Questions related to Pollination
I am currently collecting the reproductive morphology of around 400 land plant species for my research. The information I would like to get is reproductive morphology (hermaphroditic, dioecious, monoecious, gynoecious or androecious), flower morphology (unisexual or bisexual flowers), and pollination strategies (self-pollinated, cross-pollinated or both). I have taken me a lot of time to search single by single species on Google but I have not gone so far. So, it is very helpful if there is an available database containing relevant information for searching. Please let me know if you know something that can help me.
I am investigating the shared pollinator communities of a native wildflower, and a related invasive hybrid. The hybrid is replacing the native plant. I have collected data which lists all insect visitors to both plants. I want to see if the bee communities between plants are significantly different. I have tried using nmds in vegan and mvabund in R, but it doesn't seem to work when only comparing two things (for example it seems normally multiple sites are species are compared). How might I go about comparing the assemblages? Secondly there have been some interesting results, for example bumble bees don't seem to visit one plant. How might I test if that is a significant result or more likely just a feature of my sampling.
Any help is very appreciated.
Honey bee algorithm uses particles to mimic actual honey bees; annd I preferred it because:
Although other species of bees are five to ten times more efficient, on a per-bee basis, at pollinating certain fruits, honeybees have bigger colonies, cover longer distances, and tolerate management and movement better than most insects. They're not picky - they’ll spend their time on almost any crop.
Hello everybody, hope you are doing well!
I am doing some tests on pollination effectiveness of honey bees, and I am looking for a method to sterilize faba bean flowers. So, let me know If you have any idea about the way of doing flower sterilization in this plant.
I am wondering are there are any papers comparing the genetic diversity open pollinated cultivar vs an inbred lines, in naturally cross pollinating crop species such as corn and onions?
I am looking for the best technique to obtain measurements of pollen grains through photographs
Can anyone please share a Matlab code for Demand side management in smart grid using meta-heuristic algorithms? I am implementing a flower pollination algorithm for appliance scheduling, got stuck in that. Please share any information you have!! Thanks
Are there good examples in which the lack off pollinators prevent plant invasions? So a direct relation between the lack of pollinators and subsequent failure to become invasive. There are number of examples in which the lack of pollinators does limit plant invasions, but other than fig-wasp interactions, are there any good examples in which the lack of a plant species becoming invasive can be ascribed to the lack of pollination?
There are quite a few landscape-scale studies examining the value/usage of different types of land use for bees and other pollinators (see Mandelik et al. 2012 Ecol Appl; Harrison et al. 2018 Glob Chang Biol)
There are also some who look at the value of different crops for bees and other pollinators (see Adamson et al. 2012 Environ Entomol; Martin et al. 2018 Ecol Appli).
I am looking for studies that investigate the value/visitation/use of different cultivars of a (single) crop by bees and/or other pollinators. Is anyone aware of such studies?
Bees contribute greatly to increasing crop production. one example is pollination activity by bees can increase the production of strawberries by 50% compared to if not visited by bees.
But on the other hand, it was reported that bees prefer to visit on crops infected by Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV), so that pollination in healthy crops is reduced, fruit quality in healthy crops is lower than in infected crops, and even causes the next generation of crops to carry susceptible genes.
So what should we do about the presence of bees on our cultivated crops?
Should we preserve them? Or control them?
Please give your best opinion. Thank you.
Further disturbing data were published on the dramatic decline in the number of bees.
Now, in the media there was information that about 40 percent. Bees in the US did not survive the winter of 2018-2019.
Similar data is also found in many other countries.
This is very disturbing.
Is mankind able to solve this problem in time?
Will technological development solve this problem?
Apparently, a significant part of the bee population is killed not only in winter but also in other, warmer seasons. Also in the spring and summer, when large-scale spraying of crops with pesticides is used in agriculture, also used during insect feeding periods on flowers. Then many insects are poisoned and die.
How to solve the problem of a drastic drop in the population of bees and other pollinating insects?
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
I am looking for phylogeny of pollinators and ants to construct a phylogenetic correlation matrix. Something similar to what can be found in verlife.
Thanks in advance!
I know only how to estimate the number of honeybee colonies required to be placed per acre of crops for honey production. Therefore, I need your help to estimate the number of honeybee colonies required to be placed per a given area of crops for pollination.
What is a Testcross?
The testcross is another procedure to identify the genotype of a plant. In the testcross the plant in question is crossed with a plant homozygous and recessive for the trait being observed. In the F2 above, hooded plants were either homozygous (KK) or heterozygous (Kk). If an F2 homozygous plant (KK) is testcrossed with a recessive awned plant (kk), the cross (KK ×kk) would produce all hooded offspring (Kk) as in the cross between the original hooded and aawned parent plants. If an F2 hooded plant is heterozygous (Kk), the cross (Kk × kk) would result in onehalf of the offspring plants being hooded (Kk) and onehalf being awned (kk). In a crop like barley that is selfpollinated, it is easier to harvest F2 seeds and grow a progeny test of each F2 plant than to make the testcross and to grow the testcross progeny. If the crop is crosspollinated, pollination must be controlled to prevent outcrossing before growing a progeny test so it may be as easy to make a testcross as to make a progeny test. In crops that set seed poorly after selfpollination, the testcross may be preferred over the progeny test. In selfincompatible or dioecious crops, in which selfpollination is not possible, the testcross provides the only means to identify the genotype of particular plants.
We are working with pollinators in-field and are looking for the least damaging but most feasible way to narcotise them. We don't have to handle them for a long time: measure thorax height and mark them with a pen.
Currently, we are working with a bicycle tube CO2 refill pump. We expose them to CO2 for <5 seconds until they fall still. However, literature suggests it may impact their memory severely.
Cooling, conversely, seems the least damaging method but might be difficult to do if you have to spend 5-8 hours away from refrigeration. Has anyone got experience?
Is perhaps ice spray an option--i.e. spray it on the little flask that the bee is captured in? Might take too long or not cool them down enough...
Your input will be much appreciated!
Heat stress has been seen to affect paddy yields in different regions in Bangladesh during the 2021 boro season. In many places, increased sterile spikelet/unfilled grains have been recorded due to the heatwaves and has also been found to have a negative effect on yield. In this case, how does heat stress affects pollination and its leading effect on rice yield and how can it be overcome? I hope you have a good suggestion!
Regeneration of Cucurbitaceae family (C. lanatus, C. sativusand C. melospecies) requires specific management for controlled pollination, achieved both by spatial isolation in the field or by the use of isolation chambers, in order to maintain the original genepool. Who are the best pollinators and the Protocol for the regeneration of landraces or their selections by avoiding pollen contamination?
I´m starting a pollination experiment. A cacti population will be selected for the study and maybe there are references to consider over an appropiate population, including some distance of human disturbance to pollinators.
In the grass-cutting / mowing debate for road verges and public open space, most of the research / discussion papers explore frequency of mowing and the resulting impact on geophyte and annual populations of flowers with a view to bolstering urban biodiversity and supporting pollinator populations. However not all road verges are equal in the habitat services they provide. I would like to explore precedent for landscape management markers (ie. landscaping / landscape architecture interventions for communicating no-mow areas to contractors) which have been implemented across the globe. Please can provide pointers to precedents and policies which have been adopted, discussed, or assessed.
There are a few papers dealing with the effects of climate change on the pollination of European orchids, but I wonder if similar studies have been carried out in the Tropics.
In addition to genetic and environmental factors, fruit size is also influenced by crop load, rootstock, orchard planting system/tree training system, pollination, water and nutrient management, biotic and abiotic stress, etc.
My colleague plans to do a hand pollination experiment on strawberry. This is going to be a quantitative experiment: we are trying to see how the quality of the pollens affects fruit set. Therefore, we need to pollinate each flower with the same amount of pollens. What's the best method to do this? Other technical advises about pollen collection and prevention of unwanted natural pollination would also be appreciated.
There is data about the location and characteristics of plots of Oilseed Rape on several farms, as well as the relative abundance of different pollinator species counted at each plot. The variables included are:
1. Investigate the effect of temperature and flower coverage on the relative abundance of pollinators (overall and for honeybees specifically - in the group variable).
2. The difference in pollinator relative abundance (overall and for honeybees specifically) among farms, varieties, and types.
I have researched papers and many google searches to try and understand which test I need to complete for these. Am i correct in thinking temperature, flower coverage, and relative abundance are all continuous data and i look at these against honeybees. Or do I need to extract honeybees vs each of the other variables in question?
I have looked at Kruskal Wallis tests, or ANOVA, and also Poisson regression, though I am confused on if I am correct.
Any help would be appreciated!
There are several types of pregnant women used to preserve bacterial cell activity during storage periods or attachment of bacterial cells to seeds of the plant to be biofertilized, as these carriers differ from one country to another depending on the available and cheapest materials in that country, so please mention the type of vaccine used in your countries for the benefit ?
I am not great with statistics so please be understanding. I have 17 pollinator sites that I collected data from and am comparing the effect of habitat type (2 classes) on several different response variables. Initially, I set up the model is SAS using PROC GLM as such;
proc glm data= gardens;
model polldiver= habitat;
OUTPUT OUT=RESIDS R=RES;
PROC UNIVARIATE DATA=RESIDS NORMAL PLOT;
I am told that I need to add "site" as a random effect. However, I am unsure how to go about this.
My predictor variable is habitat type: urban or rural
My response variables are: pollinator richness, abundance, visits per flower, proportion of bombus, proportion of other bees, proportion of lepidopteran, proportion of other insects.
Which one is more compensated for the lack of major elements NPK in the soil, is it biological pollination or organic fertilization and how much are those ratios?
If it exists, where can I find data or some relevant references on the recovery rate (and time) of insect biodiversity (or just pollinators) when shifting from conventional to organic farming for different crop types?
Thanks for your help.
Will the creation of mechanical nano-insects solve the problem of declining populations of bees and other pollinating insects?
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
The value of pollination of crop flowers (without cultivars) is estimated at 500 billion dollars. USA annually. Due to the intensification of production of agricultural products, including the use of chemical plant protection products, the number of pollinating insects, including primarily all bees, is decreasing rapidly. The number of bumblebees also drops very fast, and only these insects pollinate some crops. To limit the sources of this problem, people should limit the development of agriculture based on industrial production of arable crops, in particular in the areas of arable crop production for livestock and it is globally 3/4 of arable land.
Instead of industrial production of agricultural products, organic farming should be developed without the use of chemical plant protection products. Pesticides should be replaced by the introduction into the production of agricultural crops more resistant to viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic diseases of cultivated plant varieties, which are created using modern biogenetic techniques.
In addition to the industrial production of agricultural produce (mainly for the purposes of maintaining livestock production, meat production), the global warming process is also contributing to the decline of insects, including pollinating insects. This is because, because many species of insects are very sensitive to changes in the temperature of the environment in which they live. In order to limit the sources of this problem, a person should proceed on a massive scale to reclaim industrial degraded areas in order to convert them to biological ecosystems similar to natural biological environments composed of many species of flora and fauna cooperating with each other.
In addition, the surface of natural habitats, natural biological ecosystems in which insects feed. It is caused by mowing meadows outside the city and grasses in the cities. Therefore, it is advisable not to mow lawns, put up insect houses, or remove rotting, rotting stumps in parks and forests. In some cities, flower meadows are planted and insecticides specially created for this purpose are placed in city parks.
According to observations of biologists, environmentalists are killed so quickly that in 100 years there will be no insects. If the pollinating insects die, then the plants will cease to produce fruit and seeds, many species of plants will disappear and there will be a serious problem with feeding mankind and many species of animals on Earth. Therefore, the problem is very serious. This is, in my opinion, the second most important problem to be solved in the 21st century, in addition to the problem of successive and faster global warming process. In my opinion, these are the most important global problems and challenges to solve numerous problems for humanity in the 21st century.
Do you agree with me on the above matter?
In the context of the above issues, I am asking you the following question:
How to protect pollinating insects from extinction?
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Seeds obtained from heterozygous T0 mutants obtained through CRISPR CAS9 were sown and the plants raised were properly genotyped. Following normal segregation pattern, T1 generation had WT, heterozygous and homozygous plants. The homozygous were not producing normal seeds but strangely few (2 in many) produced more than 50% normal seeds, when those seeds and the plants raised from them were genotyped they were found to be heterozygous. In T1 I ignored this (thinking that T0 plants from CRISPR CAS9 might carry chimeric mutation for the gene).
To get T2 generation, seeds obtained from T1 heterozygous were planted, but T2 homozygous plants also had such plants. The situation even continued to the next generations. I am wondering what might be the cause. I know that cross pollination in rice occurs to small extent but if that is the cause then all homozygous plants must bear small number of such seeds. In this case homozygous usually don’t produce normal seeds at all, unusually few homozygous bear normal heterozygous seeds. Your suggestions will be highly appreciated to explain this situation. Thanks.
What are potentially huge yet unexamined questions/problems related to pollinator conservation? What basic knowledge do we lack? What knowledge do we have but fail to apply? Do we need to learn more about biology and ecology of pollinators or we should rather focus on undertaking conservation activities (and what kind of activities/actions specifically)?
I am looking for research, which is maybe not published in English or in peer-reviewed journals.
Goodmorning..when doing genetic analysis of grain yield and yield attributing traits for drought tolerance in self pollinating crops (F2 generation) Vs cross pollinating crops, is it important to conduct it for 2 seasons ? Assuming that one has enough seed from F1 to allow for two seasons or it's not important in self pollinating crops Vs cross pollinating (Hybrid)?
In the current EFSA Guidance on the risk assessment of plant protection products on bees (Apis mellifera, Bombus spp. and solitary bees) related to the Regulation (EC) 1107/2009 valid test methods for bees are in place. Beside bees (honeybees) several other pollinator groups are affected by pesticides and biocides such as lepidopterans or beetles. In order to improve the risk assesment for pesticides and biocides it is important to have a whole overview of exisiting guidelines beside the European regulations, OECD framework or the US EPA regulatory.
Much of the negative hype on GM plants' safety issues concerned with cross pollination and potentiality of masking the existing varieties. I got curious to know if there exist knowledge on how to bring a barrier to cross pollination via genetic engineering. This could be an add on to valuable trait generations and transgenic pipelines.
I have built a phylogenetic tree using categorical functional traits, such as pollination and dispersion syndromes, phenology, etc. Now, I can see the dicotomies and the points in which the plant species diverge, lineages, and so on. However, the interpretation itself seems to be a little tricky because I want to go with quantitative and qualitative discussion but don't know where to start from.
I am a student doing a paper on the Sable Island Sweat Bee. However there's very little information or research done on it. I'm particularly keen on the bee's role as a pollinator on the island and it's impact if the bee becomes extinct. I am looking at the reasons for it's threatened status and what measures are being undertaken to help its survival. I would appreciate if you could help point me to where material is avaiable for this. Thank you.
I am analyzing fruit-set data (a binary response, so 1's and 0's only) from a pollination experiment. Five treatments were applied to flowers, one of which (pollinator exclusion) yielded no fruit-set in any of the manipulated flowers (i.e., the response was all 0's); all other treatments had varying levels of fruit-set (but not exclusively 0). I am using a binomial generalized linear model (with clog-log link function) to analyze the effect of the treatments (a categorical variable) on fruit-set, but the inclusion of 'pollinator exclusion' as a level in my treatments factor in the model produces results that are obviously erroneous. Omitting 'pollinator exclusion' as a treatment level produces expected model results.
Am I justified in excluding this '0's-only' factor level from my model, even though it was part of the original experimental design? If not, how can I overcome the havoc it wreaks on linear models?
I am working with colour patterns of a flower pollinated by Centris sp.. But I have difficulty in find their photorreceptor sensibilities to run the colour vision models. Thanks!
#### The flower's menacing open mouth emits a foul odor similar to rotting meat, earning it the nickname "corpse flower." That stench attracts the insects that pollinate it.
@@@@ Pollination by elephant is called Elephophily.It is found in Rafflesia whose flowers are very large and are found at ground level. The pollen grains of one flower get attached to the feet of elephants and may be carried to the stigma of another flower.
I have become interested in potentially doing a small study on non-bee pollinators by looking at what pollen are present on their bodies. I am unsure whether or not this would be a useful contribution, since while there appear to be many studies on the role of non-bee pollinators, there doesn't seem to be many studies indicating the state of the literature.
That being said I did find this paper which identifies some gaps in the literature but it is now somewhat out of date and only focuses on flies and not other pollinators.
I would appreciate any insights into the state of the literature on non-bee pollinators and their contribution(s), as well as any interesting papers etc.
In particular is it known:
- Which plants each pollinator is responsible for pollinating and in what proportions
- Whether species labelled as pollinators actually pollinate or simply visit plants?
- Are there any species in which it is contested whether or not they act as pollinators?
- Are there any obvious gaps in the literature?
Thanks in advance! I look forward to hearing your thoughts!
This Amegilla bee was observed foraging on small plant in suburban area of south Punjab, Pakistan. Will you please help me to identify its species? South Punjab climate is mostly hot and arid with annual precipitation of about 100-150 mm.
Xylocopa is a big sized pollinator which is inhabited in the tropical environments. This pollinator are raised in the bamboo stalks. I am seeking for some research work that highlight Xylocopa being potentially a favoured pollinator in tomato crop buzz pollination under tropical environments.
I'm looking for new/modern motion detector systems for my research with orchid bees and hummingbirds. I basically want to record the pollinators' activity when they approach to the flowers so I expect the system will activate with motion and just record the visit events. Thus, I can't avoid recording several hours of video without activity. I've previously used a system with security cameras and mini portable video recorder with motion detector, but this system is old and it had failed a few times during my last field season. Do you have a recommendation of either cameras/camcorders that come with a motion detection option, or a modern mini portable video recorder with motion detector?
I've seen a few options in the market but it will be nice to hear what things have worked for other researchers. I'll appreciate your suggestions. Thank you very much.
In trees we do controlled pollination in a Diallel mating design to produce F1's and observe the characters of progeny. Can we consider the pod and seed produced after controlled pollination as F1's and include in analysis.
I would like you to help me in the answer to the following questions about passion fruit; as I have tried on google but I have not found latest and authentic reference about these questions,
- An average, how many days/month required from pollination/fruit setting to harvesting of passion fruit?
- In how many stages we can classify the passion fruit from the Days After Fruiting (DAF) to Harvesting?
- As we have classified into 10 stages depending on the pulp development, size and peel color, But, can you help me to classify as Days After Fruiting (DAF) into 10 stages.? For example, the 1st stage is 10-15 DAF, 2nd stage 15-20, 3rd 20-25 etc.
- Yellow and purple required same time period from fruiting to harvesting? More or less?
- How much is the total area and production under passion fruit in the world?
- Which commercial varieties? and provinces are growing passion fruit in the world?
- How many days, Yellow and purple passion fruit commercial post harvest shelf life? It's same or different (how many days).
8. What are the main post harvest causes of passion fruit? and how can control them?9- The main post harvest pathogenic causing agent of passion fruit?
I am hoping someone can direct me to some related sources. I am researching Cannabis, and I have a feeling when seed production begins following pollination, the plant reallocates energy into producing seeds and ceases putting energy into the flower (including production of phytochemicals). I am having a heck of a time tracking down relevant literature, but I know someone on here knows something about this! Thanks in advance- Anna
I'm wondering if there's any empirical relationship of the form Kp ~ F (Fragmentation), where Kp is the carrying capacity of pollinators. Alternatively, I could use Abundance ~ F (Fragmentation). I've seen a study suggestion a power law function, but I'm not sure if there's any sort of universal relationship.
Flowering of Dillenia pentagyna. The tree bloomed yesterday morning at CEC BNHS. There wasn't a single leaf. When I was passing under the tree I could hear the buzzing sound of hundreds of honey bees feasting on the nectar and helping in pollination. I went to see the flowers again in the afternoon and the road under the tree was golden yellow with the sprinkle of petals of the tree. All flowers had shed the petals and only few honey bees could be seen on the tree. The flowering was over. Here are three photographs. Another tree had blossomed 18th June 2019. At BNHS Conservation Education Centre (CEC), Goregaon, Mumbai. Dt. 19 June 2019.
One of my recent experiment refered to insect species, now the identification (to family level) has been done. In the following, I want to compare the differences in species richness and composition of insects between different treatments, which is easy. Besides, I also want to see the accumulative patterns of different functional groups (like herbivores vs. insect predators and pollinators vs. non-pollinators, or any other functional groups) in different treatments. However, I have few experiences in insect research and do not know how to identify which functional group an insect (family) belongs to. Does anyone know that? Are there some references or websites for such purposes?
I appreciate it a lot if anyone can give some suggestions.
I have been looking for information about the duration of the activity of pollinators after they emerge. I am aware that this will vary among species. However, there may be some average value.
I have found a lot of information about phenological decoupling but non of them specify (or at least I have not found it) what is the length of the activity period in the case of insect pollinators.
Can anyone help me?
Thanks in advance
1-Cultivars and genotypes, ripening group 3, 4 and 5 6
2-Rizobium races, suitable for high temperature and poor organic matter soil situations of dry and hot condition.
3-Optimum herbicides for no-till system.
-Open pollinate and hybrid spring type cultivars and genotypes, with high yield and resistant to early cold, Phoma and Sclorotina diseases
2-Optimum brad-leaf herbicides.
1-Resistant genotypes to pod shattering, with medium to high yield.
2-Optimum herbicides for the crop especially for no-till system.
Communities around the world have engaged in the discussion and implemented measures (actions/ policies/ etc.) supporting pollinators (beyond A. mellifera). Do you know of early adopters, success & failure stories, and methods of measuring those?
I am presently using Gephi to represent plant pollinators interactions. This software is good and easy to use. But I am looking for something else for better representation of pollination networks.
Martins, D. J. & S. D. Johnson. 2007. Hawkmoth pollination of aerangoid orchids in Kenya, with special reference to nectar sugar concentration gradients in the floral spurs. American Journal of Botany 94: 650–659.
Nilsson LA, L. Jonsson, L. Reason & E. Randrianjohany. 1985. Monophily and pollination mechanisms in Angraecum arachnites Schltr. (Orchidaceae) in a guild of long-tongued hawk-moths (Sphingidae) in Madagascar. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 26: 1–19.
I´m researching on ecology and biology of pollinators of Plantaginaceae and Scrophulariaceae families.
For a study of the pollinator guild of Silene nutans species complex we would like to rear caterpillars of moths (especially of Hadena) to obtain adults to identify the species, as it seems difficult to identify them at caterpillar stage (or is it possible?) . So I am searching for a protocol and advice for rearing them. Does anyone have any experience on this?
Thank you very much in advance!
If I have categorical variables for 'floral resources used' in one column, e.g. Erica cinerea, etc. and two other columns for Pollinator Species Richness and Abundance, what test could I use? The goal is to determine which plant species are preferred by pollinators.
I tried fit regression model in Minitab, set total pollinators and species richness as responses and floral resource used as the categorical predictor. Result said floral resource used was highly significant (p < 0.001) . Coefficients section gives a list of p values for each plant species, e.g.
Erica cinerea = 0.004
Erica tetralix = 0.001
Rubus fruticosus = 0.000
Ulex europaeus = 0.802
That looks alright, but I'm not sure if I'm supposed to look at the coefficients section. Also, does that really tell you if there's a preference? It's difficult because it just says 3 out of 4 are significant but what does that really mean in this context? I mean, it syncs up fairly well with the actual numbers, for example Rubus having the highest abundance and species richness, but I'm not sure if it actually answers the preferences question.
Without bees and other pollinating insects, most species of terrestrial flora and fauna will soon disappear and there will be a serious problem with feeding people on Earth.
For several years, the phenomenon of massive extinction of whole bee swarms in some regions of the world, including mainly regions of crop cultivation, has been observed.
Therefore, when this unfavorable process will continue, perhaps in the future the solution to this problem will be the creation of a Smart Robo-Bee, ie nanotechnological, miniaturized artificial robotic insects.
These Smart Robo-Bees could pollinate flowers of cereals, vegetables, shrubs, fruit trees, etc. in the situation of complete extinction of pollinating insects.
Is this a realistic scenario to solve the problem of extinction pollinating insects?
Please, answer, comments.
I invite you to the discussion.
We want to study the pollination of a tropical liana species by bats. In order to estimate the visitation rate of bats at the flowers, we would like to use camera traps. Does anyone have experience with using camera traps for trapping small and fast bat species and can recommend a brand (bushnell, cuddleback, Reconyx etc)?
I am working on pollen. The hand-collected pollen exhibited good potential to germinate over the stigma even after few months of storage under freezing conditions. I want to know: will the pollen collected by bees show the same capability towards the pollination process?
In one of the meeting with Director Cotton, I come to know that Pakistani breeder are practicing Pure line/Pedigree Selection for the development of cotton. They are also considering the cotton as highly self pollinated crop? However, literature show that it is not fully self pollinated crop? Why not synthetics or composite varieties evolved in cotton
I think practicing purre line in cotton could reduce the phenotypic plasticity to adapt multiple environmental conditions. It may drain the varieties which come and disappears often quickly?
So I want to What kind of breeding methods are practiced in other countries like China, India, USA, Turkey?
Any body interested we could review the breeding methods of cotton mutually?