Science topic

Poisoning - Science topic

A condition or physical state produced by the ingestion, injection, inhalation of or exposure to a deleterious agent.
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Publications related to Poisoning (10,000)
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Human concerns about the pollution of oxynitride emissions in industrial flue gases led to a dramatic increase in the demand for V 2 O 5-WO 3 /TiO 2 catalysts. However, the complex composition of industrial flue gas reduces the catalyst activity, and the catalyst eventually becomes hazardous waste. This work describes the poisoning mechanism of V 2...
Article
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Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is a clinical condition characterized by arterial involvement of the intracranial vessels, manifesting with vasospasm. The most common clinical manifestation related to the syndrome is the thunderclap headache, which consists of a severe headache that reaches the peak of pain within minutes. The...
Preprint
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We present a Federated Learning (FL) based solution for building a distributed classifier capable of detecting URLs containing GDPR-sensitive content related to categories such as health, sexual preference, political beliefs, etc. Although such a classifier addresses the limitations of previous offline/centralised classifiers,it is still vulnerable...
Preprint
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Federated learning (FL) provides an emerging approach for collaboratively training semantic encoder/decoder models of semantic communication systems, without private user data leaving the devices. Most existing studies on trustworthy FL aim to eliminate data poisoning threats that are produced by malicious clients, but in many cases, eliminating mo...
Article
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One of the primary challenges in relation to phosphoric acid fuel cells is catalyst poisoning by phosphate anions that occurs at the interface between metal nanoparticles and the electrolyte. The strong adsorption of phosphate anions on the catalyst surface limits the active sites for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), significantly deteriorating...
Article
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Background Low-level exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) is a significant health concern but is difficult to diagnose. This main study aim was to establish the prevalence of low-level CO poisoning in Emergency Department (ED) patients. Methods A prospective cross-sectional study of patients with symptoms of CO exposure was conducted in four UK EDs be...
Preprint
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Perturbative availability poisoning (PAP) adds small changes to images to prevent their use for model training. Current research adopts the belief that practical and effective approaches to countering such poisons do not exist. In this paper, we argue that it is time to abandon this belief. We present extensive experiments showing that 12 state-of-...
Article
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Fluoride is one of the elements commonly present in the human environment. Due to its characteristics, it is very widely used in medicine, dentistry, industry or agriculture. On the other hand, its universality possesses a real threat to the human body in the form of acute and chronic poisoning. The aim of this paper is to characterize the properti...
Preprint
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Much of software engineering research focuses on tools, algorithms, and optimization of software. Recently, we, as a community, have come to acknowledge that there is a gap in meta-research and addressing the human-factors in software engineering research. Through meta research, we aim to deepen our understanding of online participant recruitment a...
Article
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In recent years, the cases of tramadol intoxication have become more frequent in many countries. However, most of the previous studies have been based on cases of tramadol intoxication, and the detailed information on the differences between postmortem distribution and diffusion of tramadol remains unclear. To investigate this issue systematically,...
Article
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Although neuroprotective effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) have been shown in rats exposed to carbon monoxide (CO), this pilot clinical trial was performed to assess the feasibility of treatment with G-CSF in patients with acute CO poisoning. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot clinical trial was conducted on...
Preprint
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Anomaly detection is critical for finding suspicious behavior in innumerable systems. We need to detect anomalies in real-time, i.e. determine if an incoming entity is anomalous or not, as soon as we receive it, to minimize the effects of malicious activities and start recovery as soon as possible. Therefore, online algorithms that can detect anoma...
Article
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BACKGROUND Opioid-related injury and death are major public health problems that result in thousands of deaths per year. Deaths due to opioid overdose have steadily risen in the past 2 decades. In 2018, opioids were involved in 46,802 recorded overdose deaths, 69.5% of all drug overdose deaths. 1 The trend of opioid-related mortality in Wisconsin r...
Article
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Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a public health concern in developing countries especially in China with a high disease burden. We aimed to focus on non-occupational CO poisoning caused by household coal heating secular trends based on registry data in Jinan, China, and we aim to provide further evidence and suggestions for public health policy....
Preprint
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Neural networks are vulnerable to backdoor poisoning attacks, where the attackers maliciously poison the training set and insert triggers into the test input to change the prediction of the victim model. Existing defenses for backdoor attacks either provide no formal guarantees or come with expensive-to-compute and ineffective probabilistic guarant...
Article
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Despite discourse advocating pesticide reduction, there has been an exponential increase in pesticide use worldwide in the agricultural sector over the last 30 years. Glyphosate-Based Herbicides (GBHs) are the most widely used pesticides on the planet as well as in Canada, where a total of almost 470 million kilograms of declared “active” ingredien...
Article
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Brain damage caused by the metal accumulation may result in the permanent injuries including severe neurological disorders. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the medicinal efficacy of broccoli extract in arsenic-induced brain poisoning. Twenty-eight female rats were classified into 4 groups; control, receiving sodium arsenate (As), As +...
Article
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We present a fatal case of pilsicainide poisoning. Quantitative toxicological analysis revealed that the concentrations of pilsicainide in femoral blood and urine samples were 17.5 μg/mL and 136.9 μg/mL, respectively. No morphological changes due to poisoning were observed. Based on the autopsy findings, results of the toxicological examination, an...
Conference Paper
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Deep neural networks (DNNs) are vulnerable to adversarial inputs, which are created by adding minor perturbations to the genuine inputs. Previous gradient-based adversarial attacks, such as the "fast gradient sign method" (FGSM), add an equal amount (say) of noise to all the pixels of an image. This degrades image quality significantly, such that a...
Article
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Norfloxacin (NOR) is a common antibiotic used in humans and animals, and its high levels can cause intolerance or poisoning. Therefore, NOR levels in animal-derived foods must be monitored due to potential side effects and illegal use phenomena. This research centered on the development of an environmentally friendly electrochemical sensor for NOR...
Article
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The rational design of efficient Earth-abundant electrocatalysts for the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) is the key to developing direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs). Among these, the smart structure is highly demanded for highly efficient and stable non-precious electrocatalysts based on transition metals (such as Ni, Co, and Fe). In this work, hig...
Article
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Insects are the largest group of animals, which constitute 75% of all living animals. insect species are horrible to man. There are various types of insects found i spiders and mosquitoes etc. Ant (Pipilika) causes (Makshika) cause itching, swelling, burning sensation & pain aches, feeling of heaviness of the body and the site of bite will black me...
Preprint
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Albeit slow and not without its challenges, lead (Pb) emissions and sources in the United States (U.S.) have decreased immensely over the past several decades. Despite the prevalence of childhood Pb poisoning throughout the 20th century, most U.S. children born in the last two decades are significantly better off than their predecessors in regards...
Preprint
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Electrolyte effects play an important role on the activity of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) of Pt-based electrodes. Herein, we combine a computational model and rotating disk electrode measurements to investigate the effects from phosphate anion poisoning for the ORR on well-defined extended Pt surfaces. We construct a model including the poi...
Article
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The valorization of CO2 to produce high-value chemicals, such as methanol and hydrocarbons, represents key technology in the future net-zero society. Herein, we report further investigation of a PdZn/ZrO2 + SAPO-34 catalyst for conversion of CO2 and H2 into propane, already presented in a previous work. The focus of this contribution is on the scal...
Article
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Boletin de la Asociacion Herpetologica Espanola (2022), 33: 31-35. In this case, several evidences that allow to diagnostic a case of copper poisoning in fire salamander larvae (Salamandra salamandra) are shown . IN SPANISH LANGUAGE. En el presente caso se muestran varias evidencias que permiten diagnosticar un caso de intoxicación por cobre en l...
Article
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The peptide antibiotic albicidin is a DNA topoisomerase inhibitor with low-nanomolar bactericidal activity towards fluoroquinolone-resistant Gram-negative pathogens. However, its mode of action is poorly understood. We determined a 2.6 Å resolution cryoelectron microscopy structure of a ternary complex between Escherichia coli topoisomerase DNA gyr...
Article
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In the context of SARS-CoV-2 crises, the phenomenological studies analyze the market phenomenon of People’s Republic of China (PRC) in public health. With PRC’s diplomatic behaviors around the national, international, and global public health crises, the phenomenological occurrence was further questioned into on accounts of genetic engineering, PRC...
Preprint
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Federated learning (FL) allows participants to jointly train a machine learning model without sharing their private data with others. However, FL is vulnerable to poisoning attacks such as backdoor attacks. Consequently, a variety of defenses have recently been proposed, which have primarily utilized intermediary states of the global model (i.e., l...
Article
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Background: Various newer biomarkers for organophosphorus (OP) compound poisoning are being looked at from diagnostic and prognostic perspectives. The present study was conducted to observe if serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK) can be used as a marker to assess the severity and monitor prognosis in patients of OP compound poisoning. Methods: In thi...
Article
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Metal toxicity poses a potential global threat to the environment and living beings. Their numerous agricultural, medical, industrial, domestic, and technological applications result in widespread distribution in the environment which raises concern on the potential effects of metals in terms of health hazards and environmental pollution. Chelation...
Article
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Obtaining the balance between information loss and training accuracy is crucial in federated learning. Nevertheless, inadequate data quality will affect training accuracy. Here, to improve the training accuracy without affecting information loss, we propose a malicious data detection model using the genetic algorithm to resist model poisoning attac...
Article
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Introduction: Alpha-Cypermethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide. Pyrethroids are derived from pyrethrins, which are toxic components found in the Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium flowers. They have been employed in agriculture, home and veterinary formulations to control the insect vectors of disease, agricultural insects and topically applied...
Article
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Cobalt intoxications from fractured hip endoprostheses have been described since the early 2000s. Typical symptoms include cardiomyopathy, neurological symptoms with visual and hearing loss and hypothyroidism. Less is known about long-term progression of these pathologies. This case report shows the long-term course of complications caused by cobal...
Article
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Programmable networking is evolving from programmable control plane solutions such as OpenFlow-based software-defined networking (SDN) to programmable data planes such as P4-based SDN. To support the functionality of the SDN, the correct view of the network topology is required. However, multiple attacks aimed at topology poisoning have been demons...
Preprint
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Recent studies on backdoor attacks in model training have shown that polluting a small portion of training data is sufficient to produce incorrect manipulated predictions on poisoned test-time data while maintaining high clean accuracy in downstream tasks. The stealthiness of backdoor attacks has imposed tremendous defense challenges in today's mac...
Article
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Suicide attempts by poisoning and other means: distinguishing characteristics REUE | Original OBJETIVOS. Identificar posibles diferencias en los intentos de suicidio en función del uso de tóxicos u otros métodos, describir po-sibles factores predictivos de utilización de un método toxicológico y determinar los tóxicos más utilizados. MATERIAL Y MÉT...
Article
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CH4 sensors based on metal oxide semiconductors (MOS) provide high sensitivity and fast response, but the sensitivity will be lost when they are poisoned by silicone. Therefore, there is an urgent need to address the poisoning deactivation of MOS gas sensors caused by silicone. Here, the unique strategy of coating a reactive anti-poisoning material...
Article
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Pesticide exposure, heavy metal pollution, and biological stressors drive a worldwide, ongoing, and rapid population decline of the crucial pollinator honeybee. Drastic colony loss of honeybees may well precipitate a food security crisis. Here a systematic review was conducted, examining reports on a global scale to propose a bench line for common...
Article
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Background: Buprenorphine-naloxone is an essential part of the response to opioid poisoning rates in North America. Manipulating market exclusivity is a strategy manufacturers use to increase profitability, as evidenced by Suboxone in the USA. Objective: To investigate excess costs of buprenorphine-naloxone due to unmerited market exclusivity (n...
Preprint
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CLIP (Contrastive Language-Image Pre-training) models developed by OpenAI have achieved outstanding results on various image recognition and retrieval tasks, displaying strong zero-shot performance. This means that they are able to perform effectively on tasks for which they have not been explicitly trained. Inspired by the success of OpenAI CLIP,...
Article
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Background Interpersonal problems are one of the factors for understanding the complex issues that result in suicide attempts and self-injury by poisoning. The quality of familial relationships is a predictor of the occurrence and outcome of suicide attempts. This study aimed to explore motives for self-poisoning suicide attempts amongst young adul...
Article
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Background: Methemoglobinemia (MetHb) is a rare and potentially severe dyshemoglobinemia that can be induced by exposure to oxidizing agents, decreasing the functional capacity of the hemoglobin molecule to transport and release oxygen into the tissues. MetHb can originate from gases with oxidizing capacity generated by internal combustion engines,...
Article
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Thanks to its unique characteristics of high power-to-mass ratio, shallow reactivity poisoning, and quick response to reactivity control, power supply system based on lithium-cooled space nuclear reactor is preferred for various exploration missions into outer and deep space. However, due to its nature of few-people or even unmanned on-duty, an int...
Article
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Bivalve farming plays a dominant role in mariculture in China. Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) can be accumulated in bivalves and cause poisoning the consumers. A sensitive detection of PSTs can provide early warning to decrease poisoning events in bivalve consuming. PSTs are traditionally examined using the whole soft-tissues. However, PSTs accu...
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Considering the practice of using ‘brewer’s yeast’ (BY) - liquid brewery yeast waste from the brewing industry - in animal feed in some establishments in the south of the State of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, this study was conducted to establish safety margins and to determine epidemiological and clinical aspects. In addition, this study suggested pr...
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Suicide is defined as “the act of killing yourself deliberately”. Most common methods of committing suicide in India are hanging, followed by poisoning, drowning and self-immolation. While least common methods include consuming sleeping pills, electrocution, self-inflicting injuries and firearm injury. Considering deaths due to electrocutions, in I...
Article
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Thallium poisoning is considered rare among all heavy metals. They are banned in view of their criminal use as an homicidal agent and a potential threat to environment. Their illegal use are still under practice and reported from time to time. We report two cases presented with similar manifestations i.e., gastrointestinal symptoms, peripheral neur...
Article
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Household poisons are substances in home that can cause harm when swallowed, inhaled or touched. They include medicines, detergents, cleaning products, toiletries, garden chemicals and other common household products. Each year hundreds of people from all age groups require medical attention for poisoning from products commonly found around the hom...
Article
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A drug is a pharmaceutical product designed to diagnose, prevent, cure, or alleviate symptoms of the disease. Drug poisoning causes numerous deaths, and is considered a public health problem. This study aimed to trace the epidemiological profile of reported cases of drug intoxication in the State of Maranhão. This is a descriptive, qualitative and...
Preprint
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The single flux quantum (SFQ) digital superconducting logic family has been proposed for the scalable control of next-generation superconducting qubit arrays. In the initial implementation, SFQ-based gate fidelity was limited by quasiparticle (QP) poisoning induced by the dissipative on-chip SFQ driver circuit. In this work, we introduce a multi-ch...
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In urban and peri-urban areas of the world, free-roaming cats often pose management challenges for authorities. Most are wandering owned or semi-owned cats (fed by people who do not perceive ownership). Some are lost or abandoned, or unowned cats who obtain food from humans unintentionally. Unidentified cats are classified as “stray” in shelter dat...
Article
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Machine learning-based (ML) systems are becoming the primary means of achieving the highest levels of productivity and effectiveness. Incorporating other advanced technologies, such as the Internet of Things (IoT), or e-Health systems, has made ML the first choice to help automate systems and predict future events. The execution environment of ML i...
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Background: One of the subdisciplines of Ashtanga Ayurveda is known as Agadatantra, and it deals with the various conditions associated with poisoning as well as their diagnosis and treatment. Sarpavisha is the most important Visha because it is the condition that requires urgent assistance. There are many Agada Yogas (anti-poisonous formulations)...
Preprint
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Federated learning (FL) shines through in the internet of things (IoT) with its ability to realize collaborative learning and improve learning efficiency by sharing client model parameters trained on local data. Although FL has been successfully applied to various domains, including driver monitoring application (DMA) on the internet of vehicles (I...
Article
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Background Outbreaks of unknown aetiology in complex settings pose challenges and there is little information about investigation methods. We reviewed investigations into such outbreaks to identify methods favouring or impeding identification of the cause. Methods We used two approaches: reviewing scientific literature and soliciting key informant...
Article
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Accidental or intentional poisoning with Aluminum phosphide (AlP) is associated with severe complications such as metabolic acidosis, cardiac failure, and death. Previous animal experiments demonstrated that fresh-packed RBC is protective in an experimental model of AlP poisoning. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of fresh-packed RBC o...
Article
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Shumet A, Shiferaw N, Mekonnen D, Asemahagn MA. Open Access Emerg Med. 2022;14:649–656. The authors have advised there is an error in affiliations 3 and 4 on page 649. The text “Dar University” should read “Bahir Dar University”. The authors apologize for this error.
Article
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Background: The river Buriganga, one of the major dumping zones of industrial wastes in Bangladesh, is responsible for contaminating the drinking water sources along its length. This study aimed to assess the water quality from these sources by monitoring the changes in hematological, biochemical, and histological parameters caused in healthy rats...
Article
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Background and Aim: A significant cause of arsenic poisoning is polluted groundwater. Arsenic poisoning results in the suppression of spermatogenesis and the liver and kidneys are vulnerable to the toxic effects as well. Mucuna pruriens has been identified to have fertility-enhancing and anti-lipid peroxidation properties. Based on these properties...
Book
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Spring, also known as springtime, is one of the four temperate seasons, succeeding winter and preceding summer. There are various technical definitions of spring, but local usage of the term varies according to local climate, cultures, and customs. When it is spring in the Northern Hemisphere, it is autumn in the Southern Hemisphere and vice versa....