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Plant Nutrition - Science topic

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I'm interested in opinions and papers regarding these elements for plant nutrition and its relevancy today? Will be doing an article so please be prepared to go 'on record'. Thanks
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Surendran in the context of application to plant nutrition. For example: we have always maintained a balanced NPK in fertiliser application, but now we seem to have commercial fertilisers with NPK with K applications higher than phosphorous. I know these are usually for flowering. But I have found application of these with these higher K ratios anecedotally provide better results. Also with respect to the problem with phosphorous shortages how will that affect plant nutrition. Also plant hormones are they an adjunct to nutrition (npk) or can they replace? Generally have we learned anything since we discovered NPK?
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Hello dear researcher,
I am very eager to participate in writing part of your research, if possible, and do whatever my scientific ability allows. My favorite topics are plant nutrition, environmental stresses and other aspects of crop physiology. Thank you very much.
AHAD MADANI
Ph.D in Agronomy.
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How to Find a Research Collaborator
Authorea is the leading collaborative platform to read, write, and publish research.
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My research investigated the impact of water stress on plant nutrition. Phosphorus content was stable regardless of increasing PEG concentration. Is there any valid explanation on why as i am trying to find the reason
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New books. Maybe 2010 till today and only about all fruit trees! Reference and handbook books nutrition fruit trees.
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I will definitely check them out.
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According to inquiries developed so far through Scientific Method, roughly from last 400 years, plants need 17 essential elements to produce and complete its vital cycle, otherwise there will be deficiencies with negative consequences upon productivity or even causing whole death of plant. Overall these elements are divided in two categories: macro (C, H, O, N, P, K, Mg, Ca, S) and micro-elements (Fe, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, B, Cl, Zn). Equally, another main concept inside plant nutrition is "The law of the minimum" which states that if one of the essential nutrients named before are scarce, the plant productivity will go down even if remaining nutrients are plenty. This statement is attributed to german chemist Justus Von Liebig in 1840, although, 12 years ago before that (1828), Carl Sprengel, a german agricultural chemist stated that the mineral elements are necessary for life plants and irreplacable. ¿What do you think about? ¿Who's the idea owner?
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Arnon and Stout
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Hi all professor. Could you please tell me what cause this problem on melon. as you notice, some seeds germinated inside fruits. why?
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Agreed with Sajid Khan
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Hi everybody,
Most of the springer journals (e.g., Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition or Journal of Plant Growth Regulation) didn't publish any new articles (Online first) after 3rd December! is there any problem? or updates?
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Hello, Adil Mihoub
Maybe because of Christmas festivals, you can contact the journal office.
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  • The chloride anion (Cl-) has traditionally been considered a harmful element for agriculture due to its antagonism with the nitrate anion (NO3-), and its toxicity when it accumulates in high concentrations under salinity conditions. On the other hand, Cl- is an essential micronutrient for higher plants, being necessary in small traces to fulfil a number of vital plant functions such as: cofactor of photosystem-II and some enzymes; neutralisation of positive charges in plant cells; and regulation of the electrical potential of cell membranes. Below a specific level in each species, plants suffer symptoms of Cl- deficiency, altering these cellular mechanisms and negatively affecting the capacity for cell division, cell elongation and, in short, the correct development of plants. However, there are indications in the literature that could suggest beneficial effects of Cl- fertilisation at macronutrient levels.
  • The results of my thesis have determined a paradigm shift in this respect since Cl- has gone from being considered a detrimental ion for agriculture to being considered a beneficial macronutrient whose transport is finely regulated by plants. Thus, we have shown that Cl- fertilisation in well-irrigated plants promotes growth and leads to anatomical changes (larger leaves with larger cells), improved water relations, increased mesophyll diffusion conductance to CO2 and thus improved water and nitrogen use efficiency (WUE and NUE, respectively).
  • Considering that the world's population is expected to reach 9.8 billion people by 2050, global efforts are being made to increase food resources by improving crop productivity. This requires practices that make rational use of available resources, particularly water and nitrogen (N). Only 30-40% of the N applied to the soil is used by plants, and 80% of available freshwater resources are currently being consumed by agriculture. On the one hand, an excess of NO3- fertilisation in crops leads to an increase of NO3- content in the leaves of plants of different species that are consumed fresh (e.g. spinach, lettuce, chard, arugula). The presence of high levels of NO3- in food can cause health problems such as methaemoglobinaemia or promote the accumulation of carcinogenic compounds. These practices also lead to an increase of percolated NO3- in aquifers, causing environmental problems such as eutrophication.
  • In broadleaf vegetables, NO3- and its derivatives can accumulate to high concentrations. When ingested, these compounds are processed by enzymes found in saliva and from bacteria of the gastrointestinal microbiota, generating NO2-, nitrosamines and/or N2O5, substances that promote stomach and bladder cancer, causing a serious problem for human health. When NO3- enters the bloodstream, it transforms haemoglobin into methaemoglobin, no longer able to transport oxygen to the lungs, causing babies to suffocate and die, which is what is known as 'methaemoglobinaemia' or 'blue baby disease', and which, as we have already mentioned, was made visible by Greenpeace on numerous occasions. Thanks to these actions, in the European Union there is a very demanding regulation of NO3- content in water for human consumption, as well as in vegetables and processed foods especially dedicated to the production of food products for susceptible groups such as babies, the elderly, vegetarians and vegans. Thus, the European Union has established a series of strict standards (1881/2006 and 1258/2011) that determine a series of thresholds for NO3- content in the most widely consumed vegetables (such as spinach and lettuce), and especially in baby food with much stricter limits, where it is even recommended to avoid the consumption of certain vegetables in babies before the first year of life and to limit their consumption in children from 1 to 3 years of age. At the environmental level, the European Union already created in 1991 the Nitrates Directive (European Directive 91/676/EEC), to protect water quality throughout Europe, encouraging the use of good agricultural practices to prevent NO3- from agriculture from contaminating surface and groundwater.
  • Substituting certain levels of NO3- for Cl- in fertigation solutions can reduce these problems without negatively affecting plant development. On the other hand, in the context of current climate change, the strong demand for water from agriculture threatens the freshwater supplies available to the population. Therefore, increasing WUE and NUE, as well as preventing water deficit and increasing water stress tolerance in plant tissues are very important traits for crops that could be favoured by the use of Cl- in new agricultural practices. Thus, Cl- could establish a synergistic improvement in a more efficient use of water and nitrogen for a healthier and more sustainable agriculture.
References:
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A very good explanation and cautions for those who are dealing with plant nutrients including myself. Yes, chlorine is the most ignored micro-nutrient!
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Exist there any standard text book in universities for students dealing seriously with amino acid fertilizers as state of the art in plant nutrition ?
Look here, they make much proaganda in Africa with this I this, I think myself pseudo / fake fertilizer and pest regulator but also here in Europe with similar EM (Effectice microorganisms)
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  • Mr. Johann, you mentioned in your question that they make much proaganda in Africa with pseudo / fake fertilizer and pest regulator but also here in Europe with Effective microorganisms.You are right there are instances where amino acids based products are used as biostimulants with a complex composition and different product characteristics depending on their sources and production processes mainly enzymatic protein hydrolysis. Amino acids also function as biostimulants for plants. As a biostimulant, amino acids can play important roles in enhancing plant productivity, especially under abiotic and biotic stress conditions.
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(plant, fertilizer type, additive rate, method of addition, results)
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No
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In organic farming, it is said that 'feeding the soil always feeds the plants'. How can marginal and small farmers supply such a huge quantity of different organic manures every year ?
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Feeding the soil is more useful
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Soil fertility, plant nutrition
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Experts have already answered the question However,
Ni addition stimulates the methane content of biogas, while excessive addition of Ni causes inhibition of methanogenesis.
Thanks and regards
Srinivas Kasulla
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My greenhouse maize plants are too thin. They have strips on the leaves.
The conditions are 14h day/10h night; 26-28°C day and 20-22°C night; 60% humidity; peat soil mixed with little sand. 
I use Osmocote exact Standard 3-4 for fertilization. It is a granular and should work for 3- 4 month. It contains all important nutrients which dissolve gradually:
16% nitrogen (7,4% nitrate-N and 8,6% ammonium-N)
9% P2O5
12% K2O
2,5% MgO
0,02% B
0,056% Cu
0,45% Fe
0,06 Mn
0,025% Mo
0,02% Zn
The plants are at V4 stage now.
I think that the plants have a nutrition deficite. What is the best fertilizer for greenhouse maize? Du you have any suggestions for improvement?
Thanks!
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Hello everyone,
I've been struggling with this matter:
We have data on sugar cane production (soils, treatments, weather …). We want to understand in which conditions soil/plant nutrition will yield the best result. It is hard to infer causality as some treatments are often performed jointly and we are not able to isolate the partial effect of the applications of interest.
Any one has any leads on interesting statistical methods please ?
Thanks a lot
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Hello Adrien,
The gold standard method, of course, to determining causal influence for a variable or variable set is to manipulate that variable (or set) on randomly assigned cases and collect results on the subsequent values of the outcome variable(s) of interest.
If that's not feasible, then what you can do is evaluate how much (if any) explanatory power the individual variable/s may have, being sure to include interaction terms among the variable set under consideration. Of course, there is always the possibility that you are omitting one or more important variables from the set being evaluated (or that there is something idiosyncratic about the responses observed from the data you did collect, which might not generalize, or could again represent an unmeasured influence). Multiple linear regression would be a plausible framework for initiating this type of analysis.
Good luck with your work.
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Hydrogen fuel cell use O2 from atmosphere or cylinder and generating energy and distilled water. As being explosive in nature, Hydrogen fuel cells may blast and harm public nearby. Further consumption O2 particularly in residential areas may create problem for public inhalation and COx emissions may further disturb.
Use of distilled water out may harm agricultural/ plants nutrition if not collected properly and disposed off.
What will be impact of mass scale use of hydrogen fuel cells as energy source?
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Hi.
Yes. may be used and dbyproduct only water vapor
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Dear all,
I am wondering after how much time of organic agriculture one would expect to run into a deficiency of geogenic nutrients (P, K, etc.).
Let me explain: From what I understand, mineral fertilizers are largely forbidden in organic agriculture and organic fertilizers as manure or compost are sourced from other crops mostly on the same farm. This practice transfers nutrients from less nutrient intensive crops to higher demanding sites, but does not replace the nutrients exported through the harvested products. Those products go to consumers and the nutrients end up in waste water treatment plants and/or surface waters.
As mineral weathering is a slow process, I guess that nutrient stocks in the soils are depleted over time. Please correct me if my reasoning is wrong at some point. I would like to know if there are mass balances estimating this time for different crops/landscapes?
PS: obviously this argument does not hold true for N as it can come from the atmosphere through nitrogen fixing organisms.
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Nutrient cycles in organic agriculture are not fully sustainable. There is need to give emphasis on building of high organic matter and further reduce losses through adoption of conservation agriculture practices. Further to stop leaching losses of nutrients appropriate irrigation method and efficient drainage system at farm level is needed.
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Is it possible to conduct an experiment without proper control where the effect of several doses of a particular nutrient on a particular crop will be evaluated? Is it possible to compare these doses with one another rather than comparing with a formal control using DMRT or turkey HSD? Again if we take two factors( two different nutrient sources and their respective level) is control is still needed as levels? For example if I take thee doses of nitrogen (100 kg N/ha, 150 kg N/ha and 200 kg N/ha) and three doses of potassium (50 kg k2O/ ha 100 kg k2O/ ha and 150kg k2O/ ha) in FRBD design; is it necessary to add another level as the control in nitrogen where no nitrogen will be applied?
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Normally, you will need a control which normally will be a treatment without a level for better comparison of other treatments whether in the field or laboratory. However, depending on your objective you may decide to define what your control will be. On that basis you will be able to present your data in a way that it may be acceptable
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What is more reliable for establishing optimum leaf nutrient concentrations of plants, particularly trees? The focus is on boundary-line approach and compositional nutrient diagnosis norms.
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If you want to derive critical foliar deficiency concentrations de novo, that is very different from starting with evidence from existing data bases, e.g. Pant Analysis Handbook IV, and refining that information. Such 'sufficiency' levels are typically for 'well-performing' crops, i.e. the size of the gap between the lower end of the sufficiency range, and deficiency, is unknown.
If there are no data for your chosen species, then take guidance from the nearest botanical relative for which data are known. That guidance will likely include sampling guidelines.
My definition of a critical level is that it can only usefully be estimated when all other elements are in sufficient supply. Otherwise one ends up with critical concentrations that are dependent on the status of other nutrients, which confounds the terminology and dilutes the usefulness of the data.
That definition may appear exacting in its prior requirements, but there are sufficiency ranges that apply very widely.
Lastly, in some varieties of cultivated plants differ considerably in their requirement for a particular element, and this seems more often to relate to minor/trace elements.
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What are the phosphorus release strategies installed from the soil?
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1) By adding organic matter humus can form phosphohumic complexes which is easily assimilated by plants, humate ion can replace phosphate ions and humus can form coating around the Fe and Al ions so that coating prevent P from fixation....
2) There are P - solubilizing organisms a) Bacteria - Pseudomonas and Bacillus
b) Fungi - Aspergillus and Pencillium
3) VAM Fungi can increase the absorption of P from soil by extension of root system
4) Placement (Band placement) of fertilizers (Placing the fertilizer below the seed can reduce the fixation of P by reducing the contact between the soil and fertilizer)
5) Liming of acid soils also release fixed P from Fe and Al compounds
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Anthocyanin pigments have several colors that vary depending on their influence on a range of factors, including acidity of the medium, temperature, level of plant nutrition, agricultural servicing ..etc.?
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Anthocyanins are water-soluble vacuolar pigments that, depending on their pH, may appear red, purple, blue or black. Food plants rich in anthocyanins include the blueberry, raspberry, black rice, and black soybean, among many others that are red, blue, purple, or black.
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I am working on a dataset to derive optimum and sufficiency ranges of leaf nutrient concentrations in olive. I am searching for a reliable reference to compare it with the ranges generated by me.
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Is it possible for symptoms of nutrient deficiency to appear on wild plants?
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Thank you
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I have sort of data consist of two variables --dependent and independent-- and want to fit it in linear-plateau form. How to do that in excel or other software and how to identify the inflection point?
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Hello Ali,
in EHello Ali
Hello Ali
in Excel, you should your data represent in an x-y coordinate system.
If you have done it, go into the graphic and click on "Add trendline".
Please chooses "Polynomial". Choose second order for maximum respectively plateau.
Choose the third order for the inflection point.
Then go to "Options" set a hook on "Display equation on chart",
set a hook on "Display R-squared value on the chart".
To find the exact points of maximum respectively inflection point please derive the functions.
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I need to evaluate the effect of elicitors and fertilization doses in the hormonal, spectral, and physiological response in Citrus latifolia plants infected with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) in a greenhouse. The challenge is 1) to found for the best method of infection 2) to standardize a methodology to have diseased plants in a short period and that the plants get sick a similar period for later analysis with the same conditions.
I would greatly appreciate it if someone has an idea or experience with the intentional infection of plants with CLas. Thanks a lot.
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Dear Alfredo
Please read this article
  • DOI:10.1094/PHYTO-98-5-0592
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Can plant nutrition with fertilizers have a negative or positive effect on plant resistance to diseases and insects?
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Excessive use of nitrogenous fertilizers leads to an increase in incidence of pests, while the application of phosphate and potassium fertilizers reduces the incidence of pests.
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We repeatedly measured the same sample (QC0.2) using an ICP-OES, but the intensity decreased along with the analytic sequence for Zn, Cu, Fe, as well as other elements.
The sequence is:
[2Blank + QC0.2] repeat 14 times
QC0.2 is 0.2 ppm of multielement ICP standard in 2% HNO3.
The intensity of Zn at 202.548 nm, for instance, decreased about 30% from the beginning to the end.
The data are attached.
We have checked the hardware: like the position and cleanness of the spray chamber, the pump tube, the plasma torch, etc., but still, we couldn't find the problem causing this intensity dropping.
Has anyone had ever experienced a similar problem? How did you solve it?
Your answers will be very helpful for us!
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You might get some good answers from the Plasmachem-L listserver community at https://listserv.syr.edu/scripts/wa.exe?A0=PLASMACHEM-L
My first thought was loss of intensity might be due to the peristaltic pump tubing. Is it new or quite old? New tubing often needs "running in", as it starts off quite elastic and compressible, and as it ages, gets less so and flow rate might decrease. Old tubing develops flat spots and becomes ineffective at supplying the solution to the nebulizer. Users often turn up the clamps, then forget to back them off when the tubing is changed, accelerating the wear of the new tubes each time. Given the blanks are also decreasing, I suspect that might be the first cause.
Are you using an internal standard? Is it added to the samples or is it mixed via a t-piece? That might help diagnose the problem and/or solve issues during the run.
What is the matrix of the solution? Is it acidic at all? Is the blank the same apart from the QC solution? If they are different, perhaps the nebulizer is slowly building up residue that the blank does not remove. Is the issue continuing today or do the intensities recover?
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I use light protected jars and big falcon tubes to grow my plants. Usually, I don't get algal contamination when growing plants for 2-3 weeks. But, sometimes I get algal growth in my samples. It would be great to have your views on following questions.
1. Is it common?
2. How do you deal with it?
3. How much impact it can have on normal growth and development, if I am regularly changing the media every 2 days?
4. Can I use MICROPUR CLASSIC MC 10T tablets?
5. Although, hydroponics is a non sterile system; is it okay to consider this system for comparative physiological & molecular studies if I am getting mild algal growth once in a while?
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I have received conflicting information about the exchange of ions during K+ uptake by roots in hydroponic systems. The first explanation is the root releases H+ in exchange for K+ to maintain electronegativity in the hydroponic solution thus lowering the pH. The second explanation is the root releases carbonates in exchange for K+ thus raising the pH. Which explanation is correct?
I know that there are different K+ transporters (low affinity at high K+ concentration, high affinity at low K+ concentration). Could these conflicting explanations be based on different K+ transporters?
Thank you!
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When the potassium cation is absorbed and utilized as Paul Milham explains the charge balance is maintained in the plant by secreting into the soil a hydrogen ion maintaining the cationic balance. I am attaching the distinctly difference the absorption of Nitrogen as ammonium has on the soil pH compared to the absorption of nitrate as indicated by the pH color indicator.
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Calcium nitrate Ca(NO3)2 given same N use efficiency in all parts of plants which application in acid soil low pH. in comparison for NH4 sources, I appreciate all scientists comments, that could be explaining those reasons. thanks in advanced.
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The form of N and the fate of N in the soil-plant system is probably the major driver of changes in soil pH in agricultural systems.
Nitrogen can be added to soils in many forms, but the predominant forms of fertilizer N used are urea (CO(NH2)2), monoammonium phosphate (NH4H2PO4), diammonium phosphate ((NH4)2HPO4), ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3), calcium ammonium nitrate (CaCO3+NH4(NO3)) ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4), urea ammonium nitrate (a mixture of urea and ammonium nitrate) and ammonium polyphosphate ([NH4PO3]n).
The key molecules of N in terms of changes in soil pH are the uncharged urea molecule ([CO(NH2)2]0), the cation ammonium (NH4+) and the anion nitrate (NO3-).
The conversion of N from one form to the other involves the generation or consumption of acidity, , and the uptake of urea, ammonium or nitrate by plants will also affect acidity of soil.
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Foliar fertilization is a quick and efficient way to improve crop nutrient status during periods of high nutrient demand in the crop, or soil-applied fertilizers less available to the plant.
My questions what is an appropriate time to supply nutrients as foliar for sugarcane crop. The nutrient contains nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, Sulfur, Calcium, Magnesium, zinc, iron, manganese, and copper when we added as a single or combined system.
. it is critical to determine the effect of crop load on the capacity of properly timed foliar fertilizers to increase the yield of sugarcane.
The question for researchers in the fields of soil science, plant nutrition, crop physiology and agronomist specialized in sugarcane crop.
Therefore, my request is to provide me with any practical suggestions to increase my knowledge concerning these issues, besides the literature review, technical report and articles also are needed.
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The best timing is when the plant has the biggest foliage unless there is a need to spray earlier than that (i.e. to cure nutrient deficiency)
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During water deficit stress, plant shows several responses. If fertilizers or other chemicals are applied, how their absorption will be affected, is there any reference please?
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I agree with the explanation of Youssef Sassine
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We are detecting Indole acetic acid (IAA) producing actinobacteria according to Bano and Musarrat (2003) method.
The summary of the method is:-
Inoculation of the isolates in LB medium (supplemented with 0.5% glucose and 500 μg/mL tryptophan) -----> Incubation at 28 ◦C for 48 h -----> Centrifugation of the cultures at 10000 rpm for 15 min ----> 2 mL of the supernatant were transferred to a fresh tube to which 100 μL of 10 mM ortho-phosphoric acid and 4 mL of the Salkowski reagent (1 mL of 0.5 M ferrous chloride in 50 mL of 35% perchloric acid) were added ------>incubation of the mixture at room temperature for 25 min and the absorbance of pink color development read at 530 nm -----> Calculation of the IAA concentration in cultures.
Is there any method better than this one? or if any modification?
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My dear friend, the method you have mentioned is the best way to evaluate the production of auxin, but sometimes with a few changes in the method, a good result can be achieved, for example, changing the ratio of the reagent (Salkowski) to the sample (supernatant) and also adding or not adding ortho-phosphoric acid to the mix.
The incubation is also better in the dark.
Wishing you success with you dear friend
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Hi all professor
would you please tell me what the cause of this problem on cabbage? I am looking forward to see your answers. Please help me thanks
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It could be also related to a symptom of phytotoxicity or herbicide application.
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Hi all dear professores
as you see all sepals have been changed to large leafs. Please notice that these symptoms just have seen on 3 bushes. What is your idea about this problem?
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symptoms of phytoplasma
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I am trying to estimate phytate-P from soil by enzyme addition method. I consulted several papers and most of them had use malachite green for P determination. I followed the method described in Jarosch et al., 2015 and tried several time for estimating MRP from NaOH-EDTA extract of different soils, after and before enzyme incubation. But I failed to develop color in every cases. Rather I ended up with greenish precipitate inside glassware. I am unable to understand the problem, can anybody please help me?
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I'm planning an experiment for this upcoming summer and I'm in need of a good supplier of severely nutrient-impoverished river sand (washed) in the USA? Does anyone knows a company that sells this kind of product??
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Most if not all States require various permits to mine river sand, gravel, etc. Contact the appropriate state environmental, water and mining agency for a listing or an inspector knowledgeable about ongoing activities. It is not unusual to have to pay a premium for some types of river sand. Supplies of sand can be costly to transport distances, so best to find one locally. You might also contract local concrete companies concerning various sources of sand.
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It seems that original wild plants are more resistant to diseases and parasites that those selected and "improved" for their commercial value
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Thank you very much Ricardo for your answer. Does it means that wild plants living in the absence of challenges will gradually lose their ability to fight against diseases and pest? could it be an epigenetic phenomenon, like the methylation of CpGs of the promoters of resistance genes?
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I've just search for information on google but too little research about this topic.
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I think our take home is that when we apply zinc for deficiency we also need to optimize Phosphorus and Potassium depending on their needs. While phosphorus is particularly needed in the early stages of germination emergence and particularly root growth the need for potassium is most evident for the stages of grain fill where carbohydrates are mobilized to the growing seeds. In a fertilization strategy focus on Phosphorus is best used in the starter phase and the needs for potassium are mostly flowering and post flowering. Zinc is most needed in the grand vegetative growth stages the strategic application of foliar fertilization with zinc applied with urea is very effective for optimizing zinc and helpful for nitrogen push.
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Why is there no interest in micro-fertilization, especially when growing grain crops?
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The most common word used is fertigation where high water and nutrient use efficiency could be achieved. Fertigation gives best results in widely spaced crops and instalation of such system is cost effective for widely spaced crops but it is costly for closely spaced crops. Perhaps this is the reason that it is not used for grain crops. But research results concludes that fertigation is equally effective for food grain crops such as rice, maize, pigeon pea etc
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Usually, translocation factor is used to study heavy metals accumulations in plants. Is it possible to also apply this method to study macro and micronutrients translocation?
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A lot of studies have been conducted for determining the metals content in vegetables and herbs that are included in human diet. .....Translocation Factor ( TF ) has been described as the ratio of heavy metals in plants shoot to that in plant root. For more details consult https://www. scialert.net and https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
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Hi all professors
would you please tell me about your experience in advicing fertilizer which contains tiosulphate calsium and tiosulphate potassium.
What are the advantages of using Tiosulphate calsium and Tiosulphate potassium?
thanks so much
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Calcium thiosulfate is a source of S and Ca 10 and 6% respectively. Potassium thiosulfate is a source of Potassium and Sulfur. Crops like Brassicas have a high sulfur requirement. In saline soils the use of calcium sulfate is important in substituting calcium for saturated sodium conditions. These materials may have some ability to acidify a alkaline condition which can have value. As a potassium source the most cost effective option is usually potassium chloride. For a source of sulfur and calcium sulfate would be preferred to calcium thiosulfate except where there is need to acidify the soil the thiosulfates might have utility. I believe they are more costly that other materials mentioned. All these materials should be applied based on soil analysis and the indication of deficiencies and their remediation. Besides the soil test the tissue analysis can fine tune the crop needs and responses.
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Nano fertilizers have a tremendous surface to volume ratio. From this point of view, it should make nano particles super reactive. If it is super reactive then it should be easily fixed in soil. But inspite of these, how nano material remain available for longer time with high efficiency in soil for plant nutrition?
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Main reason for high interest in fertilizers is mainly their penetration capacity, size and very higher surface area which is usually differ from the same material found in bulk form. This is partially due to the fact that nano particles show a very high surface: volume ratio. Thus, the reactive surface area is proportionally over-represented in nano particles compared to larger particles. Particle surface area increases with decreasing particle size and the surface free energy of the particle is a function of its size
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Hi Dear friends and figs researchers
Could you please tell me what the cause of these symptoms on fig. please help me. thanks so much.
I will be waiting for your answers.
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Dear Elaheh, this seems to be physiological stress, but for your personal satisfactions, you can culture some small pieces on selective medium and isolate total DNA and perform RCA. but i am sure this is not viral or bacterial infection.
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I am working on boron deficiency in Indian mustard.
During screening of different mustard genotypes I found the plants did not show any symptoms of boron deficiency, for a prolonged period, when I transferred directly to 1X Hoagland's after germination.
But when I slowly increase the nutrient concentration (from 1/4th, 1/2 and then to 1X), as mentioned in Xu et al 2012, the plants started to show symptoms respective to the Boron deficiency.
So then I got these questions:
1. As we all know plant's nutrient requirement depends and vary upon their developmental stage. Is that possible that excess concentration of nutrients (1X Hoagland's immediately after germination) hindered the deficiency symptoms of Boron?
2. Moreover, I found the survival rate of the seedlings were much better when I increase the nutrient concentration from 1/4th, 1/2 and then to 1X Hoagland's. Any explanation for this?
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It is an accepted practice to express the nutrients in fertilizers as percentage of nitrogen (N), phosphate (P2O5), and potash (K2O). We know that plants do not take up these nutrients in any of these forms, and this practice is being continued because of some historical reasons. In olden days, plant ash analysis was the major procedure for studying plant nutrition, and scientists, while analysing plant ash for various elements, observed that when these elements were expressed as oxides, they summed up to 100 percent indicating total analysis. Consequently, it became a practice to express various plant nutrients found in plant ash in oxide form (P2O5, K2O, CaO, MgO, etc.). Other elements that may not be present in plant ash are expressed in elemental forms only ( Examples, nitrogen ( N) and sulphur (S). This system has been accepted by the fertilizer industry to express grades of all fertilizers.
My question is: Why are we continuing this odd practice still now?. Why don’t we opt to express all the nutrients in elemental form?
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Part of this practice is in reference to the traditional (historical) way of expressing nutrients as the oxide form. Early chemists ashed their samples so that nutrients that didn't volatilize were oxidized under the high temperatures remained as oxides. This is similar to what may be found, for example, in fly ash after burning coal or wood. Experimentally, you will find pH values of around 11 in the ash.
Probably, more importantly, if the nutrient contents of today's fertilizer materials (especially P and K) were changed to an elemental basis instead of an oxide basis, the fertilizer analyses would be lower. This then becomes a marketing issue so that if one vendor has a material with 30% P2O5 and another has a material with 13% P without either vendor clearly explaining that the two values are the same. As a buyer of the material without a clear understanding of the difference between the values but at the same price, which one would you be likely to buy? The one with the higher nutrient value because you think you are getting more for your money. From a fertilizer consumer standpoint, most fertilizer consumers are not as clearly attuned to to this as we might be. In addition, much of the literature available (fertilizer handbooks, extension materials) still use the oxide designation because this is what the fertilizer consumer in widely exposed to.
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Can soil analysis be used as a guide to plant nutrition rather than plant analysis?
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From a total crop production standpoint, both are useful. However, when you are starting out without any information about establishing a crop and trying to decide as to what fertilizers to apply for a good yield, a soil test is always the best place to start. A soil test will provide an index of the fertility status of the soil in question and will allow one to apply fertilizer in amounts that are economically and environmentally sound. In order to be of best use, the soil tests need to be calibrated for the crop, soil types and climate in question. There is quite a bit of information in the literature for most common soil test methods that can help relating soil test values to fertilizer recommendations for crops. This is a good starting point and over several seasons, the fertilizer recommendations can be fine tuned to fit local or regional growing conditions and practices. This is called calibration of the soil tests.
Once fertilizer applications are made to a crop, plant tests are useful to determine if the recommended rates are adequate or appropriate for the field and crop. The recommendation calibration process uses both soil and plant tests to fine tune the fertilizer recommendations.
Keep in mind that:
1. Soil tests present a picture of the soil nutrient status before the crop is planted and allow fertilizer applications before the crop experiences deficiency symptoms and possible yield loss.
2. Plant tests give different pictures of the plant nutrient status at different stages of growth. Plant tests are "after the fact" tests. If deficiency symptoms occur before fertilizer can be applied, then crop yield may already be damaged before the deficiencies are identified and an "after the fact" fertilizer application may not be effective in making a full correction of the deficiency depending on the growth stage of the crop.
Using soil or plant tests or both depends on the research or production questions that you are trying to address and are related to the time and environment in which you are trying to address the questions.
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Dear all, we are living in a changing world – caused by climate change, pollution and shortage of resources. That’s only the half of it. The inverse side is: We are watching an incredible development of completely new possibilities in science and technology, also in agriculture. Some Key words: Artificial intelligence, big data, precision farming, spot farming, nanotechnology, gene engineering and more. How can these new opportunities help us solve the problems caused by climate change, pollution and shortage of resources to secure nutrition of humanity? What results from this for current requirements in applied research in plant nutrition? And what does it mean for teaching at university to make agriculture students fit for future in research but also in agricultural practice?
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Dear Jaime, you have addressed a very serious problem. Unfortunately, there are really examples of how personal and those of companies are placed above the interests of humanity. But should there be any new developments just because this danger? In earlier times, the technique development in uniform farm management leads to the increasing size of fields. The basic necessities of cultivated plants were not in the focus of such a production system. But now resources like water, nutrients as phosphorus or nitrogen are becoming scarcer. Their efficiency in use must therefore be increased. Climate change is intensifying these processes. Intensive farming to date has an impact on biodiversity and damage the soil. The aims of biodiversity and soil conservation, efficiency resources and sustainable intensification of agricultural production to secure the nutrition of mankind have to be equated. To explore new alternatives in plant production we need the help of modern technique. One new method is spot farming. Here the requirements of single crop are in focus. This allows use the resources to be targeted, efficient and environmental friendly.
Jaime, your argument has inspired me, to ask a new question for discussion in RG concerning this. Kind regards, Petra
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Dear Colleagues,
Kindly assist by sourcing for laboratories that are working on plant nutrition and drought tolerant for Research Fellowship.
I am an Associate Professor, Plant Breeding and Genetics in the Department of Agronomy, Federal University Gashua, Gashua, Yobe State, Nigeria.
My research focus is maize breeding on quality protein maize, nitrogen use efficiency and drought tolerance.
Thank you.
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Dear Prof Sami Marof and Amrit Lal Singh. I will try. Thank you.
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I'm currently working on how plants can find carbon sources for their metabolism, except from photosynthesis.
I found cases of mycoheterotrophic nutrition in non-chlorophylic plants and orchids, where plants build a parasitic relashionship with mycorrhizal fungi. Could other plants, like the cultivated ones, or trees, use mycorrizal nets for carbon nutrition from time to time, even when they could realize photosynthesis ? In other words, is non-clorophylic plants way of surviving a new function they developp, or is it a "natural" way of doing for every plant that they push to the extreme ?
Another case is the one of Quercus ilex, that would establish a temporary mycoheterotrophic nutrition, in spring when the root stocks are depleted and the leaves are not grown yet. Is there any study about it ?
I've already red the work of Garbaye J. 2013. La symbiose mycorhizienne. Une association entre les plantes et les champignons. éd. Quae. pp 70-88, 102-105. and work of Marc-André Sélosse.
Thanks for your answers.
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Yes they extensively do as an integral part of symbiosis ....
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How is plant nutrition being affected since the widespread use of highly soluble synthetic fertilizers to more complex, organic soil amendments, that are typically applied on organic farms?
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Dr Kulvir Singh , let us share the secrets of success of paddy- wheat cropping sequence on alluvial soils of Indo-gengetic plains. And the role of chemical fertlizers in addressing multiple nutrient constraints. Why cant we main the good soil ecology with chemical fertiliers , especially when we advocate to use biofertilizers alongside synthetic fertilizers....
..
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Dear friends,
I want to make a plant nutrition solution. One elements of this nutrient solution is 0.25mM CaCl2 but I want to make 1000x CaCl2 stock.
I would like to know how can I solve CaCl2 in water!
Thanks
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Dear Zeinab, maximum quantity of CaCl2 can be dissolved is about 740 g/l water at 20 C.
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Can plant growth-promoting bacteria produce hormones inside the plant that have a role in plant nutrition
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Please have a look at enclosed PDF...
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I would like to know what is the significance of symbiotic relationships in plant nutrition.
Do we have evidences suggesting that symbioses have a significant potential to improve crop yields and quality ?
Especially about mycorrhizae, do you know to what extent they could contribute to plant nutrition? with examples for crops, or records in "nature".
Do we have an idea of the magnitude of the contribution ?
Could it play an important role with a little more selection and innovation?
Or is it just something that ecologists like to point out but have no interesting technical applications.
I guess the answer is somewhere in between ...
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Very good question. Surely the answer is in between.AMs have a huge role in improving plants ability both physiologically and biochemically through a series of enzymes to not only plant nutrition but add another dimension of antioxidants profile to offer much better resistance to plants under water stress or any other kind of stress including salt stress...
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A field study of 4 levels of biochar (Factor A) and 4 levels of nitrogen fertilizer (Factor B) ; (16 treatment combination) is underway. Field study was set up in RCBD and replicated thrice, however i have a problem in selecting statistical model to use for data analysis.
I intend to use the general linear model (GLM), but i am not so sure if the model is the best fit for analysis. I need suggestions and guidance.
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Hello Dr. Segun,
You can apply two models by MSTAT-C to analysis this experiment:
1. Two Factor Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD 2 Factor - Model a) ... With one error + Replications.
2. Randomized Complete Block Design for factor A with factor B a split plot on A (RCBD 2 Factor - Model b) ...With two errors + Replications.
I'm prefer model (b) for your experiment .... Kindly find the attached photos to the list and ANOVA of "a" and "b" models.
Best wishes
Nehal
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Dear Colleagues,
Is There a simple method to prepare the extract of leaf, stem and root in order to estimate Na, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Fe.
Thank you for your contributions
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Thank you all of you
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I am working on management of soil phosphorus for nutrition of groundnut crop in different soil types. I am interested to know about all possible chemistry of soil phosphorus in different type of soils.
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Phosphorus Speciation in Calcareous Soils Following Annual Dairy Manure Amendments (SSSAJ , V ol. 80 No. 6, p. 1531-1542)
Abstract:Applying manure to crops may alter P speciation in the soil profile and thus affect its availability for plant uptake and transport to surface waters. The goal of this research was to determine how repeated manure amendments affect P speciation within calcareous soil. Soil samples were collected in 2013, 2014, and 2015 from two depths to analyze differences in P composition following annual applications of 17 Mg ha-1 manure, 52 Mg ha-1 manure, or NH4H2PO4 fertilizer, and control plots (no P). To speciate the soil P, sequential chemical extraction, P K-edge X-ray adsorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and microprobe element mapping were used. Total P concentration in the manure-amended soils increased over 3 yr. The highest soil test P concentrations were in the 52 Mg ha-1 plots. Most extractable P in the sequential extraction procedure was removed with the most aggressive extractant, suggesting that the predominant form of P is associated with Ca-P minerals. The XANES results showed that P species were similar among all amendments and years: 54 to 74% Ca-P minerals (e.g., hydroxyapatite), 25 to 35% adsorbed P, and 0 to 19% organic P (predominantly phytic acid). Despite the poorly soluble Ca-P species predominating in all soils, soil test P increased in the manure-amended soils. The P speciation results provide a baseline to compare how long-term changes affect P availability and will be useful for designing long-term scenarios in manure-amended calcareous soils to limit excess soil P that could leach into water.
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What would you comment on the observation that shoot magnesium concentration in one plant species is significantly higher than its sympatric sister species at any nutrient supply rates? By the way, concentrations of other elements including N, P, and K all show an opposite pattern.
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Shoot Calcium and Magnesium Concentrations Differ between Subtaxa, Are Highly Heritable, and Associate with Potentially Pleiotropic Loci in Brassica oleracea (Plant Physiol. 2008 Apr; 146(4): 1707–1720. doi:  10.1104/pp.107.114645)
Abstract: Calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) are the most abundant group II elements in both plants and animals. Genetic variation in shoot Ca and shoot Mg concentration (shoot Ca and Mg) in plants can be exploited to biofortify food crops and thereby increase dietary Ca and Mg intake for humans and livestock. We present a comprehensive analysis of within-species genetic variation for shoot Ca and Mg, demonstrating that shoot mineral concentration differs significantly between subtaxa (varietas). We established a structured diversity foundation set of 376 accessions to capture a high proportion of species-wide allelic diversity within domesticated Brassica oleracea, including representation of wild relatives (C genome, 1n = 9) from natural populations. These accessions and 74 modern F1 hybrid cultivars were grown in glasshouse and field environments. Shoot Ca and Mg varied 2- and 2.3-fold, respectively, and was typically not inversely correlated with shoot biomass, within most subtaxa. The closely related capitata (cabbage) and sabauda(Savoy cabbage) subtaxa consistently had the highest mean shoot Ca and Mg. Shoot Ca and Mg in glasshouse-grown plants was highly correlated with data from the field. To understand and dissect the genetic basis of variation in shoot Ca and Mg, we studied homozygous lines from a segregating B. oleraceamapping population. Shoot Ca and Mg was highly heritable (up to 40%). Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for shoot Ca and Mg were detected on chromosomes C2, C6, C7, C8, and, in particular, C9, where QTL accounted for 14% to 55% of the total genetic variance. The presence of QTL on C9 was substantiated by scoring recurrent backcross substitution lines, derived from the same parents. This also greatly increased the map resolution, with strong evidence that a 4-cM region on C9 influences shoot Ca. This region corresponds to a 0.41-Mb region on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) chromosome 5 that includes 106 genes. There is also evidence that pleiotropic loci on C8 and C9 affect shoot Ca and Mg. Map-based cloning of these loci will reveal how shoot-level phenotypes relate to Ca2+ and Mg2+ uptake and homeostasis at the molecular level.
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What are the right timing of fertilizer application on the bittergourd? when to apply? and crops stand of plants to apply?stages of plants the best to apply fertilizer?
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I am estuding fertilizer use efficiency in oil palm
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Rubidium is widely used as a tracer for potassium in many physiological studies because its physicochemical properties are similar to potassium. The usage of rubidium as tracer are often used with caution as several plant species were able to selectively acquire potassium over rubidium. However, its usage depends on the non-selective absorption of potassium and rubidium by the plant. Therefore a study to determine the absorption of potassium and rubidium by oil palm and measure the potassium uptake rate was conducted. Results showed that the uptake of potassium and rubidium was similar making rubidium a suitable tracer for potassium in oil palm. Prior to reaching potassium saturation in the root, the non-lignified “white”root tip segment were actively absorbing 86Rb at a rate of 194.9 cpm/g/h. The rate of 86Rb uptake would then correlate to rate of uptake at approximately 16 pM of potassium per gram per hour. As excised root tip were use, the root almost reaches it saturation phase after 8 h of uptake. The maximum activity of 86Rb absorbed by the excised root plateaued at 586 cpm g-1.  
C.C. Sim and A.R. Zaharah, 2014. Potassium Uptake Kinetics by Oil Palm Root via Radiotracer Techniques. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 13: 195-197.DOI: 10.3923/ajps.2014.195.19
A radioactive uptake assay to measure ion transport across ion channel–containing liposomes by  Crina M Nimigea , Nature Protocols 1, 1207 - 1212 (2006)  doi:10.1038/nprot.2006.166
Abstract ; Here we describe a procedure for incorporating ion channels into lipid vesicles (liposomes) and functional characterization of the channel population by assaying radioactive isotope uptake into these proteoliposomes. The technique as described will work only for potassium channels but can be easily modified, as suggested in the text, for other ion channels and transporters. Purified ion channel proteins in detergent micelles are combined with solubilized lipids. Detergent is subsequently removed from protein-lipid complexes by gel filtration or dialysis into high potassium (high [K+]) buffer. After freezing-thawing and sonication, the resultant larger liposomes are passed over another gel-filtration column to exchange an extraliposomal high [K+] to a low [K+] buffer, thus establishing a large K+ gradient across the liposomal membrane. Trace 86Rb is then added to the extraliposomal space and the reaction begins. If the ion channel is permeable to K+, the K+ inside exits the liposomes down its concentration gradient and the 86Rb outside accumulates in the intraliposomal space until equilibrium is reached. The reaction time course is monitored by measurement of accumulated 86Rb after removal of external 86Rb over an ion-exchange column. The 86Rb flux assay takes 2–5 hours depending on the reaction rate and the number of desired time points
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Q1: How BioChar helps in increasing water & nutrient holding capacity of soil.
Q2: Water is the dose per hectare & time of application in Potato crop
Regards - Santosh
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Biochar research is now agenda of many researchers worlover in the pursuit of providing the most recalcitrant form of carbon since carbon added through different organic manures happens to be lost over maximum of 5-6 years compared to biochar carbon having  carbon residence time In soil 50-60 years.Thats how biochar is like a physical amendment once applied in soil triggers off an improvement in aggregate stability and associated water transmission properties of soil i(alongside water starage capacity of soil ) inviting biological properties of soil to improve and simultaneously the nutrient pool of soil. These changes in acid soils bring huge crop response compared to alkaline soil where biochar plus compost has better performance. 
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I am going through a project on the contribution of litter-fall towards the nutrient supply in high density peach orchard. I have to determine the nutrient contents in the fallen leaves. But, I have little knowledge on the fact that what will be variation in nutrient contents in the litter-fall as compared to normal leaf sampling period in peach. The normal leaf sampling period for determining leaf nutrient status in peach rages from 8-12 weeks after full bloom. Please, help with some published documents and literatures.
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 Good point RA. Nutrient composition of senescent leaves will depend upon the the stage of leaf development after emergence from anthesis. Since leaves fall at different stages , it will be equally prudent to divide the entire growth period into critical growth stages and compute the nutrient composition of leaves sampled at different growth stages ...and also compute how much,  these litter fall contribute towards the meeting the nutrient requirement of the crop...
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 I am focusing on comparing the Boron and Zinc supply conditioned primarily by the soil types: Fluvisol in lowland and Acrisol in the upland and  determine the demand of B and Zn by vegetables like tomato and cauliflower and cereal i.e wheat. I want to know what will be the standard methods to calculate the water requirement for pot and field experiment.
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Both in pot and field experiments the field capacity moisture is  first determined.water equivalent to field capacity is maintained in pot culture by weighing the pots  and applying water equivalent to loss of water  by evapotranspiration  at regular intervals,say 12-24 hours.In field experiment, after irrigation or water application ,field capacity is attained after 24-36 hours.Normally next irrigation is given when the soil moisture level falls to 60-70 per cent of  the field capacity moisture.Soil moisture measurement or evapotranspiration  measurements are used to monitor soil   moisture and decide the next irrigation.Soil texture,duration of crop ,weather and amount  of drymatter production etc. decide water requirement and number of irrigations in different crops.In literature you may find the water requirement of different crops.
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For instance, at low external concentration the uptake rate of cation is not affected by the accompanying anion and vice versa. On the other hand at high external concentrations an ion which is taken up relatively slow can depress the uptake of an oppositely charged more mobile ion.
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the plant keeps always an internal ionic balance either by uptake or in case of a surplus of  cations taken up by synthesis of organic acids.
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By the application of phosphate fertilizers,band close to young plant root because only 20% of applied phosphate are use by plant. Also it application should not be in excess because it can cause micro nutrient deficiency such as zinc.
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The mobility of a nutrient will determine the method of application and uptake by roots of crops ,therefore, phoshorus is an immobile nutrient and must be applied either in band or ring method for proper utilisation by crops also,nitrogen is a mobile nutrient and can be applied through broadcasting method or by band method because it will reach the crop wherever it is placed and can be leached downwards to pollute underground waters.In addition, micronutrients such as Fe ,Zn ,Mn ,Cu can be applied through foliar method because they have strong ligands and chelating properties characteristi.c of d orbital elements
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Plant microbiome always used to be associated with various physiological attributes of the plant. I want to know, does it influence the quality of the produced fruit? Can it be a reason for a variation in quality attributes of a single variety grown in different ecological condition? So far everyone knows that, the varietal features with combination to the edaphic conditions of growing environment determines the fruit quality. Apart from this, is there something else to regulate fruit quality?
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Thanks
well I think this review may fit your request. It's about the Potential use of endophytic bacteria as bio-fertilizer for banana production. you might check the references. I think it might help
regards 
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Please suggest me the related research papers.
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Beta glucosidase participates in the final stage of cellulose decomposition. It is a digestive enzymes for cellubiose/triose mineralization. It catalyzes the enzymatic hydrolysis of various polysaccharides and beta-glucosides. It is a driving force in the decomposition of carbohydrates in soils. It has been reported that beta-glucosidase activities are markedly affected by temperature, moisture, nutrient availability (including N) and other soil parameters (Bandick and Dick, 1999; Knight and Dick, 2004).
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Why Ca2+ ions are reported as very little mobile in xylem and needed to be with some others ions like nitrate to be assimilated by the plant ??? 
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The Calcium in high concentrations is toxic for the plant, therefore the plants have some mechanisms to deal with it, and Calcium often precipitates into plant tissues as Ca-oxalate crystals. I don't know the relationship of Calcium with nitrate ions, but in my studies I found a strong relationship of calcium with Sr, Ba and Ga across the xilem. For more details you can check it here (pag. 70):
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I conducted a greenhouse experiment recently that involved rearing corn plants in a calcined clay medium (Turface) and Long Ashton solution.  Despite fertilization with Long Ashton 3 times a week, our plants all had low N (1-3% N by dry mass).  Even more strangely, N as well as several other nutrients (S, Mn, K, Mg, and Na) were negatively correlated with plant height.  All other micronutrients were neither deficient nor excessive.  Would anyone know how our growing conditions might have caused this odd negative correlation between plant growth and nutrient composition?
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Yes , there is strong possibility , it is nothing but dilution effect of dry matter accumulation with time on the concentration of nitrogen as sink-to-source relationship...
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I am interested in studying dark induced senescence of leaves of hydroponically grown Arabidopsis plants. what age will be ideal to induce senescence and what method would be applicable to induce dark senescence; either by leaf covering or whole plant covering?
Does anybody has previous experiences of  dark-induced senescence experiment in Arabidopsis?
I'd like to have your ideas.
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Dear Akila,
The Arabidopsis leaves are way too small for individual analyses. We pooled a number of leaves (>30) for each timepoint, ground them together and used this 'master pool' for the different assays. In this way, chlorophyll concentration and proteomics data will come from the same material. It will take a large number of plants and time to stage the correct leaf position, but your data will have a high resolution/quality.
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I want to know how to differentiate the spectral profile of Tea from other Land uses. Is reflectance of tea leaves have any distinct qualities in NIR region than other vegetation, forest , soil and water?  
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What's importance of molybdenum during tree's fruit set? Which element is more important during this period?
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Interesting...
Molybdenum is very important as part of photosynthesis apparatus, therefore both flowering and fruit set both are affected b y Mo-deficiency. .n acid soils, Mo deficiency is very common . Enclosed below a PDF  to give you more idea about Mo-nutrition..
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What is the permissible limit of soil exchangeable Mg for rice plant? More than 15 Cmol/kg is toxic to rice plant?
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Interesting question...
Abstract : The tolerance of three cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa L.) and three species of the genus Echinochloa to excess magnesium was examined in solution culture. In Echinochloa species, excess MgCl2 or MgSO4 in the culture solution (30 mM) reduced the growth to 33-42% of that in the control plants and caused symptoms resembling those of calcium defi ciency. In rice cultivars, however, excess Mg in the culture solution reduced the growth only to 54-67% of that in the control and did not cause the symptoms like those of Ca defi ciency. The effect of excess Mg on the mineral contents of plants differed between rice (Nipponbare) and Echinochloa oryzicola. The Mg content of the whole plants in rice increased in proportion to MgCl2 concentration in the culture solution up to 30 mM, while that in E. oryzicola leveled off when MgCl2 concentration exceeded 10 mM. The excess MgCl2 treatment greatly reduced the calcium content of the whole plants in E. oryzicola and slightly in rice. In rice, the excess Mg treatment increased the Mg content of shoots and roots, and the potassium and chloride contents of roots, but slightly decreased the Ca and K contents of shoots. In E. oryzicola, the excess Mg treatment increased the K and Cl contents of shoots and the Mg and K contents of roots, and slightly increased the Mg content of shoots, but greatly decreased the Ca content of shoots. These results indicate that rice is more tolerant than Echinochloa to excess Mg and that the tolerance is related to Ca defi ciency.Source : Plant Prod. Sci. 8 (1) : 38 ź 43 (2005)
PDF enclosed fro further reading..
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Plant Physiologist, Soil Scientist and Agronomist
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I would not suggest using foliar Nitrogen for pulses for the application of Nitrogen can stymie the biological nitrogen fixation system.
As for cereals and the ability to provide for strategic Nitrogen and Phosphorus foliarly is possible but I would not think DAP would be the best choice for this.
In terms of foliar feeding I would suggest looking at a miracle growth soluble fertilizer with complete mineral nutrition and highly soluble. For stimulating pollinization and yield application at booting stage and emerging flower head would probably have most potential impact.