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Plant-Soil Interactions - Science topic

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Hello respected Seniors and colleagues working for a nutritious society,
An idea to find correlations between the localized micro, macro nutrient deficient soils when grown with crops and consumed locally should result in the similar type of mal-nourishment in the populace of the same locality. the incidents of disease and syndromes should be higher,
i wish to study this correlation. and to do that local data regarding the amount or %age people suffering from particular syndromes would be needed, a generalized soil fertility map for the entirety of the country can be found from various researches being done for the characterization and soil surveys of India.
P.S.- Correlation doesn't mean causation, but i believe wholesome food for everyone might be a little easier by studying these characteristics in the human and livestock's.
Please suggest your valuable inputs on whether this study will lead to something or not?
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The best way is to use canonical ordination, such as PCA :)
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How, by measuring the electrical conductivity of the Drainage from the hydroponic growth medium such as cocopeat or perlite, find out how much nutrient solution is needed for irrigation to keep the moisture in the growth medium constant?
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I am not ruling out that answers are already in some published papers.
Could you please give more references?
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With the data of each variables, PCA can give good results
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Increased runoff under the influence of hydrophobia.
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This is a good question.
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I have to implement Green Ampt Infiltration equation for daily time step with regional scale over different Land use/Land cover conditions. The Green Ampt parameters are estimated using soil properties, how the equation could be improved for different LULC conditions and what could be the effect of varying spatial and temporal resolution in model performance.
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That is a good question.
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The aim of this forum is to share experience on crop modelling matters to seek help and assist researchers on the following aspects:
1) calibration approaches and issues
2) validation approaches and issues
3) usage of weather
4) usage of soil characteristics
5) algorithms interacting with weather, soil, crop, crop management
6) algorithms on plant mechanisms (example: phenology, source and sink balances etc.)
7) field to regional level modelling
8) crop and climate interaction modelling
9) crop model structure and parameters
10) limitations and improvements
11) new generation models
12) linking eco-physiological model and genetic (and genomic) models/research
13) anything related to crop modelling research
Please follow this discussion so that you can post your queries, advice and guide others and keep yourself updated on crop modelling research and look for collaborations.
Thank you
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In the Crop models like(DSSAT, APSIM, etc.) simulation process, how much variation is acceptable in crop simulated and Field observed yield in terms of (%) Percentage?
and what to do to fulfill this gap?
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As soil quality represent it's "fitness to use" or "capacity of soil to function to sustain productivity maintaining environmental quality and improved health".
What are the basic components which must be included while developing the soil quality index?
Minimum set of data required for SQI ?
Is it necessary to rotate all the components ?
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The components for soil quality index from the measured soil properties of the mineral soil cores, may include sample weight, bulk density, water content, coarse fragment content, water and salt pH, carbon (total, organic, and inorganic C), total nitrogen (N), 1 M NH4Cl exchangeable cations (sodium [Na], potassium [K], magnesium [Mg], calcium [Ca], aluminum [Al]), 1 M NH4Cl extractable trace elements (manganese [Mn], iron [Fe], nickel [Ni], copper [Cu], zinc [Zn], cadmium [Cd], lead [Pb]), 1 M NH4Cl extractable sulfur (S), and Bray 1 or Olsen extractable phosphorus (P). e SQI
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What are the phosphorus release strategies installed from the soil?
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1) By adding organic matter humus can form phosphohumic complexes which is easily assimilated by plants, humate ion can replace phosphate ions and humus can form coating around the Fe and Al ions so that coating prevent P from fixation....
2) There are P - solubilizing organisms a) Bacteria - Pseudomonas and Bacillus
b) Fungi - Aspergillus and Pencillium
3) VAM Fungi can increase the absorption of P from soil by extension of root system
4) Placement (Band placement) of fertilizers (Placing the fertilizer below the seed can reduce the fixation of P by reducing the contact between the soil and fertilizer)
5) Liming of acid soils also release fixed P from Fe and Al compounds
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Raindrops falling on the soil
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Dear Mourad,
I do not think that this material exists in one of the research laboratories in Algeria. Maybe you have to look at the meteorological office. It may be equipped with such a device.
Regards
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Assuming other factors non-limiting crop yield, focusing on soil physics, and looking for indicators of soil physical quality: can the degree of compaction (Bulk density/maximum or reference Proctor bulk density) be a universal indicator for crop yield?
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Soil compaction is just one of the soil physical properties that affect crop yield. But different crops have different sensitivity or tolerance to soil compaction. A case in point is rice. It thrives well in puddled soil whose structure has been destroyed and compacted by field operations (e.g. plowing, harrowing) when the soil is saturated with water. In addition, the degree of soil compaction affecting the root system of plants greatly depends on soil texture, structure and other soil properties. Thus, to make soil compaction a universal indicator of crop yield is, in my opinion, not feasible.
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Glycine max seeds are normally inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum before planting, but if I am attempting to see differences in nodulation between treatments with addition of a potentially toxic material I would rather inoculate the soil in pot experiments, because the bacterium is not native in my area and thus would be unlikely to find. The point is to draw a parallel with areas that has previous history of G. max growth and would not necessarily need seed inoculation because B. japonicum would already be present in the soil. Or would it be irrelevant to think this way, because a lot of farmers inoculates every growth season?
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In Brazil, soybean farmers inoculate every year. Even in soils with established Bradyrhizobium populations, inoculation promotes an increase of 8% in grain yield.
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Is it possible for symptoms of nutrient deficiency to appear on wild plants?
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Thank you
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Hello everybody, can you help me to understand the difference between correspondence analysis and canonical correspondence analysis using past application and for which type of data can i use them? Thanks in advance.
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This may be of help
The Advantages of Canonical Correspondence Analysis
https://www.ohio.edu › staff › mccarthy › multivariate › Palmer1993
by MW PALMER
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I want to set up a pot experiment of which phytoremediation techniques should be used as to remove metals. So, which plant I should use or who are the most effective accumulators.
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Brassica juncea is the most suitable plant for phytoremediation of heavy metals.
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Can any one explain me that addition of nanoparticles enhances the growth of plant and produces more yield. If so, can anyone list me the nanoparticles i can use
Plant is Tomato and Aubergines
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Nanoparticles increase food crop yields. Nanoparticles can boost the growth of mung bean plants by increasing their nutrient uptake from soil, These particles also increased root volume, stem height and phosphorous-mobilizing soil microbial population.
Pleases see bellow :
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Hi,
I am Krishna, working on a project to set up a soil test lab for internal (organisation) use. We are looking for options to buy equipment for testing soil nutrients macro nutrients and micro nutrients for fertilizer recommendations including CEC, pH. We believe quantitative analysis is optimal for operations as we operate more than 5000 acres of cranberry and blueberry farm.
Kindly suggest the set of equipment which can be used for our purposes? Also, the name(s) of manufactures if you know.
Thanks,
Krishna Kaja
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Thanks JC
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I'm planning a soil amendment experiment using a few different types of sludge. How do I decide on the application rate to be used in the experiment (if I am going to select only one application rate for each type of sludge)? From the papers I have read so far, no justification is given as to why a certain ratio (e.g. 1:1) is used.
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Normally you have the common practice as the control then have different rates of sludge application as treatments .This should be RCBD experiment.
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Many farmer's are applying the fertilizers through foliar, and they are continuously asking what is the use efficiency of this Fertilizer through foliar application, and how to increase the efficiency, please suggest.
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Following
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I'm planning an experiment for this upcoming summer and I'm in need of a good supplier of severely nutrient-impoverished river sand (washed) in the USA? Does anyone knows a company that sells this kind of product??
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Most if not all States require various permits to mine river sand, gravel, etc. Contact the appropriate state environmental, water and mining agency for a listing or an inspector knowledgeable about ongoing activities. It is not unusual to have to pay a premium for some types of river sand. Supplies of sand can be costly to transport distances, so best to find one locally. You might also contract local concrete companies concerning various sources of sand.
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I need to get the details of the electro-ultrafiltration method of potassium determination and its efficiency as compared to the other most commonly used methods.
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Following
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I plan to try plant growth test with lubricant contaminated soil.
The method i thought is (1)Put soil in flower pot, (2)plant seedling, (3)Treat three types lubricant oil that mineral type, non-mineral type(vegetable oil) and waste type(reused oil) to three flower pot.
As a result, what I am wondering is lubricant oil's effect on plant growth.
but i don't have research site and funding so i plan inside experiment and experiment scale is pilot study scale.
this method incomplete so i want to improve it with your advice.
I need discussion with other researchers and need comments too.
thank you.
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Research is a lot of work, time and funds. If you do literature review, I think you will find similar to article abstract attached. If you decide to study anyway, you might study how many ounces, or drops of oil it takes to kill plant in a pot Of a specific size, and same soil materials. If you had plenty of pots, you might try planting different types of plants, replicating each type of plant several times, and say add one ounce oil and see what happens in a week, if still growing, add another ounce to pot. Add the oil in the same place in pot, such as around edge, or directly on stem, for consistency. Add also water each week, so plant does not die from drought. Number or identify each plant, what type plant, oil, rate of addition of oil (all at once to cover surface, or weekly amount, such as an ounce), and record daily observations, take pictures, note visible signs of stress, wilting, mortality, etc. If you have a statistics professor, that would be helpful to review study so you can apply statistics to document findings.
One can study many questions, and as long as it makes sense to you and your circumstances, interest, etc., it is not going to be wasted effort. Nonetheless, it would not hurt to have your professor review and concur with study if for University credit.
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I discovered 25 years ago, that if you test the top 5 cm of soil from around seedlings of a native plant population, you can produce a "Reference Threshold" for the soil nutrient in PPM and the organic matter percentage needs for that species. Then, when you have a seed sowing project for that species, you do another soil soil test in the top 5 cm, and amend whatever nutrients and organic matter levels that are below the thresholds and add those to the seeds when sown. Working on producing those Reference Thresholds for 2,000 native species in the Western USA, and am asking if anyone has started this work anywhere else on the planet, when doing ecological restoration, especially of arid ecosystems? See http://www.ecoseeds.com/seed-thresholds.html for species and protocols.
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What I am asking, is matching the soil nutrients and percentage organic matter with the top 5 cm. from wild populations of a plant species where seedlings occur, and using those numbers as the Soil Nutrient Thresholds for that species. That is how we got our 100-mile pipeline north of Reno in a cheatgrass area with only 30 cm of annual rainfall, to produce 100% native cover in six months, at http://www.ecoseeds.com/greatbasin.html - Without those thresholds known, and correcting for soil levels below those thresholds, see the seedlings die at 5 cm tall at http://www.ecoseeds.com/good.example.html
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Can bio-fertilizers be considered as a sustainable farming method?
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I believe that natural fertilizers are more effective than synthetic ones.
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Dear all,
I would like to know how soil amendments (e.g., lime, wood ash, EDDS, EDTA) improve tree physiological parameters such as CAT, MDA, SOD when plants grow in contaminated soil. How these parameters help to improve metals accumulation in plants? How soil amendments improve metals accumulation in plants?
Thanks for your help.
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Do you mind sharing privately with me please?
Thanks
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We are working on wastewater treatment in villages of Maharashtra, India. We are exploring if kitchen garden is safe option in the places where soak pits don't function. Waste water from kitchen and bathroom contain soap, detergent powder, shampoo, hair dyes etc. If this water is given to the kitchen garden, do roots absorb these materials? Do these harmful materials enter food chain? If no, which plants should be considered for the kitchen garden?
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If you are using water from kitchen, it would probably also has a lot of grease, in this case, it is not recommended to used it directly over plants. First you would have to install a grease filter.
You also need to investigate which species can tolerate or even storage pollutants, and be careful not to eat them because you do not know which are the pollutants the water has.
Therefore, if you are planning to recycle water for plants it would be better to build containers to avoid filtration to phreatic aquifers
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What is the role of lectins in the soil? In our studies we found in the soil proteins that have agglutinating activity. Their evaluation showed that they are lectins. Like soil enzymes, they may have long time to remain active. It is known that lectins in plants and other living organisms play a great role in their vital activity. The question arises, what is their role in the soil?
I will be grateful for your opinion
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Lectins are proteins that bind specifically and reversibly to certain carbohydrates. They are involved in various biological processes, in terms of the recognition between cells
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Agroforestry boost the health of soil, induce water holding capacity (WHC), maintaining soil aggregates, improving soil organic (SOM), facilitating multilayer farming, economically viable and environmentally desirable still research and development is not doing at pace and people not taking much more interest in this field. What are the reasons behind it? Please share your valuable view and research findings.
Thanks and regards, Dr Shankhwar
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Interesting query@ Anil Shankhwar
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is there a reference number put to be used to say the obtained number of AMF spore per gram is low, medium or high? say for instance is 18 spore per gram of dry soil large or medium or small?
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Researchers based on the below reference classified AM root colonization based on categories:
very high (.80%),
high (60–79%),
medium (40–59%),
low (20–39%)
and very low (1–19%).
Arbuscular mycorrhizae of dominant plant species in Yungas forests, Argentina
Alejandra G. Becerra,Marta Cabello,Marcelo R. Zak &Norberto BartoloniPages
I also investigated by myself the rate infection of mycorrhizal fungi in the saline soil which has about EC 8. the results were different based on the tea materials (phenoles) added with mycorrhiza to support it to be more active and abundant.
the reference is :
Interactions between Mycorrhizal Fungi, Tea Wastes,
and Algal Biomass Affecting the Microbial
Community, Soil Structure, and Alleviating of
Salinity Stress in Corn Yield (Zea mays L.)
Salwan Al-Maliki * ID and Mugtaba AL-Masoudi
plants journal 2018
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Plants have an ordinary nature of taking up nutrients from soil.
What is this nature that allows plant to take up more minerals?
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Dear respected Salwan Al-maliki,
Capillary action and surface tension are responsible for uptake of nutrients and minerals from the soil through the stem of the plant.
Best regards.
Kifilideen.
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PH of soil is very important measure that can restrict plant growth.
How can the mechanism be addressed?
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This is very nice note Arvind that Microbial communities are diminished to acidity and alkalinity and most microbes like nitrobacter and Azotobacter are not tolerated to such events although some microbes are adapted to both events since years. Higher abundance of microbies in soil, bigger benefits for plant growth will be recorded.
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Can soil analysis be used as a guide to plant nutrition rather than plant analysis?
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From a total crop production standpoint, both are useful. However, when you are starting out without any information about establishing a crop and trying to decide as to what fertilizers to apply for a good yield, a soil test is always the best place to start. A soil test will provide an index of the fertility status of the soil in question and will allow one to apply fertilizer in amounts that are economically and environmentally sound. In order to be of best use, the soil tests need to be calibrated for the crop, soil types and climate in question. There is quite a bit of information in the literature for most common soil test methods that can help relating soil test values to fertilizer recommendations for crops. This is a good starting point and over several seasons, the fertilizer recommendations can be fine tuned to fit local or regional growing conditions and practices. This is called calibration of the soil tests.
Once fertilizer applications are made to a crop, plant tests are useful to determine if the recommended rates are adequate or appropriate for the field and crop. The recommendation calibration process uses both soil and plant tests to fine tune the fertilizer recommendations.
Keep in mind that:
1. Soil tests present a picture of the soil nutrient status before the crop is planted and allow fertilizer applications before the crop experiences deficiency symptoms and possible yield loss.
2. Plant tests give different pictures of the plant nutrient status at different stages of growth. Plant tests are "after the fact" tests. If deficiency symptoms occur before fertilizer can be applied, then crop yield may already be damaged before the deficiencies are identified and an "after the fact" fertilizer application may not be effective in making a full correction of the deficiency depending on the growth stage of the crop.
Using soil or plant tests or both depends on the research or production questions that you are trying to address and are related to the time and environment in which you are trying to address the questions.
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I have to add water in one kilogram soil to make it about 80% field capacity level. What is the best way to measure the amount of water required to attain 80% field capacity in one kilogram soil?
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- Dry a quantity of soil in an oven at 60 ° C until a constant weight ;
- Weigh a quantity p1 (1 kg for example) of dry soil in a pot (the pot must be perforated below);
- Water the pot to saturation and place it in the dark to avoid evaporation;
- After 48 hours, weigh the pot again (p2);
FC = p2-p1
ex: if p2 = 1.2 kg ie FC = 200 g (100% FC)
you must add 200 g of water to your dry soil to have 100% FC and therefore 160 g to have the soil at 80% FC.
NB: Make at least 3 repetitions
If you do not want to dry all of your soil, once the FC determined. Calculate the amount of water present in your soil by making the difference between the weight of the soil and the weight of the dry soil. You will have the amount of water already present in your soil. Complete this quantity to achieve the desired FC.
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What are the critical concentrations of micro elements in the soil, which then become toxic?
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there is not a standard values for all soils...every soil has paticularities as organic matter content and microflora activity and these parameters are capables to neutralise micronutrients..
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Which is better scientifically based on growth or production indicators in a particular case study?
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For sure , production -based indicators which will eventually dictate the production economics....
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What is the role of Mycorrhiza in facilitating the phosphorus of the plant
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Mycorrhizal fungi play an important role in phosphorus nutrition of plants. Most of the phosphorus is present in the soil in fixed form, which is unavailable to plants. Mycorrhizal fungi have the ability to solubilize the phosphorus present in fixed form, thus making it available to plants.
Please have a look at these useful links for more details.
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We are trying to ascertain germination characteristics for an invasive plant (in South Africa): Cistus ladanifer and one suit of experiments will involve heat treatment to mimic a fire, but we cannot find reliable information on the range of temperatures with increasing soil depth (as a basis to guide our experimental temperatures for the heat trial). 
Thanks in advance for any help on this!
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Dear Phil,
You can get a sense of how soil temperature varies with depth when exposed to fire by using the software FOFEM, which is physically based and produces graphs of temperature vs depth. Curious that a few years back I did simulations for Cistus ladanifer.
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Heavy use of copper based fungicides is a big source of soil copper contents. Uptake by plant is generally linked with pH and presence or absence of some micronutrients, such as Zinc, molybdenum. Some researchers suggest use of lime for tuning copper uptake. Question arises, what should be minimum and maximum copper level? When treatment, may be in the form of other micro nutrients, lime or other form of alkalinity is required to discourage its unwanted uptake?
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Adjustment in soil pH is one of the most prudent ways to ensure optimum availability of copper and uptake thereon...
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In using BLA, what’s likely to be the minimum sample size to used for the result to be acceptable and Reliable?
I have been studying soil and leaf tissue nutrients response for a berry crop and would like to use similar approach (BLA) to determine the optimum ranges for some nutrients.
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Please find some more relevant work, hope you like them...
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I need to work with disinfected soil, does putting this soil in an autoclave make it lose these characteristics?
Is there any other techniques to obtain disinfected soil, without any microorganism?
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Its very difficult maintain orignal soil chemical and biological properties , unless the autoclaving condifions are defined. Under normal autoclaving conditions, I doubt too many soil properties will change so drastically ....
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Is it possible to get AMF spores (just for counting purpose) from soil samples stored for more 2 months under room temperature?or for more than a year at +4?
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Please consider these works, hope you find some clues...
  • Mycorrhiza. 2007 Sep;17(6):519-26. Epub 2007 Mar 7.
Sporulation and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Brazil Pine in the field and in the greenhouse.
Abstract
The aim of this work was to assess the sporulation and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) at different forest sites with Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Ktze. (Brazil Pine). In addition, a greenhouse experiment was carried out to test the use of traditional trap plants (maize + peanut) or A. angustifolia to estimate the diversity of AMF at each site. Soil samples were taken in two State Parks at southwestern Brazil: Campos do Jordão (Parque Estadual de Campos do Jordão [PECJ]) and Apiaí (Parque Estadual Turístico do Alto Ribeira [PETAR]), São Paulo State, in sites of either native or replanted forest. In PECJ, an extra site of replanted forest that was impacted by accidental fire and is now in a state of recuperation was also sampled. The spore densities and their morphological identification were compiled at each site. In the greenhouse, soil samples from each site were used as inoculum to promote spore multiplication on maize + peanut or A. angustifolia grown on a sandy, low-fertility substrate. Plants were harvested, respectively, after 4 months or 1 year of growth and assessed for mycorrhizal root colonization. Spore counts and identification were also performed in the substrate, after the harvest of plants. Twenty-five taxa were identified considering all sites. Species richness and diversity were greater in native forest areas, being Acaulospora, the genus with the most species. Differences in number of spores, diversity, and richness were found at the different sites of each State Park. Differences were also found when maize + peanut or A. angustifolia were used as trap plants. The traditional methodology using trap plants seems to underestimate the diversity of the AMF. The use of A. angustifolia as trap plant showed similar species richness to the field in PECJ, but the identified species were not necessarily the same. Nevertheless, for PETAR, both A. angustifolia and maize + peanut underestimated the species richness. Because the AMF sporulation can be affected by many conditions, it is impossible to draw detailed conclusions from this kind of survey. More precise experiments have to be set up to isolate the different factors that modulate the ecophysiological interactions between host plant and endophyte.
PMID: 17342509 DOI: 10.1007/s00572-007-0124-7
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Would like to know how much N is mineralized in tropical soils annually ? Approximately 0.18 % total nitrogen, Organic carbon - 2.2 %. Average temperature 22-30 C. 
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We have just finished a review on N mineralisation potential of soils world wide. The rule of thumb as suggested by Paul Hepperly seems a good estimator. We find similar values in the range of 1-3% of total nitrogen to be potentially released from tropical and humid subtropical soils, whereas temperate soils potentially release 10-15%. The actual release per year is then a function of soil moisture and temperature mainly, land use and related C input altering the release significantly.
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i want to know if soil sterilization can change C/N ratio ,N ,P and k content of soil
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While solarisation, we expect changes in DOC, which will changes many of the soil physical properties like Soil aggregate stability , aggregate size, AWC rtf, in addition to other soil chemical and biological properties as we discussed previously...
In fact we were looking at , how to arrive at critical time of exposure of soil to different solarisation treatments ...
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Hello,
I just read about your project that I find amazing and absolutely interesting.
Do you have any plans for adding Chl a Fluorescence as a complementary technique for investigating heavy metal induced stress in plants/trees ?
Ronald
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Hello Dr. Ronald ...I am retired but style alive. Yes, there are some grasses, Brachypodium sp. , cariologically related with the cereals for human consumption (wheet , barley , corn). Would be very interesting to research their performance on heavy metal soils.
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Hello,
I would like to identify/detect what organic substrates (e.g. leaf litter remnants, frass, death canopy foragers, dissolved OC, etc.) are being used by soil microorganisms in the process of soil heterotrophic respiration by comparing the isotopic signature of the soil gas flux (i.e. collected in a soil flux chamber) and that of a potential substrate candidate. Is this possible at all? Does this make sense at all?  Are the isotopic signatures between substrates different enough to make this possible?
Thank you very much in advance for your replies!!
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A "representative" bulk sample will not be the solution because different organic matter sources are utilized differntly by microbes depending on e.g., degradability, N-content etc...
Fractionation is one problem because you cannot be sure if all organic matter will be 13C-discriminated equally (it likely will not). Second, how will you disentangle the sources in this mulit-pool-mixing-signal in respirated CO2? 
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Wheat respond to irrigation application even under shallow water table conditions but regular rains at reproductive stage had very little depletion in soil moisture content.
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SALTMED Model provides such information.
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Gravel soils (soils with > 20% gravel in the topsoil) or gravels distribute throughout the soil
It is no doubt affect the plant growth and its development especially in supplying nutrient, and fertilizer amounts, root penetrate and store and supply water etc.…  for a certain crop.  So, many questions have arisen for these issues?
How much a plant physiologically and morphologically differs when it is grown in gravel compared to those grown in non-gravel soil?
Until which percentage of gravel we can classify this land is invalid to cultivate a certain crop?
Which suitable irrigation system valid for such soil (Gravel soils)?
Which crop is more suitable for this soil?
Therefore, my request is the practical suggestions to solve this phenomenon is very importance, besides the literature review, articles, and technical report also are needed.
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We also need soil and water conservation practices to operate effectively in such soils to do well , regardless of crops...
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I'm doing a reiciprocal transplant of plants and soil in the field. Pots with soil and plants will be buried into the natural soil at each site and followed for phenology / growth / etc. I know folks have done this type of thing before, but wondered if anyone could point me toward literature comparing soil water status inside and outside the pots -- does it equilibrate pretty quickly? The pots will have drainage holes (covered in mesh).
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You can try to use  a dialysis tubing kind of bag or something related to act as a semipermeable membrane. For you to have something close to equilibrium, you need a semipermeable membrane
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I want to compare the competition pattern of crops and weeds growing in same experimental field. For above ground I am considering height, seed, leaf(LHS framework). Specific leaf area and height (etc) can be compared to explain nutrient retention. How can we compare the competition pattern for below ground. I am considering roots.  What are some parameters that I can compare with the soil. Can any one shed a light into this or any articles which has compared nutrient uptake pattern in weeds and crops would be really appreciated.
Thank you.
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Thank you very much for your answers.
Professor Hepperly can you suggest some papers that I can study to get more details about it?
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Which of these parameters (translocation index/transfer factor) is the best indicator of a species' capacity to extract heavy metals from soils?
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Neither is a good indicator of the ability of a plant to extract metal from the soil. They are just ratios - ok to use for comparison within a given environment or set of conditions but have no real value in assessing a plants ability to extract metal (at least meaningful quantities) from the soil. A plant growing in soil with a low concentration of the target metal may have a higher translocation factor, bioaccumulation coefficient, etc than a plant growing in a soil with a much higher metal concentration even when the second plant exhibits much greater tolerance and ability to accumulate metal. The important value is the potential mass of metal that can be extracted by a given plant, not a ratio of concentrations. In hydroponic systems perhaps it might be useful, but in soils the quantity/intensity relationships between the available, labile and insoluble fractions and plant uptake is too complex to be ascertained by comparing total metal in the soil to total metal in the plant.
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I want to do a survey about the irrigation water management situations in poplar plantations in the world, so I have some questions which I ask for the help of the researchers and scientists from different countries. I wish you can spend a little time to help to give an answer. Thank you very much for your help!
Q1: Whether the poplar plantains are usually irrigated in your country or a region of your country? 
Q2: If poplar plantations are usually irrigated in your country or a region, which is the widely used irrigation technique? Drip irrigation, flood ir, furrow ir, sprinkling ir, or border irrigation?
Q3: If these plantations are usually irrigated, what is the method used for determining irrigation amount? (A. Basing on experiences; B. Basing on the precipitation; C. Basing on the soil water status; D. Others (please give a simple description)
Q4: If these plantations are usually irrigated, what is the method used for determining when to initiate the irrigation or the duration between two irrigation events? (A. Fixed the number of irrigation events in a growing season or fixed the duration between two irrigation actions; B. Basing on the soil water content or soil water potential; C. Basing on the tree water status; D. Others (please give a simple description)
Q5: What is the productivity (m3/ha) of the irrigated poplar plantations in your country? What is the species?
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I am from Punjab state in India. Poplar (Populus deltoides) was introduced in this region in 1980s, it is highly successful in the region and thus has been adopted by many farmers. Answers are as follows:
 1: It is must to irrigate poplar plantations in the region. In summer months having very high temperature (April-June), these are irrigated at an interval of 7-10 days. Thereafter, there is rainy season.
2: Mainly furrow irrigation is used. Some people do flooding also.
3: A, B and C.
4: A and B.
5: Productivity varies from 150 ton/ha – 200 ton/ha after a rotation period of 6 years. Species is Populus deltoides.
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Reading more and more about agroforestry / reforestation / water availability I came across hydraulic redistribution (https://www.researchgate.net/publication/221752819_Water_release_through_plant_roots_New_insights_into_its_consequences_at_the_plant_and_ecosystem_level) performed by various types of vegetation. It sounds to me a very interesting option for agroforestry to use this kind of "bio-irrigation".
Since it is a purely biophysical process, I am wondering the following:
The amount of plants where hydraulic redistribution is proven is quite limited (based on literature I have compiled a list know around 200 species where hydraulic redistribution is proved), probably because the needed research takes quite some time and is labour intensive.
But it seems that the deeper the roots, combined with a heterogeneous soil, the higher the chance that hydraulic redistribution can take place.
In some species, hydraulic redistribution may not occur due to the prevention of water outflow, because of the fact that there is a deposition of suberin in endodermal and exodermal tissues.
Is there any research carried out on the thickness / existence of the suberin on roots, in order to distinguish which plants are likely to perform hydraulic redistribution, and which plants are unlikely to perform hydraulic redistribution?
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Suberin is a hydroxy fatty acid and phenolic acid polymers. So far, no reports have been done for the thickness of suberin.  For the aerial plant organs it is cuticle function similar as the suberin. However, if we take cuticle as a reference, I would not recommend consider suberin thickness. Because no relationship between the thickness of cuticle and water relations of plant have been tested. Nevertheless, it is a good question,  try it and confirm whether it has similar characters as cuticle.
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Can anyone tell me about the PGPRS/BF strains that having wider functional ability (N fixing, P and K and Zn soliloquizing ability).
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Interesting question . Here is the abstract of  latest work...
Phycospheric Native Bacteria Pelagibaca bermudensis and Stappia sp. Ameliorate Biomass Productivity of Tetraselmis striata (KCTC1432BP)
in Co-cultivation System through Mutualistic Interaction
Abstract: Effective sustainable algal cultivation techniques are essential for mass production of the marine microalga Tetraselmis for biofuel and array of co-products. The phycospheric communities affect the microalgal growth and metabolism through various allelochemical and nutrient interactions; hence, their potential to affect the quantity and quality of both biomass and bioproducts is significant. In the present study, we have screened the phycospheric communities of biofuel producing Tetraselmis striata (KCTC1432BP). A total of 26 bacterial strains were isolated and identified from the phycosphere of T. striata mass culture. Then, each bacterial strain was tested in co-cultivation conditions with T. striata for evaluating its growth promoting and inhibitory effects. Among these all strains, two promising strains (Pelagibaca bermudensis KCTC 13073BP and Stappia sp. KCTC 13072BP) were selected because of their maximum growth promoting effects and mutualistic interactions. The growth rate, biomass productivity, lipid contents, and fatty acids were analyzed during their combined growth in O3 media and compared with axenic growth of T. striata. Later, growth promoting mechanisms in the co-cultivation environment were investigated for these promising bacterial strains under replete and limited conditions of nutrients (nitrate, phosphate, and vitamin B12). The growth promoting potential of P. bermudensis was illustrated by the two fold enhancement in biomass productivity. These bacteria are promising for microalgal cultivation without any negative effects on the native seawater bacterial communities, as revealed by next generation sequencing analysis. This study represents, to date, the first report highlighting the role of phycospheric growth promoting bacteria of promising biofuel feedstock T. striata. Source ; Frontiers in Plant Science ,doi: 10.3389/fpls.2017.0028
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I am currently doing a research work in plant nutrition and nitrogen uptake is a regular phrase  I come across in many papers. Could someone explain to me the meaning of this phrase? Is it absorbing of mineral by plant roots or the transportation of the mineral from plant roots to other parts of the plant? And again is there any model (equation) plant root absorption of nutrient from the soil to the amount of nutrient in the soil?
Thanks
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Nitrogen uptake is the N concentration in plant tissues multiplied by dry matter accumulation by the plant part.
N content is another term.
%N or any other plant essential nutrient in a plant part is " concentration".
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Would canopy clipping of Lehmann lovegrass immediately prior to rainy season result in reduction of Lehmann lovegrass and/or enhanced germination and establishment of native flora in Sonoran grasslands?
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Firstly, I want to know the role of carbon black in soil restoration, perhaps it is effective in soil conditioning (fertility increase etc). Also, i would like to know if there is any empirical research on the role played by carbon black in reduction of phytoavailability/bioavailability of metal contaminants in the soil to plants and reduction in soil mobility.
Lastly, i need experts opinions on the best methods of characterization of carbon black (detailed procedures). Thank you all
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Please check the PDF attachments.
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We are preparing a project that intends to study how the climate change affects the distribution of Arbutus unedo, but the literature that we found about environmental factors affecting the species distribution is somehow vague. Most of the literature have general indications about the species ecology.
Thanks in advance
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The tree is well known to me from around the Med and as invasive alien in Ireland. If I would have to answer this question in my Majella research area, I would consider the following. Preparation of a SDM with a comprehensive set of environmental variables. Secondly, from my observations the species is more narrowly eu-mediterranean (oceanic) than say Quercus ilex and other broad-leaf evergreens. To obtain fine resolution data or proxies (terrain/cold air sinks) for minimum winter T would seem worthwhile. Cloudiness could also be relevant as this would decrease night frost.
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i want to ask if it exists simple protocol to quantify Na+, K+,Ca2+ and Cl- , in plant tissues (root or leaf) without using Photoelectric flame photometer ?..just using UV Visible Spectrophotometer ..and if it is not possible why ? Thanks .
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 You can analyse Na, K, Ca using simple flame photometer and Cl through chloridometer..j
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Some crops, for example grasses, have high capacity to accumulate silicon, mainly for the use of the element as strategy tolerance and resistance against abiotic and biotic stresses. In this context, due to the expressiveness of the species Opuntia ficus indica for semi-arid regions, it is questioned whether the species is a silicon accumulator and what levels (%) of Si in the tissues would characterize it as accumulator or not of this element.
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Here is  another very good work relating the issue;
Nat Prod Commun. 2014 Jun;9(6):873-8.
Accumulation of silicon in cacti native to the United States: characterization of silica bodies and cyclic oligosiloxanes in Stenocereus thurberi, Opuntia littoralis, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Opuntia stricta. by Wright CR, Waddell EA, Setzer WN.
Abstract : Four different cactus species growing in the United States, Stenocereus thurberi growing in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona, Opuntia littoralis and Opuntia ficus-indica, growing on Santa Catalina Island, California, and Opuntia stricta, growing in northern Alabama, were examined for the presence of silica bodies (opaline phytoliths). Silica bodies were found in all four of these cactus species, parallelepiped-shaped crystals in S. thurberi, and starburst-shaped crystalline structures in the three Opuntia species. In addition, the essential oils of the four cactus species were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. To our surprise, S. thurberi, O. littoralis, and O. ficus-indica (but not O. stricta) essential oils contained cyclic oligosiloxanes. To our knowledge, cyclic oligosiloxanes have not been previously found as essential oil components.
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Thanks.
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Infact , P is such a nutrient which i is intervened maximum  by root interception mainly  through  diffusion , because of processes like adsorption , fixation and release , more stringently than any other nutrient . The extreme immobility of P also encourages to be intercepted by roots through diffusion , but there is some  P-uptake through mass flow as well depending upon the soil moisture level. 
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We often read that fertilizer dose to a crop will change with soil type. This means there are some factors peculiar to a soil which affect nutrient availability to different crops in different way. What are these soil factors/ properties/ characteristics (apart from rainfall, climate and length of cropping season) which affect fertilizer response? 
To ask the same question in another way: Why do we have to study fertilizer response of a given crop to a soil type. Why fertilizer dose will vary with soil type? What is it about the soil that cause this variability?
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An excellent question with some exciting responses. I would rate  three soil properties as most important with regard to any plant response -related functions , these are ; soil pH ( to regulate nutrient availability ) , texture ( to regulate water transmission properties and fixation and release of nutrients )   and organic matter( to realise the cascading effect on whole range of soil physical as well chemical properties , including the biological properties) , and above all , plant traits as well ( nutrient efficient and nutrient responsive both ).
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We think about transplant rare plant species from nurseries to the rehabilitated ecosystem. However soil pathogens (fungus, invertebrates and others) associated with the transplants have to be reduced to = 0.
Do you have any idea or protocole.
First, we plan to use substrat of destination.
Second, to isolate this substrat from the nursery land with elevated table.
Thanks for you advice 
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In California on imported nursery plants, we introduced a plant pathogen that we now call "Sudden Oak Death" and is killing our native oaks trees. Then in the Eastern USA there was the Chestnut blight and the Dutch Elm diseases of the 1800s.  
However, it was recently discovered that the California native plant nurseries are infested with 50 more plant pathogens that are related to Sudden Oak Death, that you can read about at http://paloaltoonline.com/print/story/2016/09/23/in-pursuit-of-a-plague 
Unfortunately the State officials that license and inspect nurseries are not interested in inspecting, testing and certifying for these 50 new pathogens, because it is going to cost the State tens of millions of dollars to clean up this mess.
 If anyone from the State of California is reading this, maybe they can explain why our native nurseries are not being inspected, tested and cleaned up?  
They have not even sent out any notices to the nurseries that a problem exists, or a flier to show what each nursery should look for with sick plants?  And once you spot a sick plant, what is the proper disposal and clean up procedure?
And the native plant nurseries are not spending the money either to clean up, the only action on a nursery-level is when a large-scale buyer insists that they clean up, then something is done, and that is only one nursery so far taking significant action.
So if California, one of the richest areas on the planet, does not invest in cleaning up their native plant nurseries because of costs, then that means that proper cleanup of nurseries elsewhere probably will never be done, and exotic plant pathogens may be a worse impact on native ecosystems around the planet, than global warming for example.
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Dear all, I want to know how to inoculate the soybean with rhizobium (in liquid medium). The rhizobium is cultured well in the liquid medium. 
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Yes submerging plant roots for about 30 min in a suspension of Bradyrhizobium japonicum strain 273 is enough to get plants inoculated. You need to standardize on the basis of cfu for effectivity.
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I will make a research on tomato root exudates in a system of rhizoboxes, using filter paper discs, but i need to reduce expenses.
Can I to use alternative materials to PVC to manufacture of rhizoboxes?
Can I to plant various plants (replicates) per box?
What is the best filter paper to use in this case?
What care should I be taken in the moment placing the paper discs?
Do you have some pictures that you could send me about of mounting of the rhizoboxes?
I appreciate immensely.
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I undertook KCL extraction to measure soil nitrates. The samples were analysed in the Autoanalyzer by a lab technician. I am therefore unsure of the process that identified the quantities the different mineral N forms - ie. ammonium vs nitrates. I have my extractable nitrates data. Is there a chance that some of it is ammonium nitrogen rather than nitrate nitrogen? Or is that not possible-? They were on the shaker for one hour prior to analysis. This is particularly relevant when thinking about the observed trends - In my biochar amended samples: with increasing irrigation levels: my plant yields increased yet nitrates decreased. Apologies this could be a silly question.
It seems biochar could have buffered the effects of low nitrates, by increasing NUE, allowing there to be higher yields at the lowest nitrate levels. However it could also be that the high concentration of nitrates retained by biochar, was actually deletrious to plant grown. There thirdly could be no correlation between decreasing nitrates and yield and in fact yield increased due to other factors such as N mineralisation  by increasing microbial activity (due to presence of biochar). Many factors at play and it would be useful to confirm that none of my nitrate N is actually ammoniun N. 
Anyway help would be appreciated.. 
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Freya - not sure about your experimental set up, but the reduction in nitrate may be because the plants have removed it from the soil (and this accounts for better growth). if there is good turnover of organic to mineral N, the actual amount of nitrate present may disguise the amount of N moving through the soil/plant system. I agree with Barry the methods are well established and I doubt there is a major error there. If you are interested in the effect of Biochar on N nutrition, my suggestion would be to look at dynamic and ammonium and nitrate and also look at potential mineralisable N (this is an anaerobic incubation where difference in ammonium before and after incubation determines potential rates of N mineralisation - see SSSA methods of soil analysis - green book or google) and uptake in your plants to get a better idea of the budget.
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NaCl caused an increase in plant height with low and medium concentrations and a decrease with the highest concentration in many researchs then why sodium is always considered as harmful to plants.
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Sodium is not always harmful  to crops , rather it lessens the load on potassium having multiple roles to play . Sodium always remains an important  principal cation  as a part of cation exchange capacity of soil , and adds to the soil tilth , but same sodium could be a different dangerous preposition , when the relative distribution exceeds the  other cations like calcium and/or magnesium.
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I want to change the current microbial communities in one soil into the communities from the other soils. I'll first sterilize the former soil. So question is how can I inoculate sterilized soil with communities from the other soils. Should I use the supernatant of the soil slurries or add fresh soils to the sterilized soil? How long will it take for the communities to recover in the sterilized soil? The recolonized soil will be used to grow the plant.
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Dr.Antoun,I appreciate your elaborate reply.Though I am not a professional microbiologist,with  whatever I studied and discussed with colleagues,I believe that microbial diversity exists everywhere and certain microbial communities dominate in a particular agro-ecosystem based on favorable conditions.To say simply, all microorganisms occur every where but their abundance may vary and is governed by growth conditions(temperature, moisture ,soil pH etc.) and availability of carbon and energy sources.Even if a different microbial community is inoculated/transplanted,does it remain same? will it adopt to the new site?Will it become like old microbial diversity in the site?If we bring microbial communities from a Mollisol to an Alfisol or a Vertisol it remain same as Mollisol or transform  like the latter sites?
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At minimum would like ammonium and nitrate, total C and N, total P.  Obviously accuracy and reliability is the first priority, secondly would be price and third would be turnaround time.  
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Thanks Eric.  I use UC Davis for all my stable isotope work and am always happy with them.  I was looking at their plant analysis lab, but they seemed a little pricey.  I guess thatʻs the price for quality.
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which plant is an excellent trap to pot culture AMF? which plant can capture more diverse AMF species?is there a difference of choice of trap plant species when we want to multiply single AMF species and when we want to multiply as much diverse AMF species as possible?
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Dear Dr Belay in my experience I used Brachiaria decumbens and reported percentages of root colonization of between 80 to 90% for the genera Acaulospora, Scutellospora, Entrophospora and Glomus. Brachiaria spp. It will be a good choice. As I stated earlier all poaceae are excellent for the development of mycorrhizal symbiosis.
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For your information, I want to know the amount of water in each 20cm in the depth of soil layer.
Do you think Nuclear Density Meter can provide this information in the depth of the soil.
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We briefly cover various methods to determine soil and plant water water in an ecosystem course, and I have always found the following papers helpful as a quick review. These include some non-destructive methods, albeit some are cost prohibitive.
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It is said , if soil is the stomach of the plant , microbes are the necessary vehicles indulging into transformation and availability of  different nutrients , besides different ecological services including carbon sequestration. On the other hand , nature and properties  of a soil are the collective function of climate , relief , organisms , parent material ,and time. But , still,  soil microbes by and large, are considered pivotal to  crop performance via variety of diverse functions. In this background, i propose following sets of questions to my learned colleagues for their valued interaction :
* Do you feel, nature and properties of soils govern the the microbial load?
* If so, what are the dominating soil properties that govern the soil microbial load?
* Is there specific requirement for proliferation of different soil microbial communities?
* Whether or not, such specific requirements  further change from  genus to species /strain level of a microbial community ?
* Is there any crop specific distribution of different l microbial communities of a soil ?
* What is your opinion about the greater  necessity of crop specific microbial inoculation ?
My thank and regards as well
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Soil microbial diversity very much influenced by soil properties like pH, depth, structure, organic carbon and initial soil microbial composition. Its remains to be seen how these soil properties interact with different microbial stains. 
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Does anyone observed a positive correlation between nickel and magnesium (or calcium) in plants growing in serpentine soils?
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please read this reference. probably you may find answer.
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We very often raise  the issue of declining soil fertility on account of depletion in carbon pool of the soil , which probably has equally  revealing  implications on plant health. An enriched carbon pool of soil has has many ecological functions to serve, besides safeguarding the quality of the soil against soil degradation forces. But, our experiences reveal it is probably equally difficult to elevate the carbon storage capacity of the soil, regardless of practices. I have the following set of questions to my learned colleagues to respond:
* How far different fertilization practices aid in building the carbon pool of soil irreversibly (Not lost back to atmosphere)?
* How can we ensure what fraction of soil carbon pool is aiding towards soil health and plant health?
* How can we decide the capacity of different crops to sequester the atmospheric carbon in plant canopy framework?
* Do you feel carbon pool of soil dictates the carbon storage capacity of plant?
* How can we correlate the soil carbon pool and ecological service in a given agro-ecosystem?
* How far conservation agriculture is effective in improving the soil  carbon pool in irrigated areas?
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Thanks Getachew , I feel its an excellent feedback , as how to turn up high C:N ratio plant residues  into biochars  to tailor the micro-requirements of the different soil types ,   to ensure  better effectiveness  of biochars. Good piece of information .
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Does endophytic fungus Phomopsis liquidambari have promotes the growth and yield of rye , wheat, and maize or just promotes the growth and yield of rice?
I mean, if I inoculate Phomopsis liquidambari in seeds maize, I will get seam result that they got in rice.
IS possible inoculate Phomopsis liquidambari in seeds maize?
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Thank you for your answer.
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I have read in some paper that it has been seen that some mycorrhizae may reduce water uptake.
I wonder if someone of you has ever found that after inoculating mycorrhizae, the conditions of the plant are worse than in the control plants.
thanks a lot
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The "classic," most often-cited paper on this topic is:
Johnson NC, Graham JH, Smith FA.  1997.  Functioning of mycorrhizal associations along the mutualism-parasitism continuum.  New Phytologist 135(4):575-586.
Another paper relevant to the topic is:
Janos DP.  2007.  Plant responsiveness to mycorrhizas differs from dependence upon mycorrhizas.  Mycorrhiza 17:75-91.
If you would like to read about a rather surprising negative effect of arbuscular mycorrhizas, please see:
Janos DP, Scott J, Aristizabal C, Bowman DMJS.  2013.  Arbuscular-mycorrhizal networks inhibit Eucalyptus tetrodonat seedlings in rain forest soil microcosms.  PLoS ONE 8(2): e57716. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057716
Dave Janos
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Dear restoration enthusiasts
I am currently working on my master thesis concerning the application of cheap microcontrollers in ecosystem and landscape restoration monitoring. One main target is to assess the feasibility of low-cost, adaptable monitoring devices. To enhance the output of my thesis, I designed a short survey, designated to include knowledge and experience from restoration enthusiasts all over the world. Therefore I wanted to ask, if you could take a few minutes of your time to fill in my survey. You won’t only help me, but possibly enable broader monitoring, improve efficient use of limited funding and thereby enhance future knowledge. If you have any questions, just contact me.
You can access the survey at:
If you know other people involved in ecosystem and landscape restoration, feel free to send them the survey too.
Thanks a lot for your time
Best regards
Lukas Gemperle – ETHZ - Switzerland
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This looks like a great piece of work - hopefully lots of people will do the survey and help get your devices used by ngos and scientists
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I am going to add different amendments to soil in order to increase soil water capacity. Can you introduce me some new methods and amendments for this purpose?
Best Regards
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Thank you Dear Hein & Dear Janaka
Regards
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Is there any correlation of soil organic carbon, inorganic carbon, total carbon and total nitrogen concentration with leaf total carbon and total nitrogen concentration?
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Arshad your question is really articulative. Shall we take  it  this way , whether or not soil C:N ratio affect the leaf  C:N ratio ? . My answer will big affirmative. Any change in concentration of soil C will bring simultaneous change in N status , considering the C:N ratio   of  soil as a constant . Such  soil C:N ratio  will trigger  the better microbial diversity plus the higher buffering capacity of the soil , thereby , maintain the better nutrient supply to above ground plant parts  .
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what are the soil fertility requirements (pH, P, K,Mn,Cu,Bo,Ca,Mg levels ) and nutrient removal figures for pyrethrum?
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