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Plant Environmental Stress Physiology - Science topic

Plant Environmental Stress Physiology is a biotic and Abiotic Stresses
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I would like to measure H2O2 on tomato leaves. Just need a fast and quantitative complete protocol for the determination of H2O2.
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Hello everyone,
I am growing tomatoes plants in greenhouse on an inert substrate consisted of only perlite.
I would like to apply potassium K stress and thus I would like to use Hoagland nutrient solution.
As the nutrient solution is described for hydroponics, I was wondering whether it is useful to apply it also on perlite, and in case yes what is the procedure?
I could not find in literature but in case someone knows anything or knows a good paper please let me know.
Thanks
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You grow plants in perlite with hydroponic solution which has all main and trace elements like Hoagland solution. Therefore if you use hydroponic solution in perlite you should not have any K deficiency. If you have it means something wrong in your liquid feed. Check the hydroponic solution if it is calculated properly.
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The apoplast of higher terrestrial plants represents an essential storage and reaction space that connects cellular tissues, engages in transport of matter, enzyme catalysis and defense reactions, and also in gas exchange and storage of oxygen . Since the apoplast is that extracellular space within the plant through which energy-rich compounds have to pass before they are taken up into the cells through H+-symport. A fast and typical response to anoxia/hypoxia is the rapid acidification of the cytoplasm, which in many cases ranges around half a pH unit. For instance, the carbohydrate reserves that are recycled to be broken down in glycolysis and fermentation have to pass the apoplast from the site of storage to the cytoplasm. In case the apoplastic ionic milieu (especially the pH) has changed, the scarce energy that could be gained from fermentation cannot be harvested accordingly, with the consequence that the time span of anoxia tolerance will decline rapidly. Apoplastic pH is one of the most important parameters for transmembrane transport of organic matter. Organic compounds like sugars, amino acids, etc. are driven from the apoplast into the cytoplasm by H+ symport which critically depends on the so-called proton motive force (pmf).
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Since according to acid growth considerations apoplastic pH is an important factor in elongation growth, we suggest that this pH increase is a main cause for reduced leaf growth under salt stress conditions.
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Is it that chlorophyll content and protein level are significantly affected under drought?
Do drought-tolerant genotypes produce specific secondary metabolites? If yes what are the secondary metabolites?
What should one look for (in terms of biochemical parameters) when studying drought tolerance or sensitivity in legume or cereal genotypes.
Please see the link below:
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I am working on factors affecting shoot tips of rice under water deficit and I have some problems to arrange the treatments as moderate and hard drought.
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The following article is related to your question.
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Hi all professor. Could you please tell me what cause this problem on melon. as you notice, some seeds germinated inside fruits. why?
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Agreed with Sajid Khan
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Anyone wondered why and how Aloe vera leaves develop white spots.
(i) We’ve developed in vitro protocol for Aloe vera, and there were no white spots were appeared in the leaves when incubated under in vitro conditions.
Under in vitro conditions, white spots appeared,
(a) During delayed subculture
(b) When shoots are left with the minimal medium.
Similarly, the non-stripped shoots were developed white spots when transferred to ex vitro or in vivo conditions.
(ii) In the second experiment, the pups or offsprings (approx. 5 cm) developed from the mother plant’s root and rhizome, had no white spots. The offsprings were maintained indoor for 2 months and no white spots were observed. The plants developed white spots in the leaves when placed under shade as well as outdoor.
What is the mechanism behind the white spot development in the Aloe vera leaves?
Your valuable comments on the topic are much appreciated.
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Dear M. Manokari thanks for posting this interesting technical question on RG. As an inorganic chemists I'm absolutely no specialist in this field. However, I noticed that this seems to be a relatively common phenomenon. There are a number of closely related questions and discussions on the internet. For example, please have a look at the following potentially useful links:
Need help my Aloe Vera begun forming white spots
Why does my aloe vera plant have white spots?
White Spots On Aloe Plant: Reasons Why They Exists & How To Fix?
6 Tips To Fix Aloe Vera Plant White Spots Issue
Apparently such white spots on Aloe vera can be natural or caused by fungi. I hope this helps. Good luck with your work!
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I saw in the paper from Nguyen-Queyrens et al. (2002) that osmotic potential = ( osmotic potential at full turgor × 100) / Relative Water Content, but it does not seem correct to just to calculate osmotic potential at full turgor, as (Osmotic Potential × relative water content ) /100. The resulting values are not reliable.
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There is a growing interest in developing means of early detection of crop nutrient deficiencies. It has held that by the time a deficiency shows up in a soil sample, the crop is already under stress. Does crop sap analysis help to resolve this information gap? If so, how can we expand the use of this from high margin specialty crops to commodity crops?
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Leaf and petiole analysis is an established tool. Protocol for perennial crops have been standardized for nutrient analysis.
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I want to assay the ACC deaminase in my isolates, and the commonly used medium is the DF medium which contains MOO3 and gluconic acid. Can I replace them by sodium molybdate and glucose? Or can sombody help me with another minimal medium?
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ACC deaminase activity on the sterile minimal DF (Dworkin and Foster) salts media (DF salts per liter: 4.0 g KH2PO4, 6.0 g Na2HPO4, 0.2 g MgSO4.7H2O, 2.0 g glucose, 2.0 g gluconic acid and 2.0 g citric acid with trace elements: 1 mg FeSO4.7H2O, 10 mg H3BO3, 11.19 mg MnSO4.H2O, 124.6 mg ZnSO4.7H2O, 78.22 mg CuSO4.5H2O, 10 mg MoO3, pH 7.2) amended with 3 mM ACC instead of (NH4)2SO4 as sole nitrogen source (Dworkin and Foster, 1958; Penrose and Glick, 2003). The inoculated plates were incubated at 28°C for 3 days and growth was monitored on a daily basis. Colonies growing on the plates were taken as ACC deaminase producers. Samar Salama Natasha Tilikj
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It is difficult to work on crops and chances of successful experiments are very less, that is why we prefer these model organisms to study the mechanism and then apply the same knowledge on other crops. So, according to you, for different traits and developmental studies which is better?
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I have worked with Nicotiana tabacum and Arabidopsis thaliana. As for me tobacco is more easy culture to grow and work with. But for arabidopsis there is full genome and special resourse about genes and etc https://www.arabidopsis.org/
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I am looking for scientific data concerning alterations in chlorophyll content, Chla/b and Chl/Car. How fast such changes can be in nature? Can they occur in hours, minutes?
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Look up any microalgal paper regarding light cycling or formation of lipids, especially recent ones.... If I gave you too much "proof" I might have to "get Putin" on ya....this type of stuff stays out of the "published" realm because of the crossover it has with biofuel research. Needless to say, the microalgal candidate literature (patents and journals) is full of proof and insinuation of the transition of fast photosynthesizing cells (full of chlorophyll) to senescent cells (full of TGs and lipids) in hours --I've done it in less than 8. Do a search on "lipid trigger" to get you started down the rabbit hole :)
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I have performed several experiments with aquatic macrophytes and one species, Ludwigia peploides, had red roots. What could be the reason for this? A similar species L. grandiflora did not show these red roots. Is it because of nutrients, oxygen...?
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That sort of mitigates against iron oxide because oxidation of iron releases H+
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I study about effects of chitosan in  Diospyros kaki under salinity stress
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Chitosan is a safe and biodegradable plant stimulant. It is able to stimulate the enzyme production related to defensive responses in plants, such as catalase, peroxidase chitinases, glucanases and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) etc. It triggers the accumulation of different signaling molecules like Hydrogen peroxide, Nitric oxide (NO) which increase the activity of different defensive response by increasing the activity of defensive gene and increase the synthesis of plant secondary metabolites when plants are suffer from environmental stresses. Chitosan also increase the content of Jasmonic acid and ABA in plant resulting closure of the plant’s stomata and reduced transpiration during drought condition.
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We are going to select more drought tolerant genotype among a population, which method is more reliable for impose drought stress for selection?
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You need to have first hand information on stagewise water requirement or alternatively having some baseline information on daily evaporation rate , you can schedule two three option to test with .Please remember , testing these genotypes against terminal drought is most important .
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An experiment having 15 lines and 5 testers, need software to calculate as line X tester fashion.
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I would like to suggest you to use AGD-R and Eval_LxT software developed by CIMMYT.
both are a user friendly software which not need syntax (script) but you need to install R-software on your PC.
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I am looking to identify meetings and sessions in the field of xylem/plant water transport. If you have ever organized or attended a conference session or meeting dedicated to any aspect of this area of research please share the name of the conference. Any information is greatly appreciated.
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The next Xylem International meeting will most likely be organized by the University of Padova in Italy i September/October 2019. We are finalizing the organisation right now and I will let you know when I know more.
And yes, Cavitation will be "la part du lion" in this meeting!
Hervé
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We are trying to ascertain germination characteristics for an invasive plant (in South Africa): Cistus ladanifer and one suit of experiments will involve heat treatment to mimic a fire, but we cannot find reliable information on the range of temperatures with increasing soil depth (as a basis to guide our experimental temperatures for the heat trial). 
Thanks in advance for any help on this!
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Dear Phil,
You can get a sense of how soil temperature varies with depth when exposed to fire by using the software FOFEM, which is physically based and produces graphs of temperature vs depth. Curious that a few years back I did simulations for Cistus ladanifer.
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Good day fellow researchers,
I am planning to find some methods on how to prevent or mitigate flood stress on plants/crops physically, chemically, biologically or anything that can be suggested? Just want to familiarize some researches on flood stress. Feel free to suggest research works. Thank you!
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Thank you for all the answers and I appreciate your time and wisdom, I am still taking some academic subjects, such as plant stress physiology, water relations in plants and vegetable physiology, this semester which will enhance my understanding towards my planned thesis.
By the way, my proposed crop would be onion (my province is the highest producer) which is a highly susceptible to flood/high moisture especially when "unexpected typhoon" landed during planting season which is a result of climate change in the Philippines. My ideal work plan would be most likely to combat the harmful effects of flood stress such as use of antioxidants/chemicals that may alleviate the stress on the plant. Also, the level of flood stress could be variable depending on the water content/submergence in the soil as well as the amount of time of flood stress condition. Most likely it would be a pot experiment first under greenhouse condition and if the outcome is favorable it may undergo field trial.
These are some of my reading articles:
Waterlogging tolerance of Welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L.) enhanced by exogenous spermidine and spermine
Use of spermidine reduced the oxidative damage in onion seedlings under salinity by modulating antioxidants
It may be a challenged for this crop, also it still a long run (about 5 months) for me to write my proposed thesis, I will still gather more information, related researches and discussion with my adviser. I am gladly to contact all of you to seek for an advice.
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hi, I need the informations about the effects of putrisine on drought stress in hazelnut. can you help me?
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you can aplication for droughts a kaolinite.
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I've been looking for possible physiological explanation (hormone interaction) about this topic but I could not find articles with direct answer.
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Thanks for information.
Sir how pinching increase flower size?
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My research is about urban green spaces Regeneration by  native plants and trees species
Unfortunately I don’t have enough information  about how can I evaluation (analysis)drought tolerance index on selective native plants
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Dendrochronological analysis of urban trees: climatic response and impact of drought on frequently used tree species,Trees, August 2014, Volume 28, Issue 4, pp 1079–1093
Abstract : Trees in urban environments are exposed to heat stress, low air humidity and soil drought. The increasing temperatures and the more frequent heat and drought events will intensify the stress level of urban trees. We applied a dendrochronological approach to evaluate the species-specific suitability under increasing risk of drought of five tree species at highly sealed urban sites in the city of Dresden (Germany). Climate-growth correlation analyses show that temperatures and water availability from April to July in the current year and in summer and autumn of the previous year are the main determining factors for radial growth. However, distinct species-specific differences were found in the response to temperature, precipitation and the self-calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index. During the study period, the influence of temperature and drought on radial growth during summer months increases for Acer platanoides and Acer pseudoplatanus, whereas no changes occurred for Quercus petraea, Quercus rubra, and P. × hispanica. Pointer year analysis and superposed epoch analyses revealed a species-specific response to extreme climatic events. While for A. platanoides and A. pseudoplatanus a higher number of negative pointer years and significant growth declines in drought years were found, Q. petraea and Q. rubra showed more frequent positive pointer years but no significant growth reductions during drought. Based on these response patterns we classified the studied tree species according to their suitability and drought tolerance for urban sites.
Some PDFs enclosed for reference...
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Is this method was applying in Horticulture or Agro-forestry systems ? Is this have any connection with physiological stress or evolution ?
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Here are more recent article that explain the details:  
1. Involvement of Ethylene Biosynthesis and Signalling in the Transition from Male to Female Flowering in the Monoecious Cucurbita pepo. J Plant Growth Regul. December 2013, Volume 32, Issue 4, pp 789–798. DOI 10.1007/s00344-013-9344-6
2. Transcriptomic Analysis Implies That GA Regulates Sex Expression via Ethylene-Dependent and Ethylene-Independent Pathways in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)
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Some of the ways in which water pollution affects plants may be fairly obvious. An increase in numbers or a dramatic swelling of a population can be relatively easy to detect. Other ways in which plants may be affected can be more subtle. Of, course besides known or observed effects there may well be those that are as yet unstudied and unknown.
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agree with Dr, Jacob and may add that also depend on plant species if working botanical field.
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Freezing tolerance of Safflower with respect to germination.
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I hope you will find this information useful
Seedling emergence response to temperature in safflower: measurements and modeling (Torabi et al., 2015)
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If we were to conduct a field experiment on drought stress to plants, what would be the experimental design so that if it suddenly rains, it would not interfere with the experiment?this plant is a creeper or climber type of plant.thank you.
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I think  , the bigger issue is , how to evaluate the response of drought stress , considering the fact that untimely rains would neutralise the magnitude of plant response to acquired  quantum of drought stress. Or alternatively , when a plant  on the way to reach critical drought stress and rain comes , will surely take away the stimulus of drought stress form the plant..?
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I am looking for some physiological mechanisms in plants under phosphorus deficiency which are directly or indirectly to calcium nutrition
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Interesting discussion...
The interaction between calcium and phosphate is complex because these ions both support and counteract each other. The supporting effect is due to a simultaneous uptake and translocation of calcium and phosphate. The counteracting effect is caused by precipitation of less soluble calcium phosphates at the vicinity of nutrient-absorbing roots.
At high activity ratios between potassium and calcium the risk of calcium deficiency is obvious. The capability of plants to absorb calcium ions is then increased by application of soluble phosphate fertilizers. In a field experiment, application of potassium chloride decreased the uptake of phosphorus and crop yield. Application of ammonium phosphate increased the content of water-soluble phosphate in a soil extract and the early uptake of phosphorus and calcium. Application of ordinary superphosphate had less effect than ammonium phosphate on the solubility of phosphate in the soil, whereas the calcium ion activity and crop yield increased considerably.
Excess input of potassium is usual on farms with a high animal stocking rate and on vegetable farms where potash fertilizers have been used in excessive amounts for years. Decreased uptake and utilization of magnesium and calcium in plants cause quality problems for products. It is suggested to limit excessive fertilization of potassium and to control the balances between nutrients by testing the activity ratios in the soil extracts. Source : Journal Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B — Soil & Plant Science  Volume 43, 1993 - Issue 1
Another PDF enclosed fro further reading 
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To evaluate  many wheat varieties to water stress and carry out a green house experiment.
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Hello,
This topic comes up very frequently.  
I worked on this as PhD student 50 years ago!
At the risk of repetition and being egotistical you might like to read :
Lawlor DW (1969)  Plant Growth in Polyethylene Glycol Solutions in Relation to the Osmotic Potential of the Root Medium and the Leaf Water Balance  J. Exp. Bot. 20 (4): 895
Lawlor Dw (1970) ABSORPTION OF POLYETHYLENE GLYCOLS BY PLANTS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON PLANT GROWTH.  New Phytologist 
DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.1970.tb02446.x
Both are available on Research Gate
There are many aspects you need to consider in using PEG to get effective results
Regards
David Lawlor
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5 months ago i started do abiotic stress in alfalfa (50, 100, 200 mM). When goes salt stress these plants get fall down, little bit yellow. why it's not getting very yellow as much as drought stressed plants? Thank you.
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If you mean very yellow, check the stress levels of drought and salt on alfaalfa.
Drought you apply might be so severe that it kills or worsens much compared to salt.
Best.
Nusret
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I want to submit leaf discs to below zero temperatures as well conducting whole plant studies. In the past when I have conducted electrolyte leakage assays for heat stress or sub-zero temperatures I have submerged the plants in water. Do I need to moisten the leaf surface first with distilled water?
Can I place them in an empty centrifuge tube or test tube in a block on a dry bath?
Thanks,
Katy
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Dear Katy Shotton
Wetting the leaves and subjecting them to sub-zero temperatures will enhance damages to cell membranes and electrolyte leakage. So, you can first wash the leaf  in order to remove dust or anything else which may increase electrical conductivity.  Then smoothly remove the remaining water from leaf surface and place the leaf or leaf discs of uniform size in the container without wetting.
Best wishes
Kazem Ghassemi-Golezani
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Hi All
I exposed some plants to severe salinity stress and cut the plants, then I rewatering again with normal water. Some of these plants started to produce shoots but after 5-6 days, all of these plants died. What could be a possible reason in terms of physiology?
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I think more details are needed, but I could think of some reasons, if the cuttings where planted in the same substrate, the salt could have accumulated in it. If the cuttings where In vitro then maybe they could have phenolized through the cut tissue.
Please send more information and if possible pictures.
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I am having plan to do gene expression analysis on plant under abiotic stress threat. However, there is no data about its genome or gene sequence of that, even in NCBI. How can I design primer to amplify my candidate genes if I dont even know its gene sequence? Can I use ETS sequence from closest phylogeny organism?
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Yes that's how I would start. First use NCBI Taxonomy browser with your species name and targeted gene to find which closely related species have available sequences for that gene. Once done align all the sequences (10-15 should do). Then try to design degenerate primers, it usually works, but go well below the calculated Tm when you perform the PCR.
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It is known that plant increase their metabolites with altitude, what will be the reaction when plants of diff. altitude grown in same environment ?
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I believe the key to the answer is in the evolutionary or physiological significance of the metabolites. Were they produced as a response to stress or as a result of the promotion of certain processes that are influenced by changes in the environment such as light intensity, quality and duration; temperature, pressure, [CO2] etc? If these metabolites are a response to stress conditions prevalent at high altitudes, reversion to low altitudes may reduce the concentrations produced. In the same vein plants from high altitudes may produce less at low altitudes. However this still needs to be validated by appropriate experimentation
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In the experiment of assaying the plant proline content under salinity stress, ten plants(replicates) were selected from each treatment randomly , then were oven-dried for analysis.The problem is, for time-saving, I suggest that grinding the ten plants together and performing the analysis on one gram of this homogenate tissue powders.IS THIS SUGGESTION IS RIGHT?
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Hello Yasser
Replication is often a problem, because of the time and cost involved as pointed out by Kazem but correct replication is essential to enable proper evaluation of the problem being considered and application of correct statistics.  So it is necessary to always have replication irrespective of time etc: if is better to do an experiment properly than to do it incorrectly and get a results which is basically of no value. A replicate is sometimes called a "repeat" but to  repeat means to do again - after a time - whereas a replicate' is don with the other replicates at the same time.
The number of replicates should ideally be determined by doing an experiment to test the methods. Note, earlier comments about using fresh plant material or dry -  drying may cause proline to accumulate in the material, so fresh is probably better but be careful to  analyse before the tissue loses water, or freeze quickly and analyse later. You could or should test this before starting the study. 
First test the analysis on a standard of proline (generally purchased from a reputable supplier) by  adding different amounts to a uniform sample of the material you will be analysing (include a blank to measure the amount of proline in the original material). Repeat the measurement several times  for each concentration. This will tell you a lot about the analysis methods, quantities etc and if you have sufficient replicates for the analysis to get an acceptable statistical error, to give say a standard error of the man of 1, 5 or 10%. 
For the experiment:  Say you want to test how many replicates are required to analyse proline in plant material grown  in field trials with a wet and dry treatment. Each treatment will have 3  replicated plots, watered independently (ideally): 3 is a number often used as it is the minimum for statistical purposes. From each plot take three plants at random.  The amount of proline in each plant from each plot is measured using the required number of replicates of the proline analysis (let's say 3).   There are 2 treatments (the effect on the plant is to be examined) X 3 replicate plots (treatment replicates) X 3 plants (`biological replicates')  X 3 `analytical replicates' that gives = 54 samples to analyse. This is quite a lot of work! But it is a fully replicated experiment which takes into account random errors in the treatment of the plants (differences between plots and the treatment), variations between plants within plots and errors in the analysis between each plant.  The data can be statistically analysed with confidence and the result are meaningful, 
It is possible to decrease the amount of work by combining, say, the three plants from 1 plot together to give a bulked sample and then using 2 replicates of the plant material from the plot. This gives 2 X 3 X 2 x 3 = 36 samples. If the analysis is very good with very small errors then replication of the analysis might be decreased to 2 so giving 24 samples, which is not so large! But decreasing replication means the experiment is not as statistically `good'.
This all sounds very complex and demanding . The reason for it is that experience over many years shows that  combining experimental  methods with statistics  give the best results and thus provide a firm basis for understanding. I hope I have not put you off but encouraged you to apply the scientific approach.
Regards
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It would be my pleasure to have your advice for instruments and facilities in plant ecophysiology lab. We are working  mainly on wild species from rangelands and forests in aridlands.  Some photosynthsis, anzymes and leaf  chemical physiological traits would be favorate parameters. It would be nice if you intrdouce the model of instruments as well.
Warm regards, Negar
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If you want to develop full potential Ecophysiology lab you need following infrastucture
1. Water potential measurement system (Wescor is good)
2. Portable photosynthesis system (Li Cor 6400xt is good)
3. Fluorescence monitoring system (Walz machines are Good)
4. Conductivity bridge for assessing membrane damage etc.
5. If you want assess oxidative damage in plants you need a spectrophotometer
6. Portable leaf area meter etc.
7. LAI measurement systems
Good luck for having adequate funds  because all these equipments are bit costly.
Dr. Annamalainathan
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We are looking for disturbances caused by expanding suburban development on plant distribution and physicochemical properties. What sort of equipment would we need to test for water chemistry and air quality, and how do we sample for those?
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Hello,
My paper, 'Productivity-decomposition dynamics of Typha orientalis at Kaitoke Swamp, Great Barrier Island, New Zealand', describes some water chemistry testing.
I hope that it is useful.
Regards,
Andrew :-)  
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In literature, many authors used 10 to 15 days stress duration to study different physiological and molecular changes in plants…… Can anybody tell what are the possible reasons due to which many investigators like to study stress treatments experiments for 10 / 15 days?
Any reference or specific reason?
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if you keep it more time the plant will die . in nature , the stress conditions usually short period . if the plant can adopt after long time so there is no benefit for the study
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Freezing stress can induce water loss due to the fact that formed ice breaks the membrane and electrolyte flux out of cell. However, chilling stress can also cause water loss.several reports showed the close relation with water uptake inhibition in plant, but this can not explain the warter loss for detached horticultural products by chilling condition. So, how to undertand chilling-induced cellular water deficit?
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Ice nucleus first build up in the intercellular  spaces where pure water is occurred with increasingly reduction of temperature ice attract water from cytoplasm, increasing the ice crystal until it extended to cell wall destructing them. Finally, owing to water attraction,  the hydrophillic parts of the cellular membrane is affected and thus cellular membrane deformed, enzymes fractionated in to cytoplasm  
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I am interested to measure PAR under canopy of shrubs. There are some high quality devices (Waltz, adc..) but i would like to have handy field instrument (not very expensive!).
Do you have any advice or experience?
Warm regards,
Mehdi
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Dear Mehdi and Juan Antonio,
Yes, indeed a 1 m bar-type quantum sensor would be the best instrument for measuring PAR in a canopy. Using a small sensor is not impossible, but would require many replicate measurements (in the order of hundreds per location).
What is usually the difference between expensive and cheap quantum sensors?
1) Spectral response: Li-Cor is best with this, you can use Li-Cor sensors under different white light sources with the same calibration and relatively small systematic errors: say less than 10% or so. Cheaper sensors are not really true PAR sensors, they are calibrated as PAR sensors but tend to need recalibration for each different light source. Even some of Apogee's sensors suffer from this problem http://www.apogeeinstruments.co.uk/quantum/ and while Apogee is outspoken about it, other cheap sensors for which makers do not publish the spectral response may be even worse in this respect. For the Spectrum Technology's sensors you can find in their website a manual where the spectral response is plotted, if you compare this curve to that for the "original Apogee" sensor and the true PAR response one can see that the spectral response of this cheaper sensor is really not at all like PAR. However, if the spectral quality of the light is known and the calibration has been done for this same spectral quality, measurements can be almost as good, but you need to take into account that the calibration is strongly light-source dependent. In any case I would not buy any light sensor unless the manufacturer publishes the sensor's spectral response curve as part of the specifications.
2) Cosine correction. Usually only the most expensive sensors get close to the theoretical response as the angle of incidence of light changes. This is especially important, for a horizontal sensor, when solar angles are low, or in any other situation when light is received at a low angle, possibly under a bush in a discontinuous canopy. Again I would not buy any sensor unless the manufacturer specifies the cosine-correction errors.
Other considerations:
a) Buy a sensor that is attached to the meter with a long cable, otherwise you will be unable to avoid your own shade affecting the measurements. Even with a long (2-3 metres) cable make sure to be as low as possible (not standing) and blocking as little of the light as possible. Be also aware that if wearing white or light-coloured clothes you can also increase the readings by acting as a reflector if suitably positioned. The best way to work out what is safe is to rehearse and experiment.
b) For measurements to be reliable and comparable, the sensor needs to be levelled. Li-Cor, Apogee, and most other makers of sensors for field use sell levelling bases with a spirit level. These bases do also play another role: they are heavy enough to keep the sensor where you want while you move some distance away from it to take the readings without causing shading.
c) Temperature stability should be o.k. for most quantum sensors. Weather/water proofing will vary.
Additional thoughts:
1) With care, if you can borrow one of the expensive sensors or a good spectrometer you can calibrate a cheap or even a home-made sensor. This may make sense if you need many sensors.
2) Any sensor should be recalibrated regularly. Calibration of cheap sensors may drift more, requiring more frequent recalibration under continuous field use. Li-Cor sensors are very stable in my experience: recommendation is to recalibrate at least every two years. For Li-Cor sensors this really holds even for continuous measurements in harsh climates. I have no experience with other makes.
3) In addition be aware that the absolute values, and the ratio between above and below canopy irradiance will depend on solar elevation, as well as on how diffuse daylight is. This last point means that measurements on cloudy and sunny conditions, even if expressed as a ratio will not be comparable.
After writing all this, I need to add that in my experience the two most important sources of errors in this type of measurements are: using "subjective" sampling (not well designed protocol for deciding at which points under the canopy to take readings in an objective way), insufficient replication to account for the high spatial heterogeneity and shading (most frequently partial shading by the operator).
Pedro.
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I want to study the Seed Germination of Desert Plants  under Different Water Potentials due to  Drought and salt. i am using 54, 109 and 164 mM NaCl, how i can measure osmotic Potential of these solution and Prepare PEG solution of Equivalent osmotic potential. 
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Dear Hasnain,
Maybe attached publication can help you.
Kind regards,
Predrag
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NaCl caused an increase in plant height with low and medium concentrations and a decrease with the highest concentration in many researchs then why sodium is always considered as harmful to plants.
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Sodium is not always harmful  to crops , rather it lessens the load on potassium having multiple roles to play . Sodium always remains an important  principal cation  as a part of cation exchange capacity of soil , and adds to the soil tilth , but same sodium could be a different dangerous preposition , when the relative distribution exceeds the  other cations like calcium and/or magnesium.
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Dear Researchers,
      Is it possible for cotton seedlings (10 days old) to produce antioxidant enzymes in cotyledons and other parts under short duration (6h,12h and 24h) of salt and drought stress (stress treatment in distilled water supplemented with various concentrations of NaCl and PEG)? I came across so many articles dealing with leaf and other plant parts only not with cotyledons. I want to estimate antioxidants in whole seedlings after stress tretament. Kindly give your suggestions. Thanks in advance.
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I think it is OK to determine the enzymatic antioxidants in the cotton cotyledons under NaCl and drought stresses. I disagree with Rajesh on using NaCl to induce water deficit since ionic stress will be unavoidable factor. It is better to use PEG polymer of 8000 or more to induce water deficit. PEG 8000 or more decreased the growth medium water potential without entering the cells. It cannot pass through the interstices of the cell wall because PEG is bigger. You have to known this number 8000 is not a real molecular weight.
Greetings
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When onions grown close to each others plants commence to buld earlier, as compared to low plant populations 
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The answer to this may be down to light quality.  Far-red light stimulates bulbing and if plants are densely packed and shading each other there will be a higher ratio of far-red light which would induce earlier bulbing.
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.
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Occurrence of high temperature  concomitant with water deficit stress induces two different  type of defense mechanism in higher plants, namely, induction of anti oxidant enzymes and specific  HSPs in cytoplasm as well as in organelles like  endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and chloroplast.  Induction of  antioxidant enzymes are reported  under most type of abiotic stresses including high temperature stress. There is direct relationship exists between antioxidant enzyme activities like SOD, peroxidase, catalase, ascobate peroxidase (in chloroplast), glutathione reductase etc.,  with high temperature tolerance in many plant species. 
Dr. K. Annamalainathan
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Plant species exhibit different mechanism to tolerant the effect of Al3+-toxicity. Al3+ can also be translocated to the different parts of the plant through a pathway of other elements. Thus, plants can accumulate Al3+ in their roots and shoots. Al3+ contents in roots and shoots has been studied in some of the crop species. Would you please, suggest me or attach me articles related to this? I am in short of them. 
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Data for plant concentrations of Al should be treated with some skepticism for two reasons. First, Field grown plants are always contaminated to some extent by soil (typically high Al concentration).  This dust is impossible to remove completely.  The only reliable data for roots are from hydroponics with prior desorption of exchanged Al on the surface. Second, methods of plant digestion may not quantitatively recover Al.
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O2 is indispensable for energy generating in plants and all plants functions such as absorption of water and minerals ..etc required energy  
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Aquatic plants do not develop in anoxia; they transport oxygen from the atmosphere to the submerged roots via aerenchyma. They are even able to release oxygen from the roots into the sediment avoiding the formation of reducing conditions around the roots
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Cell wall hardening is of high significance in plant protections, particularly, fungus, lengthening shelf life, and tolerating stresses. We need to understand the mechanism of cell wall hardening. Thanks  
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 i think this handbook could help you to know why we require B and Ca in cell wall hardening. 
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I am interested in evaluating the correlation between species diversity and primary production. I know that evapotranspiration is often used as an indirect measure of the primary production; however, it is calculated from values of rain and temperature that we miss. Instead, we have a measure of the ‘plant available water content’.
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Dear Simona, thank you for the references. In fact, at first we evaluated to obtain ET from remote sensing techniques. This, however, seems not an easy task. Meanwhile, we got measures of water content directly available from a European project and therefore we are trying to better understand how this index relates to ET and primary production
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Which metabolic mechanisms are adopted by plants and why?
fruits, leaves and stems exposed to light manifested intensive color. If we cultivate the same cultivar in wall shadow, plants shadow or under sunlight, we find morphological, anatomical and physical variations in tissues constitutes the plant of varing raised plants of the same cultivar. Thanks indeed 
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I recently visited a Andean site (paramo) in Ecuador at 3800m and observed many species with rosette growth forms. UV, temperature, and wind were mentioned as possible evolutionary drivers. Can anyone explain the mechanism driving these trends? For example, hormones that promote stem elongation are less active at colder temperatures? Or secondary compounds that act to protect the cells from Uv rays?
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Can you tell me various types of stress by which one can enrich secondary metabolites in plants. I have maintained plants in solid agar medium. I want to provide stress. Please tell me by which way I can give stress to my plants. How can I remove plant from agar media without making injury to plant.
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first you should autoclave your media, then sterile anything (and your hands) with alchol 70% and a few fire(Spirit lamp) , then keep your cultured media in optimom temprature and light .
To stress the plants, you could use several ways:
1. you can use : salt (NaCl) for salinity stress
2. PEG(6000, 8000,4000) or Manitole ect. for drought stress
3. heavy metal such as Ni, Co, ... for heavy metal stress
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We conducted a research on sesame plants. we would like to find out effects of different concentrations of paclubutrazule and drought stress with different levels on three genotypes of the plants..
We selected the following genes for our gene expression assay.
let me know your opinion about these candidate genes.
1: SiHistone, as reference gene
2: starch synthase (SiSS) and glycosyl hydrolase family protein (SiGH).
3: FAD7 Fatty acid desaturase-7
4: five homologous stress-responsive genes (SIN_1024017, SIN_1022545, SIN_1021853, SIN_1021706, and SIN_1012279)
Thank you in advance
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Dear friends
Thank you so much
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It is know that semi arid and arid plants hold higher water content in plants to overcome the higher transpiration. if so what are the desert plants that hold higher water content. Is there any taxonomic group of plants that hold higher moisture percentage. is there any studies related to this topic
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Cactus is the most famous arid plant on holding water where a fully grown saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea) is said to be able to absorb as much as 200 U.S. gallons (760 l; 170 imp gal) of water during a rainstorm.
The classification of the family Cactaceae were shown on the attached files
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If i wanted to know the physiological and biochemical response of plant to salinity stress, do i need to study it at both in-vitro or ex-vitro condition? 
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This depends mainly on your intention and aims of study.
However, as it has been already mentioned, there are limitations of in vitro approach, while working in the field is quite difficult, due to the complex of abiotic (and biotic) factors that influence the whole-plant responses. Nevertheless, in vitro work has the advantage of controlling and manipulating experimental factors, which would give you a more accurate (rather in a numerical way)  picture of plant-salinity interrelationship. On the other hand, the lab approach would never replicate the natural conditions ant thus, the inherent limitations.
For instance, if you have a halophytic species, it would be very useful and interesting to study it both exposed to salinity  in the lab, as well studied in the field - with measured values of EC. Surprisingly (or not), many species may act in a different manner in vitro, in contrast with what we usually think about the degree of salt  tolerance of a given halophyte species. We conducted such experiments  - and found that species usually considered as ”obligatory/euhalophytes” in the field, responded quite negative when exposed to salt stress in the lab, comparatively with species classified as ”less” halophytic.
Overall, depending on your objectives, it is good to always have in your mind these aspects and to adjust and design your work according to them.
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If I detach leaf from plant,place them in distilled water and give stresses like salt, drought ,cold,etc.Will i get more response to the specific stress that i have given or  due to the plant being detached.Please give physiological logic behind it?Or,Can I give different stress treatments in detached leaves in distilled water , wont there be any big physiological change because of plant being detached?
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@Yuan-Yeu Yau sir please check the link and correct me if i am wrong.
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Whole seedling soluble sugar content decreased under stressed condition, how to explain this? and ratio of coleoptile to radicle in soluble sugar decreased as well? Any answer is welcome.
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Dear Yang Liu,
a paper that may help:
Journal of Experimental Botany, Vol. 57, No. 3, pp. 449–459, 2006
"Involvement of soluble sugars in reactive oxygen species
balance and responses to oxidative stress in plants"
By:
Ivan Coue´ e*, Ce´ cile Sulmon, Gwenola Gouesbet and Abdelhak El Amrani
Best regards,
Maria Alexou
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I have to conduct a pot study for remediation of heavy metal. How much bacterial suspension (10^8 cells/ml) should be added to pot (2kg soil/pot) having five plant seedlings/pot. How much volume of bacterial suspension is needed to inoculate single pot. The water holding capacity for soil is 60% and I have to maintain 30%. In some research paper it is mentioned 20ml bacterial suspension/pot and in some 50ml/pot and in some 5ml/pot. So it is very confusing to plan the experiment properly.
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If you are conducting study, you can pick any or all, if you have time to add more pots.  If I was testing, I would choose several options including wetland soils (hydric) to find out if the bacteria can work on anoxic conditions, perhaps another study with soils maintained at or near field capacity, and conditions of dry soils but above plant wilting point stress.  You might also varying soil type common to your area or just do in sand or some common mix for your area of sand, silt, clay.  But you are conducting the study, you have read other studies, you probably have some questions you want to answer, so you make assumptions or develop hypothesis, design study, keep good records and report results including if thing work or not, how future study can be improved.
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Anyone who can help me to explain the phenomenon why leaf margin of citrus seedlings become yellow and dry?And what I can do to deliver this phenomenon?
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As I said earlier check for water quality , especially EC .There could be some fungal infection as well.
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Based on theory, net assimilation rate will give positive response to water use efficiency. In my study, it is vice versa. Need some explanations to validate my data. 
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Amanina,
Positive correlation between Photosynthesis and WUE(i)? Yes and No.
Basically AN/gs (Net assimilation / srtomatal conductance) simply indicates the amount of carbon fixed / stomatal conductance if it is  derived from stable  carbon isotopes. Or Carbon fixed / unit water lost if derived from gas exchange measurements. Nevertheless you can find the following: a) increase in WUE with an increasing A while gs remains constant or increases moderately. b) an increase in WUE if A remains constant but gs decreases c) decreasing AN and gs decreases significantly. The latter usually occurs under drought situations. An incerease in WUE does not necessarily mean an increase in AN or increase in Biomassproduction. E.g. Tree rings often show a decrease while WUE increases (mostly found under increasing or chronic drought). You can find further details under
Saurer, M., R. T. W. Siegwolf, and F. Schweingruber, 2004: Carbon isotope discrimination indicates improving water-use efficiency of trees in northern Eurasia over the last 100 years. Global Change Biology, 10, 2109-2120.
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Dear All,
Could you please share if any one have detailed protocol to measure electrolyte leakage in cold stressed wheat/ any plants?
Thank you very much
Mohan
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In heat stressed tomato plants, i used the protocol described in the thesis here:
see Page 10
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biologist
chemistry
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thank you
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in my study i found that hoeing treatment affects on cotton root length so i want to know the appropriate explanation for this strange matter.
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Deep tillage pulverizes the soil, making it soft and porous. Moreover root penetration is limited if there is a hard pan in the soil and hoeing can improve. This condition helps the roots to go deeper in the soil. Usually this is done while soil is being prepared for sowing of crop. In standing crop it may care must be taken as it may damage the root system and have bad effects. In your experiment did you hoe the field in standing crop?
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I have tried Sodium hypo chloride and have used 3% volume. We seem to sterilize the contamination but it seems that the tiny seeds are killed in fungus the process. Can someone give any other suggestions of what we can use because we want to use the tiny seeds for tissue culture? 
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Alternatively, you can use tea bags for sterilization after dipping the bleach solution and mixing 300 rpm for 10-15 min. If you have relatively small seeds like orchid seeds, perform the surface sterilisation in micro-cenrtrifuge tubes ( 2mL volume) filled with a bleach solution. Mix it briefly and repeat the steps two-three times, in each please replenish the solution using an autoclaved yellow tips. Finally, add water only 2-3 times. Suck up the seeds and placed onto the germination medium using a micro pipet.
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I need a standard protocol for growing rice hydroponically to assess salt stress and nutrient uptake. It would be really helpful if it includes details of media used,  pH, replenishment of media and if it is necessary to include an air pump. 
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Mr. James,
You may find helpful the attached file with regard to your question.
In any case, I agree with Mr. Chidiac, suggesting strongly experimentation. At the beggining you may fail but surely if you persist you will succeed.
Best Regards
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I am searching for quantitative information regarding crop yield reduction caused by road dust deposition. Thank you in advance!
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I canonly add another link to a road side effect in NZ https://researcharchive.lincoln.ac.nz/bitstream/handle/10182/820/aeru_rr_156.pdf?sequence=1, For all kind of claim it seems advisable to run in situ tests by using upwind and downwind positions
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If we were to induce drought stress to several species in an experiment, would we rather stress all species for the same amount of time, living with the fact that some species might not "feel stressed" at all while others might already show severe damage? Or would we define indicators for stress such as "wilting of 20 % of the samples of one species", which would mean that the duration of drought would be different for each species? When chosing the second approach, would it be allowed to compare statistically between species? Thank you for your thoughts and experiences!
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you must  do the drought stress for each species  separately, but the treatment s must be the same. then it is very easy to compare different species response, providing you have enough replications for each species.
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Will you share me about cold stress screening in rice at seedling stage (including protocol how to give cold stress)?
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Thanks so much Mr. Abhishek Raj for your very informative articles. 
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Drought is attributed for meager water supply in which plants are in a position unable to absorb water from the soil. The reason can be osmotic stress (due to solute accumulation) or due to lack of moisture in the soil. A method that mimics this condition is required to test the performance our test materials while our plants are being grown in hydroponic culture. So it is your turn to forward any suggestion for this.
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Hello,
I worked on this a PhD student 50 years ago!
At the risk of repetition and being egotistical you might like to read :
Lawlor DW (1969)  Plant Growth in Polyethylene Glycol Solutions in Relation to the Osmotic Potential of the Root Medium and the Leaf Water Balance  J. Exp. Bot. 20 (4): 895
Lawlor Dw (1970) ABSORPTION OF POLYETHYLENE GLYCOLS BY PLANTS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON PLANT GROWTH.  New Phytologist
DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.1970.tb02446.x
Both are available on Research Gate
Regards
David Lawlor
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what is the best way to conduct a drought experiment for Arabidopsis in soil media? and what are the important parameters to measure?
(Rght now plan is to Grow the seedlings on known weight of soil + water and after canopy cover the soil, allow plats for drought stress. During stress period weight of the pot will be measured and supplement the water to maintain the required weight throughout the stress period) 
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Dear Akila,
Your aim to analyse drought responses in soil has been tried many times. The method you suggest, and supported by others, may seem straight-forward but I have to say is superficial and will tell you little of value , especially if you think of comparing different plant species, varieties etc.  I have dealt with the problem and show what needs to be done as treatments and measurements to arrive at a better understanding of the problem.  Some think that such detail is unnecessary, but after 50 years studying plant water relations I am sure that only by a deep analysis can progress be made.  .  Please read:
 Lawlor DW (2013) Genetic engineering to improve plant performance under drought: physiological evaluation of achievements, limitations, and possibilities.. J Exp Bot. 2013 Jan;64(1):83-108. doi: 10.1093/jxb/ers326. Epub 2012 Nov 16.
The application of these methods and ideas to a practical problem of comparing wheat in-bred lines in a pot experiment is described in :
Habash DZ, Baudo M, Hindle M, Powers SJ, Defoin-Platel M, Mitchell R, et al. (2014) Systems Responses to Progressive Water Stress in Durum Wheat. PLoS ONE 9(9): e108431. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0108431
The results are very interesting  and worth careful reading.
Both papers are available under Lawlor DW on Research Gate
I am happy to help further.
Regards
David W Lawlor
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Hello Researchers.In protocol of POD it is written that change in absorbance/minute at 430 nm.
I just want to ask that absorbance become increase or decrease in stress plant sample?
Also guide me calculation of POD with example. Please
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Thanks you all
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Greetings!
I am curious about this topic. Most of the research about microgravity is focus on the morphogenesis and tropism of the plant. As far as I know, the microgravity can affect the production of plant hormone. That is the reason why the growth of plant is not normal. If the plant growth is not normal, is photosynthesis must be affected?
Experts, I need your help and share me some literature about the microgravity, knowledge and wisdom in writing a research proposal.
I am interested to make a study and write a research proposal.
Thank you and more power!
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Microgravity is the condition in which people or objects appear to be weightless. Means the individual quantum particles situates a resultant gravity which is theoretically equals to zero.
In the case of plants the chlorophylls are formed with huge number of quantum particles within. As the micro-gravity is said the photosynthesis must not be affected by this issue. But as the hormonal systems affects by the micro-gravity, the photosynthesis or photosynthetic activities could be affected. 
It is well known that different plants are having different different cycles like C1, C2, C3, C4 etc. and all of them are mutually dependent on photosynthesis for that reason the photosynthesis would be affected if the cycles got imbalanced. This is my best to give the answer regarding your query.
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Is one could give me information about how to identify the genes responsible for drought tolerance in maize
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thanks Mr. David Lawlor
I am happy to communicate with your presence
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I visited last week to Tthari village of Narmada district. I  observed Banana crop scorched. I asked farmers to  know the reason of scorching of banana. Farmers replied that this was because of low temperature. The question is that banana plant gets scorched if temperature goes down to 10 C.  What physiological changes takes place in banana plant if temperature goes down?
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Bananas are chilling sensitive plants.   Below about 12C, the membrane lipids change conformation to make the membrane more rigid.   As many of the electron transport functions are membrane bound or closely associated, their ability to pass electrons along the chain is impaired.    With respect to leaves, the bronzing or similar discolouration is due to photo-destruction of chlorophyll as electrons can not be passed.   Free radicals can also be generated resulting in further destruction of various compounds especially those with double bonds e.g. unsaturated lipids forming peroxides.
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Absorbance of control is less so  overall negative SOD value is obtained. Values within replicate are not stable.
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When u say absorbance, what do u mean? Most likely u will be performing a kinetic assay. Additional details might be needed if your query needs to be answered.
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I am working on draught stress in wheat. I need to measure WSC content in 600 experimental lines and varieties of wheat, so is there any efficient way to do for these large number of samples?
Any suggestions would be highly appreciated.
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Hi Anju,
To measure water soluble carbohydrate you can use either the phenol-sulfuric acid  (Dubois et al.1956) method or by using Anthrone reagent (Yemm, EW. and Willis, AJ. (1954) The estimation of carbohydrates in plant extracts by anthrone The Biochemical Journal 57, 508–514). Look at the references and find out which one will be suitable for your sample. In past while I worked with drought stressed tissue I used the latter one. Regarding the sample numbers you can use a microplate reader where in you can measure a large number of samples at a time. Remember that you are dealing with conc. acids, so you need to standardize  the assay along with your sample before putting  a large batch of samples into a plate reader. However, if you want to know specific carbohydrate, then go for HPLC. Hope this will help. You can find more information to assay carbohydrates by using Phenol-sulfuric acid, please refer my paper Mishra et al. 2009. Hope this will help. If any question, please feel free to contact me.
Good luck 
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When is the bud-set?
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My opinion is that you'll have to get precise and reliable data on microclimactic conditions ocurring at the budding level and correlate them to to bud set.  In this way you'll be able to monitor conditions at the micro eco level and perhaps predict actual bud setting.
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I want to grow cucumber under salt stress but can anyone help me in suggesting the best specie of AMF? 
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Please, take a look at this paper:
E. Gamalero, G. Berta, N. Massa, B.R. Glick and G. Lingua