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Political Economy - Science topic

This group is aimed at students and researchers of Politcal Economy.
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I am an evaluator of development programmes and have some experience in Montoring and Evaluation with national and international agencies in India.
I am doing a PH D on the above topic and have just started working on the same. Would be grateful if any forum members can share any research, experience or recommendations of how RCTs can help (or not) India in evaluating the ex ante and summative impact of development interventions. What is the political economy of RCTs and their promotion in India? Who benefits from such promotion? Who does not benefit? And most importantly, what are the right questions to ask to understand the above topic?
Pankaj Shrivastav
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example, if an RCT is being conducted in a low-income community, and the intervention being tested is not made available to the control group, this could create ethical concerns and potentially lead to negative consequences for individuals in the control group.
To understand the above topic, some important questions to consider might include:
  • What is the specific context in which the RCT is being conducted, and how might this influence the feasibility and usefulness of the evaluation?
  • How were subjects recruited for the RCT, and what were the criteria for inclusion and exclusion?
  • What are the potential risks and benefits of the intervention being tested for both the intervention group and the control group?
  • How will the results of the RCT be used, and who will be impacted by the findings?
  • What alternative evaluation methods might be more appropriate in this context, and why?
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Abstract of the book:
The book is an original work presenting an ethical philosophy based on equal human rights. The author argues that only people with equal rights can make social knowledge objective. Considering that people have never had equal rights, social sciences have not discovered the essential point of their existence. Social scientists need to embrace social teaching based on equal human rights. Such knowledge would uncover the values necessary for a good life. Establishing equal human rights will bring radical reforms to the political economy, which can build a prosperous society.
Authorities have always suppressed equal human rights, so people cannot live in a prosperous society. Society has interrupted the equal right to work by allowing the existence of unemployment. Unemployed people must accept poorly paid jobs to feed themselves. It causes the exploitation of workers. Equal human rights are supposed to bring justice to the economy by shortening work hours until unemployment is removed. It will raise the demand for workers and their salaries in the free market until exploitation is eliminated. Then workers will have greater purchasing power, and the economy will grow. Such a policy would solve today's socioeconomic problems and build good capitalism.
Equal human rights are supposed to improve the economy significantly. One day, every worker will be able to work at every public work post they want at any time. Every public job post will be filled by a worker who offers higher productivity, more responsibility, and demands a lower price for current work. It is nothing but a developed work market open at all times. Such an economy cannot be realized soon, but once people establish it, private companies will lose the productivity battle with public companies, which will send capitalism down in history. This idea presents an enormous opportunity for socioeconomic improvement to build good socialism.
Finally, equal human rights mean that all people should have equal legislative, judicial, and executive powers. Everyone should get equal rights to evaluate others for whatever they do. Each positive evaluation should bring a small award to the assessed person, and each negative assessment should result in a minor punishment. Such a policy would make everyone work hard to please others and avoid hurting anybody. This has to create a good society. The equal evaluating power among people presents a new form of democracy, and the freedom of evaluation gives a new state of anarchy. Therefore, such a policy can be called democratic anarchy. Democratic anarchy alone should be capable of building a prosperous society.
Ultimately, the book argues that nothing more than equal human rights is needed to create a good society, and nothing less can make it. Once people accept equal human rights, they will unconditionally create a bright future for humankind, as presented in the book.
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9 December MMXXII
I tell all my friends in Europe to choose female physicians instead of male ones. One can be sure that the women doctors didn't have one eye on an anatomy textbook and the other on a football match when they studied medicine!
Cordially, humanistically,
ASJ
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Why not in University promotions Open access (you pay for publication and low quality mostly) and not open access (dont need to pay and high quality mostly). 
Still they are considered same mostly. It brings the people with more money or willing to pay more money for publishing even trash in paid journals at higher seats and they becomes policy makers then and are destroying research culture specially in the under developed counties. Paid journals shouldnt have half or no value for promotions?
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From source: thewire.in
According to a paper in Current Science last year that Arunachalam coauthored, Indian scientists between 2011 and 2014 published 14,293 papers in OA journals that charged a fixed APC. The average APC per paper was $1,173 (Rs 75,900). A study published in 2014 had estimated that the global average per paper was $964 (Rs 62,400). Without APCs in the picture, Arunachalam and his coauthors estimated that Indian institutions could save about Rs 16 crore every year.
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The study may take time 6 months to 1 year.
Preferably the scholars/professionals with the background of Economics, Political Economy, Finance, Policy, Planning, Public Policy, Education Policy, Educational Policy and Planning, or allied.
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No, thanks.
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In your opinion, what are the main aspects of political economy ?
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Federico Caffè had perfectly centered the matter.
Today, economic policy is a way of deceiving populations, convincing them that government malpractices are beneficial to residents.
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Political economy is a social science that studies production ,trade and their relationship with the law and government through it policies and regulations.
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Political economy researches into the interplay of the body politic and economic, guided by the bigger picture of philosophy, law and human history.
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On the use of the mathematical method in this social scientific field:
Edgeworth F.Y. (2008) Mathematical Methods in Political Economy. In: Palgrave Macmillan (eds) The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. Palgrave Macmillan, London. https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-349-95121-5_1164-2
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We are currently facing numerous challenges to industrial transformation in most of the countries South of the Sahara. For example, most of our natural resources be it coffee, cotton , gold, oil, diamond etc are exported raw only to be value added in the developed world and re exported to us. In reality we are getting a small proportion of the profits. Moreover, most of our citizenry remains unemployed or at best underemployed.
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Hope usefull
Encourage farmers to adopt sustainable water and nutrient management in arid agroecosystems: problems, solutions and future studies
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Analysis of guaranteed income as a key element of pro-development, anti-crisis, anti-cyclical socio-economic policy?
Can guaranteed income be an effective instrument for pro-development, anti-crisis, counter-cyclical and, under certain economic conditions, Keynesian socio-economic policy?
What should be the state of state finances, what level of security, indebtedness, possible public debt and budget deficit would be possible to enter guaranteed income into the policy of socio-economic policy?
How should a system of guaranteed income rationing be established in the society in order for this instrument to effectively increase the level of consumption and investment in the economy?
Should a system of income guaranteed rationalization be built so that this instrument of pro-development, anti-crisis, anticyclical socio-economic policy would also meet the long-term goals of counteracting unfavorable changes in the demographic structure of society, i.e. the aging population in a given country?
I have answered these questions in my scientific publications whose links I have posted below.
In view of the above, inviting you to discuss the above issues, I am asking you the following question:
How should a guaranteed income system be built as part of a pro-development socio-economic policy?
Please reply
I invite you to discussion and scientific cooperation
Dear Friends and Colleagues of RG
The issues of specific programs to improve the economic, financial, material and housing situation of households as key instruments of pro-development state intervention and significant components of the socio-economic policy of the state I described in the publications:
I invite you to discussion and cooperation.
Best wishes
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Guaranteed minimum income or similar instruments of social policy could turn out to be one of the important elements of the anti-crisis socio-economic policy applied in order to limit the scale of the decline in consumption, the increase in the downturn, etc. during the SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19) coronavirus pandemic.
Best regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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I'm working in the broad field of political ecology and I'm currently co-authoring an article about the social-ecological consequences of the digital economy (material anchor, territorialities, conflicts). I'm therefore looking for literature about the digital economy I might have missed so far. I'm pleased about all suggestions. Many thanks in advance!
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Felix Malte Dorn NFCC & HMPP
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COVID-19 exposed many divisions among countries and prevented the formation of a united front to combat this pandemic. Even the very closely networked blocs such as ASEAN and EU failed to coordinate their efforts to combat COVID-19 because of national interest. Undermining the world organizations such as WHO, ICOJ, and the United nation various agencies are not painting a very good picture of what to come in the future. Can globalization survive?
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Due to the SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19) coronavirus pandemic, a lot will change in terms of economic globalization. International, intermodal logistics chains of supply and distribution are shortened.
Regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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I'm looking for such theories which are more efficacious to analyze the news-framing except the Political Economy Theory.
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Discourse analysis, critical discourse analysis and framing theory would all be very useful theoretical approaches to conceptualize and analytically assess the ways in which news media is framed, the various techniques employed and the psychological effects of such framing on agents' cognitive interpretations. 'Critical' discourse analysis seeks to complexify discourse analysis theory by assessing the effects of power relations on how, by whom, and for what purpose media discourse is constructed. While framing theory assesses how subtly shifts in formulation of units of discourse that provide the same basic unit of information can have radically different effects on how an agent interprets such discourse.
I have a number of published studies that deal with each of the above discussed elements in relation to financial crises and media coverage. Each are listed on my research gate profile. Best regards, Naoise.
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President trump tested the American democracy at every step of the way and failed so far. What would be his next move?
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Of course, he might have failed to execute the democracy properly but it needs long term perspective and thinking to sustain and come up in the next election. It is not only the persuading the people but also day by day measurement of the people who are living in America counted the President's performance and activities favored for them.
The US total has composed of the native American, aborigines, outsiders who came for work, service, trade, businesses who have become citizens of US matters to win the President of the US. ss etc. The majority of the votes from native and aborigines including outsider who came to settle in the US altogether voted to elect the President.
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I'm looking into the question about how social uprisings (social movements, revolts, protests, etc.), particularly those who have a substantive violent character, elicit institutional change. I'm specifically interested in democracies (young or middle-aged) that exhibit a relevant degree of perceived unfairness and/or objective structural inequality, and in countries where the status quo institutional arrangement is "rigid" in a sense (many or some gridlocks are present).
Hence, I would be most grateful if you can share with me some references. Additionally, if you know of studies that emphasize quantitative methods, that would be very beneficial to my research.
Many thanks in advance, and I hope this message finds you safe and well.
Ignacio.
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There are the recent papers on the effectiveness of protests in the US: Omar Wasow's paper "Do protests matter? Evidence from the 1960s Black Insurgency" and the Madestam et al paper, "Do political protests matter? evidence from the tea party movement." Outside the US, I a key work that comes to mind is Mark Beissinger's "Nationalist Mobilization and the Collapse of the Soviet State."
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Accusation between the US and China is becoming a daily affair and gaining momentum. The two economic and military superpowers are moving away from collaboration and inching towards confrontations in most issues.
is the problem "unfair trade"only ? or, there are other issues? Is China becoming powerful enough that Washington feel threaten?
How is this going to affect the rest of the world?
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Dear Prof. Mahmoud Moghavvemi ,
It was started several years ago by the Chinese communist party ChCP, and its companies such as NORINCO, by providing the following:
  • Surveillance technology to extinguish dissidents.
  • Intelligence technology to control food distribution and elections.
  • ChCP and NORINCO built and provided the assassin conventional arsenal that endured the Maduro genocide all these years and made the Venezuelan crisis irreversible (thousands of chemical armoured vehicles VN-4, ABV1, WTC-1, among many others).
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What I really interested in is to understand whether cross-country differences in political regimes are stemming from variations in cultural/religious factors or they are just results of differences in economic conditions such as the distribution of wealth, income, or power.
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Cultural and religious factors influence the shape of the political regime of the countries, substantially in terms of honesty and transparency.
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The question is simply intended to understand and explore on the nature of global economy, whether it is based on relationship of independence, dependence or interdependence .
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Global, political and economy are three themes of the question. The producer may produce any product. If the raw materials/technology are available in its country then no question of import. If the producer enjoys monopoly then it can sell independently with unlimited profit. If the producer has to import then it suffers from dependence. If the supplier of raw materials ask for contract then it is the example of interdependence. In fact rich nation can impose and withdraw conditions as per its sweet will.
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We are planning to ensure that our strategic objectives suit the needs of the business sector. Nowadays, universities need to know how to build cooperation between science and society? Although companies have their R+D+i areas and labs Are Universities the key actors to improve the results of scientific research? Should Universities ensure that professionals trained by the universities meet the requirements of the business sector? To avoid that graduates from a profession delay too much in adapting to a job would it be Important that they practice a career in the corporate sector to ensure better performance?
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Monica, as universities and other bodies in other sectors have realised the need to align their strategic objectives with those of businesses, the salient questions worth asking are what aspects of our institutions should we be aligning and how do we do so such that the outcome becomes of mutual benefit. Quite often institutions appear to follow business demands, sometimes at the detriment of their own interests and objectives. The crucial issue here is to obtain balance and mutuality of interests, preferences and objectives. Interesting area of work.
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I would like to know where to identify the boundary between these two concepts.
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Hein Van Gils Can you indicate which paper your refer to ? I am quite interested to read it. I am also looking for an epistemological discussion of the concepts of "appropriation" "property" "ownership" and land "grabbing" , if you have any source to suggest. Thanks
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Before implementing a pension reform some conditions and measures have to be taken mainly in political, social and administration era. For example, in political scope, different parties and unions have to yield a consensus to prevent likely protests after the reform. In the other hand, some measures have to be taken after the implementing the reform as well.
I need some articles that study the experience of other countries in taking (or even no taking) the above measures.
Any help is appreciated.
Regards.
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Pension is the reward offered to an employee who is no more engaged in service but toiled from dawn to twilight untiringly during his service tenure. As such the essence of reform must not farewell but for welfare.
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How to measure the political situation of a country to understand its impact on the country's economy and financial market.
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In democratic set up politics is singularly liable for ups and downs of economy in general.
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This morning I browsed through the "e-version" of The Nikkei Asian Business Review. The edition carried normal business and economic stories, but in addition, I saw about six (6) or so stories on COVID-19 or Corona Virus. The content of the different COVID-19 related topics included what most people all over the world see everyday; the number of new cases, the death toll etc., In addition to this however, one sees a lot of content COVID-19 impact on trade, politics, economy etc.,
The question I have, to experts in the field are as follows:-
  1. How long do you think it will take for the spread of the virus to reach maturity stage, after which the spread plateaus and start declining.
  2. Are there parallels between COVID-19 and other viruses that broke out before
  3. What will be the true cost of COVID-19, to societies and communities, economies and politics?
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A very broad area to cover in these questions however putting it in logical perspective we can attempt to answer as below:
Q1. There are three scenarios of this virus attack.. Natural close on its own 2. Reach Global pandemic proportion 3.Never fully disappear and continues to resurface in the near future . Current stage is efforts at global containment.
Q2. From history ' Black Death' caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis killed 25% of people only in London and also came from China. No clear reasons available how it stopped. For COVID-19-Traces of similarities can be seen with SARS-CoV (2002), MERS CoV (2012) since origin was again from animals.
Q3. The cost cost be divided broadly into 5 groups
1. Financial cost of containment 2. Future cost of R&D without any definitive time limit for a vaccine 3.Political fallout (poor handling by governments) such as the backlash in China, Iran, Italy, US etc.4. Business losses from order cancellations and market fallout 5.indirect costs or supplementary losses-stock market crashes, oil prices etc
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It has many 'Karma" or activities to be Hindu such as yoga, aasan, sanskar, puja etc. but people seem not internalizing all these at present.
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Unfortunately, in the time period we live in, people's devotion to religion decreases. I think that the advancement, facilitation and cheapening of technology, communication and transportation affect this. There is no place on earth where religion is felt strongly and does not spread to other areas. It is very tempting to try to transform the dominant religion into culture, to make money through it, and finally to seize the power of the state and determine a permanent policy. However, there are many drawbacks to making religion the center of physical life. First of all, different fields have different rules. The values ​​and rules of politics, economy and culture are very different. Directing them on the axis of religion will not be effective and will have an exclusive effect on a segment of the population. For example, in the context of India, the pursuit of such a policy for Muslims would be exclusive and would ultimately not achieve the intended purpose.
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Martin Eling
Jean Kwon
Herold Skipper
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dut to low awareness of community and low income of people
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Who has coined the term “Say’s law”? Is it Keynes or is there any predecessor to him? Suppose someone has coined this term. Is it the same idea that John Baptiste Say wanted to express in his famous chapter on Débouchés?
In my opinion, classical writers like J. B. Say and David Ricardo only wanted to say that economic growth is possible against the claim that it is not. For example, Ricardo picked up this topic in Chapter 21 which has a title: Effects of Accumulation on Profits and Interest. This proves what situation Ricardo was thinking.
If my hypothesis is approved, that Say and Ricardo claimed Say's law in the meaning that John M. Keynes had given in his General Theory. It seems to me that Keynes attacked Say and Ricardo by his self-invented scarecrow.
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Fred M. Taylor, in his Principles of Economics (1925, p. 201) writes, "This principle, I have taken the liberty to designate Say's Law; because, though recognized by many earlier writers, it was particularly well brought out in the presentation of Say (1803)." The principle Taylor discusses is the fact that productions (supply) constitute demand for productions. But a more complete rendition of the law of markets from Say's own writings is a two-part proposition: (a) the production of a commodity immediately creates a demand, an outlet, or market for other produced goods and services, and (b) productions can only be purchased by or with other productions. These two parts of Say's proposition, which he claims to have derived from Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations, is what Keynes (1936) corrupted as "supply creates its own demand," having derived that version from a restatement by John Stuart Mill (1874, p. 73). Mill's own statement is, "Nothing is more true than it is produce which constitutes the market for produce, and that every increase of production, if distributed without miscalculation among all kinds of produce in the proportion which private interest would dictate, creates, or rather constitutes, its own demand."
Keynes, who appears never to have read Say's own (and better) formulation of the law of markets or outlets (as the French readers claim to be a more accurate rendition), found the proposition a major affront to his attempt to formulate a theory of employment in his General Theory (1936). This because Keynes believed that Say's Law assumes there is always full employment of labor or that there is no obstacle to full employment. Thus, Keynes (1939) subsequently concludes: "a theory so based is clearly incompetent to tackle the problems of unemployment and the trade cycle." I think it is grossly misleading for Alain Beraud and Guy Numa (2019) now to claim the possibility of agreement between Keynes and Say on the functioning of a monetary economy. For one thing, Say adopted Adam Smith's treatment of savings as being spent reproductively by borrowers whereas Keynes treats savings as a withdrawal from the expenditure stream; Keynes never connected savings with the purchase of interest- and/or dividend-earning assets. Savings simply disappear in some "black hole."
People should read J.-B. Say's own "Treatise on Political Economy" and "Letters to Mr. Malthus." Say himself treats the incidence of unemployment from economic contractions or labor's displacement by machinery as economic growth occurs, but which Keynes did not recognize.
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The Pareto Optimality:
This efficiency criterion was developed by Vilfredo Pareto in his book “Manual of Political Economy”, 1906. An allocation of goods is Pareto optimal when there is no possibility of redistribution in a way where at least one individual would be better off while no other individual ends up worse off.
A state of affairs is Pareto-optimal (or Pareto-efficient) if and only if there is no alternative state that would make some people better off without making anyone worse off. More precisely, a state of affairs x is said to be Pareto-inefficient (or suboptimal) if and only if there is some state of affairs y such that no one strictly prefers x to y and at least one person strictly prefers y to x. The concept of Pareto-optimality thus assumes that anyone would prefer an option that is cheaper, more efficient, or more reliable or that otherwise comparatively improves one’s condition.
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Originally, the Pareto Principle referred to the observation that 80% of Italy’s wealth belonged to only 20% of the population. More generally, the Pareto Principle is the observation (not law) that most things in life are not distributed evenly. It can mean all of the following things:
  • 20% of the input creates 80% of the result
  • 20% of the workers produce 80% of the result
  • 20% of the customers create 80% of the revenue
  • 20% of the bugs cause 80% of the crashes
  • 20% of the features cause 80% of the usage
  • And on and on…
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Does terrorism in the world have any impact on International Oil Prices
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The current terrorism of the 21st century has a greatly effect on oil production and prices, contributed to the loss of billions of dollars for oil-producing countries, and contributed to oil deals& contracts for certain regions of the world. The sale of weapons has been unprecedented, and it has served certain countries by selling their old expired conventional weapons rather than destroying them. It has also contributed to increasing the poor and misery in quantity and quality. This is to say the least for terrorism.
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Is economic cooperation and trade between the world's largest economies developing or is this cooperation diminishing due to the current trade wars?
Does the current policy of limiting trade by imposing new prohibitive tariffs and other protectionism instruments of current trade wars may lead to such a serious slowdown in economic growth that it may lead to a global economic crisis?
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I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Dear Friends and Colleagues of RG,
The issues of risk management in the context of determinants of the global financial crisis, globalization processes, technological progress and other factors I described in the publications:
I invite you to discussion and cooperation.
Best wishes
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Most probably
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One problem is that the SSE remains vaguely delineated. Can we sharpen the definition?  The SSE is credited by analysts for poverty reduction, provision of essential services at low costs, building of solidarity among participants, and reducing the strains of a competitive capitalist economy. Can SSE fulfill any or all of these important goals.?
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SSE refers to enterprises and organizations (cooperatives, mutual benefit societies, associations, foundations and social enterprises) which produce goods, services and knowledge that meet the needs of the community they serve, through the pursuit of specific social and environmental objectives and the fostering of solidarity.
I propose to analyze the Latin American case. In Costa Rica, for example, the solidarity economy works together with the State; in other countries it may come into conflict with government policies (Argentina, Chile). I am currently directing a book on solidarity economy.
Proposals are still accepted!
best regards
Pablo
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The global economic system is simply a combination of multiple political economies, all seeking control to make good on promises made to the voting population at large. Currency manipulation has become the atomic bomb of the 21st century and has destroyed /capped the lives of innocent bystanders, there by creating a human rights epidemic. Are there solutions available to the people?
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If using a gold standard, how does the economy adjust for dislocations of capital, and currency flight? Also, does a gold standard negate monetary policy as a tool vs. a weapon?
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I am looking for an introductory textbook on 'political economy'. Any suggestions?
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Paul: I recommend this textbook:
"Political Economy: The Concept of Economic Ideas" (3rd Edition)
by Frank Stilwell
Oxford University Press
ISBN: 978-0195575019
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Dear colleagues:
I would like to remove this article from one of my projects (political economy of natural resources), and leave it in the other (colonial and decolonization history). Could you do that for me? I haven’t gotten to do that:
Yours,
Alicia
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Go to the project where you want to remove the article. Go to the project log and find the article. There is a "v" in the top right corner of the article post. Click the "v" and choose "remove". Alternative choose "edit list" if several articles were added at the same time and then choose remove on the article you want to remove.
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The whole world is putting a lot of attention to how to deal with extreme democratic outcomes(EDO) like USEXIT and BREXIT and their implementation, but normal engagement channels to counteract it or slow it down or create the conditions for future change do not seem to be working….
Should political strategies that work under normal democratic outcomes(NDO) be expected to work in the world of extreme democratic outcomes(ED0)?. If think, No, but the opposition to the extreme democratic  outcome and policies  appear to think that they do as they keep using them…apparently with no much luck, what do you think?
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Development economics is a plus of traditional economics and political economy. Does the development economists in the Sub-Sahara really set up research in the area, especially, the academics in Nigeria?
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I do not know to Sub-Saharan countries but the Development Economics in its broad spectrum will be that which encompasses also ecological and equality problems.
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This is the text of article 33 of the Italian Constitution. Is this principle correct? Is it applied in your country? What are you willing to sacrifice to defend it? In 1931, only 12 university professors in 1200 refused to pledge allegiance to fascism in Italy, and they were fired or imprisoned. What would you think about?
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I agree with you
Best Regards Andrea Ricci
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It has become commonplace to refer to colonialism, or some of its declinations such as post-colonialism or coloniality, as general terms to situate contemporary social exclusion, marginality, and resistance. This conceptual choice has the great advantage of drawing attention to historical continuities between contemporary structures and the centuries-long reproduction of structures of domination. However, is it possible that the conceptual strength of this lumping also hinders our ability to understand the specific modalities of social injustice in various contexts and in different historical moments? Is it possible that this choice leads us to conflate, for example, colonialism, imperialism, capitalism, and modernity, as an overly coherent project? Your thoughts will be most welcome!
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Such a good question! Martin Hebert points to an issue that was identified (under the term decolonization) in Tuck & Yang's (2012) article, "Decolonization is not a Metaphor." As those authors write, "Decolonization brings about the repatriation of Indigenous land and life; it is not a metaphor for other things we want to do to improve our societies and schools." Yet, as Martin pointed out, the lumping together of separate but related concepts provides authors with a convenient way to talk about a vast array of social issues with some coherence. At the same time, though, that lumping leaves authors open to criticisms about ignoring the concerns posed by capitalism, imperialism, and so forth. And as a conceptual "shorthand," it may serve as an erasure of some of the exact problems that use of a colonial or decolonizing analytic lens may strive to illuminate.
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When we talk about conflict contagion and diffusion mechanisms, what happens when in one country the fighting stops, would it also stop across the border? I am planning at looking at mechanisms of conflict diffusion and look at how the halt or possible reversal of said mechanism actually affects the conflict propensity in the other country. Basically a supply side argument.Would you suggest a different angle?
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So a couple things to offer.
Demonstration effects (as you note) - work when a novel solution is shown to be workable and credible. The surge of power sharing and new peacekeeping in the 1990s may have been self perpetuating. There might be traces of this in peace agreement provisions. Ideally you could find some element that would be theoretically irrelevant but keeps coming up for a couple years and then fades. . . suggesting a demonstration effect.
Interlocking conflict - conflicts often warp incentives and ramp up intervention. The end of the cold war had cascading effects across the international system. On a smaller level, the peace agreement in 2006 in Sudan led to Sudan cutting off support for LRA which pushed LRA to the table. Similarly the abandonment of apartheid in South Africa had cascading effects across all of Southern Africa.
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I've been spending a great deal of time studying the topic of capitalist exploitation via increase in intensity and I'm having issues with the mathematics behind it.
Now, in the paper Duration, Intensity and Productivity of Labour and the Distinction between Absolute and Relative Surplus-value by Stavros Mavroudeas there is a formula which defines the how a total working time in a day from all workers is dealt out.
T= V+S
Where T is our total labor hours from all workers that day, V is the value paid out to workers and S is the surplus value gained from that working day.
Now total labor hours T can be broken down to the number of laborors that day and the hours each laborer works. mathematically this is:
T=hl
where h is the number of hours worked by each worker and l is the number of laborers working,it follows our identity is now:
lh=S+V
dividing both sides by lh.
1=(S+V)/lh
this negates what was taught by Dr. Stephen Resnick that capital intensity is:
I=(SV+V)/lh
where there is possibility of varying I, by Mavroudeas formulation of the problem this is impossible.
Based on this simple exercise, does exploitation via "speed up" or increase in labor intensity really exist?
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Jacob,
My response was that the mathematics make no sense; the only thing to understand is that some Marxists have tried to turn Marx into an economist, have interpreted his theory as economics and therefore see it as susceptible to being restated in terms of modern mathematics. For some critiques of what you call "modern Marxian scholars", see https://www.akpress.org/rupturing-the-dialectic.html (which is also available as a pdf here on RG). BTW to write, as I did, of "the centrality of technological change in accumulation (growth)" is not the same as seeing technological development as a "driver" of economic growth as you have rephrased. That's a very Solowesque way of putting it. In Marx, technological change is central to the dynamics of class relationships because capital's relative surplus value strategy involves manipulating technology in its efforts to retain control over workers. Because accumulation is the accumulation of antagonistic classes, the "driver" of accumulation is class struggle. Sometimes the dynamics of that struggle generates growth, sometimes it generates recession and depression. When and where and under what circumstances is the subject of "crisis theory" understood in terms of crises in the class relationship.
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For an upcoming roundtable at ISA Baltimore, I’d be happy to hear any predictions and ideas you might have about the future relationship between Canada and the United States under a Trump Administration.
Relatedly, how does this affect the relationship between Europe and Canada - will it lead to more or less cooperation in economic, security and other policy areas?
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The relationships with both Canada and Mexico will remain solid because the three nations need each other. As for internationally, he may well surprise the world. He can be compared to Theodore Roosevelt who believed the US had a great future and believed in a strong nation that considered its self interests. Time will tell.
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I NEED TO INVESTIGATE BLACK MONEY. SO NEED PROXY OF IT.
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Among the Asante of Ghana, family property is considered as one that belongs to the living (in the material world) and the dead (ancestors who live in the spiritual world). It serves as social security for the family. Money, a house or land are examples. Because of the spiritual (ancestral) connection, such properties are not disposable. Land for example, is not supposed to be sold. Money lent to a family member has to be refunded before s/he dies.
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Hello,
This article may be of interest to you.
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I really want to know examples of both fiscal and economic costs of corruption(definitions)
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I am interested in data related to the shift of investments from industrial countries to developing countries in the field of renewable energies, due to the end of incentives in industrial countries.
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Hello experts, i want to work on the effect of government increasing external debt on financial markets, i want to know if there is existing theory or literature related? Also if there is the need to use an overlapping generation model to determine the payback procedure?
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I heard on NPR news this morning that there is a huge global shortage of sand because of construction and silicon chips. I wonder if your project considers sand as part of the soils ecosystem. The report stated that the one remaining Sand Mine in California, USA, was being closed. The report stated how gangs were starting to take over areas where fights were breaking out over sand, like in India and Indonesia.
Anyhow, I wonder if you included this sand shortage in the scope of your project.
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You might also consider the extensions of sand mining as it relates to the growth of 'unconventional' shale drilling. Fracking and vertical drilling technologies require massive inputs of sand (used as a 'proppant'). There is likely a direct relationship between increased usage in drilling and the shortages you heard about on NPR.
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if possible any web link or any reference?
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Who is responsible, in any particular political situation, for either supporting or opposing any of the measures you are seeking to study? What methods do the different supporters or opponents use to try and influence the processes and outcomes on the issues they are committed to?  How long does it take for the outcome on any particular issue to occur?  To what extent is the outcome that occurs, either a short-term or long-term solution? (i.e., does it get reversed in changing political circumstances?)  In other words, who has what power, how do they use it, what are the result(s)?  THAT is Political Economy!
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The question may be answered with regards to the future of these policies.
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Dear Angad,
Maybe the following papers will help you:
Rode J. Renewable Energy Adoption in Germany - Drivers, Barriers and Implications. Department of Law and Economics of Darmstadt University of Technology [Dissertation]. Darmstadt: 2014. http://tuprints.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/4082/1/Rode_2014_Dissertation.pdf
Ali A, Li W, Hussain R, He X, Williams BW, Memon AH. Overview of current microgrid policies, incentives and barriers in the European Union, United States and China. Sustainability. 2017;9(7):1146. http://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/9/7/1146/htm
Wirth H. Recent Facts about Photovoltaics in Germany. Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE. Freiburg: 2017. https://www.ise.fraunhofer.de/content/dam/ise/en/documents/publications/studies/recent-facts-about-photovoltaics-in-germany.pdf
Los Angeles Business Council Study: DESIGNING AN EFFECTIVE FEED-IN TARIFF FOR GREATER LOS ANGELES. http://www.labusinesscouncil.org/files/Reports/Designing-an-Effective-Feed-in-Tariff-for-Greater-Los-Angeles-040110.pdf
All the best,
Martin
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The American Civil War was both a tragedy and a crowning event in the evolution of the United States.  Two very different societies with very different ideas about how America should develop clashed in a war of a magnitude that no one imagined.
Was the war inevitable?  Was it really about freeing slaves?  What were the real causes of the war?
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Muchativvugwa,
I would respectfully like to correct several false assumptions.
First, while I do not know the number, most Civil War leaders and soldiers honored with statues were not members of the KKK. The KKK has falsely used them as symbols. In fact, there was not a KKK until after the Civil War.
Second, I do understand that your statement includes removing statues of  "generals" who fought to maintain slavery, which is fine. However, there are many statues dedicated to the common soldier. Many of those common soldiers were from non-slave owning families who only enlisted after the Union army burnt their crops and slaughtered their livestock so that they couldn't be used to feed the Confederate soldiers. We have several personal historic journals that talk about this. In fact, one plantation owner talks about being neutral in the war until his livelihood was destroyed by the Union troops.
Third, the North is not innocent in some of this, as noted about the destruction that was done by the Union as a preventative measure. There are a few journals in existence of the commanders of those troops sent across the South to free the plantation slaves. When approached by a group of slaves freed from a plantation only hours before, the captain of the troops was asked by the emancipated people about how they were going to survive in the winter without food or shelter. The captain replied that it wasn't his problem. In another case the Union troops were informed after freeing all of the plantation slaves in an area that it was time for harvest. The Union army rounded up all of those newly freed slaves at gunpoint and ordered them to harvest the crops without pay and without feeding them during the harvest. Any former slaves who tried to flee or did not want to help in the harvest were locked up until the harvest was finished.
Fourth, from what research I have done, the KKK originally was founded to fight the scalawags and carpetbaggers during Reconstruction. Contrary to a recent northern news article that I read that said that the scalawags were only people who were trying to help their fellow southerners by aiding the people sent down to run the South during Reconstruction and that the carpetbaggers were good and respected Northerners who had compassion and wanted only to help rebuild the South, we have much evidence to refute these statements. The carpetbaggers bought up thousands of acres of prime land in the South and lined their pockets with money while doing little to gain the confidence and trust of those that they had been sent to oversee. During this fight against the governments that were put in control of the South the KKK unfortunately did target many black people. Those black people were appointed to government positions by the North to run things in the South during Reconstruction. One can only hope that the US government wasn't naive enough to think that those appointments would not cause a backlash. This would be like the Tutsi government replacing every Hutu village leader with a Tutsi overlord.
Fifth, the next version of the KKK was established in 1915 and was pro Jim Crow and terrorized/punished the black community. This was the really bad KKK who first used the symbols of the Confederacy for their own reasons.
Sixth, the modern KKK was resurrected in the late 1940s and not only was anti-black, but also adhered to many of the Nazi "white is right" doctrine. This new Klan and other White Supremacist groups have appropriated symbols of the Civil War for their own purpose.
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I am looking into literature that explains which incentives a country has to introduce policy assessment tools for legislation enacted by Congress or the Parliament. For example, there is a vast literature on government accountability that explains why governments would adopt these tools on secondary regulation (oversight, address delegation problems, etc.). However, for the case of primary legislation it is not as clear to me what justifies it from a Law and Economics or Political Economy perspective, or even just legal. 
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There are many different theories/explanations that can be used to identify variables that might affect legislation. As Thomas Dillon, for example, suggests above you could use public choice theory, but that's not the only option.
The variables selected may also be selected bases on the kind of law/policy being investigated.  For example, if you were examining environmental policy/legislation, then you would want to make sure that you had variables representing economic, social and political factors that could affect the creation of those kinds of policies. 
So, what kinds of policies are you studying? All kinds? Specific kinds? 
Also, you suggest your sample is across countries.  That could affect the kinds of variables you choose because there might only be certain kinds of information available related to your law/policy issue that can be collected in different nations.
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Looking for examples with highly educated populations and a high GDP per Capita
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Not just only fascist regimes in Europe in the interwar period, but also nationalistic authoritarian regimes in such countries as Poland, Hungary, Baltic States and Balkans. Nowadays - at least Poland, Hungary, Serbia, but also Romania are heading this way. 
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Sport events promiss a lot according all kind of officials. What remains after the event and all the investments? Which partnerships were triggered by these events and continue doing their good work for the population?
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i have closed my research on this topic; thx for all responses
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why and how political institutions can moderates the negative economic effects of remittances on economic growth
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In your modelling approach to investigating "why and how political institutions can moderate the negative economic effects of remittances on economic growth" I would urge you to take account also of potentially positive effects, including indirect effects (for example, potentially positive effects of remittances on exports and investment  which, in turn, may have positive growth effects). A recent paper identifying positive effects of remittances on exports  and referencing the relevant literature is: Gashi, P., Hisarciklilar, M., and Pugh, G. (2016). Kosovo – EU trade relations: a dynamic panel poisson approach, Applied Economics, 49:27, 2642-2654, DOI:
10.1080/00036846.2016.1245836. To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00036846.2016.124583649(27) On-line publication 03-11-2016.
In principle, if you find evidence for your hypothesised negative effects in the presence also of potentially positive effects you will obtain richer and more convincing results. Focussing only on negative effects may seem to examiners/referees to be like "tennis with the net down".
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Michael Mackenzie's last Sunday The Long View article, (FT July 2, 2017, "Taper tantrum II lacks summer blockbuster status,") describes the conditions that indicate that the credit crisis is not over. It should be evident from bonds, yields, low productivity and rising debt that it is a crisis like a slow Jim Dine Fluxus car crash. Given the fact that central banks cannot raise interest rates or sell their debt without initiating a crash, demonstrates that debt is overhanging economic recovery. Too many "zombie" banks and businesses are surviving on basically the free money central banks have provided with continued refinancing of bonds and new credit. Wages are still flat across the globe from England to Japan (even with historic labor shortages as in Japan, see Robin Harding, FT July 2 2017, "Japan labour shortage hits 43-year high but no sign of rising prices").
If we revisit Ben Bernanke's writings on the Great Depression (2002) we find him faulting intervention as a source of instability, James B. Steward of the New York Times said this in 2011 evoking the "recession within a depression" idea of mistiming intervention:
"The events of the last few weeks — gridlock in Washington, brinksmanship over raising the debt ceiling, Standard & Poor’s downgrade of long-term Treasuries, renewed fears about European debt and a dizzying plunge in the stock market — bear an intriguing resemblance to some of the events of 1937-38, the so-called recession within the Depression, with a major caveat: it was a lot worse back then." But for all the debate over the timing of the government action in 1937, the results were a new low of depression of economic activity.
Only the arrival of WWII allowed sufficient intervention, and kinds of it, as well as duration that had been blocked by the Republicans then as now. Price, rent and consumption controls, limitations on credit and massive and sustained government action directed employment and production as well as investment. We will not see an end to the present crisis until we have some like process. One might argue that the Chinese are doing this, and perhaps that is what is sustaining their economy. We shall see.
Niccolo Caldararo, Ph.D.
Dept of Anthropology
SFSU
Remarks by Governor Ben S. Bernanke, At the Conference to Honor Milton Friedman, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois November 8, 2002, On Milton Friedman's Ninetieth Birthday, The Federal Reserve Board: https://www.federalreserve.gov/boarddocs/speeches/2002/20021108/default.htm ;
James B. Steward, "Aftershock to Economy Has a Precedent That Holds Lessons," NYT, Aug, 12 2011.
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CBs can't unwind the decade-long liquidity injection (or Ponzi) since much of the collateral either didn't exist (was/is junk etc., student loans); no longer exists even if it did (think of all the autos that are upside down as just one example); or exists partially through re-hypothecations).  So a significant chunk of that 4.5T is unrecoverable.  PS: the balance sheet is likely much more than 4.5T if one counts off-book derivatives (this is probably why there is extreme resistance to auditing CBs). 
The insurance side can only cover existing liabilities through income from new debt issuances.  Thus, the insurance industry becomes more willing to insure subprime / non-collateralized / re-hypothecated debt.  Banks then go deeper into subprime b/c insurance is willing to insure...  This is a debt/insurance cycle that Minsky identified many decades ago.  Without constant and significant increases in CB balance sheets, this cycle ends at some point in a 'Minsky Moment'... 
CBs are not unwinding.  The inter-day Fed prime rate for example, even at .5-.75 nominal/target, is lower than real inflation (some calculations put real inflation at 6-7%) and thus is negative.  That means there is balance sheet growth (as an inflation adjusted rate).  
A sustained prime-rate increase (and no back-channel QEs) to above inflation levels will likely crash western economies, if not also China and Russia.
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I read few books, including Beverly J. Silver on global proletariat (and automotive industries), but while writing about private automobilism from Marxist perspective and still feel, that something is missing. Maybe You know analysis of the cars as commodity fetish, or its role in alienating people from each other and from nature?
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Dear Yeray, thank You very much. It is something new for me.
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- the question is especially focused on Dutch civil law
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From a legal perspective, as Dr. Radics suggests, the issue is one related ti liability and/or responsibility.  AS his response also indicates, you first have to deal with the question of the victim. So, first, victims....
It is entirely possible that the victim is not a single person, but might be a group of people, or an entire nation (as in Islands that have become flooded from rising sea levels associated with climate change).  But, it may also be that the victims are non-human -- they could be. for example, an ecosystem (e.g., a coastal ecosystem that has been submerged by rising sea level);  as well as nonhuman species living in affected ecosystems.
Once there victims are identified, the next problem is determining the value of the harm committed.  To illustrate this point,  i will need to create a hypothetical and relevant example that can also potentially be related to real scientific or economic measures. The things below that are known to be true will be labelled "fact."
In this example, we are concerned with the effect of sea level rise on the Wadden Sea National Park (Vadehavet Park). 
Fact --  One of the key ecological features at Wadden is the tidal flat, and area where, twice a day, the tide recedes significantly to expose sufficient sand area to feed an estimate 10 million migratory birds. 
Harm issue: does the rise in sea level caused by climate change reduce the volume of area migratory birds can access for food resources?  What are the consequences and costs?  EG., Do more migratory birds died as a result?  Are fewer migratory birds nesting? How can one attach an economic cost to the above?  Does the decline in the migratory bird population affect bird watching at the park (e.g., decline in visits)?  What local economic effects might this produce? 
Fact -- the government defines Wadden as the best protected natural park in the country.  What is the value of that protected area? What kinds of other protected portions of nature (e.g., since sea level is rising, land further in land are being flooded -- what kinds of lands are being lost?  What is theri value?  Are species being lost? What is their value?
Fact -- Due to its value to the global ecosystem, UNESCO designated Wadden as a World Heritage site.  Potential meaning -- as a World Heritage site, is now UNESCO among the victims of harm affecting Wadden Sea? Or are the victims the citizens of the world?  The point here is that perhaps the designation of Wadden now affects the definition of the victims.
Unknown (didn't spend enough time looking this up to reach a conclusion)-- Has sea-level risen actually risen in Wadden?
Next, you have to move on to the next issue,  which is establishing the connection between climate change and sea level rise.  Here you need to pay attention to the fact that sea level rise varies in different parts of the world, and so you have to find relevant data.
Next you have to get to OFFENDERS....once you establish that there are victims, that means that logically, there are offenders -- unless there is claim that this is a "victimless" crime -- but usually by victimless we mean self inflicted, in which case the victim and offender are the same.
Now, once you can establish the existence of offenders, you have to identify who they are....
How would you do this?
Well, in some sense, everyone is an offender to the extent that they produce greenhouse gas emissions...So, the question is -- are there significant sources of greenhouse gas emitting offenders in Denmark, since this is your target group... I didn't look up any of this information -- but one issue is, for example, that a very LARGE company is Royal Dutch Shell....how much CO2 does Royal Dutch Shell produce?
In any event,  this kind of analysis can become quiet extensive....
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In his five stages of economic growth, Rostow assumes the first stage of economic growth "traditional society" is a subsistence economy (growing, hunting or gathering). Assuming that Rostow is correct, what is the best source of research /theory that addresses an economy that is at a subsidized (pre-Rostow) stage and working to grow to Rostow’s first stage of economic growth?
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My post at Google doc.. has not been acknowledged by you and no response since the note was posted there one month ago. But my argument is very simple; to substitute subsidized economy as pre-Rostow is kind of intellectually worrying because deep understanding of Rostow traditional society definition could be compared to a modern macro economic set-up emerging, therefore to state Pre-Rostow stage of economy has to be defined clearly in context what exactly do we mean as Pre-Rostow because my understanding of this kind of  environment, has no existence of micro-economic structures hence the definition of "subsidized" economy  and my  understanding of 'subsidize' makes the hoping deduction from any empirical studies difficult to establish.
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economic institutions mean economic freedom, rule of law, property rights, legal origin etc..
political institutions include political stability and instability, political system etc...
human capitals are year of schooling, human capital per capita, health care spending etc...
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Looking at your question from the viewpoint of a N. American Social Psychologist, I see a trend in recent years of ultra conservative political institutions attempting to cut off the limb of human capital that supports the economy. There appears to be a radical belief that investing in human capital carries a significant risk of inspiring creativity; innovation that might be seen as revolutionary. This paradoxical trend could be a last gasp of the uber-rich to maintain income; however, it is self-defeating, since human capital IS the economy if one takes a long view. Evidence for such a trend may be found in the huge decline in patents issued to individuals; such patents being highly correlated with the GDP that defines the rich. Patents issued to individuals & small businesses have been shown to be 'revolutionary' in economic institutions.    Good fortune to your studies,    Paul
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In the present era when most of people are debating over decline of democracy and liberal form of governance, what could be the potential alternatives that wolrd has?
based on the historical evidence.
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Winston Churchill’s bon mot comes to mind: "Many forms of Government have been tried, and will be tried in this world of sin and woe. No one pretends that democracy is perfect or all-wise. Indeed it has been said that democracy is the worst form of Government except for all those other forms that have been tried from time to time…" (From a speech in the House of Commons on 11 November 1947.)
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I want to investigate forecasting before, during and after the financial crisis using daily stock prices, but I need a serious scientific method to identify the beginning of the fall in the stock index and its end. Any ideas?
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 I suggest you read "The End of Finance" by Massimo Amato and Luca Fantacci (both on ResearchGate). Amato and Fantacci argue convincingly that Western finance (Capitalism) is inherently and permanently in crisis (alternating booms and busts), due to the fact that such a commodified system of finance is structurally incapable "of performing the exquisitely financial function of settling accounts" between creditors and debtors.
As a result, irredeemable debt builds up within the financial system "consisting [at the national level] of the banknotes of the central banks" and "at the international level of dollars stockpiled in the currency reserves of the Middle and Far East.".
According to Amato and Fantacci, "the present [episode of financial markets] crisis marks the end of a conception and practice of finance grounded in the systematic suppression of the end" (i.e. the settling of accounts between debtors and creditors).
From my personal perspective, this end to the viability of the incumbent system of commodified finance corresponds to the incapacity of the real economy to convert a sufficient quantity of Nature into monetised credit to maintain the liquidity of the system (i.e. paying down past and creating new irredeemable debt), despite technological progress, because planetary limits to such exponential "economistic" growth required for financial market parasitism was breached in the 1970s (when Bretton Woods collapsed).
Since that juncture, continued operation of the financial system could only be maintained through a cannibalisation of itself, presented as new financial "innovations" - including: creative accounting for the virtualisation of profits of corporations linked to financial markets; financial market credit-forgery for asset-inflation followed by capital gains extraction; and the recycling of past interest-bearing debt, within the financial system itself, through derivatives etc.
However, as Amato and Fantacci, advocate,  this terminal phase of the inherent crisis of financial market capitalism is also an opportunity to re-search and re-think financial practice and theory. As they say: "What comes to an end in this crisis is the idea of finance grounded in the representation of money and credit as commodities", which means we need to establish "a radically different institutional and theoretical perspective (...) capable of supporting real economic activity", where "money and credit are not traded", and "relations between debtors and creditors are constructed so as to come to an end" (accounts between them are settled).
I suggest that revising your research in this direction could be more fruitful. I also opinion that if you read the book of Amato and Fantacci, you will probably be persuaded that there is no way/method, scientific or otherwise, "to investigate forecasting before, during and after the financial crisis".
Good luck in whatever you decide to do.
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Most people think of affluence as a one sided blessing.  One need not worry about food or clothing or shelter.  But there are problems, very real problems, associated with affluence that are quite daunting, and in need of attention.  Control, secrecy, theft, are only a few of these problems.  
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The problem is, in my view, clearly the connection between affluence (and one could say also influence or political power) and economic and political inequality.   As Andrew McCulloch noted in his reply, this also gets to the issue of unequal consumption, which is a big and extremely important issue in the current global context of international (and national) economic inequality, and how forms of inequality and consumption interact to promote other inequalities and other detrimental outcomes such as ecological disorganization and destruction.  You can't really (in my opinion) talk about these issues without referring to Marx's analysis of capitalism and inequality, and modern theoretical and empirical studies relating that view to ecological destruction and disorganization (e.g., see for example, works by John Bellamy Foster [1992, The absolute and general law of environmental degradation under capitalism]; and numerous excellent empirical studies related to this approach by Andrew K. Jorgenson).  I would argue that the problem of inequality has never been "well-managed."  For example, examine the data from inequality.org (https://inequality.org/facts/global-inequality/)
In 2015, 0.7% of the world's population had a wealth share of one million dollars of more, and that 0.7% of the population owned 45.2% of global wealth. (And here, I am ignoring some refinements we could make here since as Oxfam reports, wealth is unevenly distributed among this group as well, with the EIGHT richest people in the world own $462 billion in wealth).
At the other end of the spectrum, 71% of the world's population owns less than $10,000 in wealth, and owns only 3% of global wealth.
Part of the issue with the above relates to the definition of "affluence," since being "affluent" in different national contexts can be defined relative to a nation rather than globally.  To get an idea of that issue in a national context we can refer to measures such as the GINI Index of income inequality.  (Although there are problems with the GINI index, ( see, http://www.hsrc.ac.za/en/review/hsrc-review-november-2014/limitations-of-gini-index)
Matthew Dada suggests that its not affluence, but how it is managed -- which might be correct -- and the question is -- what would a GINI index look like in a country where affluence was "managed properly"?   Denmark, for example, has -- compared to other countries -- a low GINI around 0.25.  Relative to other countries (e.g., US, 0.47) that is "good," but is 0.25 the best that can be achieved?  Is it appropriately defined as "well managed?"  So, it seems that there is some need to answer the question Dada raised about what "well managed" means before some conclusions can be reached.
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My question is: for how much longer are the community of students and teachers to be fooled by confusing theories about macroeconomics?
The universities are full of politically biased narrow-minded teachers of the old and messed-up theories in economics that were spoiled over a century ago when John Bates Clark and his friends responded to the industrialists and unions by claiming wrongly that both land and buildings are capital. The confusion that resulted has enabled student to pass their exams without they or their teachers really needing to properly understand their subject!
My recent book "Consequential Macroeconomics--Rationalizing About How Our Social System Works" has at last converted the old pseudo-science into a real one and I would be most glad to share it for free with any serious/sincere student or teacher. Write to me at  chesterdh@hotmail.com for an e-copy. Or if that is too much, at least answer the question posed above.
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David, I agree that Economic textbooks for students are biased considering only idealized world. You are right that land has escaped macroeconomic models being replaced by capital about a century ago. An interesting book by Brian Czech reveals why and how has this happened: https://supplyshock.org/
Pooling land with capital means not distinguishing with virtually unbounded growth of global financial capital and land in finite supply. I am trying to include spatial dependence of variables and explicit accounting of land in my models where it is possible.
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I quote from the Columbia University economist and Nobel Laureate, Joseph Stiglitz:
Asymmetries of Information and Economic Policy
This year's Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences went to George Akerlof of the University of California at Berkeley, Michael Spence of Stanford University, and myself for our work on "asymmetry of information.'' What is that work about and why did we undertake it?
For two hundred years, economists used simple economic models that assumed that information was perfect - i.e. that all participants have equal and transparent knowledge of the relevant factors. They knew that information wasn't perfect, but hoped that a world with moderate imperfections of information would be akin to a world with perfect information. We showed that this notion was ill-founded: even small imperfections of information could have profound effects on how the economy behaved.
The Nobel committee cited our work on `"asymmetries of information,'' an aspect of imperfections of information caused by the fact that different people in a market know different things. For example: the seller of a car may know more about his car than the buyer; the buyer of insurance may know more about his prospects of having an accident (such as how he drives) than the seller; a worker may know more about his ability than a prospective employer; a borrower may know more about his prospects for repaying a loan than the lender. But asymmetries of information are only one facet of information imperfections, and all of them - even when small - can have large consequences.
George Akerlof and I were classmates at MIT in the early 1960s. We were taught the standard models of the day, but they made little sense to us. These models rather simplistically said that demand equaled supply. The joke was that you could teach a parrot to be an economist simply by repeating "demand and supply.'' This produced rather curious results. If the demand for labor equaled the supply, for example, there couldn't be any unemployment.
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Part of the interest of the concept for policy studies is the implication that under conditions of asymmetric information, market economies perform poorly; and presumably, the greater the asymmetries, the worse the performance. There is reason to think that asymmetries of information have been growing quite significantly.
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The Economist explains economics: What is information asymmetry?
MARKETS frequently present consumers with products whose quality is difficult to judge in advance. A television, for instance, might look good in the shop, but for how long will it work? Warranties are one way of overcoming the uncertainty. Big brands offering staid but standardised products are another; the hipsterish coffee shop may well have the best brew, but the neighbouring Starbucks hopes you are unwilling to take a risk finding out. Yet despite the pervasiveness of the problem, and of solutions to it, not until the 1970s did economists begin to incorporate “asymmetric information” into their thinking...
George Akerlof, your colleague, was at the forefront of this effort. In his seminal 1970 paper “The Market for Lemons”, Mr Akerlof asked what would happen to the market for used cars if buyers could not tell between good and bad...
Peter Spence, another pioneer of information economics, focused on “signalling”. His example was the labour market...
Information asymmetry remains a tricky problem for policymakers. Adverse selection is plaguing America’s Affordable Care Act, better known as “Obamacare”...
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Japanese Institutionalist economists who love Japan more than they love their economic hallucinations
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Become truly independent
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Is it Economical policies
or 
Political Economy 
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Actually there's a very big difference between "Economical Policies" and "Political Economy".
In my opinion I believe that the "Politics" is "How to perform" a thing like economy while "Economics" is "Management of the resources" like policy.
Economical policies are pointed "how to perform relevant economy" while the Political economies are pointed to the "Exclusive resources which cause to make the others as dependent".
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In the last few years, there appears to be a rise in the use of the work-to-rule strategy when negotiations stall. It is a bargaining tactic used by unions in which its members only perform those job responsibilities, the minimum required, that are clearly articulated in the collective bargaining agreement and/or in policy. It is hoped that the resulting slowdown will have a negative impact on the employer, thus creating a change in their bargaining position. In the case of education, work-to-rule is aimed at the service provided to students.
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Catherine,
The application of work to rule in higher education is interesting given the large degree of autonomy that professors have. I would imagine that the focus was on shared governance issues. What kinds of activities were swept into your WtR?
It was tried at my university, Univ. of New Hampshire, but some of the actions such as teaching summer school ended up in an unfair labor practice.
This is an interesting avenue to explore. 
Many thanks!!
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countries use their foreign exchange reserves to keep the value of their currencies at a fixed rate, could be replaced with Cryptocoin 
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I think the literature is fairly clear that the transactions themselves do not matter for the value of a currency, but the demand for inventory of a money does. So dollar credit does not so much affect the velocity of money as people shift from using dollar currency or dollar deposits to dollar credit, to say a credit card. What matters is that someone is holding dollars to pay my credit card charges instead of my holding it, so the total demand for dollars is not affected by whether I hold and use dollars or a creditor holds and uses dollars to pay my credit card charges. The same is true if we imagine buying French goods in France in euros or buying them in stores in the US using dollars. No effect on the demand for dollars or euros. 
If the demand for bitcoin holdings rises relative to dollars that is a different matter. As noted above, however, that is not happening in two very important senses: the quantity of bitcoin is very small relative to the supplies of most currencies and transactions using bitcoin are not affecting the demand for any currency relative to bitcoin. So far, perhaps mainly due to tax policy, bitcoin are not much of a substitute for dollars as money because of the volatility and because of the tax treatment of bitcoin as an asset in many countries. So far bitcoin is not money, even though it is used in some third party transactions, because it is a poor store of value or as Friedman put it, a poor "temporary abode of purchasing power." 
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My university has begun charging an arbitrary "maintenance fee" as a percent of unrestricted research accounts (e.g. reverse interest).
Are you aware of any other university that does this?
If so - do you have any recommendations on how faculty can save enough unrestricted funds for a large purchase (e.g.  a PhD student-year or research equipment) without having it potentially undercut by an arbitrary fee hike in the future?
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For any projects that we get fund from any agency we shall also get the overhead charges that we need to deposit on to the University acct, as far as I know that should be kept with the university side and they should own some interest and try to support the maintenance fee. Other than that a nominal charges are also collected for usage of equipment and that is also utilized for the maintenance. Other than that our university has a system of autonomy for each dept. and mostly the funds are handled by the individual project investigator and their head of the dept. The system is entirely different in our case. 
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I can found a lot of scholarly studies about the technique of futures markets (both commodity and financial produces), about they work and about their general utility, but I am searching ideas about explaining why a government or international organisations would prefer a future trade instead of other forms of market governance and pricing system.
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For those interested, I have found some interesting discussions in: Walter Y. Oi , "The Desirability of Price Instability Under Perfect Competition", Econometrica, Vol. 29, No. 1 (Jan., 1961), pp. 58-64
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I think that the interesting point about innovation is uncertainty. However, by studying its structure, its propagation.. one can raise some arguments about R&D policies. Disruptive Innovation is part of what they call, in Schumpeterian economics, creative destruction. That's why decision making is by far more important than models in Innovation. That's the reason why reaction is critical in Innovation policy. And, finally, at the very end, knowledge and understanding of history shapes our view of big picture which is catalytic in decision making. 
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Eu acrescentaria o aspecto da incerteza knightiana que circunda este tipo de inovação desruptiva, ou seja, uma incerteza que não pode ser calculada pelo cálculo de probabilidades, e, ao mesmo tempo, a observação de Simon sobre a importância do processo de observação empírica nos insights das grandes inovações desruptivas. Em outras palavras, o tipo de incerteza presente nas inovações desruptivas não está sujeita ao cálculo probabilístico, mas ao mesmo tempo dependem de conhecimento tácito profundo para serem geradas.
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Hello!
I am writing my thesis project proposal this summer and need to find theories on business development/growth. I am building a marketing campaign for a local bank whose overall goal is to increase growth (deposits, investors, etc.).
Thanks!
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Thanks, everyone!
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Shell Shock is a Trauma of war is necesay that the book to talk about of the WW1(world war one)
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Phillip Gibbs' Now It Can Be Told, it doesn't focus entirely on Shell Shock, but there are some great first hand examples from a British and French perspective. 
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USA pulling out of Paris Climate accord. Will it undermine the climate change initiatives? what are the possible immediate and future impact of this pull out?
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Mainz, Germany
Dear Jacić,
Perhaps you are right and the President's "decision to leave the Paris climate agreement will live in infamy." But, in fact, very little has actually changed, since there was no Senate commitment to the accords in any case. As I said, there was never much of a chance for it to get past the Senate. What is different is chiefly the lack of official presidential acclaim for the Accords. Is this a lack of American leadership or simply a change in public rhetoric?
I take it as true that there is some danger to coastal and lower areas in the U.S. arising from flooding and storms, changes in local climates, etc. I've read that Miami is attempting sea walls and there are plans afoot to protect lower Manhattan, too? More often, those more directly effected or potentially so, are more alarmed. That is just the problem, when the matter is viewed in political terms. The benefits to some of simply going on in the same old ways are entrenched, and with some exceptions, the dangers are diffuse and less clearly directed. In consequence, it is very difficult to organize the interests of those potentially effected. As bottom-up politics this matter is not going to easily work.
On the other hand, given the power and economic influences effected in cutting CO2 emissions, are we really so sure that the prominent political defenders of the Accords are going to push for the stated goals, when they cross the economic interests of crucial economic constituents? Will our righteous indignation bring all this about --while leaving the countervailing economic interests firmly in place?
Mr. Trump may well turn out a one-term President. (I didn't support him and I didn't vote for him.) Consider, though that In the last great period of globalization in the U.S., toward the end of the 19th century, we had a long series of one-term Presidents, and virtually no one remembers their names. (Anyone recall the accomplishments of Rutherford B. Hays, e.g.?--any other President between U.S. Grant and Teddy Roosevelt?) In any case, I think the generalized tendency to jump all over the guy at every opportunity is lacking in wisdom. It looks like picking out a scapegoat to blame while distracting ourselves from the political failures of globalization over several decades. Do we recall now, the growing inequalities of our times --all around the world? The growing political dysfunction, including threatened decay of the E.U.? Do we perhaps suspect that the people who benefited most would like us to forget the costs and problems engendered?
Shall we all step up to distract the world from the failures of prior policy all around us? Or, should we perhaps take a more clear-eyed and dispassionate approach? Problems connected with climate change will likely be with us for a good long time, and effective political support for remedies, if such there are, will also take quite a long time. Might we do better thinking a bit about the contrary economic interests and their political support?
H.G. Callaway
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This is from the book "Banks and Bad Debts" where Alan Greenspan supports the view of regulator competition in the context of Non-performing assets.