Questions related to Polymer Chemistry
Selecting polymer is one of the most important factors affecting on the final properties and performance of the membranes as well as the method of membrane fabrication.
What is the most excellent polymer for membrane distillation process? Why?
I have immersed some composite material specimen in artificial seawater. I need to check if the material is leaching into the water. Basically to check if some hydrocarbon of epoxy is present in the artificial seawater. Which technique should I use ?
I have prepared quaternized PVA. I want to measure the degree of substitution of quaternized polymer by titration. In literature, potassium chromate is mentioned as an indicator but I have potassium dichromate in my lab. Can I use this salt instead potassium chromate? AgNO3 solution is used for the titration.
Thanks for your help.
I would like to synthesize about 10g powder per batch of low molecular weight PMMA.
I have tried a bulk polymerisation using AIBN initiator, equal parts MMA and toluene, and Benzyl Mercaptan as a chain transfer agent, polymerising at 80-90dC for 30mins and then drop wise add in methanol but the dried polymer is not a powder and remains a sticky glue.
I am currently trying to increase AIBN and decrease BM amounts but doesnt seem to reach my desired qualities.
Does anyone have any ideas on how to adapt this method or is there a different method that may give better results?
Sigma adrich has this product https://www.sigmaaldrich.com/AU/en/product/aldrich/200336 which is basically what I want to produce (I will be adding other polymers in once I have sorted out the base recipe which is why I cannot just purchase).
Dear Researchers :
I have this question and I have an hypothesis:
Why Natural HDPE, when extruded at temperatures about 100 °C (around) it has a white (but pale white), and then when the polymer cools down it color turns between white an yellow.
I understand that this phenomenon it is a general case of all LLDPE, LDPE and HDPE , and in all fabrication processes : Extrusion, injection, molding, pressing, etc.
So this is fundamentally, a chemical characteristic of the material ...
It has to do with a change in the Oxygen concentration in the material ?
Thank you all in advance,
Best Regards !
We are trying to determine the Mw of a polyphenylene oxide-based ionomer that is functionalized with quaternary amine groups. The polymer is dissolved in NMP. How Can this be done ?
I am studying the aging effects of the ink mixture containing particles and resin. Sometimes I can observe particle precipitation in the bottom of the vial. But sometimes I cannot observe, and the ink mixture looks more like gel. So what could happen chemically in the ink mixture?
I saw literature that frontal polymerization can be used in 3D printing of composites. The curing can be triggered briefly by external heat source, and the thermal front wave can travel from the external heat source side to convert monomer to polymer. How to control the heat rate in composites curing?
I want to synthesize PEG stabilized AgNPs and in literature different concentrations are reported. What is the scientific reason of adding PEG in AgNPs.
Suppose in one report researchers have added PEG 600 uL in 50 mL water and AgNO3 was 1 mM. In another study, 1 mM AgNO3 but the PEG 6000 48 mL of 1%.
How does the concentration of PEG and its molecular weight effect the AgNPs synthesis and stabilization?
I have seen in the papers that some additives added to polymers for producing foams?
Could you please explain what is the main function of these additives?
Can anyone explain the relation between hydrodynamic size of a polymer with its adsorption capacity? Does a polymer with greater hydrodynamic size show better adsorption efficiency or vice versa?
Thanks in Advance
I am relatively new to DSC. Recently, I ran DSC on starches but always got this broad endothermic peak which I could not explain. Please see the attached isotherm of a starch sample and my method is listed below.
1: Equilibrate at -50.00°C
2: Ramp 20.00°C/min to 220.00°C
3: Mark end of cycle 0
4: Isothermal for 5.00 min
5: Ramp 5.00°C/min to -80.00°C
6: Mark end of cycle 1
7: Ramp 15.00°C/min to 200.00°C
8: Mark end of cycle 2
9: End of method
When i try to measure the viscosity of my sample via rotational Viscometer, the spindle continues to rotate without giving the readout. I have waited for as long as 30 minutes but to no avail. Can anyone please guide me what's the reason behind this? I would highly appreciate..
I am interested in writing a book chapter on Vitrimer topic. But, I am not able to find any researcher doing book writing on this topic.
I would like to collobrate with researchers in wiritng a book chapter on Vitrimer Topic.
Following the procedure below I obtain a solid polymer which after FTIR analyses I identified as a HDI trimer and not a polyurethane prepolymer formed by the union of PEG and HDI.
For the preparation of the pre-polymer, PEG400 diol, together with DBTDL (catalyst), were fed into a three-neck round-bottom flask reactor. Nitrogen flow was maintained for 20 min to provide an inert atmosphere. The mixture was stirred for 30 min at 60 °C. Then, HDI was added dropwise to the mixture and the reaction proceeded for another 1 h at 60 °C under N2 atmosphere, yielding an isocyanate-ended, viscous pre-polymer. The molar ratio of diol:HDI was kept constant at 2:3.
I tried drying the PEG under vaccum + molecular sieves, changing the NCO:OH proportion, the order of addition... How could I avoid this trimerization of the HDI and obtain the objective PEG-based polyurethane viscous prepolymer?.
Dear Researchers :
Can someone teach me how to go from a Concentration given in wt.% to a concentration given in phr ?
Or the two are numerically equivalent ?
I'll appreciate it !
I'm currently looking at the rheological properties of the polymer Xanthan Gum. focusing on its dynamic viscosity to be more specific. I'm assessing the effects of pH (ranging from 3.6 to 5.6, 0.4 increment, total of 6 pH's) on the dynamic viscosity of xanthan gum solution (dissolving xanthan gum powder into acetic buffer with equal ionic strength, concentration is kept at 0.04%).
Firstly, my viscosity data collected shows that, as pH increases from 3.6 to 4.0 then 4.4, the viscosity increases; but as I bring up the pH from 4.4 to 4.8, 4.8 to 5.2, then lastly 5.2 to 5.6, the increasing viscosity trend plateaus and the increase in viscosity is less significant compared to the 3.6-4.4 jump. At this range, does pH has an effect on the viscosity of xanthan gum based on its molecular configuration? Though some sources states that xanthan gum's viscosity remains stable and unchanged within the range of pH 3-12 at a high concentration like 1% not 0.04%, yet some suggest pH still plays an effect, though I'm not sure how on the chemical and molecular aspect.
A possible conjecture I can think of is the xanthan gum's order-disorder and helix-coil transition is affected by protonation. In figure 2, it demonstrates how electrolytes affect the structure of the polymer; in figure 3, it shows how at a state of a helical rod and no longer a random coil, it is capable to hydrogen bonds among each other. Hence, I'm wondering of pH plays an effect on it's structural transition, such that the increased intermolecular forces at the form of a helical rod would make it more viscous in solution.
Here are the resources I have used so far:
Brunchi, CE., Bercea, M., Morariu, S. et al. Some properties of xanthan gum in aqueous solutions: effect of temperature and pH. J Polym Res 23, 123 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10965-016-1015-4
Generally observed at low strain rate for fine grained material.
For industrial scale
which are viable materials?
which parameters need to alter?
Kindly express your views.
Ive never made micelles before, but I gave it a go today and now I have some questions. I am generating thin films using my polymer solubilized in chloroform, evaporating in a rotovap, and then resolubilizing in water followed by 30 min of sonication. I currently (very sadly) do not have access to DLS, I am thinking about getting the Lens3 from Tosoh and analyzing my particles using MALS very soon, until then I dont have any physical characterization assays setup. As a very general description of my molecule, I have conjugated a hydrophobic molecule onto a cationic/hydrophilic polymer
1. What size flask is appropriate for 2mgs of polymer? I tried 100mL, 250mL, and 1L. the 1L sized flask was a bit cumbersome to do the hydration in and the thin films from the 100 or 250 mL flask dont look that thin
2. How quickly do I add water to the solution? Dropwise or all at once?
3. Should i start sonicating the micelles as they rehydrate? Should I rehydrate and then wait and then sonicate?
4. Does adding salt to micelles during hydration or after hydration change particle size?
5. How stable are cationic micelles in general in water or buffer? Hours? Days Weeks? The paper im referencing has no stability data
6. Are there any solvents that are not acceptable for forming thin films/micelles? Variants of my polymer are soluble in ethanol but not in chloroform so can I use ethanol instead?
Im still going through all the literature to find answers to some of my more basic questions, but any useful papers you can recommend would be very much appreciated and a big time saver for me!
PLA is an environmetal friendly polymers, however it could be more expensive than other conventional polymers like polyethylene and polyproplene. Is that true?? and what is expected for the trend of PLA trend in majet share of plastic industry?
Is there a way to look at the properties of a base resin and the selected additives to be compounded into it to determin if there will be a blooming issue or what the correct loading level should be?
Polymers frequently used are Pebax (3533 -7233), PAs, and the various densities of PE.
Addatives would be Tinuvin 622SF, Irganox 1010, Colorants, and radiopacifiers.
Ive been trying to use the ninhydrin assay to measure concentration of PEIMax accurately after dilution. PEIMax is deacetylated 22kDa linear PEI*HCl so it should only contain secondary amines and should supposedly only form yellow compounds that absorb at 440nm with ninhydrin reagent. When I run the ninhydrin assay with PEI however, i see an obvious purple color and i can make wonderfully reproducible and linear standard curves using either 440nm or 570nm absorbance. I am using the Sigma 2% ninhydrin + hydrindantin in pH5.2 LiAc, reacting at 80C for 10 min in a PCR plate sealed with nitrogen blanket (https://www.sigmaaldrich.com/US/en/product/sigma/n7285).
Anyone have any ideas as to why I might be seeing such strong absorbance at 570nm even though i dont have any primary amines in the sample to form Rheumann's purple?
Another point I suppose that might be worth mentioning is I reconstitute my PEImax in 0.1M HCl however Ive run HCl alone in the assay and not seen any color change.
Thanks in advance!
I am producing polycaprolactone fibers by wet-spinning which is dissolved n DMF and using water as a coagulation bath.
The main point is that I would like to perform the molecular dyanamics of two organic small molecules, more specifically, two PEG-polymer with two molecules one on each that could potentially interact with each other. I would like to use MD to find out the interaction between two molecules when they installed on PEG polymer.
I summarized the question at the first:
1. What is the best way to perform the MD with two polymers or two small molecules (I tried with small size at first).
2. How could I analyze it (RMSD, RMSF with both molecules to its original state, paired RMSD, MMPBSA, contact surface and radius of gyration and etc.)?
3. Is there any references or tutorial that can guide me?
The following part is the methods that I tried:
First, I tried with Gromacs. But the parameterization of non-standard residues of small molecules is painful and not accurate with the server out there... The combination of two molecules into one topology file is also painful. So, I transfer to Desmond. Recently, I got my small molecules simulated with Desmond. I would like to analyze the trajectory file with RMSD, RMSF with both molecules to its original state, paired RMSD, MMPBSA, contact surface and radius of gyration. But, with the interaction diagram of Desmond, it cannot allow me to use two small molecules. It force me to use one protein and one ligand... I want to analyze the interaction of two small molecules instead. Or is there any some tricks to make it work?
Therefore, I tried with mdtraj, a python based MD analysis library.
The out.cms file (topology from desmond) cannot be recognized by the mdtraj...
So, I tried to convert the .cms to mol2 with VMD. But, it turned out the column of the atom coordinates is 9 instead of 7 that is recognizable by the mdtraj.
I created a script to remove the additional column. However, another error was raised
I got stuck here... How could I analyze the trajectory of two small molecules?
Should I re-run the MD with other program such as Amber or Gromacs?
Currently, I am setting up AmberTools21 and try to use Antechamber to parameterize the molecules and try to perform the MD and analysis with AmberTools. But, I don't know if it will work...
Please give me some advice, guide and suggestions. Thank you so much!
Im thinking about trying to synthesize some poly beta amino esters, however Im not sure if the chemistry is air sensitive or just water sensitive. The reaction is a polymerization reaction between amines and acrylates via Michael addition.
Also was wondering if you are supposed to remove the inhibitors from the monomers using inhibitor removal resin or keep them in, the materials and methods sections of these PBAE synthesis papers dont mention it, but it seems like something that would be necessary.
I'm studying a styrene acrylic polymer latex with Trilon C (chelating agent DTPA Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) in the formula but I am observing unexpectd effects.
When I remove Trilon C from my formula with tap water, I get a viscosity below 3000 cP, which is logical given divalent cations lower the viscosity. When I use Trilon C I usually get a viscosity around 6000 cP.
I then thought of doing an experiment with ultrapure water :
- without Trilon C I get a viscosity around 6000, which is what I want
- with Trilon C (still with ultrapure water), I get unexpectedly high viscosities
My question is thus does anyone know what can happen in that last case ? Theoritically there is (almost) nothing to chelate.
Thanks in advance, I'll take any bit of thought you can have!
I am planning to disperse metal nanoparticles in superglue (cyanoacrylates) and acrylic adhesives. What would be the methodology for that? I guess just sonicating won't be an option since cyanoacrylate will start polymerizing as soon as it comes in contact with any nucleophile in the surrounding environment or substrate. What could be a more feasible option? Thanks in advance.
It is clear that we use many types of hydrophilic additives containing hydroxyl groups in the PES dope solutions to provide a less hydrophobic membrane.
Is there any physical interaction between the sulfone group of PES polymer chains and hydroxyl groups of hydrophilic additives in the membrane matrix?
The manufacturers seem to recommend NMP but that only reaches around 25 wt% solid. The dispersion solution will be used for fiberglass coating applications, and requires a 40+% solid content. Wavertree seems to have created a solvent mix (WV900) that can achieve the required solid concentration, but they don't seem to disclose what the solvent mix actually contains.
A novel polymer designed by me in laboratory has water absorption capacity more than 100%. I was wondering if I am doing it right. Kindly enlighten me about this issue. Many Thanks
I have seen lots of papers for LCST of PNIPAM in water (around 310K, dependent on tacticity), and I have seen plenty of papers regarding the cononsolvency of PNIPAM in water+methanol.
My question is, does PNIPAM also show a coil-to-globule transition in methanol? Is there any work investigating this?
I did a opt-freq (1 dimension) PBC job with DFT 6-31g/d,p method to a polymer, job was successful but I don't know how to read values (like HOMO-LUMO energy gaps, bond lengths etc.) from the .out file. I need these values for each calculation for monomer, dimer, trimer... to make graphs.
I am a beginner in PBC calculations, if anyone can help me, I'll be greatful.
What are the best books in chemistry that can be used for curriculum design "i.e. for Materials Chemistry"?
Please write the name of the best books that you read/know in the field of "chemistry"? General Chemistry, Organic, Physical Chemistry, Inorganic, Biochemistry, Polymer synthesis, Polymer Chemistry, Computational Chemistry, Solvents and Solvation theories, Analytical Chemistry, Electrochemistry, etc [...] and Chemistry Laboratory Design.
Thank you very much
- - -
* Additional comment:
You can, also, send to me links (or the books' front page photo) or E books (PDF or any) here or in private message. Thank you!
CRISPR-Cas9 is a powerful gene-editing tool. However, there are some problems in delivering it to some specific tissues. Viral vectors work well, but it presents issues with potential in carcinogenesis and immunogenicity. Polymers are used to deliver a great class of drugs, even when administered away from the target tissue. Can polymers be used to deliver CRISPR-Cas9 tools like is done with some drugs?
Since polycarbonate is manufactured by condensation polymerization, the molecular weight distribution can be described by Flory-Schulz distribution.
The maximum value of polydispersity from Flory-Schulz distribution approaches 2.0.
However, the actual polydispersity of polycarbonate is around 2.4~2.7.
In this case, how could we describe the molecular weight distribution of a polycarbonate material.
My major is based on the experimental. I rare often go to get help from software.
I am looking for the software to simulate the possibility of chemical reaction between POLYMERS. The reaction was not reported yet in any paper. I tried to find somehow similar reaction between two polymers with similar functional groups. But, not successful. I tried to use MD simulation, but interaction parameters are completely unknown. Again, I tried to use the interaction parameters between two similar MOLECULES (and not polymers).
I am wondering if there any software to simulate the reaction properties including the possibility of the formation of the chemical bond, decomposition of the bond, equilibrium constant, the heat of reaction, is it equilibrium one or not, how the Temperature, pH, ionic strength, time …. Affect the reaction.
I don’t mind if the results come with some error since my synthesized polymer and my reaction not reported at all, although basically, it is very simple for the reaction between two functional groups. It is the reaction of –COOH with an amine (but both of them are a polymer).
It would be nice if I can design my polymers only with the 3-4 monomer (oligomer) and then try to see the results.
I don’t mind, I pay for software. The high cost is also OK. But, I am a Chemical Engineer, and my knowledge about chemistry is poor. I can get professional chemistry help.
Rajabzadeh k. Saeid, Associate Professor
I've been trying to prepare polyimine based polymer in DCM/DMF/TOL solvent system.
First I let aromatic di-aldehyde reacted with di-amine with long carbon chains (4-6 carbons), as soft segments. After some time, I introduced aromatic di-amine, the hard segments, as chain extender, then the solvent became very turbid, showing that the solubility is not good.
Later I found the turbid solution can only be solubilized by AcOH.
The hard segment is very important to my project and I can't replace it, and the weight% is quite low already.
I was thinking if I could prepare the polymer all over but in pure HOAc, or high weight% of HOAc?
All my solvents are non-aqueous, or only trace of water coming from the formation of imine.
Hello-I am currently writing a research proposal regarding degradation of certain polymers by bacteria but I am not sure what kinds of assays I should be running to identify particular secreted extracellular enzymes that are involved in breakdown of the polymer. Any suggestions would really be appreciated.
Dear Researchers :
Does anyone have experience or knows specific works about the study of Mechanical Properties (i.e. , tensile strength, yield stress, limit of elongation (%), elastic modulus, etc.) of Polymeric Matrices...
These could be:
- Polyethylene/Polypropelene (PP)
- another PP or PE co-polymer, ter-polymer, etc
- HDPE, LDPE, LLDPE
or other plastics or elastometers blends
but when Al2O3 particles (or nps) are embedded in the matrix ??
I will appreciate any help, or any direction,
Best Regards !:)
It is known that amino-acid can be co-crosslinked with acrylamide by light. Yet can this reaction be motivated by heat instead of light?
I just got α-Lactalbumin from sigma, but find it is quite hard to dissolve it. on its specification, it says 10 mg/ml solubility in water for the protein and i tried to dissolve 1.5 mg/ml into deionized water by stirring more than one hour, and it failed to dissolve. then, ultrasonic treatment at 50 degree was also used but also failed. it is weird because α-Lactalbumin is widely known for use in food ingredient. how can it work with so bad solubility. looking forward to any suggestion from you, thanks！
Hi, could somebody enlighten me on the difference between the two diblock copolymers? For example, what happens if I had PMMA-b-PEO instead of PEO-b-PMMA? Or PMMA-b-PNIPAM instead of PNIPAM-b-PMMA?
Thank you so much!
I am using metal oxide/Graphene composite and electrospinning it using PVA/Water polymeric medium. When I deposit on the aluminum foil the surface is uniform with fewer flakes. I am speculating that this may be due to the polymer/solvent non-uniform evaporation from the surface due to annealing (450C for 2 hours). Can anyone suggest something from their experience about the annealing of metal oxide electrospun film for robust adhesion and uniform deposition? is these flakes normal? or do I need to change the polymer or solvent?
thanks in advance.
As many of the flexible microelectronics researchers, I work on developing devices which use one or multiple layers of thin-film polyimide as the substrate. Specifically, it's the spin-coating + curing type process to make a <10 um thick polyimide on a 4'' wafer. The polyimide I use is PI 2610 series from HD Microsystems.
However, I noticed that the recommended curing condition for the soft-bake step and the slow oven curing step is not really ideal. I almost constantly get a polyimide layer with non-uniformity or even defects notable by bare eyes. I tried a couple of different ovens together with several different vacuum settings. But got similar results. One experienced researcher explained that the temperature curve was likely the issue. And his group doesn't use the company recommended temperature curve.
So I'm hoping to ask whether anybody has similar experiences. Would you mind share some knowledge? This will be greatly helpful for me. Thanks so much in advance.
Is it possible that the mechanism of stress corrosion cracking(SCC), in PLA is related to factors such as the crystallinity of the polymer, the pH of simulated body fluid, and the magnitude of the applied load?
Hi, I've encountered that PMMA-b-PEO exhibits LCST behavior, but in papers of Richardson, 1993; Cimmino et al., 1988; and Arai et al., 2012, the isotacticity of PMMA causes the block copolymer to adapt a UCST behavior instead. Why is that?
I just got crazy with EDC and NHS this 2 reagents.
1. it only require 0.4/0.6mg every time, and it air-slake stick to the steel spoon every time, hard to exactly get the weight
2. it air slake, when I was busy weighing or in storage, and decompose
Thus is there any any smart way to fast and smartly weight it and store it longer?
I have this basic question, since some Thermoplastic polymers such PE, or Polypropelene ..
PE via techniques of Cross-linking for example, can be turned to a Thermosetting polymer, ...
Any Thermoplastic, in theory, can be turned to a corresponding Thermoset polymer ?
As you may know, the amino acid can be conjugated to the side chain of acrylamide, usually catalysed by TEMED and light (is it?). Is it a radical reaction?
We try to replicate this conjugation in micro gel bead in microfluidics. I did a preliminary experiment in a blank gel block, simply casting acrylamide-amino acid precursor into a well plate, then treating with TEMED and light. The conjugation get verified by further conjugating a GFP to the amino acid using EDC/NHS (not reacts with acrylamide)
However when I shape the precursor using microfluidics then treat with temed and light, the GFP cannot connect to the bead any more. I tryied different pH considering isoelectric point to induce extra affinity for conjugation, yet still not work. I also tried lengthen light treatment or increase TEMED, still not work. What is the problem and how should I fix it?
I am working on a protein drug delivery system mediated by hydrogel as a vehicle. Even though the formulated hydrogel exhibited more than 2000% swelling, it could not able to deliver the protein drug. Scanning Electron Micrograph shows the hydrogel has a non-uniform porous structure. However, the average pore size is larger than the size of the protein drug.
I suspect that, there could be some chemical bonds (e.g. hydrogen bond) formed between the hydrogel polymer groups and protein as there are hydroxyl groups present in the polymers. Is there any way to find out the possible interactions between the protein and hydrogel? If there are interaction, please suggest on how to prevent these interaction? I am avoiding the use of extreme pH in the process as it may degrade the protein which is stable at pH 6.5-7.5. Thank you very much.
why number average molecular weight should be used to find degree of polymerization instead of weight average molecular weight?
(The image is from http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-aek5e1i0MFA/UB9EYKPXGDI/AAAAAAAAAow/au27uSYHJ3Q/s1600/IDENTIFICATION+OF+POLYMERS.jpg . Cannot post here for copyright issues)
The simple polymer tests in that image incited these questions to me-
- Why would red-hot copper wire burns with Green flame when polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is burnt on it but orange flame in case of polystyrene (PS) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET)? Is the HCl generated from burning PVC generates Cu(II) compounds upon reacting with copper in case of PVC, but not in case of PS or PET? But doesn't Hydrogen have higher reduction potential than Copper (EMF series), and copper may anyways oxidize in air at high temperature to provide a green-blue flame?
- Why acetone reacts with PS but not PET? Acetone's (propanone) central C atom is not as much electropositive as methanal (formaldehyde), but still it can undergo nucleophilic addition. But while one alkyl group (ortho-para substituent) enhances electrophilic substitution reaction tendency in case of benzene ring of styrene in PS, two carboxylic groups in terephthalate causes benzene ring to be deactivated for electrophilic substitution in PET. Is this reasoning okay or is there anything wrong with it?
I am currently running thermal polymerizations of compounds that form free radicals at elevated temperatures (T>120 degrees C). I want to attempt to polymerize at discrete temperatures between 120 and 200 degrees C.
Can I use AIBN radical initiator at these elevated temperatures without risk of explosion (in the literature it seems that AIBN is typically used at temps ranging from 60-80 degrees C)?
If not, is there another radical initiator I can use at temperatures this high??
I need to dissolve 6 and 9 g of PVC in 100 grams of MEK each. I've left the solutions to shake over night but the PVC did not dissolve. I increased the temperature to 50 Celcius to see if heat has an effect but it does not seem to work. What do I need to do to completely dissolve PVC in MEK?
Can the platinume powder or black platinume be choosed as a catalyst in the reaction between vinyl terminated PDMS and Hydrogen terminated PDMS(hydrosilation)?
We have done so but the silicone gel didnt cure at all even in elevated temperature and the platinume powder were remained unchanged;
So I want to know if the uncuring was the result of wrong catalyst choosing?
Or if it is possible to use platinume powder as a catalyst,what else should be done to solve the problem?
Which field is better for master's program?
1) Interfacial and surface chemistry: biosensing, electrochemistry, electronics
2) Materials and polymer chemistry: clean energy
3) Physical chemistry: superresolution microscopy, laser spectroscopy, biophysics
4) Catalytic processes: green chemistry
Actually I am keen on all 4 options and do not know which one to choose.( I have to choose one of them.)
Please share with me if you have information about these fields. I will be happy to know your point of view.
Comparison in terms of: the demand and needs of the community, the application, the novelty of the field and other factors that you think are important to consider.
Hello we all know the electronegativity scale and concept of elements in the periodic table
However when it comes to whole materials such as polymers, nanomaterials and etc
How can we understand theoretically if the synthesized material is highly or poorly electronegative ??
Basic dendrite formation of metallic alloys are explained by thermal and constitutional degree of supercooling and most-supercooled band of liquid somewhat ahead of solidification front that causes lateral growth for locally fast-grown structure. For ceramics, how would the crystallography and charge balance as well as defect structure would play role here? and what would be affect of long branch/aromatic group etc molecular effects for polymers? How much correct would be to draw conclusion about dendrite formation on metals/ceramics by studying similar effects during polymer solidification? What would be suitable polymer to study particular metals/ceramics, and from which theoretical basis?
I am looking some resist strippers which can easily remove metal based polymer residue after post dry etch process.
I have some candidates below but not sure if they are compatible with doped silicon or not !!!
4.Techni strip Ni555
Is anyone can help me to find a stripper which is as effective as above and compatible with doped silicon too ?
Hi i was trying to deposit the polystyrene nano fibers on aluminum substrate... Can anyone help me how to enhance the nano fiber's adhesion to the substrate? Like annealing pr vacuum drying ? Any related papers will help. Thanks
There is a dopant for the vhb 4910 actuator tapes that have acetylene black or carbon black which is carbon grease (carbon black + pdms) commercially, I am making a robotic actuator but I don't know what is the difference at a chemical level between carbon black and carbon and why In some papers there is talk of a negative intrusive charge which, when placed as electrodes, having a thin layer of vhb 4910 in the middle, these electrodes are attracted by the high voltage that is applied, causing the vhb to be crushed, stretching or changing shape by attraction but I don't know why that dopant is the only one that works for the vhb 4910 and because it has that intrinsic charge or what is that intrinsic charge
My thesis is defined base on acrylated Polyurethan. I used HEMA (hydroxy ethylmethacrylate) as a reactive diluent and benzophenone (BP) as a UV initiator with methyl diethanolamine as an accelator. But my system is so viscous and needs heating for adding photo initiator and proper mixing. I use 45º c for adding photo initiator and mixing. but most of the time it stat to crosslinking from the bottom of the sample container. I mean before curing with UV lamp it start crosslinking.
I thought that its because of BP . Its a thermal initiator too. so I need a UV initiator can be used in higher temperature. Could you please introduce appropriate one?
We are aiming to bind streptavidin to polyacrylamide surface. The EDC/NHS method bounced on me as a common method, utilizing the -NH2 of polyacrylamide and -COOH of streptavidin. Is there any unconsidered factors that may block this route? If EDC/NHS is viable to immoblise streptavidin to acrylamide, how should the reaction condition be set? Consider the static charge of polyacrylamide and streptavidin ( isoelectric point = 6), which pH is optimistic? Should we use a 2 step EDC/NHS xlk or 1 step?