Science topic

Pollination - Science topic

Pollination is the transfer of pollen grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).
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I am currently collecting the reproductive morphology of around 400 land plant species for my research. The information I would like to get is reproductive morphology (hermaphroditic, dioecious, monoecious, gynoecious or androecious), flower morphology (unisexual or bisexual flowers), and pollination strategies (self-pollinated, cross-pollinated or both). I have taken me a lot of time to search single by single species on Google but I have not gone so far. So, it is very helpful if there is an available database containing relevant information for searching. Please let me know if you know something that can help me.
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May the "biolflor database" a opportunity?
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Hello
I am investigating the shared pollinator communities of a native wildflower, and a related invasive hybrid. The hybrid is replacing the native plant. I have collected data which lists all insect visitors to both plants. I want to see if the bee communities between plants are significantly different. I have tried using nmds in vegan and mvabund in R, but it doesn't seem to work when only comparing two things (for example it seems normally multiple sites are species are compared). How might I go about comparing the assemblages? Secondly there have been some interesting results, for example bumble bees don't seem to visit one plant. How might I test if that is a significant result or more likely just a feature of my sampling.
Any help is very appreciated.
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Hello Cameron; Your description of the study sounds like the data a comparison of frequencies. That sounds like a Chi Square test is an appropriate place to begin. It is simple and quick...you can do it by hand. Best regards, Jim Des Lauriers
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Honey bee algorithm uses particles to mimic actual honey bees; annd I preferred it because:
Although other species of bees are five to ten times more efficient, on a per-bee basis, at pollinating certain fruits, honeybees have bigger colonies, cover longer distances, and tolerate management and movement better than most insects. They're not picky - they’ll spend their time on almost any crop.
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Dear Prof. Аабу Абед ,
I have two papers related to this valuable subject:
Here are some from the first paper:
  • The differentiation between honeybees’ behavior and computer also attracted hundreds of researchers in proposing some artificial intelligence algorithms used to solve many real-life problems. The researchers found these bees live in groups called colonies where each bee colony, also referred to as hive, has at least three well-known subgroups of bees: scout bees that responsible for searching for the new food sources (i.e. solutions) which are the flower nectar, onlooker bees which knew the amounts and determine the exact places of any food source by watching the dancing ways of the scout bees, and the employed bees which are responsible for gathering the food from the resources' places that are defined by the scouts. They also found the members of each group (i.e. colony), as well as the subgroups, have their own structure for the working tasks and dominance hierarchy. [31][29]
  • By studying the behaviors of these colonies especially how all the bees contribute together in generating the optimal solution of the nectar harvest, the research work held by Saab et al. (2009) introduced a novel and valuable optimization algorithm based on using the Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) optimization. With the condition that the probability of choosing any candidate solutions (i.e. flower nectar as the food source) is directly connected with the fitness function (i.e. nectar's amount, nectar's quality, and the distance between the colony and the food’s source), the importance of their algorithm in the real-world is its ability to balance between the two searching phases exploration and exploitation in the searching iteration steps around finding and reaping the flower nectar. For a more detailed explanation and illustration of this algorithm, the interested reader can refer to the mentioned paper. According to the real implementations of the two scenarios of scouting and forging processes, this algorithm can be used to employ many real-life optimization problems that don't demand supervision which includes, but are not limited to, the following examples: combinatorial optimization problems, stochastic problems, multi-targets, data-mining-search-engine crawling, parallel implementation, multi-targets, and parallel implementations. [31]
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I am trying to self pollinate commercial varieties but I don't have the maintenance.
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Cytoplasmic male-sterility (CMS) has been used in F1 hybrid seed production in onion (Allium cepa L.). The CMS lines can be maintained by pollinating it with cytoplasmic male fertile line.
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Hello everybody, hope you are doing well!
I am doing some tests on pollination effectiveness of honey bees, and I am looking for a method to sterilize faba bean flowers. So, let me know If you have any idea about the way of doing flower sterilization in this plant.
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Pasupuleti Sivaramakrishna, Thanks for your answer.
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I am wondering are there are any papers comparing the genetic diversity open pollinated cultivar vs an inbred lines, in naturally cross pollinating crop species such as corn and onions?
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Dear Brandon,
I hope this article will be of help for you. Best regards,
Noemi
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Among wheat or other self pollinated cereal crops
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Dear Dr Huma Tariq Dr . See the following useful RG link:
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Can anyone please share a Matlab code for Demand side management in smart grid using meta-heuristic algorithms? I am implementing a flower pollination algorithm for appliance scheduling, got stuck in that. Please share any information you have!! Thanks
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Recep Cakmak Thanks for the quick reply, Sir. Went through the papers, very well written papers! Can you share the code for the same?
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Are there good examples in which the lack off pollinators prevent plant invasions? So a direct relation between the lack of pollinators and subsequent failure to become invasive. There are number of examples in which the lack of pollinators does limit plant invasions, but other than fig-wasp interactions, are there any good examples in which the lack of a plant species becoming invasive can be ascribed to the lack of pollination?
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Phyllanthus reticulatus, an widespread Asian species with species specific pollinator (Epicephala moth), is found in Jamaica (whence named P. jamaicensis
( Grisebach 1859 ) but never set fruits and thus failed to become invasive. This might be a good example.
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There are quite a few landscape-scale studies examining the value/usage of different types of land use for bees and other pollinators (see Mandelik et al. 2012 Ecol Appl; Harrison et al. 2018 Glob Chang Biol)
There are also some who look at the value of different crops for bees and other pollinators (see Adamson et al. 2012 Environ Entomol; Martin et al. 2018 Ecol Appli).
I am looking for studies that investigate the value/visitation/use of different cultivars of a (single) crop by bees and/or other pollinators. Is anyone aware of such studies?
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Maxime Eeraerts please see the article of johnson Stanley regarding the topic
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Bees contribute greatly to increasing crop production. one example is pollination activity by bees can increase the production of strawberries by 50% compared to if not visited by bees.
But on the other hand, it was reported that bees prefer to visit on crops infected by Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV), so that pollination in healthy crops is reduced, fruit quality in healthy crops is lower than in infected crops, and even causes the next generation of crops to carry susceptible genes.
So what should we do about the presence of bees on our cultivated crops?
Should we preserve them? Or control them?
Please give your best opinion. Thank you.
Best regards!
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As bees are effective pollinators of crops we need to take special care like application of insecticides in the form of granules , spraying before bloom for management of pests and restrict the bees to hive only on the day of spraying for protection of bees
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Further disturbing data were published on the dramatic decline in the number of bees.
Now, in the media there was information that about 40 percent. Bees in the US did not survive the winter of 2018-2019.
Similar data is also found in many other countries.
This is very disturbing.
Is mankind able to solve this problem in time?
Will technological development solve this problem?
Apparently, a significant part of the bee population is killed not only in winter but also in other, warmer seasons. Also in the spring and summer, when large-scale spraying of crops with pesticides is used in agriculture, also used during insect feeding periods on flowers. Then many insects are poisoned and die.
How to solve the problem of a drastic drop in the population of bees and other pollinating insects?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
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Dear Ashutosh Saini,
This is very positive news.
Thank you, Regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Hi everyone,
I am looking for phylogeny of pollinators and ants to construct a phylogenetic correlation matrix. Something similar to what can be found in verlife.
Any ideas?
Thanks in advance!
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I know only how to estimate the number of honeybee colonies required to be placed per acre of crops for honey production. Therefore, I need your help to estimate the number of honeybee colonies required to be placed per a given area of crops for pollination.
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Hi Tura,
This number is often defined in pollination contracts, that are mainly respected by the major farmers. I suggest you to collect some of these contracts among beekeepers or seed/fruit producers so you can make an estimation of the "economical need" for crop pollination.
If your question is about the "real" number of colonies necessary for crop pollination, you have to consider the landscape aroud the crops.
- if there is a largely diversified flora/fauna, and the global part of you crop in the landscape is small (<20% for instance) and if the individual surface of each crop is small (<1ha for instance), the natural pollinators will be generally sufficient.
- if your crop is the major part of your landscape, and the rest is poor for pollinators, you should bring colonies as Marian told.
Michel
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What is a Testcross?
The testcross is another procedure to identify the genotype of a plant. In the testcross the plant in question is crossed with a plant homozygous and recessive for the trait being observed. In the F2 above, hooded plants were either homozygous (KK) or heterozygous (Kk). If an F2 homozygous plant (KK) is testcrossed with a recessive awned plant (kk), the cross (KK ×kk) would produce all hooded offspring (Kk) as in the cross between the original hooded and aawned parent plants. If an F2 hooded plant is heterozygous (Kk), the cross (Kk × kk) would result in one­half of the offspring plants being hooded (Kk) and one­half being awned (kk). In a crop like barley that is self­pollinated, it is easier to harvest F2 seeds and grow a progeny test of each F2 plant than to make the testcross and to grow the testcross progeny. If the crop is cross­pollinated, pollination must be controlled to prevent outcrossing before growing a progeny test so it may be as easy to make a testcross as to make a progeny test. In crops that set seed poorly after self­pollination, the testcross may be preferred over the progeny test. In self­incompatible or dioecious crops, in which self­pollination is not possible, the testcross provides the only means to identify the genotype of particular plants.
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Crossing of hybrid progeny with homozygous recessive genotype to unravel F1 zygotic status.
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I'm looking for some standard literature on Asteraceae pollination and methods to conduct breeding system experiments on Asteraceae flowers.
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Dear @Suman Paul Members of this family has both autogamous (lettuce) and allogamous (sunflower) breeding systems. If you are interested to know the breeding behavior of other plants of the "Asteraceae" family, by pollination control you can discover whether the representative plant is auto- or allogamous. For details of systems of pollination control, you can go through the chapter in the book "Principles of Plant Breeding" written by RW Allard.
Best wishes, AKC
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The ones I know about are: Wales, England, France, All-Ireland, USA, Scotland is currently consulting on one. Any others?
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Hello everybody!
We are working with pollinators in-field and are looking for the least damaging but most feasible way to narcotise them. We don't have to handle them for a long time: measure thorax height and mark them with a pen.
Currently, we are working with a bicycle tube CO2 refill pump. We expose them to CO2 for <5 seconds until they fall still. However, literature suggests it may impact their memory severely.
Cooling, conversely, seems the least damaging method but might be difficult to do if you have to spend 5-8 hours away from refrigeration. Has anyone got experience?
Is perhaps ice spray an option--i.e. spray it on the little flask that the bee is captured in? Might take too long or not cool them down enough...
Your input will be much appreciated!
Warm regards,
Marie
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Hello Marie; Doing the same manipulation with dragonflies one of my students used a picnic ice chest filled with a block of ice. The container stayed cold all day. It would probably have lasted for two days if needed. You might try that. Best regards, Jim Des Lauriers
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To study about chemical composition of nectar and it's effect on pollinators distribution.
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Respected Sir,
You may follow this paper 10.1111/2041-210X.12928RESEARCH
Thank you.
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Heat stress has been seen to affect paddy yields in different regions in Bangladesh during the 2021 boro season. In many places, increased sterile spikelet/unfilled grains have been recorded due to the heatwaves and has also been found to have a negative effect on yield. In this case, how does heat stress affects pollination and its leading effect on rice yield and how can it be overcome? I hope you have a good suggestion!
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Thanks for your nice question , Increasing temperature of air the relative humidity decrease resulted the water absorption capacity of air is highly increased. When hot air with low humidity flow on rice field especially during flowering phase of rice plant they absorb the moisture from both anther and stigma in this case stigma lost its viscosity to receive pollen and other hand pollen lost the capability of peg formation for proper fertilization . As whole pollination is failed resulted to sterile grain or chita in inflorescence . If the hot air flow in heading phase high temperature (more than 35C ) accelerate the antithesis process before stigma maturity , immature stigma can not receive pollen. In this case pollination does not occur and grain become chita .
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Regeneration of Cucurbitaceae family (C. lanatus, C. sativusand C. melospecies) requires specific management for controlled pollination, achieved both by spatial isolation in the field or by the use of isolation chambers, in order to maintain the original genepool. Who are the best pollinators and the Protocol for the regeneration of landraces or their selections by avoiding pollen contamination?
Sokrat Jani
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Bumblebees are the best pollinators for plants from Cucurbitaceae family generally.
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I´m starting a pollination experiment. A cacti population will be selected for the study and maybe there are references to consider over an appropiate population, including some distance of human disturbance to pollinators.
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It certainly depends on the pollinators you want to observe. Birds are most sensitive, bats less so, while keeping still seems to work for most insects (although I am not sure that we would recognize a disturbed insect).
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In the grass-cutting / mowing debate for road verges and public open space, most of the research / discussion papers explore frequency of mowing and the resulting impact on geophyte and annual populations of flowers with a view to bolstering urban biodiversity and supporting pollinator populations. However not all road verges are equal in the habitat services they provide. I would like to explore precedent for landscape management markers (ie. landscaping / landscape architecture interventions for communicating no-mow areas to contractors) which have been implemented across the globe. Please can provide pointers to precedents and policies which have been adopted, discussed, or assessed.
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There are a few papers dealing with the effects of climate change on the pollination of European orchids, but I wonder if similar studies have been carried out in the Tropics.
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In addition to genetic and environmental factors, fruit size is also influenced by crop load, rootstock, orchard planting system/tree training system, pollination, water and nutrient management, biotic and abiotic stress, etc.
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Dear K. L. Kumawat To my opinion, growing optimum population size of the genotype along with 1-2 check varieties in the ideal environment, and repeating the same twice/thrice will provide a nearly true value of the genetic potential of the genotype in question.
Thanks!
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How much time is required from germination of pollen grain on stigma to fertilization in Solanaceous crops (chilli, tomato, brinjal)?
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My colleague plans to do a hand pollination experiment on strawberry. This is going to be a quantitative experiment: we are trying to see how the quality of the pollens affects fruit set. Therefore, we need to pollinate each flower with the same amount of pollens. What's the best method to do this? Other technical advises about pollen collection and prevention of unwanted natural pollination would also be appreciated.
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Determine pollen protein content and correlate with pollen viability Duy Minh Pham
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There is data about the location and characteristics of plots of Oilseed Rape on several farms, as well as the relative abundance of different pollinator species counted at each plot. The variables included are:
Farm
latitude
longitude
pct_flower
temp
variety
type
species
group
relative_abundance
1. Investigate the effect of temperature and flower coverage on the relative abundance of pollinators (overall and for honeybees specifically - in the group variable).
2. The difference in pollinator relative abundance (overall and for honeybees specifically) among farms, varieties, and types.
I have researched papers and many google searches to try and understand which test I need to complete for these. Am i correct in thinking temperature, flower coverage, and relative abundance are all continuous data and i look at these against honeybees. Or do I need to extract honeybees vs each of the other variables in question?
I have looked at Kruskal Wallis tests, or ANOVA, and also Poisson regression, though I am confused on if I am correct.
Any help would be appreciated!
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Have you asked your advisor or other people in the department for help? You should be able to find someone at your university to help with these sorts of questions.
From UCLA, though:
"The [linked] table shows general guidelines for choosing a statistical analysis. We emphasize that these are general guidelines and should not be construed as hard and fast rules. Usually your data could be analyzed in multiple ways, each of which could yield legitimate answers."
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We're looking to purchase olive pollen for an artificial pollination study. Does anyone know where we might be able to buy Olea europaea pollen?
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Most commerical Olive cultivars are self unfruitful so that it needs cross-pollinated through either cultivation more than one cultivar in an orchard or hand pollinated (not advised), and for experimental purposes, you can use pollen from compatible cultivars.
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There are several types of pregnant women used to preserve bacterial cell activity during storage periods or attachment of bacterial cells to seeds of the plant to be biofertilized, as these carriers differ from one country to another depending on the available and cheapest materials in that country, so please mention the type of vaccine used in your countries for the benefit ?
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Human beings, bee, bats, birds etc.
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I am not great with statistics so please be understanding. I have 17 pollinator sites that I collected data from and am comparing the effect of habitat type (2 classes) on several different response variables. Initially, I set up the model is SAS using PROC GLM as such;
proc glm data= gardens;
class Habitat;
model polldiver= habitat;
OUTPUT OUT=RESIDS R=RES;
Run;
PROC UNIVARIATE DATA=RESIDS NORMAL PLOT;
VAR RES;
RUN;
I am told that I need to add "site" as a random effect. However, I am unsure how to go about this.
My predictor variable is habitat type: urban or rural
My response variables are: pollinator richness, abundance, visits per flower, proportion of bombus, proportion of other bees, proportion of lepidopteran, proportion of other insects.
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No problem! Going decent, but online classes are rough.
I imagine that you might not be too interested in a site*habitat interaction, if your main focus is how the habitat type affects your response variables. But maybe it should be a nested effect? That is if a site can only be classified as one habitat type.
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Which one is more compensated for the lack of major elements NPK in the soil, is it biological pollination or organic fertilization and how much are those ratios?
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Thank you
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If it exists, where can I find data or some relevant references on the recovery rate (and time) of insect biodiversity (or just pollinators) when shifting from conventional to organic farming for different crop types?
Thanks for your help.
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A shift from mono-culture conventional farming to monoculture organic will make major changes in the soil biome.... Plus, the use of targeted organic pest control instead of scorched-earth pestiices use, will make a huge different above-ground. However, the really big difference, will be what you set aside a percentage of the land, that must be put back to as close to 100% cover of the original local wildflowers with diversity, that provide nectar and pollen for the native pollinators? How much farm land can you spare? Probably a minimum of 2-5% would do something meaningful, but E.O. Wilson is suggesting 50% must go back to nature?
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Will the creation of mechanical nano-insects solve the problem of declining populations of bees and other pollinating insects?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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...Nanotechnology has tremendous applications in the food, pesticide, fertilizer, chemical, and agriculture industries. Nanostructures or nanoformulations are fabricated by manipulating, at atomic or molecular level, reactants in definite ratios for improving the physical, chemical, and conduction properties as well as strengthening the functioning materials applicable in agriculture, medicine, and environmental monitoring. ... The nanoparticles, APC molded into functional nano-biopesticides via green technology, could selectively target insects for plant and environmental safety. ... Lade, B. D., & Gogle, D. P. (2019). Nano-biopesticides: Synthesis and Applications in Plant Safety. In Nanobiotechnology Applications in Plant Protection (pp. 169-189). Springer, Cham.
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The value of pollination of crop flowers (without cultivars) is estimated at 500 billion dollars. USA annually. Due to the intensification of production of agricultural products, including the use of chemical plant protection products, the number of pollinating insects, including primarily all bees, is decreasing rapidly. The number of bumblebees also drops very fast, and only these insects pollinate some crops. To limit the sources of this problem, people should limit the development of agriculture based on industrial production of arable crops, in particular in the areas of arable crop production for livestock and it is globally 3/4 of arable land.
Instead of industrial production of agricultural products, organic farming should be developed without the use of chemical plant protection products. Pesticides should be replaced by the introduction into the production of agricultural crops more resistant to viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic diseases of cultivated plant varieties, which are created using modern biogenetic techniques.
In addition to the industrial production of agricultural produce (mainly for the purposes of maintaining livestock production, meat production), the global warming process is also contributing to the decline of insects, including pollinating insects. This is because, because many species of insects are very sensitive to changes in the temperature of the environment in which they live. In order to limit the sources of this problem, a person should proceed on a massive scale to reclaim industrial degraded areas in order to convert them to biological ecosystems similar to natural biological environments composed of many species of flora and fauna cooperating with each other.
In addition, the surface of natural habitats, natural biological ecosystems in which insects feed. It is caused by mowing meadows outside the city and grasses in the cities. Therefore, it is advisable not to mow lawns, put up insect houses, or remove rotting, rotting stumps in parks and forests. In some cities, flower meadows are planted and insecticides specially created for this purpose are placed in city parks.
According to observations of biologists, environmentalists are killed so quickly that in 100 years there will be no insects. If the pollinating insects die, then the plants will cease to produce fruit and seeds, many species of plants will disappear and there will be a serious problem with feeding mankind and many species of animals on Earth. Therefore, the problem is very serious. This is, in my opinion, the second most important problem to be solved in the 21st century, in addition to the problem of successive and faster global warming process. In my opinion, these are the most important global problems and challenges to solve numerous problems for humanity in the 21st century.
Do you agree with me on the above matter?
In the context of the above issues, I am asking you the following question:
How to protect pollinating insects from extinction?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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Campaigns... … We report the results of a task force of the North American Pollinator Protection Campaign (NAPPC) that examined potential effects of vector management practices on pollinators, and how these programs could be adjusted to minimize negative effects on pollinating species … Ginsberg, H. S., Bargar, T. A., Hladik, M. L., & Lubelczyk, C. (2017). Management of arthropod pathogen vectors in North America: minimizing adverse effects on pollinators. Journal of medical entomology, 54(6), 1463-1475.
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Seeds obtained from heterozygous T0 mutants obtained through CRISPR CAS9 were sown and the plants raised were properly genotyped. Following normal segregation pattern, T1 generation had WT, heterozygous and homozygous plants. The homozygous were not producing normal seeds but strangely few (2 in many) produced more than 50% normal seeds, when those seeds and the plants raised from them were genotyped they were found to be heterozygous. In T1 I ignored this (thinking that T0 plants from CRISPR CAS9 might carry chimeric mutation for the gene).
To get T2 generation, seeds obtained from T1 heterozygous were planted, but T2 homozygous plants also had such plants. The situation even continued to the next generations. I am wondering what might be the cause. I know that cross pollination in rice occurs to small extent but if that is the cause then all homozygous plants must bear small number of such seeds. In this case homozygous usually don’t produce normal seeds at all, unusually few homozygous bear normal heterozygous seeds. Your suggestions will be highly appreciated to explain this situation. Thanks.
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You should check the availability of Cas9 structure also. If the Cas9 still in your homozygous plant (consider the target gene), you can have other heterozygous progenies.
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What are potentially huge yet unexamined questions/problems related to pollinator conservation? What basic knowledge do we lack? What knowledge do we have but fail to apply? Do we need to learn more about biology and ecology of pollinators or we should rather focus on undertaking conservation activities (and what kind of activities/actions specifically)?
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@Michal Filipiak Your question has one associated question as to whether pollinators really need conservation?? If so, then how many pollinator species have become extinct thus far, and whether new pollinator species have also evolved and added to our ecosystem??
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I am looking for research, which is maybe not published in English or in peer-reviewed journals.
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Thank you Rik Clymans . Bilyana Stoykova might be interested in working on pollinator abundances in apricot orchards in Bulgaria. Maybe we can have a chat about it.
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Why alkaloids varies generation to generation of homozygous pure line in self pollinated crop?
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Plant breeding, or crop genetic improvement, is the production of new, improved crop
varieties for use by farmers. The new variety may have higher yield, improved grain
quality, increased disease resistance, or be less prone to lodging. Ideally, it will have a
new combination of attributes which are significantly better than the varieties already
available. The new variety will be a new combination of genes which the plant breeder
has put together from those available in the gene pool of that species. It may contain
only genes already existing in other varieties of the same crop, or it may contain genes
from other distant plant relatives, or genes from unrelated organisms inserted by
biotechnological means.
Plant Breeding is essential to enhance the crop production generation to generation improve biochemical status of plant
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Goodmorning..when doing genetic analysis of grain yield and yield attributing traits for drought tolerance in self pollinating crops (F2 generation) Vs cross pollinating crops, is it important to conduct it for 2 seasons ? Assuming that one has enough seed from F1 to allow for two seasons or it's not important in self pollinating crops Vs cross pollinating (Hybrid)?
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Phenotypic stability under stress environment facilitate the fitness of genotype and opens new horizons to explore the cryptic genetic variation. Variation in tolerance to drought stress, a major grain yield constraint to global maize production, was identified, at the phenotypic and genotypic level. Here we found a prominent hybrid H9 that showed fitness over four growing seasons for grain yield under water stress conditions. Genotypic and phenotypic correlation of yield attributing traits over four seasons demonstrated that cobs per plant, 100 seed weight, number of grains rows per cob, total dry matter, cob diameter had positive association (r2 = 0.3–0.9) to grain yield. The perturbation was found for chlorophyll content as it showed moderate to strong association (P < 0.01) over four seasons, might be due to environment or genotype dependent. Highest heritability (95%) and genetic advance (79%) for grain yield was found in H9 over four consecutive crop growing seasons. Combined analysis over four seasons showed that studied variables together explained 85% of total variation in dependent structure (grain yield) obtained by Principal component analysis. This significant finding is the best example of phenotypic stability of grain yield in H9 and made it best fitted for grain yield under drought stress scenario. Detailed genetic analysis of H9 will help us to identify significant loci and alleles that made H9 the best fitted and it could serve as a potential source to generate novel transgressive levels of tolerance for drought stress in arid/semiarid regions.
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In the current EFSA Guidance on the risk assessment of plant protection products on bees (Apis mellifera, Bombus spp. and solitary bees) related to the Regulation (EC) 1107/2009 valid test methods for bees are in place. Beside bees (honeybees) several other pollinator groups are affected by pesticides and biocides such as lepidopterans or beetles. In order to improve the risk assesment for pesticides and biocides it is important to have a whole overview of exisiting guidelines beside the European regulations, OECD framework or the US EPA regulatory.
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Much of the negative hype on GM plants' safety issues concerned with cross pollination and potentiality of masking the existing varieties. I got curious to know if there exist knowledge on how to bring a barrier to cross pollination via genetic engineering. This could be an add on to valuable trait generations and transgenic pipelines.
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Not possible
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I have built a phylogenetic tree using categorical functional traits, such as pollination and dispersion syndromes, phenology, etc. Now, I can see the dicotomies and the points in which the plant species diverge, lineages, and so on. However, the interpretation itself seems to be a little tricky because I want to go with quantitative and qualitative discussion but don't know where to start from.
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@Rutger A. Vos
First of all, thank you very much for your help. This answer solved many of my conflicts. I'll try to make the analysis again, taking into account these suggestions. I was particularly intrigued by the non-evolutive meaning of the tree, but now you clarified it way better. I appreciate your attention and support. Have a great day!
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I am a student doing a paper on the Sable Island Sweat Bee. However there's very little information or research done on it. I'm particularly keen on the bee's role as a pollinator on the island and it's impact if the bee becomes extinct. I am looking at the reasons for it's threatened status and what measures are being undertaken to help its survival. I would appreciate if you could help point me to where material is avaiable for this. Thank you.
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This tiny bee definitely plays an important role in pollination and maintaining the island's ecosystem. By conserving the insect will protect the habitat of the island. For conservation the nesting or forage sites of the bees have to be well protected. Eco-tourism is also a threat for them. It would be better if it could be stopped.
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I am analyzing fruit-set data (a binary response, so 1's and 0's only) from a pollination experiment. Five treatments were applied to flowers, one of which (pollinator exclusion) yielded no fruit-set in any of the manipulated flowers (i.e., the response was all 0's); all other treatments had varying levels of fruit-set (but not exclusively 0). I am using a binomial generalized linear model (with clog-log link function) to analyze the effect of the treatments (a categorical variable) on fruit-set, but the inclusion of 'pollinator exclusion' as a level in my treatments factor in the model produces results that are obviously erroneous. Omitting 'pollinator exclusion' as a treatment level produces expected model results.
Am I justified in excluding this '0's-only' factor level from my model, even though it was part of the original experimental design? If not, how can I overcome the havoc it wreaks on linear models?
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Thank you for that interesting information. To my (non-expert) opinion, it might then make sense to use a binomial model to estimate the lower limit of the probability that it is "incapable of autonomous selfing". This information would stand aside from the comparison of the (other) treatments.
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I am working with colour patterns of a flower pollinated by Centris sp.. But I have difficulty in find their photorreceptor sensibilities to run the colour vision models. Thanks!
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Thank you guys! I will consider both answers on the next time I run a colour vision model!
Cheers!
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#### The flower's menacing open mouth emits a foul odor similar to rotting meat, earning it the nickname "corpse flower." That stench attracts the insects that pollinate it.
OR
@@@@ Pollination by elephant is called Elephophily.It is found in Rafflesia whose flowers are very large and are found at ground level. The pollen grains of one flower get attached to the feet of elephants and may be carried to the stigma of another flower.
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The first is the mode of pollination
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I have become interested in potentially doing a small study on non-bee pollinators by looking at what pollen are present on their bodies. I am unsure whether or not this would be a useful contribution, since while there appear to be many studies on the role of non-bee pollinators, there doesn't seem to be many studies indicating the state of the literature.
That being said I did find this paper which identifies some gaps in the literature but it is now somewhat out of date and only focuses on flies and not other pollinators.
I would appreciate any insights into the state of the literature on non-bee pollinators and their contribution(s), as well as any interesting papers etc.
In particular is it known:
  • Which plants each pollinator is responsible for pollinating and in what proportions
  • Whether species labelled as pollinators actually pollinate or simply visit plants?
  • Are there any species in which it is contested whether or not they act as pollinators?
  • Are there any obvious gaps in the literature?
Thanks in advance! I look forward to hearing your thoughts!
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I studied avocado pollinators, bees and non-bees, in their native land Central America and out of America. I investigated the avocado visitors' behavior, pollen carrying and pollination effectiveness. There are more works like mine, studying non-bee pollinators of various plant species.
Please see in : Pollinators of Avocado Chapter, Full-text available, January 2002
  • 📷Manes Wysoki, 📷Michael A. van den Berg, 📷Gad Ish-Am, [...], 📷Geoff K. Waite.
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This Amegilla bee was observed foraging on small plant in suburban area of south Punjab, Pakistan. Will you please help me to identify its species? South Punjab climate is mostly hot and arid with annual precipitation of about 100-150 mm.
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We can diffentiate Amegilla based on their clypeus marking (black) also
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Xylocopa is a big sized pollinator which is inhabited in the tropical environments. This pollinator are raised in the bamboo stalks. I am seeking for some research work that highlight Xylocopa being potentially a favoured pollinator in tomato crop buzz pollination under tropical environments.
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Yes! Please take a look at this useful RG link.
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I pollinated the plants with endophytic bacteria, how did I check for its presence in the plant?
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For endophytes microscopic detection it would be easier for you to tag your bacteria with florescent tag like GFP before you inculcate your plant with it. Then use fluorescence microscope to check its colonization.
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I'm looking for new/modern motion detector systems for my research with orchid bees and hummingbirds. I basically want to record the pollinators' activity when they approach to the flowers so I expect the system will activate with motion and just record the visit events. Thus, I can't avoid recording several hours of video without activity. I've previously used a system with security cameras and mini portable video recorder with motion detector, but this system is old and it had failed a few times during my last field season. Do you have a recommendation of either cameras/camcorders that come with a motion detection option, or a modern mini portable video recorder with motion detector?
I've seen a few options in the market but it will be nice to hear what things have worked for other researchers. I'll appreciate your suggestions. Thank you very much.
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Hi,
we use security cameras Vivoteku IB8367-T and Milesight MS-C3262-FPNA/7-22 . Cameras can work as independent units - Camera + battery + SD memory card. They are able record flowers for 24 hours (32 gb SD card and battery limits). Cameras have own software with motion detection but trigger of it could be too slow if your view is focused just on flower. Because we record insects, which is small and usually very fast, we prefer later analyse detail insect behavior (contacts with anthers…) and handling times with Motion Meerkat software.
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In trees we do controlled pollination in a Diallel mating design to produce F1's and observe the characters of progeny. Can we consider the pod and seed produced after controlled pollination as F1's and include in analysis.
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It may depend on flower structure. I am presenting two situation.
1. Making crosses in rice involves chopping off of of lemma and palea to expose anthers. This result in naked seed that has to withstand unusual nourturing environment during development. And hence various aspects of f1 seed may not be a true genotypic reflection say length and width of seed.
2. Making crosses in maize is not destructive as in case of rice particularly to female flower or cob. Here, seed develop during quite normal gestation environment. And various seed traits are true genotypic reflection. Eg. Endosperm colour, genia effect etc.
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Dear Researcher,
I would like you to help me in the answer to the following questions about passion fruit; as I have tried on google but I have not found latest and authentic reference about these questions,
  1. An average, how many days/month required from pollination/fruit setting to harvesting of passion fruit?
  2. In how many stages we can classify the passion fruit from the Days After Fruiting (DAF) to Harvesting?
  3.  As we have classified into 10 stages depending on the pulp development, size and peel color, But, can you help me to classify as Days After Fruiting (DAF) into 10 stages.? For example, the 1st stage is 10-15 DAF, 2nd stage 15-20, 3rd 20-25 etc.   
  4. Yellow and purple required same time period from fruiting to harvesting? More or less?
  5. How much is the total area and production under passion fruit in the world?
  6. Which commercial varieties? and provinces are growing passion fruit in the world?
  7. How many days, Yellow and purple passion fruit commercial post harvest shelf life? It's same or different (how many days).
8. What are the main post harvest causes of passion fruit?  and how can control them?9- The main post harvest pathogenic causing agent of passion fruit?   
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Mark Cooper
Thanks a lot
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Hi All-
I am hoping someone can direct me to some related sources. I am researching Cannabis, and I have a feeling when seed production begins following pollination, the plant reallocates energy into producing seeds and ceases putting energy into the flower (including production of phytochemicals). I am having a heck of a time tracking down relevant literature, but I know someone on here knows something about this! Thanks in advance- Anna
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Hi Philippe- That is super interesting! To the lab!!
Have you seen any other literature to support what you saw, or was it just a crazy thing you stumbled on?
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I am wondering if there are any well-documented examples of bird-pollinated Asteraceae, besides the South American species of Mutisia?
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Please take a look at the following link.
Thanks!
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I'm wondering if there's any empirical relationship of the form Kp ~ F (Fragmentation), where Kp is the carrying capacity of pollinators. Alternatively, I could use Abundance ~ F (Fragmentation). I've seen a study suggestion a power law function, but I'm not sure if there's any sort of universal relationship.
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It depends on what the home range/foraging range of the pollinators is and how far to the nearest good habitat. Also on what their normal foraging range distance is. You have to balance energy expended to get to the next good patch vs what they can glean energy-wise from the patch. If the patch is too far away, even if it has high energy/nutrition, it does not matter. It is inaccessible. You need to know the ecology and behaviour of your organism first.
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Flowering of Dillenia pentagyna. The tree bloomed yesterday morning at CEC BNHS. There wasn't a single leaf. When I was passing under the tree I could hear the buzzing sound of hundreds of honey bees feasting on the nectar and helping in pollination. I went to see the flowers again in the afternoon and the road under the tree was golden yellow with the sprinkle of petals of the tree. All flowers had shed the petals and only few honey bees could be seen on the tree. The flowering was over. Here are three photographs. Another tree had blossomed 18th June 2019. At BNHS Conservation Education Centre (CEC), Goregaon, Mumbai. Dt. 19 June 2019.
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A one-day blooming flowers are well known in mass flowering trees that carry a very high number of flowers and relatively a small number of fruits. This reproductive strategy allows an effective competition among the potential progenies. An avocado tree carries about one million flowers during a flowering season of 4-6 weeks. Each flower opens for 5 hours as a female, close for the night, and opens again on the following day for another 5 hours as a male. So it is receptive for less than a day. Out of the one million flowers on a tree only 2-5% succeed to set, about 40,000 small fruits per tree, and out of these small fruits about 1% only grow for adult fruits. Therefore, a competition for pollination is carried among the female flowers, and a similar competition for visitation happen among the male ones as well. A more severe competition on the tree is in force among the tens thousands of small fruits, which carry combinations of both male and female traits.
Mass flowering trees' flowers are open for only a day to allow as many flowers as possible along the limited blooming season. However, a tree that carries many one-day blooming flowers, which all open simultaneously on the same day looks strange. It is too risky.
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One of my recent experiment refered to insect species, now the identification (to family level) has been done. In the following, I want to compare the differences in species richness and composition of insects between different treatments, which is easy. Besides, I also want to see the accumulative patterns of different functional groups (like herbivores vs. insect predators and pollinators vs. non-pollinators, or any other functional groups) in different treatments. However, I have few experiences in insect research and do not know how to identify which functional group an insect (family) belongs to. Does anyone know that? Are there some references or websites for such purposes?
I appreciate it a lot if anyone can give some suggestions.
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In insects there are many functional groups and according to the number of individuals registered in each evaluation date, you can organize them according to their feeding behavior that can pollinators, phytophages, granivores, predators, parasitoids, coprophagous, saprophagous, necrophagous, hematophagous, xylophagous, rizophagous, frugivorous, nocturnal, diurnal, aquatic or terrestrial etc.
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I have been looking for information about the duration of the activity of pollinators after they emerge. I am aware that this will vary among species. However, there may be some average value.
I have found a lot of information about phenological decoupling but non of them specify (or at least I have not found it) what is the length of the activity period in the case of insect pollinators.
Can anyone help me?
Thanks in advance
:)
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En el caso de las abejas meliferas las obreras que son las polinizadoras, ellas viven durante aproximadamente de 4 a 6 semanas, pero en los trópicos y subtropicos estas sobreviven gracias a su sociabilidad, por lo que ellas están polinizando siempre y cuando las poblaciones de abejas, con las nuevas generaciones en los apiarios tengan reservas de miel y polen, con poblaciones de abejas obreras, y que existan flores que tengan néctar y polen para la sobrevivencias de las abejas, o sea la relación planta-abeja.
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Soybean:
1-Cultivars and genotypes, ripening group 3, 4 and 5 6
2-Rizobium races, suitable for high temperature and poor organic matter soil situations of dry and hot condition.
3-Optimum herbicides for no-till system.
Canola:
-Open pollinate and hybrid spring type cultivars and genotypes, with high yield and resistant to early cold, Phoma and Sclorotina diseases
2-Optimum brad-leaf herbicides.
Sesame:
1-Resistant genotypes to pod shattering, with medium to high yield.
2-Optimum herbicides for the crop especially for no-till system.
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You can contact both the International Center for Biosaline Agriculture (ICBA);
and International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics(ICRISAT)
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Communities around the world have engaged in the discussion and implemented measures (actions/ policies/ etc.) supporting pollinators (beyond A. mellifera). Do you know of early adopters, success & failure stories, and methods of measuring those?
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“Pollinator policies” To my understand few countries have established some strategies/policies to protect local pollinators for example issues related to use of neonicotinoids pesticides. I guess lack of awareness on plant pollinator interactions limits to some extent development of the policies, for example in most of Sub Saharan Africa.
I guess quantifying the success, requires understanding of the status and dynamics of the available local pollinators. This is pertinent for the projection based on the existing policies and for comparisons after implementation of new policies.
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I am presently using Gephi to represent plant pollinators interactions. This software is good and easy to use. But I am looking for something else for better representation of pollination networks.
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It seems to me that the request should be formulated a little more precisely. What kind of data do you want to present - spatial data or quantitative data and what functions did not have gephi that could be useful for you.
Also, maybe you would show your example graph and write what you are missing from it.
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Martins, D. J. & S. D. Johnson. 2007. Hawkmoth pollination of aerangoid orchids in Kenya, with special reference to nectar sugar concentration gradients in the floral spurs. American Journal of Botany 94: 650–659.
Nilsson LA, L. Jonsson, L. Reason & E. Randrianjohany. 1985. Monophily and pollination mechanisms in Angraecum arachnites Schltr. (Orchidaceae) in a guild of long-tongued hawk-moths (Sphingidae) in Madagascar. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 26: 1–19.
Peter Roos
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Hello Peter H Roos,
Thank you for for sharing interest paper about plant-insecte relation.
I like also Angraecum générale from Madagascar...
Best regards,
Marpha TT
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Do pollinators cause pathogenic transmission of plant diseases (fungi, bacteria, viruses, etc.) in plants?
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Most of the pollinating insects do have hairy-like structures on their legs which facilitate transmission of pathogens from various sources to the susceptible plant during pollination. So, its obvious that most of the blight causing bacteria and fungi can be transmitted to the susceptible plants through pollinators during arthropod-plant contact
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I´m researching on ecology and biology of pollinators of Plantaginaceae and Scrophulariaceae families.
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I will try both ways, thanks.
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I made a lot of crosses between 10-15 different proso millet parents.
I was wondering if there is a way to identify the seeds which resulted from artificial pollination rather than self-pollination
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Do you have any unique PCR markers for each parent line? If so, you should be able to distinguish those F1 seeds using PCR amplification (ex. parent A: 1 band, parent B: 1 band, and hybrid: 2 bands).
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Hello,
For a study of the pollinator guild of Silene nutans species complex we would like to rear caterpillars of moths (especially of Hadena) to obtain adults to identify the species, as it seems difficult to identify them at caterpillar stage (or is it possible?) . So I am searching for a protocol and advice for rearing them. Does anyone have any experience on this?
Thank you very much in advance!
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Even more interesting and very smart for those moths. Then, get ready to have your own patch of Silene plants developing seeds, maybe build an enclosure with the plants growing in a one foot wide by two feet tall by 3-4 feet long wire mesh cage, and add the caterpillars, and do some moth ranching?
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1. Effect of pesticides on foraging behavior and reproduction of bee pollinators.
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thank you so much for kind response!
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Can you please recommend some practical manual on how to do tremula pollination indoors? Ideally an old manual in a pdf format? Many thanks.
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Have a look at the following three publications and see if anyone of them are applicable, you might have access to some of them, see:
Development of the pistillate flower of Populus tremuloides following controlled pollination, Gilbert H. Fechner, Canadian Journal of Botany, 1972, 50(12): 2503-2509, https://doi.org/10.1139/b72-321
Biology of Populus and its Implications for Management and Conservation, Edited by Reinhard Stettler, Toby Bradshaw, Paul Heilman, Tom Hinckley, Pages542Typee-bookPublished1996ISBN978-0-660-16506-6e-ISBN978-0-9878114-1-7Book number40337PublisherNRC Research Press, http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/book/10.1139/9780660165066#.XGZ4AOj7QdU
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If I have categorical variables for 'floral resources used' in one column, e.g. Erica cinerea, etc. and two other columns for Pollinator Species Richness and Abundance, what test could I use? The goal is to determine which plant species are preferred by pollinators.
I tried fit regression model in Minitab, set total pollinators and species richness as responses and floral resource used as the categorical predictor. Result said floral resource used was highly significant (p < 0.001) . Coefficients section gives a list of p values for each plant species, e.g.
Erica cinerea = 0.004
Erica tetralix = 0.001
Rubus fruticosus = 0.000
Ulex europaeus = 0.802
That looks alright, but I'm not sure if I'm supposed to look at the coefficients section. Also, does that really tell you if there's a preference? It's difficult because it just says 3 out of 4 are significant but what does that really mean in this context? I mean, it syncs up fairly well with the actual numbers, for example Rubus having the highest abundance and species richness, but I'm not sure if it actually answers the preferences question.
Thank you.
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The analysis depends on your data. A statistical analysis will be difficult if you have plant species 1, and species richness because you only have one replicate. If there were multiple sampling locations (multiple richness estimates for each host plant), then your options are more diverse.
A program like EstimateS will give 95% confidence intervals. If the intervals do not overlap then they are significantly different.
A favored parametric multiple comparison procedure is Tukey's test. There is a wide array of other methods. Kruskal-Wallis test is a common non-parametric approach. Many other options exist. I have see Ryan-Einot-Gabriel-Welsh multiple comparison used a few times recently.
For abundant species you might be able to run an analysis by species: Species A prefers plants 2 and 5. Plant 1 is less preferred and is never found on the other plants.
The analysis will be confounded by patch size. Species 1 covers 20 ha, while species 2 covers 2 ha, and the others combined cover 0.5 ha. Classic island biogeography problem.
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Without bees and other pollinating insects, most species of terrestrial flora and fauna will soon disappear and there will be a serious problem with feeding people on Earth.
For several years, the phenomenon of massive extinction of whole bee swarms in some regions of the world, including mainly regions of crop cultivation, has been observed.
Therefore, when this unfavorable process will continue, perhaps in the future the solution to this problem will be the creation of a Smart Robo-Bee, ie nanotechnological, miniaturized artificial robotic insects.
These Smart Robo-Bees could pollinate flowers of cereals, vegetables, shrubs, fruit trees, etc. in the situation of complete extinction of pollinating insects.
Is this a realistic scenario to solve the problem of extinction pollinating insects?
Please, answer, comments.
I invite you to the discussion.
Best wishes
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The solution is to stop the damaging practices due to human action, particularly by the two companies (or is it one now) that control nearly all the world's food production.
Wouldn't it be more cost-effective, easier and less harmful to breed large quantities of real bees and deploy them when and where needed? I'd be concerned that yet again one or two companies would dominate the production/use of robo-bees. We've seen too often the problems when one company dominates in a space due to patent protection and ties farmers to particular technology. Naturally, I'm thinking of Monsanto:
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We want to study the pollination of a tropical liana species by bats. In order to estimate the visitation rate of bats at the flowers, we would like to use camera traps. Does anyone have experience with using camera traps for trapping small and fast bat species and can recommend a brand (bushnell, cuddleback, Reconyx etc)?
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It's incredibly hard to work with bats in the wild using camera traps. Most successful field researchers prefer to use custom-made systems composed of cameras, triggers, and sensors. I suggest talking to Prof. Tschapka, from Ulm University (Germany), who gets very nice results: https://www.uni-ulm.de/en/nawi/bio3/apl-prof-dr-marco-tschapka/.
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I am working on pollen. The hand-collected pollen exhibited good potential to germinate over the stigma even after few months of storage under freezing conditions. I want to know: will the pollen collected by bees show the same capability towards the pollination process?
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HPARKER, A., J. TRAN, J. ISON, J. BAI, A. WEIS, AND J. THOMSON. 2015. Pollen packing affects the function of pollen on corbiculate bees but not non-corbiculate bees. Arthropod-Plant Interactions 9: 197-203.
This reference suggests that pollen loaded by corbiculate bees is less effective than pollen that has not been loaded into the pollen baskets
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In one of the meeting with Director Cotton, I come to know that Pakistani breeder are practicing Pure line/Pedigree Selection for the development of cotton. They are also considering the cotton as highly self pollinated crop? However, literature show that it is not fully self pollinated crop? Why not synthetics or composite varieties evolved in cotton
I think practicing purre line in cotton could reduce the phenotypic plasticity to adapt multiple environmental conditions. It may drain the varieties which come and disappears often quickly?
So I want to What kind of breeding methods are practiced in other countries like China, India, USA, Turkey?
Any body interested we could review the breeding methods of cotton mutually?
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In cotton main target is yield with a high emphasis on fiber quality. Hybridization with superior parents and then selection program will helpful.
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