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Politics & International Relations - Science topic

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Greetings,
Given the enormous diversity and versality of areas that International Relations can encompass, ranging from International Law to Political Economy, what is the current state of traditional theory in the field?
In other words, are departments and scholars worldwide still inclined upon broad theoretical questions related to basic schools such as neorealism, neoclassical realism, and power transition theory? Or has the field moved on to more narrowed down models and the status for those who are still oriented towards big theoretical question is not favorable?
If there is any literature or article available with quantitative data regarding the latest growing trends of research typology in International Relations, it would be a welcomed read.
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Realism or political realism has been the dominant theory of international relations since the conception of the discipline. The theory claims to rely upon an ancient tradition of thought which includes writers such as Thucydides, Machiavelli, and Hobbes. Although they have come under great challenge from other theories, they remain central to the discipline. At its height, liberalism in IR was referred to as a 'utopian' theory and is still recognised as such to some degree today. However, there is a need to identify and measure the change in international relations and institutions. There are numerous examples of recent institutional change, transformation, and obsolescence.
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As I legal scholar when I am doing my research I differentiate legal and non-legal sphere in international relations - international law and international politics. There are several differences between the legal and political approach to international relations.
Is there a similar difference between diplomacy and international politics? Should we differentiate between international politics and international diplomacy, what is the difference? Let's say that I want to say that "something" is insignificant in a legal sense but it is significant in a non-legal sense. Is there a difference if something is significant in diplomatic sense and if something significant in a political sense?
In sum. What is the difference between diplomatic and political aspects of an issue?
Thank you
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Mass sanctions against Russian universities will not solve Ukrainian academia’s problems, says Ararat Osipian, a founding fellow of the New University in Exile Consortium...
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Iam writting related Thesis Research about New seurity threaths? Whethere its biological or nchemical weaponused for independent purpose. today its more transmitted, dangerous and active,. before security was state centric tradiotn treaths from other externatl state, but it broader during new system shifted As acrot htrought international affairs us soft power advanted to project power,They , creatining division beteween society, and shape and govern there beliedf. I want expert and posiible suggestion of literatury. To explained Human secuirt, soft power, new wars.
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New or heightened threats—those of financial instability, employment restructuring, global crime, human trafficking, the spread of disease, climate change, and conflicts within national borders—present a major set of challenges for global governance.
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There is consensus on the principle that cybersecurity can better be achieved through transnational cooperation rather every country or block on its own. Yet, the work undertaken under the auspices of the United Nations, namely under the General Assembly, is progressing at a very slow pace. I recently published a research article on that ongoing work at the UN in the field of cybersecurity, available at : . It confirms that progress is slow, so this raises a few questions. What is needed to improve multilateral cooperation on cybersecurity? Are there some specific topics of cybersecurity that should be prioritized in the multilateral arenas? What format (binding, non-binding, information sharing, confidence-building) should the expected deliverables have?
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thanks for your valuable question
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The Tigris - Euphrates water conflict is frozen conflict between three riparians (Iraq, Syria and Turkey). The conflict came up because of upstream water projects by Turkey and therefore the restriction of water access to individuals of downstream failed states (Iraq and Syria). There are two principles are conflicting: Territorial sovereignty of Turkey and human right to water of individuals (This is issue of global justice and not international justice due to failed states). My question is: whom belongs water and how property (connected with territory) theory of Locke  can be connected to the sovereignty principle of Turkey?
Thank you beforehand
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My consideration of the question is why would an esoteric philosophical perspective from Locke alter the literally thousands of years of praxis basically based on Roman Water Law ( http://www.fao.org/3/y5692e/y5692e00.htm#Contents ), probably the oldest codification of multi-faceted tensions between common pool resources and private uses. Any 'sovereignty' claim which disregards these well established perspectives might have some temporary benefit but essentially establishes a ticking time bomb for all future transnational relationships, if not laying the track into direct military confrontation.
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Hello Seniors!
Please guide me what are the names of the biggest databases of books, journals, conferences, etc for Social Sciences?
There are dozens of databases which are made for a specific field of science. Is there any specific database for Social Sciences like Political Science, International Relations, Sociology?
Thanks in advance.
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Dear Colleague,
are you interested in "the biggest" or the most relevant? You complain about "specific field of science" but ask for exactly such?
Yes, there are very general databases as well as a great number of more specific. International and national.
To guide you towards the most relevant one needs to know more about your interests.
I would rather suggest the following - if you are associated to any university (as a student, teacher, researcher) you should contact university library. Staff there conduct no research by their own, but usually is very competent in guiding students and scholars. You will learn there which databases are available for you (which are subscribed).
In short - a visit to your university library is a very good beginning.
Wish you luck
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How this coopration may change the regional balance of power and if the Persians deciding to such variant of cooperation will be able to protect themselves from the political protectorate?
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After American economic sanctioned on Iran, there is huge opportunity for china to sympathize Iran. No doubt, Iran- China relation will be more strengthen after American action. Israel, Saudi Arab and America have thrown Iran into China's court and China will never miss this golden chance to cash.
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Last weekend millions of Poles went to the ballots to vote in the presidential election. The election was in many ways a crossroad for Poland, will Poland go down the road of liberalism or continue down the road of conservatism and nationalism? Will Poland rejoin the European family of nations or will they be the travel companion of Hungary on a path towards further nationalism and isolation?
The implications of this elections are many and most of them are related to issues such as the future relation to the EU, the independence of the judiciary, independence of the press and in the long run, perhaps even the future of Polish democracy. I wrote an article on the subject that was published and syndicated in news outlets across Africa and the Middle East and I will share it with you, in case you are not familiar with the subject, I received many comments and questions from readers so I thought it might be an interesting debate. The article can be found here.:
What are your thoughts about the future of Poland, the EU and the issues laid out here in this text? The words is free..at least for now.
Best wishes Henrik
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Unfortunately, some are doing everything to steal European identity. Such threads are obliging Poland and other countries to draw the specifed and private identity .
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Religions are an important part of the cultural richness of the society and they should be respected. However, those working in science may face questions about it, as the tenets of some religions have been claimed to be against modern scientific evidence.
How do you feel about it? Do you see inconsistencies? Do they cause you unrest? Or do you have a way to reconcile science and your religion?
Thank you for sharing
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Pope John XXI, the only Portuguese Pope at the date, Pedro Julião Rebolo (better known as Pedro Hispano), was a renowned doctor, philosopher, teacher, mathematician and theologian.
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I am preparing a draft article examining the challenges of teaching international relations (IR) to Japanese undergraduate students in English. Japanese students introduced to the social sciences, particularly IR, face a number of unique challenges: an academic discipline almost entirely developed from a Western perspective; understanding terminology, concepts, and theories in English; and socio-cultural barriers in the classroom that hinder student participation. The strategies employed by the author may also be of interest to English-language instructors of other social science disciplines.
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An important strategy is to get students to be aware of the genre they are employing and its purposes. Then, students must explicitly be taught the structure of that genre and how it may be used to advance knowledge.
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So much is in a flux right now, the level of uncertainty is high and there is a constant battle between narratives. What is your opinion; when will our economies start to recover? Many businesses are in deep crisis, like airlines, reaturants and the whole travel industry. What are your thoughts?
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Normalizing the global health crisis will take 1-2 years (acute measures); stabilizing the economy back will take 3-5 years. This is a war-like control szenario, in terms of mathematical and physical modelling.
EU recovery will be chronically slower, because of stronger state interventionist storms, e.g. monetary union into debt union.
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SARS-CoV-2 mainly affects the elderly, predominant in rich countries. Developing countries can more easily overcome the pandemic, given their lower life expectancy and that young people are less affected. Autoimmunization may be faster, and demographic and economic effects could be reduced in the long term
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Rich countries have more resources to get a quick recovery in general....
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What will society look like when the pandemic is over? Opinions range from a return to normal to a totally changed world. Will we have to be forever on standby for the next outbreak which could come at any time? Will the world be a more co-operative place or a more insular one as a result of being locked down for weeks?
Our drug development, our vaccine strategy and our provision of healthcare could be irreversibly changed as a result of this global experience. Even our view of civil liberties and the rights of governments to control our movements will need to be revised in the liberal democracies.
What will the world look like at the end of 2020?
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Regarding transnational threats, Boin writes that two courses of action are commonly pursued: decoupling and resilience. In the former, the onus is on govt to increase aspects of islanding and isolation with the aim of decoupling from other countries and simplifying overly complex systems that are vulnerable to crises. In the later, the onus is on populations who need early warning and resources to cope with preparing for and managing the burden of crises. In this case, vulnerable populations are more heavily impacted. In the short term, the former less politically risky approach is pursued by most govts, but the later more risky approach is desirable over the long term. We will see a blend of these approaches moving out.
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I am writing a brief section on the American Anti-Imperialist League of the late 1800s, early 1900s. I find that most of the people in it and statements made by it oppose U.S. imperialism, in large part, for racist reasons. They don't want all those "non-white" people to be part of the United States and they think it would distort the Constitution to have people be part of the United States who are not citizens. I know a few people, like Mark Twain, held different views. But does anyone know more about non-racist reasons why people were anti-imperialists at that time? Or where I could find more about what they thought and why?  Thank you.
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Thank you Randolph. Yes, you are so right! And so many of the anti-imperialists just didn't want any non-white people in the United States and, as you point out, the many white people who were in this country were
practicing genocide against those who were here.
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In times of coronavirus-crisis and fear, democracy is suffering. How can we protect our democracies and our right to rebellion in such times? Albert Camus, author of philosophical essays, political texts and novels such as The Plague can be a very inspiring thinker with regard to these questions. Berghahn Journals offer free access to all journals and articles, including my article "Democracy Needs Rebellion. A Democratic Theory inspired by Albert Camus". Would be great to discuss the above mentioned questions with you: https://www.berghahnjournals.com/view/journals/theoria/66/161/th6616105.xml
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I hope that the deep sense of meaninglessness and absurd together with the Corona epidemic will add a completely new depth to our experience of modernity and democracy. The Corona epidemic, as a global threat in the globalizing era, can give us more opportunities to face the contradictions of modernity. Globalization has been actually a process that enabled the contradictions of modernity to spread all over the world. The experience of modernity has been a historical experience that carries a number of structural contradictions such as universal-particular, individual-society, subject-structure, knowledge-value, truth-nature, freedom-mind and theory-practice from the very beginning. Looking at the global-local contradiction from this perspective; it is extremely important to evaluate modernization, which has been localizing as well as globalizing from the beginning, with its structural contradictions. Whether considered as a dialectical relationship, as the pains of a long-term integration process, or as a contradiction that does not actually exist, the global-local contradiction is an integral part of the experience of modernity. It seems that the politics of the subject / local will determine the increasingly deconstructing world of the future. However, if the radicalization and universalization of the consequences of modernity will also mean intensification of the contradictions of modernity, it seems inevitable that “locality” is the new battlefield of conflicting identities.
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In my opinion, important issues in the issues of international project management are as follows:
- The impact of economic, information globalization etc on international management projects.
- Improving information technology management systems on a supranational basis,
- computerized standards and management systems used by transnational corporations in the field of international project management,
- Sociological, intercultural conditions for the management of international teams implementing projects in enterprises operating internationally or globally,
- Security of data transfer and processing performed for the needs of the enterprise management process in the context of international project management.
In what other areas of science, research on specific aspects of the economy, business, art, technology development, etc. should be created interesting research topics in the field of international project management?
Please answer
Best wishes
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Time issue in construction project... as I think
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Two major western nuclear powers are ruled by blond populists that are challenging the political establishment and act loud, wide mouthed and irresponsible in the view of neutral onlookers...
Are they political twins or is Trump master and Johnson puppet?!
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John Oliver Explains Why Boris Johnson Is Not the Same as Donald Trump https://www.vanityfair.com/hollywood/2019/07/john-oliver-last-week-tonight-boris-johnson-donald-trump
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Kashmir Valley has been in total communication blockade since 5th August 2019. Non Resident Kashmiris ( NRK) living around the world are not able to speak to their families, older parents, or unwell relatives due to total and complete communication blackout, curfew and lack of news from local media.
I would appreciate if anyone know of any studies published in such circumstances looks at the psychological distress in those ( like NRKs here) who are not able to reach families and are constantly worrying because of not knowing and war like situation.
Any papers, articles or manuscripts will be appreciated .
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Does terrorism in the world have any impact on International Oil Prices
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The current terrorism of the 21st century has a greatly effect on oil production and prices, contributed to the loss of billions of dollars for oil-producing countries, and contributed to oil deals& contracts for certain regions of the world. The sale of weapons has been unprecedented, and it has served certain countries by selling their old expired conventional weapons rather than destroying them. It has also contributed to increasing the poor and misery in quantity and quality. This is to say the least for terrorism.
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The Royal Institute of International Affairs (Chatham House) has opened a discussion on the contribution of technology to democracy.
Does anyone have any ideas on how technology might be used to improve democracy or, on the other hand is it being used more often to undermine it?
The Chatham House Question:
Are there ways in which technology can help revitalise democracy in Europe?
Although digital technology and in particular social media is often seen as a driver of the current crisis of liberal democracy, it may also be part of the solution. Across Europe, citizens have used digital technology to experiment with new forms of communication and mobilization and parties and governments have used digital technology to involve citizens. What lessons can be learned from these experiments? Do any of them offer promising ways of engaging citizens more deeply in the democratic process in Europe?
Any ideas? Sensible ones that is!
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Democracy itself would be better understood if it was referred to as
"Commercial democracy" as democracies only develop in response to widespread production and trade within a region.
Thus the origin of all long-lasting democracies come from port cities and trading areas. From ancient Athens to the Italian Maritime Republics and to England and her colonies democracies develop as an aspect of trade.
So to enhance democracy is to find ways to enhance production and trade.
Technology can do this.
The more COMMERCIAL Europe becomes, the more democratic it will be.
We confuse democracy as a merely a political arrangement. But it is but the political veneer of a producing and trading people.
As we are all more-or-less equal and tolerant in the marketplace, we become equal and tolerant in our government.
Historically, government jobs initiatives stifle production more than they foster it. Removing regulations and lowering taxation will undoubtedly help.
The Chinese lead in developing some technologies because their oversight and regulatory systems have not yet developed to control and stifle production. In some ways it is a capitalist free-for-all churning just beneath and out of sight of communist overlords.
But if things continue along the path they are traveling, China, like Russia, like India, and other areas will move toward democracy. It's production and trade guarantees it.
These ideas are further examined at www.ourhumanherds.com
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The European take on this is uniformly negative
And yet in Britain he seems unstoppable. Every Tory will come behind him as they fear oblivion at the hands of Farage or Corbyn.
Labour voters think he is 'fun' and may vote for him. Remember he defeated Ken Livingston for Mayor of London when he had a 20% lead.
Can anyone explain this?
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unfortunately, yes
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  • The United States has requested the extradition of WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange, after he was arrested at the Ecuadorean embassy in London. The Metropolitan police said the arrest was made on behalf of the US authorities.
  • Police were videoed forcibly removing Assange, from the Ecuadorian embassy, at around at around 10.50am. Police had been invited into the embassy by the Ecuadorian embassy where Assange had take refuge for almost seven years to avoid extradition to Sweden where authorities wanted to question him as part of a sexual assault investigation.
  • Assange is due to appear at Westminster magistrates court later on Thursday. He was being held on a warrant issued by the court when he skipped bail in 2012.
  • The president of Ecuador, Lenín Moreno said he secured guarantees from the UK that Assange would not face the death penalty or torture. Justifying the move handing him over to the British police, Moreno said: “In a sovereign decision Ecuador withdrew the asylum status to Julian Assange after his repeated violations to international conventions and daily-life- protocols.”
  • Elisabeth Massi Fritz, a lawyer for one of the two women who accused Assange, welcomed the arrest. The Swedish prosecution authority is expected to issue a statement later.
  • Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov said Moscow hoped that Assange’s rights would not be violated. A spokeswoman for the foreign ministry accused the UK of strangling freedom.
  • The arrest was welcomed by the UK government. Foreign secretary, Jeremy Hunt, thanked Ecuador. “Julian Assange is no hero and no-one is above the law. He has hidden from the truth for years.” Home secretary Sajid Javid is due to update parliament later on Thursday.
  • Assange’s supporters have condemned the arrest. Rafael Correa, who was Ecuadorian president when Assange was granted asylum, accused his successor of treachery.
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"All roads lead to Rome," they used to say "All roads lead to the US" would be more like it today.
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The social media is abuzz with a lot of action these days what with every organization worth its salt making its presence felt on social media. Question is, is the time ripe to claim that social media could very well help in gauging how effective the performance of a particular organization is? And could the same parameters be applied to political parties and leaders? Asking so because of late, social media has come to play an increasingly significant role in the build-up to the election during the campaigning phase.
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Yes, actually social media activities are also frequently used in political marketing practices. For example, Obama is one of the presidents who benefited most from this concept. During the campaign process, the on-line question and answer sections on the voters with Facebook made it possible for the voters to receive immediate answers to their questions, while the leader also identified the voter problems through face-to-face interviews and contributed to the effectiveness and efficiency of the promotion and advertising activities.
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Are trade wars a good solution for implementing the policies of specific countries?
Can the imposition of tariffs and other barriers to international trade lead to a significant decline in the economic growth of individual countries?
If the barriers to international trade are increased in many countries, including the largest world economies, can this lead to a significant downturn in the global economy?
Please reply
Best wishes
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Suadat hussain Wani 's answer represents a typical mode of thinking in this topic. Although he is observing facts correctly, he states contradictory claims perhaps without noticing it (He claims barriers are bad for the welfare of people, but he claims at the same time that the barriers are good for job creation.).
This signifies that (1) we lack a good framework to analyze various aspects of trade restriction and liberalization, and (2) opinions about trade policies represent intuitive ideas rather than analyzed and empirically tested results. The lack of suitable framework produces one-sided policy recommendations based on more ideological thoughts than a cool analysis of the effects of policies.
To change this state of the art, it is necessary to obtain a new theory in place of traditional trade theories. The most popular trade theory is Heckscher-Ohlin-Samuelson theory. Models of this theory assume full employment by assumption and cannot as a consequence analyze the troubles like unemployment and industrial declines. Other trade theories are not exempt of this defect. Many trade-theorists have a strong pro-trade bias and argue for the unconditional trade liberalization without being aware of the problems that their theory structure imposes. They are slaves of economic theory just as John Maynard Keynes warned at the end of his famous book: The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money.
If unemployment and job creation are the most important question, the new trade theory must be one that permits unemployment as normal state of the economy and gives a framework by which we can analyze how employment is regulated, and how jobs are created. So the good trade theory must be able to analyze losses from trade as well as gains from trade.
Although there is no such ideal trade theory, the new theory of international values is the most promising one, because it is a framework which can explain gains from trade but can also analyze unemployment. For example, it can show that trade liberalization with no coordinated effective demand policy leads to engender unemployment at least in some countries (See Theorem 4.3, Shiozawa 2017 The New Theory of International Values/ An Overview, Chapter 1, The New Construction of Ricardian Theory of International Trade). The new theory is also a framework which is compatible with the principle of effective demands. (See our new book which will be published soon: Shiozawa, Morioka and Taniguchi 2019 The Microfoundations of Evolutionary Economics.)
As this is rather a new theory, the analysis of job or industry creation is yet a blank, but it has a good possibility to be combined with evolutionary economics and provides a theoretical framework to analyze such topics as job loss, international competitiveness, and catching-up. For an example, see my chapter with Fujimoto: The Nature of International Competition among Firms (Chapter 2 in Fujimoto and Ikuine 2018 Industrial Competitiveness and Design Evolution). Classical infant industry theory may obtain a justification by the new theory.
Although increased trade barriers may lead to a downturn of global economy, as Yeboah Evans points it, we should think why such a political backlash like Trumpism emerged. We should not pursue prosperity by a heavy sacrifice of some nations. We should find a solution which permits further prosperity without further suffering of some categories of people. The first step in search of such solution is to find a good theory by which to consider trade policies and their consequences.
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What do you think about the role of international financial institutions in the process of reducing development disparities between countries and in the issue of supporting sustainable development?
What is your opinion on the assessment of the activities of international financial institutions in reducing development differences between countries, reducing income disparities, supporting poorer and developing countries?
Do international financial institutions adequately support investment projects developed according to the concept of sustainable pro-ecological development?
Please reply
Best wishes
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Funding role is key concerning International Non Governmental Organization (INGOs) on Sustainable Development.
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Is anyone of you aware of a systematic (or at least very broad/comprehensive) review of the literature on securitisation theory? I was just discussing this with a colleague, but besides some "state of the art" pieces by Waever, Balzacq, Stritzel etc. and the "Agents without agency" paper by Comte (which is rather systematic, but largely focused on the aspect of agency), we could find little that systematically maps out which elements of securitisation have been used how and where for which purposes.
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The special issue in Security Dialogue 2011 is very useful. I wrote a piece on the 'dual history of securitization' which does give a background (e.g. by starting from de-securitization) and historicises/contextualises its origins and findings. Available here on Research Gate both in Portuguese and as a Working Paper in English.
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Recent adjustments in some of the trade relations, such as the decisions of the United Kingdom to leave the European Union and the United States to renegotiate and re-evaluate their main trade agreements in force have caused concern about the possible escalation of barriers and disputes. commercial. The imposition of tariffs and trade barriers as well as disputes over certain products could be intensified if other countries respond with reprisals.
Do you think that an increasingly restrictive environment in terms of international trade could reduce the growth prospects in the medium term, due to the interdependence that exists between trade, investment and productivity growth?
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In my view the restrictive environment in trade relations would have a short term effect but in the medium and long term restrictions would be bypassed by those countries still willing to engage more in the globalized economy. The restricting nations would suffer the most.
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whether the development of international industrial corporations and large international banks and investment funds operating internationally will be the main factor of economic globalization in the 21st century?
What other determinants will shape the processes of economic globalization in the 21st century?
Please, answer, comments.
I invite you to the discussion.
I have described these issues in recently published publications:
I invite you to discussion and scientific cooperation
Best wishes
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According to experts globalization can evolve in three different ways:
a) Globalization will continue its expansion although not at a constant speed;
b) Globalization and business internationalization will slow down, given the prevalence of some of the negative effects on some countries economies and
c) Growth will be more regional than global.
In fact, there is ample evidence of events supporting each of these situations and only time will tell. For sure, this is really a most important issue that has to be considered under the umbrella of political developments and environmental impact.
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The Nahj al-Balagha is the most famous collection of sermons, letters, tafsirs and narrations attributed to Imam Ali a.s.
Communication, Public relation, economical, managerial, social, leadership, public law and a lot have discussed in the sermons and letters and the third part of the book is short sayings and it is also full of knowledge
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one short saying from part three of Nahj Al-Balagha: A Divine rule can be established only by a man, who, where justice and equity are required, neither feels deficient nor weak and who is not greedy and avaricious.
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Lately many countries across the world is shifting towards protectionism where they are extensively controlling free trade, commerce and immigrations. Climate change on the other hand globally has been driving force from Syria's armed conflict (To read more go to: https://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2015/03/150302-syria-war-climate-change-drought/) to all the way Cape Town's Day Zero. Climate change laid the path to syrian conflict thereby changing the geopolitical landscape of European countries where countries like UK went through Brexit, Sweden is on verge of deciding to be part of EU.
There is some kind of faint correlation (hypothesis) that climate change is driving the geopolitical situations of many countries towards protectionism. And many countries are voting for protectionist ideologies because they know resources would be one of the key survival element for their country. Since climate change is going to get severe as per recent IPCC's report countries shift towards protectionism is largely because of the future prediction of global temperatures which can bring droughts, failed crops and many other extensive issues. Is there anyway this hypothesis holds true? Has anyone come across any paper or report that talks about this kind of situations or in similar lines? Please share if you know about it. The question is a hypothesis which I would really like to explore in details. Thanks for responding.
Keywords: Climate Change, Politics & International Relation, Protectionism, Geopolitics
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Thanks alot for the response. Though at the moment I am just curious to explore the possibilities of connections that the idea holds. It could be possible that there is no connection between any of these things. But the way the current situations across the globe is reacting I personally feel it is delivered out as a result of failure to understand the implications of climate change on day to day politics of each countries and at larger scale the geopolitics of the whole situation. Thanks for sharing the resource.
Regards,
Shaurya
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What are the potential options available with regards to the Irish border, and how safe is the Good Friday Agreement in it's current form throughout the Brexit process?
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Thank you Carsten & Margaret for your answers - I think we are beginning to approach crunch time and this is where we will start to see serious proposals gain increased attention - indeed it appears brexiteers are open to less rigid approaches to the process, but I don't think my fears are assuaged just yet and hope a solution is found soon.
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In the UK as the Brexit deadlines loom large we see the party political questions seemingly drowning out rational economic calculation.
Boris Johnson want to replace Theresa May. So does Jeremy Corbyn. The DUP say a border in the Irish Sea is a red line and they will remove support for May's government if she 'concedes' on this issue. The temperature in short is rising rapidly.
Does this mean that politics are now in the ascendancy and rational economic calculations must take a back seat? Or is this just surface noise? I wonder...
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Ireland after independence did indeed retreat inwards and was indeed dominated culturally and socially by the Catholic church. But those days are long gone. Referendums on same sex marriage and abortion recently show a sea change in attitudes. I would put a lot of modernisation and secularisation down to joining the EU in 1972
An interesting thought that UK maye be heading backwards towards isolation and dreams of glories past. Not good....
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What is your view in terms of manipulation of results and other factors when comparing electronic voting systems vs manual balloting?
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Electronic voting - reduce time, but problem with reliability. Manual voting - slow speed, high reliability. Maybe India's experience using this EVM can be used to consider this method.
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Today, after successful elections in Venezuela, boycotted by the US backed opposition, we are told that:
"The US vice-president Mike Pence, described the vote as a “sham” which was “neither free nor fair”, while in a separate statement, the secretary of state, Mike Pompeo, said the US “will take swift economic and diplomatic actions to support the restoration of their democracy.”
Also today we are told that following the unilateral US tearing up of the international treaty with Iran :
"Mike Pompeo has threatened Iran with the “strongest sanctions in history” if it does not comply with a list of a dozen US demands. In a speech that attempted to lay out the Trump administration’s strategy on Iran after quitting the nuclear deal it agreed with other major powers in 2015, the secretary of state warned that the US would not just reimpose all the sanctions that were in place before the deal, but also pile additional punitive measures.
The Iranian regime should know this is just the beginning,” Pompeo said. The speech did not explicitly advocate regime change, but in remarks immediately afterwards Pompeo suggested that it would be up to the Iranian people to end the US pressure campaign by changing their own government.“I can’t put a timeline on it, but at the end of the day, the Iranian people [advised by the CIA] will decide the timeline,” Pompeo said at the Heritage Foundation, a conservative think-tank in Washington. “The Iranian people will get to make a choice about their leadership. If they make the decision quickly that will be wonderful. If they choose not to do so, we will stay hard at this until we achieve the outcomes that I set forth.”
Among the 12 conditions laid down by Pompeo were: demand Iran to give a full account of its alleged past work on nuclear weapons development; stop all uranium enrichment; halt launches of nuclear-capable ballistic missiles; end its support for Hamas, Hezbollah and Palestinian Islamic Jihad;(??) withdraw all forces under Iranian command from Syria; and end support for Houthi rebels in Yemen.
GOOD TO KNOW WE ARE IN SAFE AND SENSIBLE HANDS WHO KNOW HISTORY, DIPLOMACY AND CARE ABOUT WORLD PEACE!!
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I agree largely with Mr. Botchway's line of thought being a Retired Marine Veteran on the tactics and measures the current administration is applying. I fear what is being lost is clear-headed thinking and a reasonable diplomatic approach that attempts to change or sway the ideology behind the unsavory behavior conducted by those who would do us and our allies harm. You have to have a thorough understanding of the people and their way of life, before you can attempt any measure at changing their behavior.
Furthermore with the manner that our current President is going about breaking agreements and disrupting long established relationships with our allies he no longer has any credibility with the free-world. Reputational consequences will have long and lasting effects and will be an impediment to getting others to comply with the current administrations wishes. You have to have the ability to talk to people with mutual respect of their sovereign and positions and then seek a solution that will be a "win-win" for both or all parties involved. Talking down and bullying is never going to accomplish anything in our modern society.
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In concluding his essay "Can China Rise Peacefully?", John Mearsheimer (2004) has argued that "international politics is a nasty and dangerous business", and that "no amount of good will can ameliorate the intense security competition that sets in when an aspiring hegemon appears in Eurasia" (p.5).
My question thus is as to whether international politics is really a "nasty and dangerous business"?
And if indeed it is, should it really be so, and what can we do as scholars and researchers to change this seemingly "nasty and dangerous business"?
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For those interested in an update on China (the mentioned article is dating back from 2004), see the report published by Merics in 2017: http://www.merics.org/index.php/en/papers-on-china/chinas-emergence-global-security-actor-1
Concerning the question on international politics, it is an endless discussion...
You still have geopoliticians and analysts basing their insight on the sole ground of geographical and/or historical background (1st wave of geopoliticians, the classical ones), looking at states only within the lens of hegemon and counter-hegemons creating alternatives or countering the hegemon while the end objective remains to replace the current hegemon. In order to reach their goals, states take either the form of a sea power (Mahan) or land power (Mackinder)... and the frequent conception that borders are only a temporary halt (typically an idea taken from Haushofer).
On top of that, we have the current international order developed by the US for 50 years and currently challenged (see the articles of Anne-Cécile Robert, L’ordre international piétiné par ses garants, in Le Monde diplomatique of Feb 2018 or the article Present at the Erosion - International Order on the Brink published in the Munich Security Report of 2018). Nevertheless, it doesn't look like a nasty business and Joshua Stowell has for example well described that it is not because the system is challenged that we would expect a seism (see https://globalsecurityreview.com/west-really-retreat-probably-not/).
For the moment, media attention is clearly focused on the Asian tiger, DPRK or a new Cold War... The world is clearly summarised as a zero-sum game (President Trump's apparent view)...
But it is clearly to easy, international relations are nowadays deeply influenced by globalisation, private companies can have a deep impact even on an hegemon (e.g. delocalising jobs)... whithout taking into account transnational organised crime, climate change, health security or migrations... without forgetting the simple access to potable water.
To answer the question what can we do as scholars and researchers to change this seemingly "nasty and dangerous business"?, my humble comment would be:
- explain to our elites the various trends at stake,
- provide them with foresight, because they are clearly centered on short-term objectives (they nowadays want actionable information, beeing under constant pressure so "we need to show we are doing sthg") and we clearly need to look beyond in order to tackle emerging threats and/or challenges...
- if given the opportunity, explain to the media & our population international politics is much more than a zero-sum game (if it was the case, then why have we seen the creation of the EEC, even if the European Union as a project is nowadays clearly challenged?),
Internal politics cannot only be summarized by the theory of games, competition is not the only trend...
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Recently, there is an increasing discussion concerning the price for scientific literature. At university, it is no problem to get adequate information for free but in non-university villages, it might be impossible to get the current papers of scientific work for a adequate price. What is your experience?
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Dear Tanja, I think that we live in a very contradictory world today, also with respect to scientific literature.
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International law presumes the equality and sovereignty of all states, irrespective of land size, population, military might, economic strength, etc. Given this presumption, and coupled with the seemingly non-existence of an international police mandated to police the actions of states, is it possible to have effective compliance with international law?
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International Law is far too reliant on sanctions and punitive coercion to be effective. That panders to nationalism and undermines the very reason for aspiring to an international order.
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I am not talking about deterrence, but simply about embracing non-violence "at all costs" (no matter what that might mean).
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Of course it can and I’d be willing to wager it is the only effective means by which an amenable outcome can be achieved. Look at the history of large scale violence compared to small conflict. At the end of hostilities there still has to be a meeting of the minds to map a way forward that is a win-win for all parties concerned. No opposing sides can hear each other when they are engaged in physical violence. At some point a truce is called and credible mediator is brought in to facilitate and come to an agreement for both sides. This individual or entity can be duel hatted and be responsible for ensuring both sides or all parties adhere to whatever agreement is hashed out between the opposing parties. Thereby finally arriving at a peaceful solution and containing the violence.
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What is the impact of National Anthems (lyrics and music tonality, measure) upon population?
Does the violence invoked in lyrics have any impact upon population; a positive or negative impact?  
May the National Anthems be responsible for the increased aggressive behavior and violence among populations ?
Does the tonality of melody have any impact? What about the rhythm, does it have any influence?
In the paper “National Anthems and Suicide Rates” by David Lester of The Richard Stockton College of New Jersey and John. F. Gunn III of Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, published in Psychological Reports, 2011,108,1,43-44. DOI 10.2466/12.PR0.108.1.43-44, ISSN 0033-2941 the summary mentions:
“In a sample of 18 European nations, suicide rates were positively associated with the proportion of low notes in the national anthems and, albeit less strongly, with students' ratings of how gloomy and how sad the anthems sounded, supporting a hypothesis proposed by Rihmer.”
Do you know of any countries that consider to change their National Anthem for any reasons, especially due to the invoked violence and/or the mood it creates?
As it is known in the neurolinguistics (Neurolinguistic Programing), the texts as well as certain sounds have a profound impact upon people's mind.
As an other example, I'll mention the anthems of France, United States of America (USA) and Romania , texts that contain blood, bombs, revenge, (perhaps discrimination as we find in the Romanian anthem).
Can anybody add to this study, reference, studies, and opinions please? All discussions will help a great deal.
Thank you,
Adrian Toader-Williams, PhD
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Please see the NEW article published in the BOOK ... here details
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The right of self-determination of peoples is provided for in the Charter of the United Nations. Why can it be used for cases like East Timor (Indonesia), but can not be used for Catalonia (Spain)?
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@Rex, I would like to see the facts behind your answer. Furthermore, Serbia was occupied by Ottoman Empire for 500 years, while , not Kosovo, but Kosovo and Metohija, where within Serbia, under Ottoman Empire.
Why do Albanians do not like to use the full name? Maybe the following sentence bring the answer:
"The name Metohija derives from the Greek word μετόχια (metókhia, metochion), meaning "monastic estates" – a reference to the large number of villages and estates in the region that were owned by the Serbian Orthodox monasteries and Mount Athos during the Middle Ages..."
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Despite months of media discussion, I am still confused about this, as we seem to hear nothing else nowadays from all sides other than that the Will of the People must be obeyed.   I thought that Parliament had sovereignty in these matters, but that even if Brexit had been legally binding, once a new government and PM were appointed, they were entitled to cancel (or postpone) the referendum vote, the most incompetent political policy of all time.  What is wrong with this considered opinion from The Guardian?
Is the EU referendum legally binding?
Parliament is sovereign and, if Brexit wins, Cameron will not be legally obliged to invoke the Lisbon treaty to start an EU exit
Haroon Siddique
Thursday 23 June 2016 14.52 BST Last modified on Friday 17 February 2017 11.52 GMT
The simple answer to the question as to whether the EU referendum is legally binding is “no”.  In theory, in the event of a vote to leave the EU, David Cameron, who opposes Brexit, could decide to ignore the will of the people and put the question to MPs banking on a majority deciding to remain.
This is because parliament is sovereign and referendums are generally not binding in the UK."
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The EU referendum is not legally binding. The population of the UK do not make law, parliament is the legislature. The governmnet have decided t be bound by the result of the referendum but only parliament can repeal the Treaty of European Union on the UK's behalf.
The referendum was a cheap trick to save the Conservative party from imploding, it did not work and this shambles continues to stumble from catastrophe to catastrophe.
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The idea that Russia has the power to decide the outcome of American elections seems strange to me. I do not follow politics, but I listen to news channels from time to time. I got the impression that "Russia hunting" is part of the campaign against all those whose discourse is not in accordance with the narrative of the "free world". A young commentator informed us that "we" cannot tolerate discourses which "divide us and make us weaker". Hence, "we" must defend ourselves from such discourses. (And Russia produces such discourses.) This is how all totalitarian regimes speak. Have "we" developed such a regime, or at least such social psychology?
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Russia does not have the power to make Americans vote a certain way. Russians may have influenced some Americans to vote for Trump rather than Hillary by putting money into attack ads and hacking endeavors. But that influence can be freely resisted by Americans. I certainly didn't vote for Trump!
To think that Russia can control American politics is to buy into a totalitarian metanarrative which plays some sort of a psychological role for its stakeholders. I'm not exactly sure what that role is, as I'm not a psychologist.
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Whilst I did my doctoral work in the field of political branding, I came across the works of various western authors who advocated adopting a consumer-oriented approach rather than a civic-oriented one for the reason that voters in western nations view their political choices akin to commercial ones. Question is, does this approach serve the purpose in a democracy like India?
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There is a whole science built around it - political marketing.
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BJP-led NDA won a historic mandate in 2014 when it formed the first non-Congress majority government at the centre since the first general election took place during 1951-52. Likewise, Congress won a landslide victory in 1984 in the wake of the assassination of Late Indira Gandhi. How similar (or different) these two victories were? Congress won a mere 44 seats in 2014, first time that it got a two-digit score and BJP won a measly 2 seats in 1984. So on both the instances, one party suffered a drubbing over the other.
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Each election in India has its own features and backgrounds. An important factor is the political situation in the states, the setting of coalitions and agreeing on candidates for constituencies (in a majority electoral system coalition partners don't want to take away each votes) as well as the perceived performance of the Government. In a multicultural society such as India also regional, ethnic and caste constellations (reservation) play an important role, and the stand of rural and urban issues (Bharat vs. India).Until the mid-1960s the dominance of Congress was almost everywhere in the state and the federal government.
At federal level it took until 1977 before Congress experienced its first loss of an election and Janata Party under Desai and later Singh came to power, mainly as a reflection of the undemocratic rule and state of emergency by Indira Gandhi before that. However the Janata Party wasn't stable at all and in 1980 Congress came back and in 1984 it not only consolidated its power, but achieved its ever best result. The sympathy vote after the election of Indira Gandhi was crucial (later in 1991 her son Rajiv was assassinated in the middle of elections. In Tamil Nadu where the assassination happened it split the election into constituencies where elections were held before the assassination and such where voting was done after. The results for the latter was much, much higher for Congress than the results for the constituencies before the assassination. By the way: the 1991 election was preceded by a non-Congress government (V.P. Singh and then Chandra Shekhar), which again showed to be far to heterogeneous to e viable with parties from the far right, central and left (communist parties were outside, but backed the government....)
The elections of 1984 brought Congress almost 50 percent of the votes and more than 400 seats. 2014 the BJP reached 282 votes and some 31 percent of the votes. Here is already a fundamental difference. The BJP was supporting the  V.P. Singh's government of 1989 from outside, but played an important role by highlighting Hindu nationalist sentiments (e.g. Ayodhya dispute and Ram Rath Yadra). Then the VIPs of the BJP were Atal Bihari Vajpayee and Lal Krishna Advani. Singh resigned as the BJP withdraw support after thousands followers and also Advani were arrested in connection to the Ram Rath Yadra. Chandra Sekhar, with support of the Congress from outside took over with less than 70 MPs in his government. Like earlier the BJP this time the Congress did not want to dirty their hands being in the Government. This then helped Congress a lot in 1991, but the major issue was the assassination of Rajiv Gandhi.
Rao (Congress), Vajpayee (BJP),  Deve Gowda, Gujral (both Janata Dal) followed with little political stability. Every election saw part of the opposition winning, before first Vajpayee (BJP, 1998 for six years) and then Manmohan Singh (Congress, 2004 for 10 years took over). These two were the only PM since 1984 that were re-elected.
It becomes clear that today political leadership at national level requires coalitions. Last time in 1984 Congress theoretically could govern based on its power in Parliament. With the need of coalition governments political fragmentation is greater. Also regional parties such as DMK and AIADMK in Tamil Nadu or the Telugu Desam in Andhra become more powerful, being able to blackmail a national government to withdraw support.....
Making it short: to analyse election results in India requires much more than comparing seats won or lost. One need to look at the set up (like I wrote: when coations arrangements are there then parties agree not to contest in particular constituencies....). One lao need to see, how parties are able to bring a rather heterogeneous electorate behind them.
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Having conducted my research in the domain of political branding from an Indian perspective, I have come across many interesting findings which suggest that the phenomenon of political branding is an effective tool for leaders and parties from the west. However, when it comes to the application of the same in the Indian context, the findings were such that they made me question whether it is still early days for it in India or it has truly arrived? The empirical results gave such results which supported political branding as a fruitful concept and then there were pointed otherwise.
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I have no experinece in India, but I believe that brand marketing in Indian politics works, or would work.  The question may be more about whether politicians and their staff/campaign know how to make effective use of brand marketing.
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For the time being there were no efficient solutions to end terrorist attacks in our countries. Fighting with weapons is still the main action against ISIS, Al Quaida and other local groups. What kind of project could stop violent action from armed groups?
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That means the problem is driven by upper goals more than local attacks. So what solution to monitor and control ?
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Last general election result in Britain was not as expected by the PM May: How will it impact Brexit negotiations? Will Brexit be reversed or another election called???
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When she announced the snap election, it seemed to be a sensible strategy. A stronger majority would have helped her take a stronger stance against Brussels in what will be very complex negotiations to take the UK out of the EU. Right now her minority government will have little wiggle room and Brussels should have the upper hand in the negotiations. But, BREXIT will continue. Even the Labour Party has agreed that the UK will be out of the EU.
The question is whether the UK will still be under the European Court of Justice's authority. PM May is not willing to recognize the Court while the EU believes it is necessary to protect the rights of EU citizens living in the UK after its exit and more importantly to settle economic related conflicts that will arise in the next years. Exiting the EU will create many legal problems and an impartial judiciary will be needed to address these disputes. The ECJ has a strong reputation for independence and fairness and the EU is right to make this contingent to the talks. And while May and Tory MPs have been wary of the Court's powers, it is in their interest to have a third party mediate future disputes. Of course, the UK and the EU could create an international tribunal to address potential legal problems but such a body will be very political and may create more conflicts between the UK and the EU.
The other issue, and the ECJ is a connected issue, is how much access the Brits will have to the European single market. Labour is demanding a strong connection to this market but this will come at a cost. Access to this market will not be cheap and the EU will want some big concessions. For instance, Corbyn favors Brexit because the UK will once again have an independent industrial policy that will prop British industry, specially steel. May wants access to the single market of course. But the issue is that the EU wants to preserve freedom of movement for its citizens and guarantees that their citizens will be able to compete for jobs in the UK. Remember that over 3 million EU nationals live in the UK and that close to 1 million of these EU nationals are Polish citizens. EU nationals represent close to 5% of the UK population -- and most of these people are employed, paying taxes, etc.... In comparison, around 1 million UK nationals live in the EU, over 1/3 are retired people living in the Mediterranean - mostly in Spain.
Finally, one of the surprising results was the weakening of the Scottish Nationalists at the expense of the Conservatives. We will not see another Scottish referendum in the near future and dreams that Scotland could negotiate a separate deal with the EU - which was unlikely - are not going to materialize. This does help May, but these Conservative MPs may also complicate things as their views on  a hard BREXIT do not seem to be as strong as their English counterparts. This could be interesting.
Anyhow.... these are my 3 cents.
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can nationalist movements come about against neo-liberalism? and what are these attitudes of neo-liberal policies and state, that drive these resistance? there any case study or examples you can helo with?
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 To me the neoliberal ideology which emphasizes individualist viewpoint (rather than group or social) gives little space for resistance. More we become individualistic more will be the dominance of neoliberalism. This individualist thinking is constructed at the household level where we learn why to speak for others and same thought is being practiced in other household for us. Although we think that in this globalized world, with so many social web cites, apps we are more connected with people but in fact we are in the period of crisis of effective voice  hence less resistance for neoliberalism. 
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Conflict/Peacebuilding/Peace process
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Your question is extremely broad, challenging, important, and can be approached from many angles. Operationalization of the processes, including dynamics of peace processes, state-building and nation-building, involve e.g. economic and political processes, range from peace to war to terrorism to natural conditions, revolution, counter terrorism, involve political instability, economic instability, financial instability, stability of elections, corruption, the free rider dilemma, democracy vs autocracy vs…, the time dimension, etc. For your broad focus, all these phenomena are connected and may come into play. Scanning the 28 publications below may enable you to narrow your research question. Possibly you may identify some that match your focus. The references therein may aid you further and give ideas. With best wishes.
1.      Hausken, K. and Pluemper, T. (1996), “Hegemonic Decline and International Leadership,” Politics and Society 24, 3, 273-295.
2.      Hausken, K. and Pluemper, T. (1997), “Hegemons, Leaders and Followers: A Game-Theoretic Approach to the Postwar Dynamics of International Political Economy,” Journal of World-Systems Research 3, 1, 35-93, http://dx.doi.org/10.5195/jwsr.1997.118.
3.      Hausken, K. and Pluemper, T. (1999), “The Impact of Actor Heterogeneity on the Provision of International Public Goods,” International Interactions 25, 1, 1-34.
4.      Hausken, K. and Pluemper, T. (2002), “Containing Contagious Financial Crises: The Political Economy of Joint Intervention into the Asian Crisis,” Public Choice 111, 3-4, 209-236.
5.      Hausken, K., Martin, C.W., and Pluemper, T. (2004), “Government Spending and Taxation in Democracies and Autocracies,” Constitutional Political Economy 15, 239-259.
6.      Hausken, K. and Moxnes, J.F. (2005), “The Dynamics of Crime and Punishment,” International Journal of Modern Physics C, 16, 11, 1701-1732.
7.      Hausken, K. (2006), “The Stability of Anarchy and Breakdown of Production,” Defence and Peace Economics 17, 6, 589-603.
8.      Hausken, K. (2008), “Exchange, Raiding, and the Shadow of the Future,” Defence and Peace Economics 19, 2, 89-106.
9.      Hausken, K. (2008), “Whether to Attack a Terrorist’s Resource Stock Today or Tomorrow,” Games and Economic Behavior 64, 2, 548–564.
10.  Hausken, K. and Knutsen, J.F. (2010), “An Enabling Mechanism for the Creation, Adjustment, and Dissolution of States and Governmental Units,” Economics: The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal, Vol. 4, 2010-32. doi:10.5018/economics-ejournal.ja.2010-32, http://dx.doi.org/10.5018/economics-ejournal.ja.2010-32.
11.  Bier, V. and Hausken, K. (2011), “Endogenizing the Sticks and Carrots: Modeling Possible Perverse Effects of Counterterrorism Measures,” Annals of Operations Research 186, 1, 39-59.
12.  Hausken, K. and Zhuang, J. (2011), “Governments’ and Terrorists’ Defense and Attack in a T-period Game,” Decision Analysis 8, 1, 46-70.
13.  Hausken, K. and Ncube, M. (2014), “Determinants of Election Outcomes: New evidence from Africa,” African Development Review 26, 4, 610-630.
14.  Hausken, K. and Ncube, M. (2014), “Political Economy of Service Delivery: Monitoring versus Contestation,” The Developing Economies 52, 1, 68-84.
15.  Ncube, M., Anyanwu, J.C. and Hausken, K. (2014), "Inequality, Economic Growth and Poverty in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA)," African Development Review 26, 3, 435-453.
16.  Hausken, K., Banuri, S., Gupta, D., and Abbink, K. (2015), “Al Qaeda at the Bar: Coordinating Ideologues and Mercenaries in Terrorist Organizations,” Public Choice 164, 1, 57-73.
17.  Hausken, K. and Gupta, D. (2015), “Government Protection Against Terrorism and Crime,” Global Crime 16, 2, 59-80.
18.  Hausken, K. and Gupta, D. (2015), “Terrorism and Organized Crime: The Logic of an Unholy Alliance,” International Journal of Contemporary Sociology 52, 2, 141-166.
19.  Hausken, K. and Ncube, M. (2015), “Production, Economic Growth and Conflict in Risky Elections,” Journal of African Elections 14, 2, 34-49.
20.  Welburn, J.W. and Hausken, K. (2015), “A Game Theoretic Model of Economic Crises,” Applied Mathematics and Computation 266, 738-762.
21.  Hausken, K. (2016), “Cost-Benefit Analysis of War,” International Journal of Conflict Management 27, 4, 454-469.
22.  Hausken, K. and Gupta, D. (2016), “Determining the Ideological Orientation of Terrorist Organizations: The Effects of Government Repression and Organized Crime,” International Journal of Public Policy 12, 1/2, 71-97.
23.  Hausken, K. and Ncube, M. (2016), “How Elections are Impacted by Production, Economic Growth and Conflict,” International Game Theory Review 18, 1, 1550015, 29 pages, doi: 10.1142/S0219198915500152.
24.  Hausken, K. (2017), “A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Terrorist Attacks,” Defence and Peace Economics, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10242694.2016.1158440 Forthcoming.
25.  Hausken, K. (2017), “Government Protection against Terrorists Funded by Benefactors and Crime: An Economic Model,” International Journal of Conflict and Violence Forthcoming.
26.  Hausken, K. and Ncube, M. (2017), “Incumbent Policy, Benefits Provision, Triggering and Spread of Revolutionary Uprisings,” The Economics of Peace and Security Journal 12, 1, 54-63.
27.  Hausken, K. and Ncube, M. (2017), “Policy Makers, the International Community and the Population in the Prevention and Treatment of Diseases: Case Study on HIV/AIDS,” Health Economics Review 7:5, 1-12, http://rdcu.be/oMEY.
28.  Welburn, J.W. and Hausken, K. (2017), “Game Theoretic Modeling of Economic Systems and the European Debt Crisis,” Computational Economics 49, 2, 177-226.
For global governance, these, and the references therein, may be useful:
29.  Hausken, K. and Pluemper, T. (1996), “Hegemonic Decline and International Leadership,” Politics and Society 24, 3, 273-295.
30.  Hausken, K. and Pluemper, T. (1997), “Hegemons, Leaders and Followers: A Game-Theoretic Approach to the Postwar Dynamics of International Political Economy,” Journal of World-Systems Research 3, 1, 35-93, http://dx.doi.org/10.5195/jwsr.1997.118.
31.  Hausken, K. and Pluemper, T. (1999), “The Impact of Actor Heterogeneity on the Provision of International Public Goods,” International Interactions 25, 1, 1-34.
32.  Hausken, K., Martin, C.W., and Pluemper, T. (2004), “Government Spending and Taxation in Democracies and Autocracies,” Constitutional Political Economy 15, 239-259.
33.  Hausken, K. and Ncube, M. (2014), “Determinants of Election Outcomes: New evidence from Africa,” African Development Review 26, 4, 610-630.
34.  Hausken, K. and Ncube, M. (2014), “Political Economy of Service Delivery: Monitoring versus Contestation,” The Developing Economies 52, 1, 68-84.
35.  Ncube, M., Anyanwu, J.C. and Hausken, K. (2014), "Inequality, Economic Growth and Poverty in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA)," African Development Review 26, 3, 435-453.
36.  Hausken, K. and Ncube, M. (2015), “Production, Economic Growth and Conflict in Risky Elections,” Journal of African Elections 14, 2, 34-49.
37.  Hausken, K. and Ncube, M. (2016), “How Elections are Impacted by Production, Economic Growth and Conflict,” International Game Theory Review 18, 1, 1550015, 29 pages, doi: 10.1142/S0219198915500152.
38.  Hausken, K. and Ncube, M. (2017), “Incumbent Policy, Benefits Provision, Triggering and Spread of Revolutionary Uprisings,” The Economics of Peace and Security Journal 12, 1, 54-63.
39.  Hausken, K. and Ncube, M. (2017), “Policy Makers, the International Community and the Population in the Prevention and Treatment of Diseases: Case Study on HIV/AIDS,” Health Economics Review 7:5, 1-12, http://rdcu.be/oMEY.
For production and conflict, these may be useful:
40.  Hausken, K. (2005), “Production and Conflict Models Versus Rent Seeking Models,” Public Choice 123, 1, 59-93.
41.  Hausken, K. (2005), “The Battle of the Sexes when the Future is Important,” Economics Letters 87, 1, 89-93.
42.  Hausken, K. (2007), “Reputation, Incomplete Information, and Differences in Patience in Repeated Games with Multiple Equilibria,” Economics Letters 97, 2, 138-144.
43.  Hausken, K. (2007), “Stubbornness, Power, and Equilibrium Selection in Repeated Games with Multiple Equilibria,” Theory and Decision 62, 2, 135-160.
44.  Hausken, K. (2007), “The Impact of the Future in Games with Multiple Equilibria,” Economics Letters 96, 2, 183-188.
45.  Hausken, K. (2009), “Risk Limits, Conflict, and Equilibrium Selection in Games with Multiple Equilibria,” International Journal of Decision Sciences, Risk and Management 1, 1/2, 54-65.
46.  Hausken, K. (2010), “Risk, Price, and Reimbursement,” International Journal of Decision Sciences, Risk and Management 2, 1/2, 85 - 97.
47.  Hausken, K. (2010), “Risk, Production, and Conflict when Utilities are As if Certain,” International Journal of Decision Sciences, Risk and Management 2, 3/4, 228-251.
48.  Hausken, K. (2011), “An Equilibrium Model of Advertising, Production, and Exchange,” International Journal of Economics and Business Research 3, 4, 407-442.
49.  Hausken, K. (2011), “Production, Safety, Exchange, and Risk,” International Journal of Business Continuity and Risk Management 2, 4, 346-350.
50.  Hausken, K. (2011), “Production, Safety, Fighting, and Risk,” International Journal of Business Continuity and Risk Management 2, 4, 324-329.
51.  Hausken, K. (2012), “Production versus Safety in a Risky Competitive Industry,” International Journal of Decision Sciences, Risk and Management 4, 1/2, 92-107.
For negotiation, self-interest, altruism, principal-agent, etc., these may be useful:
52.  Hausken, K. (1997), “Game-theoretic and Behavioral Negotiation Theory,” Group Decision and Negotiation 6, 6, 509-527.
53.  Hausken, K. (1996), “Ethics and Efficiency in Organizations,” International Journal of Social Economics 23, 9, 15-40.
54.  Hausken, K. (1996), “Self-Interest and Sympathy in Economic Behavior,” International Journal of Social Economics 23, 7, 4-24.
55.  Bhimani, A., Hausken, K., and Ncube, M. (2010), “Agent Takeover Risk of Principal in Outsourcing Relationships,” Global Business and Economics Review 12, 4, 329-340.
56.  Bhimani, A., Hausken, K., and Ncube, M. (2012), “Acquisition and Collaboration as Determinants of Organizational Structure,” International Journal of Integrated Supply Management 7, 1/2/3, 3-37.
Incorporating crime, these may be useful:
57.  Hausken, K. and Moxnes, J.F. (2005), “The Dynamics of Crime and Punishment,” International Journal of Modern Physics C, 16, 11, 1701-1732.
58.  Hausken, K. and Gupta, D. (2015), “Government Protection against Terrorism and Crime,” Global Crime 16, 2, 59-80.
59.  Hausken, K. and Gupta, D. (2015), “Terrorism and Organized Crime: The Logic of an Unholy Alliance,” International Journal of Contemporary Sociology 52, 2, 141-166.
60.  Hausken, K. and Gupta, D. (2016), “Determining the Ideological Orientation of Terrorist Organizations: The Effects of Government Repression and Organized Crime,” International Journal of Public Policy 12, 1/2, 71-97.
61.  Hausken, K. (2017), “A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Terrorist Attacks,” Defence and Peace Economics, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10242694.2016.1158440, Forthcoming.
62.  Bier, V. and Hausken, K. (2011), “Endogenizing the Sticks and Carrots: Modeling Possible Perverse Effects of Counterterrorism Measures,” Annals of Operations Research 186, 1, 39-59.
63.  Hausken, K. (2012), “Terrorism Risks, Civil Liberties, and Privacy Concerns,” International Journal of Critical Infrastructures 8, 4, 293-305.
Incorporating terrorism, these may be useful:
64.  Bier, V. and Hausken, K. (2011), “Endogenizing the Sticks and Carrots: Modeling Possible Perverse Effects of Counterterrorism Measures,” Annals of Operations Research 186, 1, 39-59.
65.  Hausken, K. (2012), “Terrorism Risks, Civil Liberties, and Privacy Concerns,” International Journal of Critical Infrastructures 8, 4, 293-305.
66.  Hausken, K. and Gupta, D. (2015), “Government Protection against Terrorism and Crime,” Global Crime 16, 2, 59-80.
67.  Hausken, K. and Gupta, D. (2015), “Terrorism and Organized Crime: The Logic of an Unholy Alliance,” International Journal of Contemporary Sociology 52, 2, 141-166.
68.  Hausken, K. (2017), “A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Terrorist Attacks,” Defence and Peace Economics, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10242694.2016.1158440, Forthcoming.
69.  Hausken, K. and Gupta, D. (2016), “Determining the Ideological Orientation of Terrorist Organizations: The Effects of Government Repression and Organized Crime,” International Journal of Public Policy 12, 1/2, 71-97.
Incorporating war, these may be useful:
70.  The Lanchester war models have outcomes that depend on the initial conditions, and information is complete, see e.g.:
71.  Hausken, K. and Moxnes, J.F. (2000), “The Microfoundations of the Lanchester War Equations,” Military Operations Research 5, 3, 79-99.
72.  Hausken, K. and Moxnes, J.F. (2002), “Stochastic Conditional and Unconditional Warfare,” European Journal of Operational Research 140, 1, 61-87.
73.  Hausken, K. and Moxnes, J.F. (2005), “Approximations and Empirics for Stochastic War Equations,” Naval Research Logistics 52, 682-700.
74.  Hausken, K. (2016), “Cost-Benefit Analysis of War,” International Journal of Conflict Management 27, 4, 454-469.
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With the results for a number of major recent referendums and elections being notably close to 50/50:
- Brexit (51.9% : 48.1%)
- Popular vote in the recent US presidential election 51.1% to 48.9% (excluding other candidates' tallies; but still not finalised), 
- Turkey's recent referendum (51.4%: 48.6%, Initial announcement)
- and a fair proportion of recent Swiss and other European referendums:
Are close outcomes of popular voting occurring more frequently than chance would explain? If so, might there be some deep explanation for such close divisions?
Issues are often subject to election or a referendum because they are divisive, but it seems strange to me that a number of major ones have been quite so close (tighter than about 48/52).
Could it be the result of:
- electoral fraud, to get just over the dividing line?  
- some sort of "unconscious" social division process that results in an even split of voters? 
- Or is it just a small-sample illusion?
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As for the popular vote in the US, this indeed does not diverge too far from 50-50 (although note that at state and especially at county level you will easily find extremes, and they are getting more and more typical).  For referenda, I don't know whether empirical evidence supports the observation that tight 50-50% result occur more often than just by chance, but let's assume for now that they do.
What is explaining it? Well, there are probably different situations and explanatory factors.  But I am thinking now of the following hypotheses which may at least explain parts of the phenomena.
1. For the US popular vote: it is typical, not only in the US, that the population will grow fatigued with the party giving the president after a while. People who could be convinced by enthusiastic activists to vote for the now-president will not turn up again to vote for him(her). Maybe even your local activists will lose their faith and put in less effort.
- Also, the supporters would probably have benefitted from new policies that the president brought but they are satisfied now and don't see much to gain. The opposition can promise more ('Change') and their policy offering starts to seem more appealing, and more important for certain groups not favoured by the current adminisitration.
So if you won the presidency, chances are that after your second term the other party will win it. But they wouldn't have enough time to accumulate a huge lead before actually winning, as voter shifts in established democracies are usually slow.
(I am sure there is good literature on this already, would be interested to hear about it)
2. For referanda: a new cause, when it is first formulated only has little population support. It needs to gain enough popularity to have a chance of winning a referendum. But if it gets to a level of popularity where it is obvious that this is what voters want, politics will want it implement it anyways, without a referendum.
Only if it is a real question what the population wants, does it make sense to hold a referendum.
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similar issues relating to res commuris have arisen in other fields of IL such as law of the sea and Antarctica; both share characteristics with outer space: such as vastness; share similar uses such as mining; and similar concerns such as exploitation.
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I've attached an article that may be of interest to you, Evaluation of non-native species policy development and implementation within the Antarctic Treaty area, Kevin A. Hughesa, Luis R. Pertierrab.
Extraterrestrial ecosystems (should there be any) may also come into play.  An asteroid for instance would most certainly be devoid of life.  It may just be a matter of who sets up shop first. 
Great topic!
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In Australia 'Leave early or stay and defend' is used, and 'Ready, Set, Go!' is used in the US. 
I wondered if one exists for Europe, in particular France?
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I came across a big problem when searching for documents about foreign policy goals of India. Indian official websites are full of reports which cover information about what was done (annual reports published each year and India foreign relations - last one from 2013) but none about what India is striving for.
Could anyone suggest some documents which manifest what India is planning to do on international arena and how perceives the international system?
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Dear Alan, thanks a lot!
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Salve prof Castorina,
sono una studentessa che viene da sc. motorie dell'università di Catania.
Feci la mia tesi di laurea con la buonanima della prof Carnazza, la quale poi mi affidò a lei o al prof Musumeci.
Ho completato i miei studi ad Foro Italico, specializzandomi all'indirizzo internazionale "Health and Physical Activities".
Ho fatto una tesi riguardo le cadute degli anziani e il danneggiamento dei lobi frontali.
Le potrebbe interessare? 
Cordiali saluti
Francesca Borzì 
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Cara Francesca,
grazie per avermi contattato. L'argomento potrebbe ricadere nello scopo della Special Issue, sebbene l'interesse primario e' sui meccanismi patofisiologici e strategie di trattamento. Se tu riuscissi a ri-editare la tesi o parte di essa focalizzando gli aspetti indicati di seguito potrebbe venirne fuori un bel Review Article.
1) Tipo di danno causato dal trauma da caduta sul cervello. (Perche' solo il lobo frontale? Spesso gli anziani urtano la testa lateralmente o cadendo all'indietro!
2) Cenni sui meccanismi patologici che si innescano.
3) Conseguenze cognitive e decorso (con enfasi su danno motorio e/o insorgenza di dolori cronici se presenti)
4) Strategie terapeutiche attualmente utilizzate
5) Prospettive per il futuro (in che direzione sta andando la ricerca) e conclusioni (considerazioni oggettive e soggettive)
Spero che questo sia d'aiuto. Fammi sapere come intendi procedere.
Cordiali saluti,
Alessandro
(qui i titoli non si usano, niente formalita'....va benissimo Alessandro) 
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BRN, PULO, Jemaah Islamiyah, Abu Sayyaf and so forth.
the return of foreign train fighters and what this means to counter insurgency & terrorist groups within the region.
how government policy both domestic and foreign can aim to counter the rise, plus changes in tactics
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For the moment the school project is limited to the countries where we have done the research, Colombia, Brazil and Bosnia. It would be great if the research could be expanded to the countries that you suggest, Thailand, Philippines and Indonesia. Would be glad to help.
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The latest appointment to the Supreme Court of the United States Judge Neil Gorsuch has robustly criticised the use of courtrooms as a forum for social change. He states that this is bad for both democracy and for civil justice.
In view of the role of courts as interpreters of our laws, elected representatives as makers of our laws and our executive as those who implement them, the state of affairs we call the separation of powers does he have a point?
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Judge Gorsuch is correct in his assertions (and through his opinions) that the court is no place for social activism. We often hear conservatives loudly decrying "activist" judges (every time a ruling goes against their particular social engineering desires). However, it apparently depends on which political party you belong as to how (and what) you define as "social activism." Gorsuch was nominated (and the conservatives are supporting him precisely on this basis) because they believe he will support their fondest project of "social activism" ... the overturning of Roe-v-Wade ... and thereby, achieving their fondest social-engineering project of outlawing abortion throughout America.
As a progressive-liberal, I fully realize that not objecting to Judge Gorsuch runs counter to the dogma of my own political "party," who have become as guilty as the conservatives on the other side in trying to choose "biased" justices for the Supreme Court, who will favor their particular "social engineering" objectives.
I believe both parties err in seeking biased "activist" judges, and particularly in this case conservatives err badly, believing Judge Gorsuch will allow his personal biases to interfere in interpretation of the law, and go against against abortion in his findings, no matter how (venerable or how) settled the law is on this issue. Yes, he is a "textualist" (in the same vein as Scalia, except his genteel legal scholarship and magisterial demeanor are very different than that of the abrasive arrogance of Scalia ... who IMO often permitted his personal biases and hyper-inflated ego, to make an ass of himself and the law), who I believe is less likely to interject social biases (or a puffed-up ego) into his findings.
Textualism is a formalist theory that primarily interprets the law based on the ordinary meaning of the legal text, and not considering non-textual sources such as intention of the law when passed, the problem it was intended to remedy, or significant questions of the justice and rectitude of the law. Consequently, textualists (on the Supreme Court) tend to have difficulty in interpreting law relating to social issues (or any point of law) that is not expressly set out in the constitution. Conservatives (especially the anti-abortion activists) support Gorsuch because they believe (wrongly, I think) that Gorsuch is a "strict constructionist" that can be counted-on to overthrow Roe-v-Wade, for the simple-minded reason that the constitution does not expressly authorize it. But (IMO) they err.
Strict constructionism is often misused by laypersons and critics as a synonym for textualism. Nevertheless, although a textualist can be a strict constructionist, they are separate views: Justice Scalia, himself, for example, warns that "[t]extualism should not be confused with so-called strict constructionism, a degraded form of textualism that brings the whole philosophy into disrepute. I am not a strict constructionist, and no one ought to be... A text should not be construed strictly, and it should not be construed leniently; it should be construed reasonably, to contain all that it fairly means." Similarly, textualism should not be confused with the [now deprecated] "plain meaning" approach, a simpler theory used prominently by the Burger Court in cases such as Tennessee Valley Authority v. Hill, which looked to the dictionary definitions of words, without reference to common public understanding or context.
So, I do not find the nomination of Judge Gorsuch to be objectionable (in fact, his is the first nomination of Trump's to an important position that is not an obviously deplorable or despicable choice), PRECISELY because I believe he will not engage in "social activism" but will interpret the law (perhaps a bit too "textually," yes, but that is a defect less dangerous than being socially biased) and not be affected by social currents nor attempt to "moralize" from the bench. 
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Many times I thought what is the United Nations for? Their people are meeting most of the days and nights and we see political conflicts and wars are getting more and more. I began to discuss an eminent Third World War together with other research gate members. I have great hope that stopping alcohol may lead to resolve many political conflicts spontaneously.
I have never heard that anybody raised this issue in UN. Why?! Do they fear alcohol Mafias? Do they like alcohol or think that alcohol is more useful than harmful? 
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Dear all
Alcohols can be made in home by very simple distillation equipment. So, if you stopped this trade by stopping its factory that's means you will encourage the home made alcohol. This conditions has a very bad consequences as some may make poisonous material and cell it in secret as an alcohol. Form my point view, hold on to this trade with strict limitations supported by better laws is better from leaving the industry for those sundry
Regards
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[UPDATED FROM: Is “Western” liberal democracy essentially unique, or have other systems with similar values flourished in other places and times? 
For example, might some small city-states such as the Vatican perhaps, at some points in their history, developed similar values?
If so, what led to the failure of their values to spread and survive?
If not, does it require a hegemonic civilisation to establish, guarantee and maintain the values [link 1] of:
- fair, free, and competitive elections between multiple distinct political parties,
- a separation of powers into different branches of government,
- the rule of law in everyday life as part of an open society,
- the equal protection of: 
  1.    human rights, 
  2.    civil rights, 
  3.    civil liberties,
  4.    political freedoms for all people
-       ? 
(Aiming to broaden HGC’s ILDiD question [link 2])
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I think that, at least in part, the answer to your last question has also an internal, sociological dimension.
For sets of values (say, in this case, also the liberal democratic ones) to flourish, and to continue to thrive, population must be willing to support them from within. Values, and the specific culture consistently built on them, are maybe the most important glue keeping a society together.
Now, the liberal values, since the impartiality/neutrality struggle in the 80ies and even more the multicultural turn in the 90ies, are interpreted as preaching equal respect also for the other cultures/sets of values. And putting themselves on an equal standing.
That is, equality and liberty have been pushed from the realm of substantial values to the level of meta-values. And this move, from the point of view of the society's identity, is currently proving to have been a self-defeating one. Society has become weak from an internal, ideantitarian point of view.
"Civilisations die from suicide" (Toynbee, but also, centuries and centuries before, Ibn Khaldun)
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I am on the study of modelling a theory of Buddhist Public Relation based on the cultural Public Relations. though there are some asian communication theories of Prof. Wimal Dissanayaka, Prof. Shelton Gunathilaka
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Dear Andrija and Marques,
Thank you very much for your great support on my request.
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Recently I participated (still are) in a very interesting debate about a question raised by our colleague Dr. Peter Eyerer.
His question was
"Are we already in the middle of 3rd world war or at least close before?"
This discussion is published on page
The extensive debate evolved mainly between those RG members who held it implausible that a nuclear war would break out and those who pondered that such possibility does exists given that the world is in total disarray and threatened by terrorists, rogue states and fanatics.
My question here assumes the second possibility and attempts to clarify under which conditions a 3rd world-war could break out.
In other words, which (worldwide or localized) political, economic, social, and/or military situation could trigger such cataclysm, in which part of the world, initiated by whom?
Thanks for your participation.
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Dear Tom,
in my opinion as pointed out earlier we are already in the middle of WW3.
The main driving forces are : fanatism and intolerance (terrorism), egoism of single persons and of single states (hegemonial power) ,  money and raw materials , ....
The tools of course are besides "normal" weapons different from WW 1 and 2: Internet,
But the main driving forces are similar.
So for me your question is not "what will happen if WW3 breaks out", but how will develop the present situation with hot spots all over the planet..
May be it will run at the same or even higher  level for the next 10 to 20 years, The effect will be a dramatic environmental desease because the states will invest in weapons instead of investing in reduction of emissions. 100 times more refugees will survive coming to the north.
Peter
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What was the Al Aqsa Intifada and what is its significance to Hamas as both a political resistance movement and a terrorist organization?
What terrorist act by Hamas was significantly related to achieving political goals?
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KSM's interrogation by the CIA after 9/11
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That´s brilliant!
I´ll see how I may help you as soon as possible,
Pontus
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I am conducting a study on the development of the security doctrine of the Russian Federation in the time period 2000-2015. Development understod in forms of continuity and change. 
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Always start with National Level documents - Constitution, Treaties, Laws on Defense and Chain of Commend/Executive Authorities for Decision Making, National Defense Strategy (including Threats, Diplomatic, Infrastructure - physical and communication/cyber, Acquisition & Materiel/Production, Economic, Technology, Education, and Geography), National Military Strategy, Current Force Structure, Required Operational Capabilities, "Gap Analysis", Future Force Structure, Modernization Strategy, Operational Doctrine, Defense Policy & Institutions, Professional Military Education system, Assessment/Periodic Revisions to all of the above. This is based on a decade of personal (US Security Cooperation/Assistance DOD/DOS) resident advisory work at the strategic national government/ministry of defense and joint staff levels of four former communist nations in SE Europe as a senior defense reform representative to those nations in cooperation with OSCE, NATO, UNDP, and US DoD/DoS - Ambassadors and SACEUR/USEUCOM. .
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The world, as we know, is plagued with various forms of violence, terrorism being one. The year 2016, has been experiencing rampant terror attacks in different parts of the globe. As part of the world community, how can we stop terror operatives and organisations from causing such havoc to the people residing in almost every part of the planet.
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What a great but tough question. Three things in my view:
1. Give serious international effort to addressing long running global injustices (Israel/Palestine, Kashmir, etc) by being genuinely creative and accepting that compromises need to be made in favour of local communities not nation states, as has partly happened in Ireland's peace process;
2. Provide a more balanced and fully secular education to young people about history, politics, religion, geography in order to widen people's knowledge base and enable more tolerance;
3. Governments such as my own need to stop pandering to and indulging religious interests/interest groups (such as so called 'faith schools' in the UK) and help move religion into the private realm and out of the public sphere. The Ottoman empire tradition did multiculturalism so much better than anyone does today...
Simple!
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Hi everyone, I'm doing a research regarding the causal linkage between the Holocaust and the creation of Israeli state. Does anyone know where I can find resources and sources to begin the research? And does anyone have any opinion as to whether Holocaust was necessary for Israeli state to establish?
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I wrote an extensive article on this issue: see "The Causal Relationship between the Holocaust and the Birth of Israel: Historiography between Myth and Reality", in Dan Michman, Holocaust Historiography: A Jewish Perspective.Conceptualizations, Terminology, Approaches and Fundamental Issues (London: Vallentine Mitchell, 2003), pp. 303-328.
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Since independence and emergence of both these nations, Kashmir has been in the centre of all bilateral talks and debates. Even after more than 6 decades, it continues to hold the same position. Therefore, can it be the 'core issue' ?
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The core issue between India and Pakistan is the conflict between their national identities. India, notwithstanding all its faults, continues to define itself and function as a secular polity that is home to myriad religious, linguistic and racial communities, including the second largest Muslim community in the world. Pakistan, on the other hand, was conceived of as a homeland for British Indian Muslims and, despite the Quaid-e-Azam's call for and vision of establishing a secular polity, the country has increasingly fallen prey to atavistic religio-political-military notions. Kashmir merely represents this far more fundamental conflict between these two ideas of nationhood -- India's one-nation theory of a democratic and secular and inclusive polity, on the one hand, and Pakistan's exclusivist two-nation theory, the chief characteristics of which have so far been fragmentation and exclusion, on the other.
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Are there any specific types of terrorism in international politics? Can it be really defined in terms of nature of terror recruits ?
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Are there any specific types of terrorism in international politics? Can it be really defined in terms of nature of terror recruits ?
There are two questions here.  Let me address them in order. First, most writers on the topic agree that terrorism is (i) a deliberate use or threat of violence, (ii) politically-motivated, and (iii) directed against non-military personnel, that is, against civilians or noncombatants.  Taking these as the only essential features of terrorism, perhaps the simplest and more accurate reportive definition is this:
Terrorism is deliberate, politically-motivated violence, or the threat of such, directed against civilians.
There are all sorts of distinctions that can be made among types of terrorism.  One overlooked distinction is between state-terrorism (that waged by states), and non-state terrorism (that waged by non-state groups).  In the contemporary setting, states and their mainstream media tend to use the term "terrorism" to refer only to the latter.  This is itself a form of terrorism, as I explain in my articles, "The Terrorism of "Terrorism""  and "The Reign of 'Terror.'."
In my written work on the topic, I have drawn another distinction between strategic terrorism and reactive or retaliatory terrorism.  The former uses violence or coercive threat is part of a plan to achieve a political goal, while the latter derives from an emotional response to politically-induced grievances, for example, vengeance for confiscation of land or for assassinations of leaders.  Of course, since strategy and emotion can be jointly operative, and actions can have multiple agents, a given act might be both strategic and retaliatory.
No doubt there are other distinctions to be made among types of terrorism.
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Kashmir has been a source of perennial contention between the two countries. The region has put South Asia into the nuclear map of the world, and both developing countries are spending a major chunk of their resources and GDP for military purpose. One can always say that South Asia is not heading towards a peaceful future, majorly because of Kashmir. So how can the issue be mitigated ? 
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Although I am a Pakistani and majority of us believe that Kashmir is occupied by India and is part of Pakistan. Leaving it aside, I believe the only possible solution, at the moment, is to give the right of plebiscite to the Kashmiris and let them decide by for their fate. They can choose what is better for them, to stay with India or join Pakistan or even have their autonomous state. 
Otherwise, it will continue like this, for a never ending time.
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The UK’s public referendum result means that our democracy has chosen by a small margin to leave the European Union, following a movement termed Brexit. See the media links below, published in the immediate aftermath.
Our Prime Minister announced his resignation. The country is In the throes of instability, political, economic and social. Far Right terrorism resulted in the assassination of a Member of Parliament, immediately before the Referendum. The national mood is unsettled and divided. The international reverberations of Brexit will last for decades and more. There are many uncertainties, on many levels.
On the academic and scientific level, how will universities, international research projects and non-British students be affected? see https://www.bbc.co.uk/sounds/play/p041klxk : on Brexit closing intellectual boundaries.
On the political level, does little England still see itself as the leader of Great Britain and the global power that it once postured as? Or are these little islands now a Dis-United Kingdom, which Scotland will now elect to leave?
On the social and societal level, should the English who strongly agree with Scotland consider moving to that beautiful country? Or is there hope that xenophobia, egocentricity and the short-sighted ‘small island mentality’ with its concomitant isolationism will not prevail in England over all that is good in British society?
On the historical level for European diplomacy, we may look for parallels in periods such as that of Offa and Charlemagne: https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/m0004f1c
I would be interested in any contributions on these lines. Please post any positive responses – and be respectful of others' views.