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Plant Morphology - Science topic

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As my protein levels appears to be varying in different cell types and different layers and localization (cytoplasm/nucelus) of the root tip of Arabidopsis (in the background of Wild type and mutant plants).
I wonder what should be my approach to compare differences in protein expression levels and localization between two genotypes.
I take Z-stack in a confocal microscope, usually I make a maximum intensity profile of Z- stack and try to understand the differences but as the differences are not only in intesities but also cell types and layers in that case how should I choose the layers between two samples?
My concern is how to find out exact layers between two genotypes as the root thickness is not always same and some z-stacks for example have 55 slices and some have 60.
thanks!
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Hi, the answer provided by Prof. Janak Trivedi is pretty comprehensive, agree with that. The ideal approach would be to capture equal number of slices for each stack, but I guess some samples have the signal spread over a greater depth (axially) so you don't want to miss out that signal. Also, you mentioned you make "a maximum intensity profile of Z- stack". So I suggest you average out and also make a montage of your stacks (ImageJ options) and then compare the intensity profiles. Additionally. check out this article:
Hope it helps.
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I have observed among the population of Croton bonplandianus near Salem City, Tamil Nadu India with distinct yellow veined variegated leaves. What is the reason for this kind of variation in the leaves of some plants while the other populations remain green?
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Please also see this useful video.
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I found the morphological mutation on my CRISPR/Cas9 transgenic potato tuber, in detail, which didn't enlarge ,was tiny and highly branched (secondary grew?), so that I want to know whether there are potato mutants of which phenotype is similar to my mut-tuber.
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I worked with Arabidopsis thaliana, I think it is easy to deal with. So, I recomend AT for you.. Good luck..
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Ozodbek Abduraimov
, Thanks dear Ozodbek,
The blow research article has been conducted from this work, and another paper under editing.
"A novel horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland planted with Typha angustifolia for treatment of polluted water".
Thanks again
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I have collected in Northern in Vietnam.
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Without flowers impossible to identify in most cases...
Impatiens omeiana should have underground stolons.
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Dear RG Colleagues,
Can you please show me what kind of morphological characterisation for fruit from the genus LOMELOSIA.
Best regards
Abdenour
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It is an Aquenie
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Hello everyone
I am working in mango micropropagation through nucellar embryogenesis in Ratna (Mono-embryonic). Among 722 developed plants. I found one off type plant, the morphology of one leaf quite different (but other leaves are normal). During in vitro phase, yellow patches were observed on dorsal side surrounding the midrib, but no out growth was observed on ventral side. But after 2.5 months of hardening period, (total 4.5 month old plan), wheat like of outgrowth was observed ventral side (opposite) of yellow patches. Now gradually it’s turning to brown.
Can anyone suggest the exact cause of this symptom?
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Have you checked the ploidy level? In other dicot species haploids show this phenotype...
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Analysing morphology-habitat relationships in a montane plant species, I am thinking of using slope exposition (i.e., northern, southern slopes, etc.) as one of the habitat features, since a direct measuring of all the associated microclimatic factors appears problematic. I have plant samples from many sites within a montane area of ca. 1300 squared kilometres and for each site I have slope sexposition data (cardinal and inter-cardinal directions). I need to correlate this data with leaf morphometric anatomical/morphological traits.
I would be grateful if someone could also recommend some papers reporting relationships between plant growth/occurrence and slope exposition in mountains.
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Alternatively, you can break your directions into a north-south and an east-west aspect component.You require assignation of angles or compass directions in degrees. Depending on your study system, one of these slope aspect components might be of greatest interest (for example if working at a temperate latitude, most likely you would expect the degree of N-S orientation to matter more biologically, due to the difference in solar incidences). If you take the cos (angle) this will give you the N-S component as a numeric form ranging from 1 to -1, with 1 being N (0 or 360 degrees) and -1 being S (180), zero indicates a compete east or west exposition. The Sin(angle) is the E-W component, again ranging from 1 (East) to -1 (West). Then you can run correlations and linear regressions with your data.
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Symplastic loading is passive, and by definition does not require ATP for sucrose loading into the phloem. In apoplastic loaders, by contrast, ATP is required for sucrose loading into the phloem, which is provided through the Sucrose Synthase catalyzed breakdown of some of the sucrose actively symported into the sieve element companion cell (SE-CC) complexes. Is it then plausible that Sucrose Synthase would be found in the SE-CC complexes of apoplastic loaders and not in the SE-CC complexes of symplastic loaders?
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Please see below the reference:
Daloso, D. M., Williams, T. C., Antunes, W. C., Pinheiro, D. P., Müller, C., Loureiro, M. E., & Fernie, A. R. (2016). Guard cell‐specific upregulation of sucrose synthase 3 reveals that the role of sucrose in stomatal function is primarily energetic. New Phytologist, 209(4), 1470-1483.
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Plant morphology manual.
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Hi Geonyzl,
Is everything going well with the organization of the plant morphology book?
I would love to collaborate. Thanks for the invitation.
My best,
M. Athaydes
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Plant Morphology versus Molecular phylogeny
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This question certainly requires specification. The answers depend heavily on what you are actually want to now.
(1) Morphological evidence considered in total evidence studies; A wide range and the selection depends mostly on the morphological disparity of the lineage inferred. Thus, the answer depends on the lineage of taxa inferred.
(2) Morphological evidence considered in the discussion of studies employing molecular phylogenetic: Again, the answer depends on the organisms studied.
(3) Material used to extract DNA for molecular phylogenetic studies: Again, the answer depends on the organisms studied and the question asked.
The hypothetical answers has one thing in common: it depends very much on the organisms studied.
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histological charectors of plants or microscopy of plant
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According to published materials, it is not known to produce root suckers.... but many locals in my study site have observed p.nigra to produce root suckers.... 
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Thank you for the answers. 
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can anybody help me to identify the species of Muncuna 2?
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Thank you, Prof. Munivenkatappa Sanjappa ji, for motivating the budding botanists to consult local floras and become familiar with the native plants. This will surely increase their taxonomic knowledge.
Alternately, photographs of plants can be posted on efloraofindia (many Indian Taxonomists are associated with this google group) or Plant Wealth of India (FB page)  for identification.
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I am working on fruit anatomy of genus Echinophora (Apiaceae) that includes some fruits with woody tissues. Can anyone help me with providing a detailed fruit hand section or microtome section protocol for both woody and non woody fruits?
Thanks
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I recomend hystoresin embedding kit. Woody structures are hard to cut, and the parafin embedding is not good for this purpose. I'm not sure if cryosectioning is a good technique for woody fruits.
Hystoresin is expensive, but is very good for both woody and non woody fruits. I have had good results with it. The sections can be very thin.
The protocol is detailed with the product.
You will need a rotative microtome.
The classical literature about plant anatomy methods is in:
Johansen, D.A. 1940. Plant microtechnique. New York: Mc Graw-Hill Book.
I recommend this book too, because it has succinct protocols:
Kraus, J.E.; Arduin, M. 1997. Manual básico de técnicas em Anatomia Vegetal. Rio de Janeiro: Edur.
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This is an image of Boehmeria glomerulifera . some fungal mycelium like structures were found in association with every inflorescence. Like to know about this association.
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Dear Dipti,
By seeing the image, its looks like spider web or mite’s web. Insects will form a white sticky thread like structures to protect themselves from the enemies, catching the preys, and to lay eggs. Kindly check any insects or tiny bugs associated with the plant.
Thanks
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based on the phylogenetic trees, how likely are intergeneric crosses in the solanaceae family? For instance a cross between Physalis and Lycium?
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See this publication it will give you many ideas: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/01140671.1991.10421787
The tamarillo, Cyphomandra betacea (Cav.) Sendt. (Solanaceae), is a minor fruit crop grown in New Zealand and in subtropical climates elsewhere around the world. There is little genetic variation in the cultigen, but characters of commercial importance have been observed in related wild species. Cyphomandra betacea was crossed with nine other Cyphomandra species. Generally, fruit set was poor and no viable seed was set in the crosses attempted. The use of polyploid forms of C. betacea in some species crosses did not enhance the success of interspecific hybridisation. Various stages of cross failure were identified, most of which were post-zygotic. The data would suggest that incongruity, rather than the S locus, is governing interspecific compatibility in this genus. Suggestions are made for the future genetic improvement of the tamarillo by interspecific hybridisation.
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There are any lessons that can be taken to the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology.
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Scenedesmus is not a filamentous form, it is colony of 4,8 and 16 rarely 32 cells.while Spirulina is considered as SCP but recent studies revelas that it may be filamentous rather than unicellualar.
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I want to match the pattern of vermin insect bite on leaves and detect the type of insect.
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tnx
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methods of isolating pollen grains.
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Hello all, I am using BRAHMS system to manage the specimens records from diffrent herbarium. Dose anyone know how to check if there are diffrent determination of same collection, i.e. duplicates in diffrent herbarium were identified as diffrent species.
Thank you very much!
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Depends a bit how your database was build. If you imported RDE files from different institutes and used the matching options to add duplicates to exisitng records it is possible there are multiple "current dets" within one collection record. You can trace these using the option in the collection file: tools-> determinations->check current det against det history file.
If you added duplicates manually, there will be only one current det, but you can still see if other herbaria have other dets (if you entered so at least) by comparing the records in the dethistory file (botanical records-> view /edit determinations) or when you use an extract, in the "all determination records" extract. In an extract you can first tag all records that are identical for brahms number and identification and remove the duplicates, then tag all double brahms numbers: those should be different dets for the same brahms number. If you only want to compare the most recent dets: first remove the older dets. If you have a slightly different question you can adapt this method to tag records that do satisfy your needs.
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I need to prepare sample for SEM. The samples are Rose petals and leaf. I need to remove the moisture from the leaves and petals to make it suitable for SEM imaging. How shall I do It? 
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Critical Point Dry the petals first otherwise you will observe massive shrinkage and distortion.
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can anybody help me to identify the species of Muncuna 1?
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I am also agree with expert comments that it is Mucuna pruriens
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Can anybody help me to identify the species of Mycetia?
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Mycetia longifolia (Wall.) Kuntze is correct answer by Dr. Arvind. In  Mycetia javanica (Blume) Reinw. ex Korth. the size of peduncle and pedicel is less. 
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I am working on gynoecy and parthenocarpic expression in cucumber where gene sequence information is available. Now looking for the ideal marker and approach for designing the primer.
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 I agree totally withnDr, Weston Testo's suggestions
Dr. Srinathrao 
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Hi all,
I work with Marchantia but this could be useful to someone working with leafy plants, too. I'd like to measure thallus area as well as width under different conditions, but very often Marchantia thalli curl up. This  not only makes those measurements much harder, but in itself is also something that I want to measure. I am using a Keyence digital light microscope for this experiment. Any suggestions?
Thanks!
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Dear Giulia Arsuffi 
please look into the resources related to your topic
regards
aob.oxfordjournals.org › ... › Annals of Botany › Advance Access
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Is there any script of UTHSCSA image tool software or other software for automatic identification of phyllometric parameters in neural network analysis.
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I suggest you to try ImageJ.
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Please comment!
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Besides reason (1) stated by Dilip Kumar, there coul be an attack of rice blast at panicle neck node. Regards.
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Hello everybody, please excuse me for my bad english. I need a help, because I want to do an A/Ci curves with the TPS-2 pp systems IRGA and I could not calibrate the led of cuvette leaf. I was wondering if anyone can help me or if anyone have the experience with the handling of the TPS-2 pp systems IRGA. 
Thanks 
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Dear Natalie
You should be able to get the PPsystems TPS manual at
It has a lot of useful information.
A relative CO2 calibration can be achieved using the system and a source of very fresh air but of course an absolute calibration would be better using a standard gas as Dr Bongi says, but the manual is very clear – DO NOT USE A WATER TRAP as he suggests as there is real danger of water being sucked back into the IRGA which is very damaging.  The manual gives the correct method. As for the LED – it should not really need calibration but in the absence of a photo flux meter full sunlight can be used  as the upper value. Simple filters based on old darkened photographic negatives can be used to give relative values of PFD for measurements.
Hope this helps
Best wishes
David Lawlor
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E'tienne Geoffroy de Saint Hilaire and Goethe through morphology and rigorous imaginative thought have discovered the unity of animal Type.The  recent discoveries in developmental genetics and the discovery of the Hox genes in animal morphogenesis have resurrected some of Goethe's and Geoffroy’s optimism with regard to discovering a unity of plan in the animal kingdom through homologies. 
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Mathematics, computer programs, &c., while certainly very useful in many situations, have - like any other "rigorous" methodology - two immanent Achilles' heels. First is what computer specialists often formulate as "garbage in, garbage out": to start a procedure we must put some data in, and if these data are wrong, wrongly interpreted or wrongly selected, then the results would have usually rather little in common with the truth; selection, formulation and interpretation of the data to be put in must be done based on the observable "external" (ecological, geographical, or any, but in taxonomy most frequently morphological) evidence, so our morphological knowledge and intuition is in most cases primarily responsible for the "input" not being "garbage". Second is the fact that complicated (and sometimes even relatively simple) mathematical or computerized procedures are almost invariably (at least for the "average": not specially trained in mathematics and/or computer programming) biologist something like a "black box": we put something (garbage or not) in and receive something out, but typically are not able to check (and understand!) step-by-step what happens in between, so we cannot easily (if at all) discover potential "bugs" (e.g. analogical to those on which the popular mathematical or logical "tricks" - "proofs" that 3 is less than 2, that swift-footed Achilles would never overcome a turtle, &c. - are based, or resulting from the application of the procedure in a situation where the preconditions of its reliable functioning are not met); such pitfalls are not always easy to see, and formalized procedures are typically not "self-verifying": they will not by themselves warn us if the result is wrong, here again the help of observable facts are needed. So, even if we recourse (as we must frequently do) to mathematics or computer-program, the external, directly observable (typically morphological) evidence remains the "alpha and omega" of our study: this assures that input is not "garbage", and this enables us to check whether the output makes biological (ecological, geographical, and especially morphological) sense. Only in this way we can avoid acceptation of such "rigorously derived" results as those obtained by Giribet & Ribera [2000. A review of arthropod phylogeny: new data based on ribosomal DNA sequences and direct character optimization. Cladistics 16: 204-23] where any of the 7 versions of molecular-phylogenetic reconstruction consistently placed e.g. Daphnia among Myriapods or Onychophora, or in BUHAY’s (2009. “COI-like” sequences are becoming problematic in molecular systematic and DNA barcoding studies. J. Crust. Biol. 29, 1: 96-110) somewhat surrealistic but highly symptomatic experiment “I used a subset of” a dataset from a published phylogenetic analysis “and added my favourite recipe for pumpkin pie (imagine it is a numt sequence or junk DNA) to the nexus file ... executed the file and”... “demonstrated” (with 100% bootstrap support!) that her pumpkin pie belongs to the genus Orconectes (Crustacea: Decapoda: Cambaridae) and is the sister species of O. burri! [that, of course, neither Buhay nor Giribet & Ribera have accepted the result of "rigorously performed analyses", was just because the morphological control ["The polyphyletic status of hexapods is certainly unacceptable from a morphological point of view, although it has been repeatedly obtained in molecular analyses of ribosomal sequence data ... [Giribet & Ribera: 222]"]. Not only taxonomy, but science in general, is - as it was for Goethe and Saint-Hilaire - "art and science at the same time", and it must remain so if we do not wish to reduce it to a kind of formal game in which (to use the famous mathematician, Kornél Lánczos words) "interesting is not what the world is, but what it should be" - I am biologist, not mathematician, for me interesting is what the world is, not what it (according to somebody or some rigorous formula) "should" be!
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As we Know there is many common ways to measure leaf area  like leaf area metere system,computer ,scan method  and finaly the formula suggested for citrus species by Chou,G.J1966:
Leaf area(cm2)= 0.665*L*W
do you find this formula accurate quite enough to use in citrus.
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I have been using a little program called imagej it's free to download and simple to use, if you can't figure it out, there are many tutorials on YouTube, but it I s very simple and accurate, just scan your image with a known measurement and you are all set 
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Dear colleagues,
I am looking for some information about the spikelets of Sorghum bicolor subsp. verticilliflorum (syn. Sorghum arundinaceum). Especially about the WIDTH of the fertile spikelets.
Thank you for your help in finding some references,
Rita
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Thank you very much for your help,
I found the information needed for my publication. I hope to share it on Research Gate as soon as possible.
Best regards,
Rita
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According to many studies, seedlings were treated at the 3rd leaf stage.
Why at 3rd leaf stage not 1-2 leaf stages or 4-5 leaf stage? I am looking for the reference but it couldn't be found.
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 Thank you for your answer. Then, how about in monocot plants?
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In a morphometric variability study of montane shrub species populations, which I have just launched, leaf shape would be quite a promising character. Although commonly used in such studies, leaf shape is often analysed as actually a set of individual “shape-describing” linear traits and their ratios, leaf area and perimeter. But still, each of these traits is treated by the analysis as an individual independent variable. Thus, I am looking for a high-precision method to measure and analyse leaf shape as a single whole.
The supposed algorithm is following: on the photographed or scanned leaf images, a number of control points are placed along the leaf outline in a computer program. The program then analyses the differences between leaf outlines based on these points, resulting in numerical/graphical representation of the leaf shape variation.
Having reviewed some literature, I found that this can be done by so-called Elliptic Fourier leaf shape analysis using R statistics. Has anyone dealt with such kind of analysis? Is it applicable for within-species population studies? This analysis can be carried out by any of numerous algorithms, so did anybody compare their effectiveness? Also, are there any easier-to-use substitutes for this method? I would be grateful for recommending a relevant statistics and software, some manuals and publications.
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Fourier shape analysis is quite common in fisheries studies where fish can be classified into groups by the shape of the otolith (ear bone). Momocs is a really neat package in R for this and the user guide should give you some good ideas on how to start.
regards,
james 
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I am currently trying to find any anatomical changes of the Lemna minor under stress conditions and I want to know which is the best metod of making sections of the fronds and roots. Also I am triyng to keep the material as fresh as I can to see if the substances that I use had entered in the cells of the plant.
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Utiliza el método convencional de embebido en parafina (Paraplas plus), fija con FAA en frio (24 horas) en el refrigerador a 6 grados para evitar daños a los tejidos, deshidrata en series de alcoholes o si tienes usa 2,2 dimetoxipropano, corta entre 5-7micrometros y colorea con Safranina y azul de alcian
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I need a kek to differentiate  mango cultivate by leaf morphology 
Leaf length , width  
Or may be other trees
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Dear Tagelsir,
What come across my mind when one talks about cultivars is
Why is it created? ... to get a better juicier or sweeter fruit or keeping the plant at a certain height or having a much better texture or even creating fruits that could be harvested without much pest diseases or even for ornamental
In the above case, there will likely be some differences on the fruits itself, size of seed, colour and thickness of pulp, degree of sweetness and perhaps amount of fibres on the fruit, skin colour and surface, fruit shape and size. Normally, we could guess that a cultivar will have smaller seed compared to wild ones. The descriptions of the fruits and its range can help to differentiate cultivar in the market. I'm sure it has been very much used on cash crops such as apple. Bioversity International (formerly known as IPGRI) had created some plant descriptors and its descriptions regarding this matter as guidelines.
Leaves characteristics such as shape and colour or certain modification feature can be used if you are able to note the differences with your naked eye among the varieties. One that I stumbled upon is in the case of papaya cultivars where the lobes of the leaves can be slightly different when you scrutinized closely among several known cultivars. Together with its fruit and flower characteristics will make it more stronger supported.
 Hope this information will find you useful.
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I am starting a plant morphometric study and have got a lot of inspiration from Julien Claude's (2008) book. It uses the "Rmorph" package quite much, but I failed to find its copy on CRAN pages. I would be grateful if someone could send me a copy of this package or give a link where to find it.
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I'm not familiar with RMorphand a cursory online search only brings up references to that book.
I've had success with the R Package Geomorph which may be of help to you; it's designed to handle general landmark geometric morphometrics in 2 and 3 dimensions.
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This tree is about 12-15 m tall with compound leaves as can be seen in picture attached. The fruits are drooping and inflorescence long. it is grown for shade.
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Thanks everybody for kind help in identifying the tree. 
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some times we need to calculate leaf area for any fruit trees species in the field using leaf width and length trait and i know that there are many researchers worked on this line ,but i didn,t find their papers  in my search , so i hope that someone provide me with a source concerning with this matter.
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Dear Eugene
Thank you for your  interesting answer but i am asking for that  for use in field purposes only to give a rough before taking samples for Lab. calculations.
Best Regards
Ali Alhayany
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This is for a review paper so it would help that the topic is well-studied. 
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Dear Michaela,
Following points could be studied:
1. Type of Plant-Ant association and specificity/preference
2. Types of biochemicals secreted by both the partners and their response upon each other
3. Synergistic effect of this interaction upon other organisms and vice versa
4. Evolutionary significance (structural and functional)
5. Co-evolutionary mechanisms
etc.
Best Wishes,
P
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some details about how to fix and locate them will also be appreciated.
Thanks
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You detect QTL through interval mapping and fix it through marker assisted selection.
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I am studying tropical plants here in the Philippines and I would like to have a general background in the species that have diverse morphology
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You can find several striking examples of heterophylly in Marcgraviaceae (Ericales) and in some arboreal Proteaceae of the genus Roupala.
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The aim of the study is to compare montane and lowland populations of a plant species with respect to leaf anatomy. The montane populations also include those situated on different altitudes. I collected 25 plant individuals from each population on a defined area: the whole plants as a herbarium material as well as the shoots with leaves (3 vegetative and 3 flower-terminated ones from each individual) as alcohol-fixed material. The plant is small-leaved and each individual contains dozens of leaves on both types of shoots.
Now the question is how many leaves of each individual to analyze anatomically and how many measurements of each particular quantitative trait (e.g., size and density of stomata, hairs, leaf thickness and size, etc.) to take from each leaf? Also, what would be the statistical methods most suitable to use in such a study? Thanks in advance.
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Hi, I can give you some advice coming from my experience. Good sampling is very important; I assume the plant is herbaceous? It is crucial to collect individuals growing in the similar environmental condition and take leaves from the same part of the plant. In our studies we sample 10 leaves per individual and 30 individuals per population (so 25 should be OK). If you need inter-individual variation, you should analize at least 10 leaves - and if you expect differences between vegetative and flowering shoots, you would need 10 leaves od each type of shoots (5 should be enough if you have many samples). This is important to choose leaves from the same part of a shoot - the middle is the best usually, with fully developed leaves. One measurement of each trait from every leaf. You can find examples in the papers (you will see there statistical methods also):
Boratyńska K., Jasińska A.K., Ciepłuch E. 2008. Effect of tree age on needle morphology and anatomy of Pinus uliginosa and Pinus silvestris – species-specific character separation during ontogenesis. Flora - Morphology Distribution Functional Ecology of Plants 11/2008; 203(8-203):617-626. DOI:10.1016/j.flora.2007.10.004
Boratyńska K., Boratyński A. 2007. Taxonomic differences among closely related pines Pinus sylvestris, P. mugo, P. uncinata, P. rotundata and P. uliginosa as revealed in needle sclerenchyma cells. Flora - Morphology Distribution Functional Ecology of Plants 09/2007; 202(7):555-569. DOI:10.1016/j.flora.2006.11.004 ·
Marcysiak K. 2012. Variation of leaf shape of Salix herbacea in Europe. Plant Systematic and Evolution 298: 1597-1607.
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For the purpose of laser capture, I am taking infected Arabidopsis root tissues. First I collect the samples in Ethanol:Acetic Acid (3:1) and then replace the solution with 30% sucrose solution. After that I embed them in OCT and use for cryosectioning. But the morphology of sections indicates that they have shrunken. Is there any solution to maintain tissue morphology?
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Carnoy's fixative is not suitable for any delicate tissue or organ, usually it is recommended for probes intended for staining of chromatin or chromosomes. Root is built of strongly vacuolated cells that shrink easily at any disturbance of osmotic pressure - try some fixative used for ultrastructure and dehydrate the probes gradually
good luck :-)
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I am characterizing blackberry germplasm in Kenya ( genetic and morphological) and would like to know about the genetic diversity of the same around the world. Any information on the same would be helpful in my research. Regards
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We sequenced the transcriptome last year
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Hello everyone,
I'm working on an experiment in which we need to know phenolic contents of marine angiosperms (Posidonia oceanica and Cymodocea nodosa). In addition to this variable many others measurements will made, some of which have to be made with fresh material,  so it would be very desirable to delay in time (days or weeks) analysis of the phenolic content. This analysis would be done by extraction in methanol (80%) and subsequent determination with the Folin-Ciocalteu method.   Conservation methods used (in both marine and terrestrial plants) vary widely in literature including  drying (at room T ° or oven), lyophilization, freezing in liquid nitrogen and conservation at -80 ° C, or directly conservation at  -20º.
What conservation treatment would be best suited to ensure optimal measure of phenols in time?
many thanks
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Hello,
You would surely find some answers to your questions in this recent review: 
Assessing the response of plant flavonoids to UV radiation: an overview of appropriate techniques
Julkunen-Tiitto et al. Phytochem Rev (2015) 14:273–297
DOI 10.1007/s11101-014-9362-4
Francoise
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The heterostyled species have self-incompatibility gene is often linked with morphological traits of androecium (stamens) and gynoecium (pistils). However, inhibition of pollen tube can arrested in different parts of pisti ..
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thanks
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Location: Ottawa,Canada
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This is a cultivar. There are a few varieties of Rosa rugosa but only on the basis of the photo is difficult to say.
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I used woody plant as starting material and petiole as my explants. Till now, my sample failed to elongate. What is the best medium for elongation.
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TDZ  has a high carry over effect, as pointed out by Yasser. Residual TDZ causes stunting of shoots and inhibits rooting. Subculturing  the explants/plants to a medium containing another cytokinin either alone or in combination with low levels of the auxin IAA or NAA may solve the problem. I faced a similar problem with the tree  Melia volkensii (Meliaceae) and found 1/2 MS  with 0.1 mg/l BAP + 0.01 mg/l IAA  quite effective in restoration of elongation capacity in shoots regenerated on MS or  1/2 MS  using 0.05 to 4mg/l TDZ.
You may also look at the following reference which I found useful in my study.
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I need the authentic coronal morphology of Vincetoxicum canescens. It includes the size & shape of the corona, and whether it is longer than gynostegium? Is it longer then half length of the corolla lobes?  
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It looks like a Poikilospermum suaveolens but there is no flower and it has a fruit.
I'm not sure if it is a P. suaveolens. Thanks.
Sorry for not good image quality.
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 It is Poikilospermum suaveolens, but the  picture is not a fruit, but only flower buds.
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I have a plan to conduct a study about the different cultivar of cassava found in Romblon. And, to determine the phylogenetic tree of cultivar, what kind of morphometric analysis should I use?
Thank you.  :)
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I am planning to use a Traditional Morphometric Analysis to determine the quantitative measurement of morphological parts. If I already get a morphometric data, is it applicable to undergo a phylogenetic analysis to determine the evolutionary relationship of a different cultivars of Cassava?
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Thanks
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After you characterize based on the result, try to identify the best sesame cultivar for climate change adaptation.
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I need information on a root's adaptation to its environment.
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Dear Andres,
I'm from Brazil at São Paulo State University. Here we have one specialist in underground system. Her name Is Professor Beatriz Appezzato da Glória. You can contact her : bagloria@usp.br
She is a specialist in savannas from Cerrado biome  and studied morphological and anatomical aspects of underground systems.
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Dear All,
I have sown some seeds of a Hodgsonia heteroclita fruit from Cucurbitaceae family, but the leaves structure which is thought to be the most important key feature for identifying the two species of this plant shows different morphological feature. It is recorded that H. macrocarpa leaves are three lobed and that of H. heteroclita are five lobed. However the seeds of the same when germinated produced two lobed, three lobed and five lobed leaves. What might be the possible reason and how can it be resolved?
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Don't know during which plant developmental stage you observed these mixed leaf structures. But, as Biswapriya suggested, probably you need to wait and check the fully-matured leaves, as the young leaves are still growing and the remaining lobes have not formed yet.
Also, Mohamed raised a good point, what if a plant organ phenotype is decided by allelic genetic segregation results, how would a Plant Taxonomist document it? Especially a QTL trait.
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I want to prepare microscopic slides of rice roots to study anatomical changes of them to different stresses.
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thank you very much for your comments!
Dear  Eustaquio - Is there any alternative to euparal?
Thanks.
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I want to investigate the differentiation between leaves of the same species that grow under different light intensities.
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I think the first step is to make careful hand sections.  With practice you can get excellent sections of living material.  Put a piece of leaf on a slide in a drop of water and then lay another slide across the first at 90 degrees.  Hold down the upper slide so that it does not move.  Using a sharp razor-blade (I like the "Pal" single-edge carbon steel blades) make a single cut holding the blade against the edge of the upper slide, then a second cut with the blade angled in slightly.  With practice you can get sections almost as good as paraffin sections.  After getting a good look at your material that way then you can decide which embedment to use.
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Hello,
I need a method for counting the stomata and epidermal cell number of a herbarium leaf with a very dense trichomes:
.
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 You can give it a try with agarose imprints (that, besides, shouldn't damage the tissue).
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Can anyone suggest which physiological and genetic factors/genes affect the number of siliques in Arabidopsis thaliana?
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Check this paper: Hensel LL, Nelson MA, Richmond TA, Bleecker AB. The fate of inflorescence meristems is controlled by developing fruits in Arabidopsis. Plant Phys 1994 vol. 106 (3) pp. 863-76
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I plan to measure some physiological parameter of different root parts, and I think beside the root weight the root surface would be the most adequate index to normalize the values.
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E.g. WinRhizo software can be very useful...
Anyway, check whether the roots or root segments in question have developed root hairs, it can change dramatically the real root surface...
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I'm starting a project that will compile the existing literature of different morphological and functional traits of shrub and tree species occurring in the Atlantic Forest. I would like to know what researchers are working on this subject or compiling similar information in the same forest biome for a possible collaboration, or joint efforts to compile trait data of Neotropical tree species.
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I know that Nathan Kraft (http://life.umd.edu/biology/kraftlab/Home.html) from the University of Maryland works on that subject in Amazonian Ecuador and may have data. I also know two researchers from my university who might have data or guide you to others who do: Renato Valencia (https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Renato_Valencia) and Rafael Cárdenas (recardenasm@yahoo.com). Hope this helps.
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This things find on the species of Yarrow roots.
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Am I missing something here? All I can see is a horizontal rhizome (not a root, but a subterranean stem) from which arise the pinkish developing aerial shoots that will eventually produce leaves and become photosynthetic. There are also some dark-brown remains of the previous year's leaves. All in all, perfectly normal vegetative structures.
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When in field trips or in situ identification.
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It depends on whether it's local flora or alien taxa. I suppose you mean unexpected plant for your area, which you don't have any idea about it.
In this case, a good starting point could be to find the genera with google images if we have some idea about the family. We can keep trying with family, flower color, leaf shape, etc. It's very possible to find some suitable genera and their distribution.
Once we have a short list of possibilities, we could search in local floras available in internet, with good and solid information.
You can find two different examples in links below:
efloras.org: with Flora of China, of Chile, of Misouri, of North America, etc.:
Muestras Neotropicales de Herbario, a visual herbarium of Neotropical countries:
Regards.
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I am working as a trainee on a phenology project and we are trying to convert animal surveys (e.g. of migratory birds) into a kind of code, like we use the BBCH-Code for plant surveys.
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Fascinating idea but I am not aware of any such comprehensive code, either.
Concerning birds (as you mentioned them explicitly), there is a standardized age code usually used (at least in Europe) in bird banding/ringing, e.g. 1=nestling, 2=age unknown, 3=first calendar year, etc. (see e.g. http://www.ifv-vogelwarte.de/files/Richtlinien/Handbuch%202-5.pdf - in German). There are also different codes for plumages or moult stages when dealing with field observations.
There are also codes for different breeding records (e.g. whether a nest was found or courtship behaviour was observed. (in Austria: http://www.ornitho.at/index.php?m_id=41; other abbrevations in Germany: http://ornitho.de/index.php?m_id=41 ).
I admit that this far away from a comprehensive code like the one you suggested and it does not concentrate directly on phenology – let alone that it does not include a broader taxon range – but I hope it helps a bit.
Best regards
Darius
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We are studying a material of Sceptronema but we can not find studies about its morphology. We would be very thankful if someone could help us. Thank you in advance.
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This paper is the original description of Sceptronema orientale.
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Can anyone help me with the identification keys (morphology) of AMF spores?
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Hmmm. Noticed my counting went wrong in my last answer. I can count up to five -- honestly :-)
It may be worth you reading the paper by Redecker et al. 2013 (Redecker, D., Schüßler, A., Stockinger, H., Stürmer, S. L., Morton, J. B., & Walker, C. (2013). An evidence-based consensus for the classification of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomeromycota). Mycorrhiza, 23(7), 515–31. doi:10.1007/s00572-013-0486-y). Can't put it on ResGate for copyright reasons. But this does deal mostly with higher level classifications. Look also at our website amf-phylogeny.com where many original species descriptions can be found as pdf files. You will, I am afraid, notice that several files are not available as the authors and/or journals would not give us permission to add them. The nomenclature is not quite up to date there, but we will try to do it as soon as possible (neither Arthur Schuessler nor myself have any funding for this work).
I fear very much that relating old and new literature will prove very difficult indeed. Few researchers keep voucher specimens, even of cultures, let alone of 'species' they identify from field collections. Lists of species are published without any evidence of the veracity of identification. Careful and detailed re-descriptions and definitions of individual species are difficult or impossible to publish in high-quality journals (not of interest to the general reader, or so it seems). But I must not go on as I am accused by some of my peers of 'ranting' ... (I am indeed old and very cranky).
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I am trying to remove wax from Populus tremuloides x P. tremula leaves. I tried to use methanol, chloroform, acetic acid, boiled water - nothing works. I want to do stomatal imprints, but just to put nail polish is not working because of the thick layer of wax. Maybe someone has more experience with this? Maybe someone knows how to extract all epidermis from the leaf?
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Hi Anna,
We are using the imprinting technique as well. Before the nail polish stage we attach a dental resin (light-bodied vinylpolysiloxane dental resin (Heraeus-Kulzer, Hanau, Germany) directly to the leaf and removing it as soon as it dries (1min). The resin is the epidermal imprint. The resin is than covered with nail-polish so you'll get a mirror image of the resin imprint. You can look at our article for more details (Hexokinase mediates stomatal closure).
Gilor
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Sunflower and maize morphology
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Hi,
To compare growth of genotypes, you can use thermal time after sowing or after emergence rather than days which gives a time scale independant of the growing temperature (especially if you did not grow the plants under the same conditions and during the same lenght of time). For this purpose and to be precise, you'll need the base temperature (for germination or for emergence).
I think that the number of leaves, days after sowing and days after emergence are all relevant for comparing DM. To me, it depends on the lenght of the period you compare the hybrids:
-number of leaves: refers to PAR interception and hence biomass accumulation, relevant for studying the vegetative phase and later
-days after sowing: refers to seed reserves (heterotrophic growth) and its impact on early growth and biomass accumulation
-days after emergence: refers to autotrophic growth and hence the capacity to photosynthetise during early phases
Do the hybrids have similar shoot morphology? If not, instead of leaves number, leaf area?
Hope it helps,
Regards
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I want to know Brassica with shattering resistance before maturity.
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Thanks Dhiraj Singh, it will be a good character to correlate, can you suggest seed boldness range to be resistant to shattering.