commonly in aqueous media.
- The similar ions on the polymer chains repelling each other help the gel to expand and uptake enough solution.
- In addition, there should be a driving force to uptake the solvent to higher extents. The driving force is provided by addition of a salt in to the polymer matrix. When water diffuses into the gel, dissolution of the salt results in osmotic pressure. This pressure acting as a driving force uptakes much more water.
To give these characteristics/features to polyacrylamide gel it should be co-polymerized with other monomers such as acrylic acid.
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Is there any non toxic electroactive biodegradable polymer or oligomer beside aniline oligomers? specifically for tissue engineering
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Yes of course, 
Researchers have begun to address the cytotoxic degradation products of these polymers seen in vitro, via the synthesis of oligoaniline analogues with reduced toxicities.
Polylactide; 
Oligothiophene and polyethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT):
"Alternatively, biodegradable electroactive hydrogels have been synthesized via aniline pentamer (AP) grafting gelatin (GA) [113]. In this case, hydrophobic pentamers alter the porous structure of the protein-based hydrogel without affecting cytotoxicity, which is strictly related to biocompatible properties of the gelatin structure. More recently, conductive hydrogels have been synthesized by the grafting of polyaniline and gelatin macromolecules at physiological conditions [114]. The gelation time, swelling ratio and degradation time have been easily tuned by an accurate selection of polymer ratios and genipin content, thus promoting great adhesion and proliferation of osteoblasts and C2C12 myoblast cells, for muscle skeletal tissue repair." more on:  http://www.mdpi.com/2073-4360/8/5/185/pdf
a variety of proteins and polysaccharides , Aliphatic polyester, Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL); a review on these issues: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4341840/pdf/nihms664191.pdf
5,5"'bishydroxymethyl-3,3"'-dimethyl-2,2':5',2":5",2"'-quaterthiophene-co-adipic acid polyester (QAPE) is nontoxic to Schwann cells: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2633937/
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My solution is Polycapralactone blended in some single and binary solvents. I would like to measure the surface tension with a volume of 1-5ml.
Wilhelmy plate method requires 20-40ml and I cannot use the pendant drop method since my solvents are volatile. Therefore, time is also a factor. But the more important criteria is the volume of solution required.
Thank you in advance!
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I would suggest this book chapter. it has some interesting yet simple methods
Yuan, Yuehua, and T. Randall Lee. "Contact angle and wetting properties." Surface science techniques. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2013. 3-34.
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Most of the naturally available biodegradable materials such as agarose, chitin, chitosan, collagen, hyaluronan, gelatin etc. have already been explored. What else can I try? How about pectin?
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Dear Saha, 
Skin regeneration requires scaffolds of well defined characteristics, in terms of tensile properties, micro-structure and morphology, surface modifications by specific cell adhesive proteins, etc. The choice of the polymer is not enough to let you conclude that it works or not, unless you explore the impact of the aforementioned characteristics which I listed above. The micro-fabrication of your scaffold impact the biological performance, the internal structure of the scaffold counts. How did you produce your scaffolds? thin films; non woven mesh, oriented porous scaffolds, filaments deposition? did you explored the impact of these parameters using ONE promising polymer, as gelatin or collagen for example?
I think that the development of scaffold for skin regeneration goes beyond the simple screening of polymers.
Bests,
Irini Gerges, PhD 
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I will be trying to assess the biocompatibility of cellulose acetate - polylactic acid nanofibers in wound healing applications by subjecting it to hemolysis, cytotoxicity and proliferation assays. Is there a commercial wound dressing that actually interacts with the wound or degrades as the wound heals? I plan on using such, if it exists, as a control.
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Oasis, Promogran/Prisma, Endoderm.  These are all collagen matrix dressings and are much less expensive than the before mentioned suggestions.
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Planning to synthesize bio-compatible polyurethanes using diisocyanate.
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My response might be a little out dated for scientists who found their supplier for 1,4-butane diisocyanate but it probably will be highly valuable for anyone still searching for high quality butane diisocyanate (BDI). I just graduated BME and currently work for a supplier who is focussed on the stimulation of research with BDI for human health applications. Currently they are investing in upscaling their production and approving it for human health applications. If you are interested:
(>99.7% purity)
prices are very attractive
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Hi polymer experts,
in our certain case, we analyzed poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) with high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). Solvent was 10x PBS (aqueous solution).
For instance, we analyzed PEG with molecular weight (MW) of 40000 and 4 different architectures: linear, Y-shaped ("3-arm"), star-shaped ("4-arm") and 8-arm. These polymers elute at different elution times (not such a huge difference, but still there is a difference). The architecture has an effect on the size of the polymers in solution, e.g. the linear one will be more bulky while the 8-arm will be more compact and therefore elute at a later time point, although they have the same MW.
So is there any formula around to predict that behaviour? Since PEG is widely used, there my be something for PEG only in different solvent systems. We do not want to get the MW from the elugrams (we get it with MALDI), just want to explain the differences with a scientifically approved model, if there is one.
Thanks a lot for your help!
Marcus
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There are two ways to tackle this problem:
1. For a variety of architetures the ratios of radius of gyration (sometimes even hydrodynamic radii) of the branched polymer is calculated relative to the size of the linear polymer at the same molar mass (typically called g or g').
Knowing the Mark-Houwink Exponent  (a) of the linear polymer and the g or g' ratio of your structure , you can estimate the molar mass of the coeluting linear polymer 
Mlinear=MBranched(g')^(1/(1+a))
(That is published somewhere, if requested I'll find the reference).
Since you now know the molar mass of the coeluting (in SEC) linear polymer, the hydrodynamic volume is proportional to
 (eta)lin*;Mlin=K * Mlin^(a+1)=K*g'*Mbranched^(1+a)
2. Alternatively,  the answer to the Problem you raised (how large is the GPC/SEC shift for stars and linear polymers has been given by simulation
Here is the reference
Simulation of GPC-Distribution Coefficients of Linear and Star-Shaped Molecules in Spherical Pores: Comparison of Simulation and Experiment
Wolfgang Radke · Johannes Gerber · Gabriele Wittmann
Feb 2003 · International Journal of Polymer Analysis and Characterization    
Hope this helps.
Regards
Wolfgang
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First off, eventually what I want to get is a close-packed, monolayer of polystyrene(PS) spheres at the air/water interface (Langmuir-Blodgett method). But unlike those mentioned in many references, my polystyrene spheres are not dispersed in ethanol or butanol, but rather they are dispersed in water. This complicates the method since the spheres in water cannot float upon the water sub-phase for the LB method.
Other than synthesis of polystyrene spheres from scratch, is there a way to replace the water media with ethanol?
Thanks.
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1) Dilute in ethanol, say four times;
2) Centrifuge;
3) Pipette off the excess solvent;
Repeat the cycle until the dispersion has a low enough water content.
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While i dry microbeads after formation, they stick with paper, filter paper or petri dish and lose its round shape. What i must do? any suggestion?
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according to my view you should dry these beads at Teflon sheets to prevent sticking
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Hello everyone,
I often work with hydrogels and in many cases I have small pieces of plastic tubing embedded in the hydrogel. I am not very well versed in the terminology around this subject, but I would like to know how I can improve the "adhesive" force between the plastic and the hydrogel. I flow liquid through the tubing and I would like the space around the tubing to be as liquid-tight as possible, with the goal during flow conditions being unidirectional flow, and no backflow back out around the tubing. Since the hydrogel is mostly water, is what I'm asking an accurate description of what is possible? I am currently using perfluoroalkoxy (PFA) tubing in fibrin, transglutaminase-crosslinked fibrin-gelatin, and collagen hydrogel. We treat the PFA tubing with a concentrated solution of poly-L-lysine for several hours but I am not even sure if this is accomplishing anything since we have not thought of a way to test it.The PFA tubing is what we had on hand, but we would consider tubing of a different material or other chemical treatments. I would appreciate any comments or suggestion, as well as any references. Thank you!
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You could use a thin layer of agarose for fixing a piece of gel on plastic/glass surface if conditions of experiments allows it.
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Dear all, I would be very interested in the possibility to simulated a polymer micelle in water containing hydrophobic molecules. I would be interested in the hydrophobe-polymer segregation, mobility and interactions.
Anybody can help?
Thanks in advance
Robert
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I mean the general nature of the solubilization and not particular: solubilization centers, their number, volumetric capacity, etc. What you'll simulate these details? However, Alexander Kabanov knows what to do next. Then why ask?
Regards.
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How to select ligands for targeted drug delivery system to brain for polymeric nanoparticles
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See overexpression of any receptors like glucosamine, transferrin, IGF 1 or 2 in the BBB... 
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Dear all,
I am looking for preparation biodegradable polymers from plant extract and I need to know any plant extract which can be used for the preparing such polymers.
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Sorry, but it's a very naive approach
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Hey guys I've started using a gel spinner this week, I'm just wondering if there is a way to automate the process? or if someone has an automated gel spinner and can recommend where to get one?
I basically have a rotating mandrel, and am manually extruding the solution through the syringe, but its hard to get constant flow rate ( have no gaps and no bubbles) 
I was thinking of getting an automated syringe pump I could couple to it, or else finding/ asking someone to build me one that could be programable thoughts? 
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This is an extremely tough question. I don't think automated equipment exists. If it does exist, I would also be extremely interested
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Basically, I have tried to attach umbelliferone to the alginate back bone through EDC/DMAP mechanism (Ester formation). I should mention that I have used potassium carbonate (dilute solution) to increase the solubility of umbelliferone in water. What happened was that after 1 hr into the reaction the color of media turned to red and tended to stay that way through out the reaction. Interestingly, no precipitation was observed through the whole course of reaction. Does anyone have a clue what caused the sudden change in color of the solution?   
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umbelliferone is sensitive to pH. The colour will be change to blue-green in pH lower than 2 and it changes media to red color at alkaline pH around 7.5-8
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hello everybody. I need some suggestion regarding preparation of bioadhesive. I am using albumin and gluteraldehyde for the preparation but as I followed protocal of different papers. it is impossible to get its adhesive property. Is anyone working for this project? can you please give me suggestion for the adhesive properties?
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Do you need to? make any bioadhesive or only something with albumin or gluteraldehyde. While I was trying to crosslink collagen long time ago and used Genipin as an alternative for gluteraldehyde. A first google search also shows Fibrin- Genipin glue. Perhaps worth your time to check it out... Good luck!
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hydrogel
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Please check DSC, FT-IR, SEM including swelling, solubility, sol-gel analysis and Gel Permeation Chromatography- Multi Angle Lase Light Scattering (GPC-MALLS) techniques. The FT-IT, DSC, and SEM will be OK if your preparation produced the product in a normal way!
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I performed surface area analysis by DR, Longmuier,  BET and  V-t and obtained  following data !
1.surface area 
2.Regression Coefficient 
 Based on this how to decide which model is best fit for my  adsorption studies,?
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We usually use r2 criteria.
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Hi! I am currently working in the development of a synthetic material formulation to form tube-like structures by seeding HUVECs on top of the material. The goal is to have the tube formation always take place at the same time, instead of at different time points as I saw previously with Matrigel.  I already have some organization of the cells, which indeed happens always at the same time; now I would like evaluate/rate the quality of the network formed, anyone has a suggestion of tests or markers to perform this characterization?  Thank you very much.
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In my opinion, the best characterization is to stain your cells for endothelial markers such us Pecam-1 and to perform confocal laser microscopy with 3D reconstruction. Also, you can monitor angiogenic behavior over time (real-time) to support your observations.
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All i found in the paper is the DP of amylose and amylopectin , or their molecular weight distribution, I want to know their actual length in the real space. That is , single amylose chain are arranged at atomic level or ? of course, we need to consider the linear or twisted amylose, However, I just want the length region
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Thanks for your reply, it's really an intersting problem that how the interaction of starch and water afftects its density
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As chitosan is a hydrophillic in nature, i want to decrease its hydrophilicity without affecting its other properties. I am in search of a suitable polymer and crosslinker which will decrease its hydrophilicity. Can anyone suggest me...
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Hi,
old question but the general idea is to reduce the polarity (charges) on chitosan molecules. Sometimes you can observe sufficient reduction of hydrophilicity by formation of salts when using for instance acetic acid as a solvent
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Hello to everyone,
Can anyone recommend me some paper or some source where i can learn about the commercial scaffolds that are used in Tissue Engineering. I find a article in which they differentiate the scaffolds on the base of material such as synthetic polymer or natural polymer. However, i am looking some commercial scaffolds that designs are available too.
Thanks
Regards
Zulfiqar Ali
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Please have a look for these articles:
DOI: 10.1002/jbm.820140108
DOI: 10.1002/jbm.820140203
DOI:10.1586/17434440.6.1.61
There are many more articles where design methods are available.
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Can anyone suggest me a protocol to effectively reduce molecular weight of carboxymethyl cellulose for performing NMR as the intact polymer is very viscous to be loaded in NMR tubes?
I cant use acid hydrolysis as it may hydrolyze the chemical modifications I have performed. While enzymatic degradation seems like a good option but I dont know how to separate the enzyme from the hydrolyzed product!
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My research focuses on electroactive polymers, and especially on IPMC. I am looking currently on making IPMC using platinum. Any help will be appreciated.
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I'm not too familiar with trying to increase the blocking force. It looks like using Palladium in the the hydrolysis step may work to improve by ~1.5-2 times, see this reference for more info: http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0964-1726/17/3/035011
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I want to prepare starch based hydrogel, which can be used as green absorbent.
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Hello dear, I think that you can modify starch with acrylic acid by esterification reaction and then polymerize by free radical. Another method is the solution polymerization of starch with acrylic acid.
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Does 1,1,1,3,3,3-Hexafluoro-2-propanol(hfip) react with polypropylene that is being used in making MCTs? i have been getting unknown particulate contaminations in my sample after treating with HFIP. Since HFIP is corrosive in nature I am considering it to be the culprit but I am not sure.
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HFIP does not react with the PP but it is able to extract typical plastic additives from the polymer like antioxidants, mold release agents, nucleation aids...
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I am working in the area of tissue engineering at Texas Tech University with concentration on poly(caprolactone) (PCL) based biodegradable articular cartilage scaffolds. Currently, my research is at a point where in I am planning to perform in vitro cell culture studies on the scaffolds using mammalian chondrocytes.
I am writing to sincerely request if anyone has mammalian chondrocyte cell lines that they could donate to us to perform in vitro cell culture studies. Else, I would appreciate if you could please direct me to someone that I could ask or any other resources that might be helpful. I appreciate your help towards this.
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Dear all,
I am not sure if those of you who asked for a protocol ended up getting one. Please see attached a published protocol that I have used before to isolate and culture primary murine chondrocyte. There are protocols for isolation for human, rabbit and rat chondrocyte in this article too.
Kind regards, Dian 
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HI,
Can someone please guide me how to make injectable alginate based hydrogels? most of the article talks about using insoluble calcium ions and makes them soluble by changing pH. anyone has a set protocol for this  or alternative method? 
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Hi Animesh Agrawal,
You can get different consistencies of alginate hydrogel by optimising the different paramaters:
1: G:M ratio of alginate
2: by changing the concentration and volume of Ca ion source (usually Calcium chloride)
3: By changing the Alginate solution concentration.
4: Another way is to use a dual syringe assembly with a mixer tip so that it mixes the alginate solution and ionic cross linker solution , and you get a injectable hydrogel, which can become solid after some time..
5: another round about way is to mix alginate with other polymers such as starch, pectin etc.. to get an injectable hydrogel
these article below might help you
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I am looking for  the experimental conditions for the PHA thermoforming.
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Hello dear, if you want to make thermoformed any polymer, You have to obtain the heat deflection temperature (HDT) of the material since this have to be the temperature of the process. Furthermore, you have to optimize the conditions of vacuum for obtaining a complete form of the material according to the mold. Therefore, obtain the morphology wanted.
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biomaterial
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I can only imagine a redox polymerization for this purpose. Presumably you want to work with water soluble monomers like N-vinyl pyrrolidone, hydroxyethyl methacrylate, methylene bisacrylamide or PEG diacrylate. You must divide the aqueous monomer solution in two portions and add in one portion a reduction reagent like ascorbic acid and in the other portion an oxidizing reagent like H2O2. If you inject these two portions seprately from each other in the same position in the body polymerization will take place but I would not like to be the first "guinea pig".
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Hi
I have synthesized PVA-borax hydrogel. It dissolved, after two hours immersion in water. How can i measure swelling ratio?
Is it usual for PVA-borax hydrogel to dissolve in water in a short time?
Thank you.
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Considering your question, "Is it usual for PVA-borax hydrogel to dissolve in water in a short time?", 
Yes, PVA is water soluble polymer and borax is also water soluble.. So its kind of logically obvious.. 
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What could be the best solvent for the mobile phase that I should use. 
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This is just a guess based on their structures.
I'd try dichloromethane/methanol. The tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane is quite polar, and will move relatively little compared to N,N′-Methylenebis(acrylamide)  which has a couple of amide linkages, and will move faster on a silica TLC plate. You may need to use a basic modifier, such as ammonium hydroxide. Be careful moving a method with ammonium hydroxide to a silica column method since basic polar solutions dissolve silica.
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aerated geopolymer using admixtures
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Dear Dr. Harris:
The word geo is a prefix or word-forming element stemming of the Greek meaning Earth, the function of Geo is similar to its function in the word geology.
The word polymer also prefixed. This word have a prefix that is the word “poly” meaning “many”, while “mer” meaning something as representative unity of a particular group.
The junction of both prefix geo+poly seems further associated to polycondensation sometimes also called polymerization of a set of “mer” present in the earth, in fact two or more minerals forming a natural and inorganic polymer, with macromolecules structure, under specifics pH and temperature medium. A broad set of structure silicates and alumina (Al2O3) are typical examples of two types of “mer” that can be polycondensated or polymerized (24h to 48h) to gives a geopolymer. Nowadays, there are tens of classes of geopolymer, based on the: silica-aluminous, phosphate, zeolites… Notorious are both thermal and mechanical properties of some geopolymer as the class called Portland Blended Cement and another Earth Friendly Concrete (low emission of CO2 during synthesis), see link:
in specific, the sub-link:
The prototype reaction is nicely presented in the paper linked below, in particular the paper Topic:
“The chemical structure and geopolymerization of Geopolymer cement”:
In a gross manner, a geopolymer is an inorganic polymer based on the classical minerals. In this sense, the closest material widely knew is the cement. As a whole, the following reaction steps are associated to synthesis of these materials: dissoluction, coagulation, polycondensation (polymerization) and crystallization (sometimes amorphous state is maintained), in fact the “preparation” of a geopolymer is called of geosynthesis occurring at temperatures below of 100 Celsius degree.
In recent years, geopolymer with features similar to the classical cement gain the media from work of J. Davidovits, which defend the idea of blocks of Gize pyramid were homemade from a geopolymer instead of sedimentary rocks.
The decreasing of geopolymer density is carried out typically by use of foaming additives. Further data and analysis can be finding in the attached paper or link below:
Kind regards
Marcos Nobre
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I am interested in extracting a polymer resin out of coconut oil for my research work. Please let me know if the polymerization is possible for coconut oil and if yes, can anyone suggest me the laboratory procedure for the same.
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Anyway, there is a lot of cooking, searching of raw materials, chemist not living in "developed" countries some times suffer with this or the equipment.
I strongly suggest the way of the methyl- or ethyl ester like actually done with biodiesel from spend cooking oil, having the ester and glycerine too, there is a lot of chemistry still to do .
The ester can be trans-esterificated with maleic anhydride and same H2O, curing with peroxide gives resins..
Other trans esterification with Polypropileneglycol 1000 or 2000 opens to soft PUR ( plus Di-isocyanate)
They can be distilled to obtain fractions of C 8 to C 10, highly valuable in Food, cosmetic and others.
I wish a good luck to Ritesh, a lot of searching and my personnel experience in Mexico:
Not all ways one has to go the old paths of the Elephants !
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I'm electrospinning PANI/PVDF fibers for neural tissue engineering. I have tried different ratios of PVDF and PANi but the beading occurs. Does this mean that I need to use another polymer along with this? 
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It seems that you need to optimize your electrospinning process parameters to get bead free fibers. The viscosity is main parameter to play with. Flow rate and voltage has less effect on fibers formation and morphology after achieving a certain critical condition.
I am not sure about your composition and other parameters, but will suggest you to optimize polymer viscosity. You may prepare  a table of low to high viscus solution and  do the control electrospinning. It would be more easier if you play with PVDF while keeping the amount of PANI fixed. 
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if we want to compare this polymer versus polyvinylpyrrolidone, which one is better to use as a thermosensitive polymer capable to transport a hydrophobic drug to a cell?
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Hi,
In the pH range of 4.5-5.5, vinylcaprolactam will not hydrolyse.
I would also prefer Polyvinylcaprolactam for drug delivery application.
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Mechanical behaviour of polymer expertise
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Stress-strain hysteresis curves under test by cyclic uniaxial stretching . Please, look at https://www.researchgate.net/publication/260682773_BookKobelevEnglish
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I want to work with alginate. so can anyone know about one alginate particle size, Chain length of the alginate and surface area of the alginate? if any paper is available please inform me..
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There are a lot of papers out there on the c13 NMR spectra or x-ray crystallography of alginates including information on structural changes depending on the ratio of guluronic vs mannuronic acids and the effect of different cations on the resultant gels (including sheer stress and flexibility).  You may like to look at Cheshire and Hallam (1985). 
doi: 10.2216/i0031-8884-24-2-147.1
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If we cannot cross-link two pre-cross-linked layers, how can I prepare a multilayer of alginate and chitosan?
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You probably should replace a part of divalent anion crosslinker of alginate; then the alginate carbonul groups will act as crosslinker for NH2 of chitosan.
Leonid
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i am trying to freeze dry Sodium alginate solution to make porous sponge. but during freezing it is forming long ice crystals (defects) which is causing the porous film to have defects. how can i get rid of ice crystal formation?
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Many bacteria and animals produce special substances that allow them to survive freezing. One of the most famous is disaccharide trehalose.  Adding trials in your solution will inhibit growth of ice crystals. Trehalose can be obtained from many chemical distributors.
Attached please find an articles about trehalose properties.
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while developing bio-polymer based adsorbent material , we aim in hybridizing chitosan over carbon nitride nano sheets?
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graphitic carbon nitride as an efficient with lewis base functional group(electron pair donor) and chitosan as sn efficient lewis acid (electron pair acceptor).  A probable mode to develop interaction between chitosan and graphitic carbon nitride is lewis base-acid interaction. 
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Hi,
I'm working with blocks of bovine gelatin and crosslinking these samples with Formaldehyde for 24 hours. Before I crosslink these samples, I weigh them on a 4 decimal balance. After 24 hours, I'm noticing that these samples have lost weight due to the crosslinking process. 
Gelatin blocks left for 24 hours in a pentri dish exhibit no weight loss at all, so I'm sure this is down to the action of the formaldehyde crosslink.
I've been trying to find the reason for this, but would appreciate input from anybody who may be able to shed some insight on this.
Thanks.
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Its an interesting type of  reaction in organic chemistry known as nucleophilic addition (also known as the Mannich or condensation reaction). Basically an aldehyde (formaldehyde) or ketone reacting with an amine (gelatine that has -NH2 functional group) to produce the main addition product as imine and water.  
I've attached a link that gives you a detailed mechanism of how it forms water. 
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How to increase the abrasive wear resistance of Polyimide (like Kapton) films used for wire insulation ?
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Abrasion resistance can be enhanced by incorporating zirconia particles or by using nanosilica on which polymer is grafted and used. You can also use very hard micron/ submicron particles of nitrides possessing high abrasion resistance.
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Looking for a hydrogel with properties like...
- very fast crosslinking procedure, in the range of seconds,
- cytocompatible before and after crosslinking (cell won't be encapsulated within the gel but they would be in contact with it for long term),
- non-degradable under physiological conditions/ in-vivo,
- low viscosity prior to crosslinking, like PEG-DA solutions for example,
- high strength and elasticity after crosslinking
Until now, I was curing PEG-DA solutions under visible light with Eosin Y and TEA. I did not use any catalyst like 1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone since it is assumed to be cancerogenic. Furthermore, I don't want to use UV light for the same reason. Without catalyst the polymerization lasts 2 min which is still too long.
Thank you in advance for you help!
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PEG(-SH)8 and PEG(-Acrylate)8 at a ratio of 1/1 (SH/A) should help. 15% (w/w) in PBS gelled within 1 min. However, they are biodegradable gels with the persistent time between 5-10 wks.
Biomaterials, Volume 35, Issue 24, Pages 6278-6286 
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Composite hydrogels produce air bubbles when they are subjected to gamma radiation during production.
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It seems convenient to ensure that the water used to form the hydrogel has a relatively low content of dissolved gases, far from saturation. For that it seems convenient to use distilled water (or otherwise boiled), while avoiding aeration by swirling during the sol liquor agitation, in case such a stage occurs prior gelation. Also possible would be to purge the water by sparging a N2 gas stream, or to use sonication of the water (or liquor) followed by reduced pressure. Also convenient could be to decrease temperature during irradiation of the hydrogel.  
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Other properties are close, for example viscosity, pH, degree of hydrolysis (86-89%), Tg, etc. Thanks for your answers!
Helen
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Hi Helen. Seems the manufacturers may have given the original MM of the second polymer, i.e. of the polyvinyl acetate used to make the PVA in which case  the DP is correct as this remains more or less unchanged dureing hydrolysis (although this is not always true). I would suggest checking the details with the suppliers, but if this is the case, it is possible that the second, more polydisperse one, with lower average DP may be more readily soluble, but in this range I have read that the solubility is not much affected by DP. Other factors such as stereoregularity, "blockiness" and 1,2-glycol content that depend on how the PVA was made may also play a role. Best regards. Deon
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I am working on a blend of  functionalized graphene nanoplatelets with cellulose acetate and polyalactic acid, when used DSC for testing there were no change and no Tg reported.
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You are dealing with polymers having crystallinity and they have Tg as well. Check the temperature range, sample amount, scan rate and Y-axis (heat flow)range. Before that  remove thermal history by giving a heating scan, cool naturally and go for second run. Even if the composite has excellent interaction among the components it is bound to have modified Tg. Crystallinity may remain or disappear after blending. One important thing with GNP composite: there will be shift in thermal transitions as it may sit between polymer chains.
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Is it dispersed in the porogen used or precipitated as a powder? When I prepare it, the prepared polymer precipitate in the bottom of the flask with a light rubbery consistency? when it dries out after washing it is powder. Is that correct? 
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Yes it is correct. As the MIP is highly crosslinked it has to precipitate. Further the entrapped solvent makes it rubbery. During drying, solvent evaporates and you get dry powder. It has to be ground mechanically by using pestle mortar or ball bill or also a grinder. If you want you may use molecular sieve to get uniform sized powder.
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I did GAG estimation for native tissues and decellularized samples by DMMB method. Decellularized samples are showing high content of GAG protein than in the native tissue. Is the DMMB reagents reacts with the detergents or the cellular lysate? Give your suggestions please
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 Dear Janani, both the above are correct. We also observe the same with pig liver. If you want to  get meaningful results you should carry out the GAG and collagen quantification in samples which are fully swollen in PBS or other isotonic solution. In that way the "holes" you make when decellularising are filled with water, so the tissue mass remains essentially unaltered before and after cell removal. We have described this method in our paper. 
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I am working on a photopolymerized hydrogel thin film project using the electrospray method. Does anybody ever use this method? I plan to use PEGMA and EGDMA as a crosslinker. And derivatives of acetophenone as the initiator.
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not really, but i am trying to use the method as stated in below. they pump a solid suspension and electrospray it onto a substrate. However, i am completely noob to this technology.
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I would like to know whether it is possible to have a very high density open-cell rigid PU foam, let's said at minimum 1100 kg/m^3. If not possible, on what reason and what is the possible max density and possible max open-cell content (%)? Any answer would be greatly appreciated
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I read there:
"The density of the porous material which can be obtained according to the invention is usually from 20 to 600 g/l, preferably from 50 to 500 g/l and particularly preferably from 70 to 200 g/l."
So not as high as Yohanes wants when I understand the patent well.
"The material displays exceptional insulation performance and moisture regulation, is strong, extra-slim, and extremely light."
The last one is likely to be caused by the low density.
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What is the solvent suitable for dispersing MWCNT in PVA? How to disperse the MWCNT in PVA solution?
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The best way for the modification of MWCNT by acid treatment.It can be easily disperse .
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I'm trying to develop a hydrogel which can release proteins at a controlled rate.
I'm currently using 4 arm PEG maleimide (10 & 20 kDa) and 2 kDa PEG dithiol has the crosslinker via micheal type addition reaction.
According to Zustiak and Leach (2010) Biomacromolecules, 11, 1348-1357 - the Mw of a crosslinker is related to the degredation of the hydrogel. they have results showing hydrogels crosslinked with 8 kDa crosslinker  degraded faster then 2 kDa crosslinker.
So am i right to assume if i use 1kDa PEG dithiol the PEG Malemidie will be more stable?
Has anyone used other crosslinkers apart from PEG Dithiol?
Thanks.
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If the gel is strongly crosslinked, the crosslinked density is just the inverse of the number of monomers between two consecutive crosslinks. Now, for weakly crosslinked gels, this density is essentially the inverse of the molecular weight of crosslinked chains.
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In hip replacement surgery orthopedic surgeon inner surface of the acetabular cavity in the pelvic area that has been corrupted to make a full hemisphere. A hemisphere-shaped metal bowl placed inside the cavity. Inside the metal bowl placed a polyethylene plastic bowl. Sometimes plastic bowl without metal bowl attached into the acetabulum cavity by bone cement .
In some cases it has been observed that after a few months or a few years, polyethylene is causing loosening of the artificial joint and bone fractures.
We want to know how the bone fracture affects polyethylene.
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This should be because the mechanical properties such as modulus (Young's modulus) of the  artificial material is not matching with that of the native bone tissue. Therefore, there will be more load transmitted to the bone segments, especially in interface. This will cause resorption of bone and finally the loosening of implant and could lead to fracture of bone. Similarly if we use a material which has higher modulus than the bone, then the material will bear all the load , transmitting very low or no load to the bone (mechanical (stress)shielding effect). This is also detrimental (mechanical stimuli is necessary for healthy living bone) , in a longer period,  on the bone implant interface  and cause resorption of bone, thereby loosening of implant and fracture of bone.
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please see the pictures.
I want to know about overlap and fusion of fibers in the C part in attached picture. it can cause changes in the mechanical strength of electrospun scaffolds? how?
increase or decrease? 
can you introduce an article to me? thanks
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Based on your results, I would say the compliance of the fused or linked fibers got decreased; and additionally, the ability of the fibers to align together under loading got decreased, those things gives rise to the decrease in strength.  To look into these effect, you should quantitatively characterize the geometry of the fibrous network and the density of the fusion and crosslinking, etc. 
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While using the combination of synthetic polymers like Carbopol with naturally derived polysaccharides, I came across to the fact that the viscosity has been going down  despite it should have the increment in the viscosity. I just want to know, the reason behind this unusual trend in terms of viscosity seen. Your input would be appreciated....Thank you.. 
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Viscosity of mixtures of polymer solutions can be reduced by forming a smaller number of associates in the mixture as compared to the original system, or by forming associates with less strength. Most pairs of polymers - are incompatible, and you observed phenomenon occurs quite frequently. It is advisable to obtain flow curves for the starting polymers (shear rate - shear stress) and for mixtures of different composition. If the curves have a yield-point- stress, then compare their values or compare the shear stress characterizing the switch-over to a Newtonian flow. Look at articles:
Chuppina S.V. Anti-Icing gradient organosilicate coatings/ARTICLE in GLASS PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY 33(5):502-509 · OCTOBER 2007
DOI: 10.1134/S1087659607050136
 S. V. Chuppina · V. A. Zhabrev · V. S. Baragunova.  Structural-mechanical properties of organosilicate composites with introduced curing agents
Glass Physics and Chemistry 02/2009; 35(1):67-73. DOI:10.1134/S1087659609010106 ·
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Does anybody know the differences between different kinds of Eudragit?  Eudragits S, RS, L, RL, FS, E, N.
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Thanks.
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can any one introduce me an article about?
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I follow this article for my samples for zeta potential and size determination using DLS.
0.01mg of sample in 20mL of millipore water, and 2mL of solution is sonicated and the solution is used for analysis.
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I wanted to extract the water-soluble polysaccharides from a sample of wood chips I treated with white-rot fungi. After culturing the fungi on the woodchips, I added D.H2O and autoclaved the sample for 60 minutes at 136C. I then precipitated the filtrate with 5x ethanol, and recovered a lot of precipitate. I am wondering if this is mostly plant/fungal DNA or hemicellulose? Will the DNA precipitate in the ethanol even without a high salt concentration?
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Thanks for your help Frank. I am aware of the alkaline method, but I was hoping that my fungal treatment would degrade the lignin in the cell wall, allowing the hemicelluloses to be extracted more easily under high temperature. I was under the impression that autoclaving should have completely hydrolysed my DNA? Interestingly, my wood chips are much more flexible and softer now, which may indicate removal of lignin and/or hemicellulose. I am going to run a sample on a gel to see if it binds ethidium bromide tomorrow.
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Actually, I am planning to prepare transparent cellulose hydrogels. For cellulose dissolving I am using this solvent medium DMAc/LiCl. Is it possible to prepare transparent hydrogels by using the above solution via free radical
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Hi
I have read some document son hydrogel. You can use electron beam treatment to lower the DP and working on your products. Or you can pre-treatment your cellulose samples with acid, enzymes or many other ways to degraded cellulose and then it will easy dissolution. 
:) 
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Actually, I am planning to prepare Cellulose/ PVA transparent hydrogels. For preparation of Cellulose/ PVA transparent hydrogels I am using this solvent medium DMAc/LiCl. Is it possible to prepare Cellulose/ PVA transparent hydrogels by using the above (DMAc/LiCl) medium via freeze thaw technique by combination of PVA. Which % of PVA is suitable for the preparation of cellulose/ PVA transparent hydrogels?
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