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Plant Conservation - Science topic

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The majority of medicinal plants are obtained from wild resources, making them a worldwide valued resource. Destructive harvesting usually leads to resource exhaustion and even extinction of species. As a result, the long-term usage of medicinal herbs should be considered, as should good harvesting procedures. What techniques and methodologies ensure that medicinal plant resources are conserved and used sustainably?
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In-situ and ex-situ conservation is the best solution for the conservation and sustainable management of medicinal plants but community awareness is also important. In most cases, the medicinal plants are collected by untrained or unprofessional local shepherds, plant collectors, some local traders, and even schoolchildren. They do not know even the plant part used as medicine and active ingredients and collecting/harvesting the plant's irrational ways like if the medicinal part of the plant is leaves, instead of collecting some leaves they cut the whole plants; if the active ingredients or medicinal part of the plant is root then they uproot the plant before seed setting which is the major reason of poor regeneration and sustainability of the plant resource in a certain area. There is thus a need first to identify the people who are involved in plant collection the to provide them training on the proper time of harvesting and collection techniques sustained without degrading the basic resources. There should be a clear-cut government policy on medicinal plant collection and trade following sustainable harvest and management principles.
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Couldn't find any information on the internet, both species apparently have the same chromosome number 2n = 32 (The New Zealand Plant Conservation Network).
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Yes :)
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I have to perform longevity tests on wild orthodox seeds and compared the results with those from correspondent naturally aged seed stored under standard seed-bank storage conditions. I found different methods: AA and CD tests, which use water or different saturated /unsaturated salt solutions to equilibrate seeds at controlled RH%. Is there an optimal reliable one for testing orthodox seeds from wild species?
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Which conservation strategy is more suitable for such a condition? Is it possible to change the IUCN status from endangered to lower risk?
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  • By following the IUCN guidelines mixing with local ethical values of that area.
  • By creating awareness and capacity building of the target population groups.
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Virgin nature rapidly invides our abandon constructions as demonstrates photography including the attached photo. How long could survive traces of our civilisation if its development would crush? Does not invasive species like heracleum, biodiversity, and especially plant biodiversity, plants conservation, plants biology, plant ecology, botany, flowers biology, even actinobacteria and microbiology, phytogeography, vegetation ecology, biodiversity informatics tell us that it would proceed very rapidly?
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Probably all information stored in silico will be lost after a short time. However a lot of plastic items will give for a long time (as long as plastic survives) the impression that our civilization was essentially based on such polymers. In addition many remains of road constructions and dams will survive for millennia
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For knowledge of mine and people with me,I need this help from ourscientific community.Long back,my teacher Late Prof K S Bhargava took coloured photos of sacred plants of India for his proposed book entitled 'Sacred plants of India.But, unfortunately he expired and thereafter we have no information about his write-up.
To my knowledge,Plants in Bibles and Plants in Holy Quran have been published.Plants of many Sacred Groves are also available in literature.
In my opinion ,this procedure of linking plants with human faith,has been the most effective way of plant conservation
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Yellow Bird of Paradise by my Colleague
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Any research, publication, article, news report, grant proposal etc...
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Please also take a look at this useful link.
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Based on my research, this method is used to assess the adequacy of sampling, but I don't know what the difference is between them.
Can anyone help me regarding this subject?
Which individual based and sample based method is better for determining the adequacy of sampling?
My study was carried out in two regions with different climates and in each region, we are sampling in two different management regimes.
Which scale (management, climate regime or total data) must be used in analysis to assess the adequacy of sampling?
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Species accumulation curves (or collector’s curves) are used to estimate the number of species (i.e. species richness) in a particular area. A species accumulation curve records the total number of species observed, during the process of data collection, as additional individuals are added to the pool of all previously observed or collected individuals or samples. Accumulation curves may be either individual-based or sample-based.
A species rarefaction curve answers the question "how many species would a smaller sample include? Say you had two samples, 'A' with 100 individuals total and those 100 individuals distributed among 9 species and sample 'B' with 25 individuals distributed among 4 species. Rarefaction answers the question "How many species would I expect in sample A if I had caught only 25 individuals in all instead of 100?" The species diversity of two samples, containing 100 and 25 individuals respectively, can be compared directly by rarefying the larger sample down to 25 individuals.
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just to determine diversity index 
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Because palm trees have different habits for different species, I think it would be interesting to develop an index that calculates the diversity within functional attributes or habits of life, contemplating the species of Arecaceae of a region.
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Some   Scientists have taken over 20 yrs to work out a single genus,Some people could not complete a large angiosperm family even over three decades.Should there be any international norm for such studies where the world's leading organisations like Kew/Smithsonian Institute could play a role in deciding the time limit.
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The question is very broad. I can try as follows. For a flowering plants study one has to differentiate among herb,shrub and tree. So the time/years will depend on the habit of the plant. Some seasonal herbs can only take even 3-5 months. And other big trees can take 20 or more years for a scientist to study its florist  identification.
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please give information regarding, Collection, compilation and documentation (digitization) of published scientific information on various aspects of selected Indian Medicinal Plants and ASU products and preparations of comprehensive monographs thereof and CTDs. as per NATIONAL MEDICINAL PLANTS BOARD DEPARTMENT OF AYUSH 
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Dear all,
Can anyone please help me to identify this plant? The pictures were taken from a forest  in the Eastern region of Ghana.
Thanks for your assistance.
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Dear Vivian,
Ricinodendron heudelotii (Baill.) Pierre ex Pax. is correct identification
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Facilitation happens when the pioneer species help the secondary species in succession, but they don't do it purpose since they know that they will be replaced. The question is, why does this happen? What pushes the pioneer species to help the secondary species?
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I think it's just because the initial environmental conditions favour the pioneer species, which then modify the environment in favour of the secondary species. They don't actually 'know' they are doing this :)
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I have some identification books but it's super out-of-date. Even the content might be still relevant, but I just wonder, whether there are other references for tropical understorey plant identification which are newer?
If you know, would you mind to mention the title and the author of the identification books?
Thanks
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I agree with Andrew Paul Mckenzie Pegman. The other way to identify the plant is by using the local/regional flora.
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The debate among botanists worldwide who have had antagonistic opinions and views related to the classification of orchids is not solved yet. On the contrary, the problem is becoming even more complicated especially in Europe (between the scholars of different European countries). On the other hand, another big conflict exists between Europe and Kew. Classifications are based and build on different methodologies; Observation (comparisons of structural differences and similarities), Comparative Assessments of Mutual Relationships (Cladistic analyses) and Reproductive Isolation/Interaction (pollinator specificity as an isolation mechanism).] All these kinds of scholars’ classifications one way or another are criticized for their unclearness in taxonomy and said to have positive and negative results that can’t be completely based on.
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Orchid taxonomy is very complex in Europe and the problem becoming even more complicated for conservation point of view.
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Please give your suggestions.
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Example - Ficus tinctoria G.Forst. subsp. gibbosa (Blume) Corner
Habit - Tree or erect shrub or scandent shrub. 
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It's appropriate to use rarefaction curves to evaluate if the number of interviews performed is adequate? (Using a matrix of species x interviews). 
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Thanks 
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I want to know about the coding methods for analyzing phenological changes, which is applied in Indian Himalayan Biodiversity
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Thank you all..
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Do you know where can I find information about the orchid family in your country?
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Hi Spyros, In France, an atlas of orchids has been published in 2010 for the metropolitan territory. It presents the distribution of each species in a grid of 10 x 10 kms. I think there similar orchid atlas at least in Germany, UK and Switzerland. Did you find similar orchid atlas in other European countries? Cheers, Bertrand
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can anybody help me to identify the species of Muncuna 2?
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Thank you, Prof. Munivenkatappa Sanjappa ji, for motivating the budding botanists to consult local floras and become familiar with the native plants. This will surely increase their taxonomic knowledge.
Alternately, photographs of plants can be posted on efloraofindia (many Indian Taxonomists are associated with this google group) or Plant Wealth of India (FB page)  for identification.
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I am doing a thesis on the conservation of the Jade Vine species--an endangered plant endemic to the Philippines. What specific methods would help preserve the plant within its native area?
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 I agree with Arvind Singh. My wife and I lived with the Agta Negritos in the northern Aurora rainforest for most of the years from 1962 to 2010. When we arrived most of the area was old-grown rainforest, with huge dipterocarp hardwood trees averaging 143 feet high. We saw the beautiful jade vine often, always in shaded forest, hanging from trees, often within reach. The local Agta people's name for this plant is BULOKTOT. The Agta do not use this for any purpose we know of. And they often warned us not to touch it or pick it because it will make one's skin itch (daw). I do not recall ever seeing it growing outside of closed-cover lowland forest. As Arvind suggests, the best way to protect it is to enforce laws against commercial logging. Unfortunately, it is way too late now, as only three percent of the old-growth forest in northern Aurora survives today. Thomas N. Headland (SIL International, on January 16, 2017)
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this is a climber type jasminum spp., grown in natural forest.
Is this Jasminum attenuatum/Jasminum coarctatum?
Thanks
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Dear Rishad,
Dr. Sunil Srivastava <skshri08@rediffmail.com> has revised the Indian species of Jasminum.
If you like you can contact him with all the relevant field data. Hope this helps.
Best wishes,
Subir.
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Please, give tips and the methods for classifications?
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I agree with all that Simon says, but would add that it is often extremely difficult to get enough data to do a formal IUCN assessment for tropical forest trees, which is why so few - I'd guess less than 1-2% - have been evaluated. The IUCN document makes clear that it is better to classify a species on the basis of the best available information than to not classify it at all, but in practice people seem to be very reluctant to do this, particularly for plants. For canopy trees, Asma's suggestion of remote sensing data is an attractive idea, but although Greg Asner's group has shown that identifying trees to species may be possible, I have never seen it used in a conservation assessment. I'd guess that if a species was very distinctive in some way that was detectable from space this would be possible.
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Dear All,
Need your expert opinion about this orchid
regards,
Rishad
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It is surely not an Orchid.It is an epiphytic Pteridophyte  Drymoglossum piloselloides.
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This is an image of Boehmeria glomerulifera . some fungal mycelium like structures were found in association with every inflorescence. Like to know about this association.
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Dear Dipti,
By seeing the image, its looks like spider web or mite’s web. Insects will form a white sticky thread like structures to protect themselves from the enemies, catching the preys, and to lay eggs. Kindly check any insects or tiny bugs associated with the plant.
Thanks
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can anybody help me to identify the species of Muncuna 1?
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I am also agree with expert comments that it is Mucuna pruriens
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Can anybody help me to identify the species of Mycetia?
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Mycetia longifolia (Wall.) Kuntze is correct answer by Dr. Arvind. In  Mycetia javanica (Blume) Reinw. ex Korth. the size of peduncle and pedicel is less. 
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All large, tropical, plant germplasm banks that I am aware of focus largely on crop species, using a mix of conventional low-temperature storage for desiccation-tolerant (orthodox) species and cryopreservation of seeds or other tissues for desiccation-intolerant (recalcitrant and intermediate) species. There are thousands of endangered wild species in the tropics, but these have received much less attention. Does anyone know of institutions in or outside the tropics that have substantial ex situ collections of seeds or other tissues of tropical wild species?
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Have you all forgotten that every tropical national park is a seed bank?  What if you all put your energies into synergizing mutualistically with those governments and surrounding citizens to create permanence and even expansion of those national conserved wildlands into being accepted and permanent at the negotiating table by their respective societies?  
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Problems include lack of disturbance, succession, collapse of rabbit populations, eutrophication etc. Also interested in lichens. We hope to test some options.
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Depending  how rare these plants are you may also  consider having a collection of plants that represents the genetic diversity of the species  in safe secure environment  such as an in vitro collection in a lab or seed collection in a genebank. This will ensure survival of the species should any natural disasters, pest incursions, disease outbreaks occur. 
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How many Critically endangered plants of medicinal origin are found in India?
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Thank you Dr.Rainer Bussman
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Hello everyone. I would like to get information about ex-situ conservation of marine algae and fern spores. Thank you 
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The American Fern Society maintains a spore exchange, ferns only:
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I want to preserve live plant materials.
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The Environment and plants
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In any context plants are not harmful. Poisonous nature of some plants are just adaptations for their evolutionary survival. We should not forget that  fungi are not plants. It is only in the context they may cause loss man-made ecosystems: weeds in crop fields; exotic weeds by accidental introductions etc. Plants can be made symbolic to Lord Shiva, one of the Trinurthies in Indian Mythology who chose to consume the poison for benefit of Gods and later by intervention of his wife Parvati, alarmed, stopped it in his throat; in the same way plants for the benfit of mankind, around the world continuously consuming CO2, the poison to humans.  
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I am organizing an international conference on this topic at Concordia University -- Montreal Canada in October and will soon open a call for participants. There will be a series of post-conference publications
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Try to get in touch with BGCI https://www.bgci.org/
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Where should we go from here? How should we start? Please provide your perspective. Thank you.
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Interesting to hear Malaysia started with habitat protection prior to species protection. In many countries (Europe, Africa) statutory species protection preceded habitat (area) protection by gazetting protected areas (NP). Moreover habitat (NP) protection provides for control of some threats (e.g. farming and forestry), but never all; mining has statutorily dominance over other land uses in most countries ( e.g. Namibia; Germany).
On the responses, I wish "stakeholders" would be more specific. Ownership of land, and associated (or not) wildlife and plants would need to be made explicit for conservation to be successfully ( attached).
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I'm currently working on this genus, i appreciate any help,
thanks!
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Do you know any unpublished trial about in vitro vegetative regeneration of orchids with translocation for conservation purpose? Ideally close to 'Spiranthes aestivalis' but I am happy to receive any suggestions.
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Dear Ai-Qun,
Thank you for your suggestion. I lead a restoration plan for a population at high risk in West Europe. I am in the prospective step where I have to find the most cost/time effective technique to increase the number of individual (from various spots in order to maintain genetic diversity) and for future transplantation. I believed that vegetative reproduction was the faster and most efficient technique. But I am happy to consider the 'natural' way if it is not too complicated with the medium and with the associated fungus to cultivate. As experienced scientist who know the flower genus what do you think?
You can write on my personal email if desired.
Many thanks again Ai-Qun
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I am looking for published data about lifespan of miniature orchids species living in natural habitats  (mainly belonging to these three genera mentioned above). Are there any studies upon such topic? Is the lifespan of such orchid species living in the wild much longer that in laboratory/home culture? Is there any correlation between orchid size and its lifespan?
Thank you in advance for any comments and suggestions.
Best regards,
Radomir
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Dear Rodrigo,
thank you very much for suggestion. you are right, there are some very interesting papers on Lepanthes in the profile of Dr. Raymond Tremblay.
Best regards,
Radomir
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We all know that globally besides having role in authentication and reference for describing new species herbaria played a critical role in studies pertaining to climate change, ethanobotany, ecology, DNA bar coding etc. Can any one tell me if there are any priority considerations in use of herbaria for various purposes? I shall also be happy to receive the articles which describe role of herbaria in documenting biodiversity.    
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For the role of herbaria records over two centuries in today's ecology and NP management see attached; hope you feel inspired.
Priorities are set by third parities providing funds to extract the information for a specific societal purpose (your categories).
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Recently, a new combination was published of a cycad species in which the basionym cited had two syntypes listed. However, these two syntypes are not actually syntypes because they were not cited in the original publication. However, they could be considered original material because they were collected by the author of the publication and labeled as such in the herbarium. However, they were neither mentioned in the protologue description nor designated as types elsewhere. 
The original publication of the basionym was valid because it was published before type designation was compulsory, but I'm not sure whether the new combination would be valid considering the authors did not typify the basionym. 
I could not find anything about this specific situation in the International Code of Nomenclature, so any thoughts would be helpful.
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The code only requires ONE THING for a combination be valid. It needs to be a combination of a valid name. Because before 1935 types and latin diagnosis were not required, any name which had a proper description would be valid. There are far too many orchids in this category, which are valid because they have a text saying something like "This is a new species closely related to X, but the flowers are bigger, the there are stripes in the lip". That suffices for a valid name in the XIX century. 
The second question is whether a combination based on such a name would be valid. The answer is again YES. There is not requirement that a name is typified to be used as a basionym. If the original name was valid, the combination is also valid. I tried to estimate here based in a couple of genera of orchids, and I believe there about 5000 thousand orchid names which are combinations of basionyms still lacking typification. The code does not require anywhere that a typification be made before proposing a combination on such names. 
Regards
Cassio
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LED, in vitro bank, plant conservation
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LEDs are a useful solution as heat emission is low. Nevertheless, many LEDs offered show only limited wavelength band widths and can therefore lead to results that cannot be transferred to processes in direct sunlight. Many producers offer LED arrays with a wider wavelength spectrum and it is also possible to get custumized arrays (depending on how much money you can spend). A problem is still UV light as the translucent plastics covering the LED absorb most of it, but LEDs with a UV spectrum should also be available by now.
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Please assist I am working in this area
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Dear Kibonde,
I prepared new article about conservation framework especially for forest ecosystems. Because is not easy questin. We must specified the concrete species and know management of all ecosystems. I can send you my article, but huge part is in czech language. But I think you can find there some information in english too. After printing I send you this article.
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I only have one plant that does not grow fast. I only have buds or leaves that can be used for axillary or adventive budding or somatic embryogenesis.
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If you have only one plant,better you should go for axillary bud culture and multiply in vitro plantlets.Trees are usually recalcitrant for  tissue culture.I hope eucalyptus protocol wil be helpful for your plant.
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I need saplings of the above mentioned trees to carry out my phenological experiment. I would be very thankful for any help.
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Grazie mille
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I look for a remote sensed data set (based on NDVI or more) on standing biomass in Mediterranean Europe to better understand fine scale (< 500 x 500 m2) distribution patterns of plants.
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Thank You Cristina, I understand better now Your proposal;
I don't need detailed time series,
one reference data-set would be sufficient at the moment,
I hoped to find an existing data set;
300m resolution sounds very appropriate for my questions, I will try the way you propose, if I get news I will give an udpdate here,
all the best, Arne
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Semi-Arid region
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This could be a species of Pterospermum (Sterculiaceae)
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Can anyone suggest me the best methodology in order to determine minimum size population of Dipterocarpus species since I am new beginner of genetic manner.
Thank you.
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If you have data about population densities, you should try to run a Population viability analysis (AVP). Five hundred individuals are usually ok, but it could vary according to the recruitment rate in different areas.
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One of my main objective for my study is 1.) To predict range shift and possible local extinction of individual plant species / vegetation communities through niche incompatibility, my Question here is.  Which model can one employ to address this.  I have collected presence and absence data on plants and grasses along an altitude gradient. What can be a point of departure here?
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I see from the replies above that a number of people have provided links, many of them useful, to modelling tools and exercises. However, a the outputs of a modelling tool are no better than the data and the ecological understanding and insights used to set it up. Usually people say "garbage in - garbage out" only with reference to data but I think what you know about the system is at least as critical. Think about the system and think about what could be the determining abiotic factors (e.g. minimum temperatures, duration and intensity of the dry season) as well as the biotic factors (e.g. life history and physiology of your species, mobility) and habitat factors.
I suspect from your address that your study is probably in South Africa and most of South Africa's vegetation is fire prone. This means that you need to understand not only how the climate may change but also how that may alter fire regimes and that could affect your vegetation types and species. I would recommend speaking to Prof Mark Robertson (U Pretoria).or Prof Barend Erasmus (Wits) about your project as they can also provide guidance.
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Especially the caterpillar stage remains for how many days, can anybody tell me?
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ITS LIFECYCLE IS OF 38 TO 42 DAYS...
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I have a species which shows clear cut differences in morphology( from Monocot plant ) in vegetative as well as reproductive characters.
I am yet to carry out chemical profiling. 
It shows difference in stomatal index and structure of epidermal cell.
There is no difference in microclimatic conditions. Both the species are sharing the same niche.
I feel in spite of the differences which are seen, it can not be considered as a new species but, can be called a taxonomic variety of each other. Of course, it can be supported more after the chemical profiling is done.
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There are two things you need to demonstrate convincingly:
1. The two forms are species. This is relatively easy, and is best demonstrated if multiple lines of evidence demonstrate the same two groups (diagnosable morphology, diagnosable cytology, reciprocal monophyly of DNA sequences, microsatellite analysis showing two clusters). This would document lineage divergence (phylogenetic independence).
2. Speciation took place in the face of gene flow. This is much more difficult because it is nearly always possible to think of a scenario of allopatric divergence (Futuyma, DJ & Mayer, GC 1980. Non-allopatric speciation in animals. Syst. Zool. 29: 254-271). This is why the most convincing cases so far have been on oceanic islands or in crater lakes. In any case, you must demonstrate that the two species are each other's closest relatives, and preferably also that their distributions show a large degree of overlap (making allopatric divergence less likely), that the two species are young (the older, the more difficult to rule out allopatric divergence), that there are ecological differences between the two species (more of less necessary for sympatric speciation to start), and that their genomes are divergent at loci that are associated with ecological differences (indicative of ecological speciation), but not divergent at neutral loci (i.e. homogenized by gene flow). This can be investigated with RAD-seq technology. See Feder, JL., Flaxman, SM, Egan, SP, Comeault, AA & Nosil, P 2013. Geographic mode of speciation and genomic divergence. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 44: 73-97.
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I am working on my master's thesis proposal and this question was posed to me by a committee member. I'd like to open a discussion with other plant conservation scientists, systematists, and those trying to understand the diversification of plants.
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Yes, I agree with the question very much, because we can only find morphological two-dimensional connections via dried specimens, and the future of botany, taxonomy and ecology will be with two "new" three dimensional concepts, ecotypes and genetics.  
Ecotypes make the connections between the plant species and the environment that creates fixed genetic forms called ecotypes, that you can read about at http://www.ecoseeds.com/juicy.gossip.three.html.  
We will have to invent a new language to be able to discuss the fixed ecotypes, and when Gote Turesson coined the word ecotype in 1922 he also tried to invent a language to discuss and describe the various ecotypes.  When Greene split the California poppy into 116 new species, people thought he was crazy, but he was just a decade ahead of discussing the ecotype questions, and only had 100 years ago the old taxonomic "species, subspecies and variety" tools to work with.
Genetics will open the door for us to sort out the thousands of cryptic species that are hiding amongst all of  the species that we thought were solid taxonomic entities, but there are look-alikes that cannot breed with each other, so should be separated and described as new species.
Before Dr. Ledyard Stebbins passed away in 2000, we co-authored a paper in the journal Grasslands (Native Grass Association, Davis CA) in 1998, "Jepson Manual chromosome numbers may indicate new 'cryptic' native grass species." GRASSLANDS 8 (3) 4-5.  
What our article talked about, is that there are 300 described native grass species in California based on their physical/taxonomic traits, and our paper is recommending that there are hidden species via genetics among the 300, another 100 species that must be teased out and described that will take lifetimes of future geneticists and taxonomists to resolve.
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I need the biomass data to assess the rangeland condition in my study area.
I want to determin the amount of biomass from the litter percent, therefore I need a valid relationship for this propos.
I great thanks to anybody that offers a valid formula.
 
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Dear Reza
As others have said here, it would be dangerous to extrapolate from litter to biomass, because the amount of litter can be affected by so many factors including date since last burn, rainfall, temperature etc.
There are dozens of ways to estimate biomass without actually sampling it, but probably the best methods would involve double-sampling where you measure one parameter of the grassland and collect actual biomass in a sub-sample by cutting and weighing to generate an empirical relationship. I've used modified dry-weight rank to do that, harvesting 10 quadrats to generate the regression and then using that regression to estimate biomass for the remaining quadrats.
The disc pasture meter is widely used in southern Africa to estimate biomass, and you could select one of the many empirical relationships developed for different environments to estimate biomass in your environment. 
I've attached a spreadsheet that I compiled a few years ago of different discmeter regressions for different environments. The references for each relationship are included in the spreadsheet. These relationships only work for the design of the discmeter in the original Bransby and Tainton 1977 paper (included in the list). If you can't get a discmeter made to those exact specifications, you'll have to develop your own relationships for your own device (and it's probably better to generate your own relationships for your environment, anyway).
Alternatively, use measures such as leaf volume, leaf table height, modified dry-weight-rank, or remote sensing techniques. 
For the dry-weight rank methods, check the following references:
t’Mannetje, L., and K. P. Haydock. 1963. The dry-weight-rank method for the botanical analysis of pasture. Journal of the British Grassland Society 18:268–275.
Jones, R. M., and J. N. G. Hargreaves. 1979. Improvements to the dry-weight-rank method for measuring botanical composition. Grass and Forage Science 34:181–189.
Sandland, R. L., J. C. Alexander, and K. P. Haydock. 1982. A statistical assessment of the dry-weight-rank method of pasture sampling. Grass and Forage Science 37:263–272.
A phytomass volume index can be generated by multiplying cover (as a proportion) by leaf table height (as a proportion of maximum leaf table height). Double sampling can then be used to relate the index to biomass.
A couple of people have also developed relationships between grass cover and biomass. I have attached the Flombaum and Sala paper, and here is a reference to a response on that paper.
Montès, Nicolas. "A non-destructive method to estimate biomass in arid environments: A comment on Flombaun and Sala (200&." Journal of Arid Environments 73.6 (2009): 599-601.
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I am collecting information about symbol plants of different regions of Europe. Unfortunately, I couldn't find enough information from the Balkans. Any information and references are welcome.
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Hello sir,
I have attached a paper.Hope this paper help to your work
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Do you know examples where complex disturbance regimes and their impacts have been assessed in detail and, as a result, have been better managed so as to maintain one or more plant species?
I am looking for interesting examples of the detailed study and management of disturbance regimes for plant conservation that might illustrate the value of such research. While a complex set of factors and principles are often mentioned as part of the theory, I find few examples where sophisticated management has been implemented in consequence of study (i.e. beyond “simple” blanket treatments such as burning or grazing or selective forest harvesting). How useful is it to understand local disturbance processes and how these interact with the species present? How deep should we go? I’d be grateful for any examples and references.
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In Western Europe, there is a long tradition in conservation management of semi-natural ecosystems. This management involves mowing, grazing, sod cutting, burning, irrigation with calcareous river water, drainage, plowing, liming, ... . And often a combination between these. The conservation management is a continuation of traditional land-uses, but it is also adjusted by scientific insights.
There are a lot of papers available which studied the management of a particular plant community. See for example Volis et al., 2005 (in Conservation Biology) for the habitat management of Gentiana pneumonanthe. They even use matrix population models in their analysis. A second example is the research performed in the Netherlands on the restoration of abandonded chalk grasslands (e.g. Bobbink & Willems, 1993 in Biodiversity and Conservation). Other well studied plant communities are Molinion grasslands and heathlands.
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I have been accumulating some papers for a seminar, but unfortunately I don't have enough pictures of that. Can anyone help me?
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Are epidermal bladder cells not the cells you are looking for? They participate in sodium sequestration and water storage. I've also found this: http://www.agritech.tnau.ac.in/agriculture/agri_salinity_tolerance.html.
A scheme of the salt gland is in a book 'A Text Book Of botany: Plant Anatomy and Economic Botany, Volume 3. By Pandey S N, S. N. Pandey, Ajanta Chadha (Google Books). Best regards, Renata
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Climate model range maps (USFS Moscow ID) show that Alligator Juniper (whose northernmost range is n. New Mexico) will prove less viable there by 2030 and have ideal range nearly 200 miles north of its present range. How will it get there? Note: I am the activist who conducted the 2008 "assisted migration" of the endangered Torreya taxifolia conifer tree into the mountains of North Carolina.
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First a bias--with the exception of endangered species, I think we must be very careful about assisted migration in general. Man's attempts to engineer nature often, if not usually, have unintended consequences as evidenced by many, many invasive species. As far as Juniperus deppeana is concerned, I have seen little evidence yet that the species is in trouble in its Arizona range. It is definitely far from endangered. In my study area in the Santa Catalina Mountains, there has been some die-off of old trees during our current drought (since the late 1990s). But there has certainly been no change in the range of the species in the mountains in southern Arizona. Recently I helped voucher a specimen in the Catalinas at 2750 feet elevation, a good 2000 feet lower than I ever would have expected it. (The individual had two 60 cm diameter trunks arising from a base about 120 cm in diameter, so it has been in this canyon bottom for several hundred years.) Recruitment seems pretty limited, not surprising given that trees live for hundreds of years, but there is a wide range of age classes. Recently I make a point of looking for young trees under 2 m high and found that although numbers are limited, there are several distinct height groups--roughly 10 cm, 30 cm, 60 cm, 90 cm, etc. The number of individuals in these groups was remarkably similar (3-6). My impression is that germination is dependent on particular climate conditions (i.e., wet periods), the latest here being in 2006, in the middle of the drought. The 10 cm plants may have germinated in 2006, but I must admit I don't have a good idea of how slowly trees grow.
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According to the different contribution of rare and common species in the total plant species diversity, it is important that diversity component of each analysis is done separately.
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A recent paper in Ecography describes a nice quantitatie index to measure commonnes (and rarity). It allows stablishing an objective criterion to separate common and rare species and is based on the h index.
I think it may be useful in your case, the manuscript is:
Gabriel Arellano, Leslie Cayola, Isabel Loza, Vania Torrez and Manuel J. Macía. 2014
Commonness patterns and the size of the species pool along a tropical elevational gradient: insights using a new quantitative tool. Ecography 37
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Copaifera sp. resin is known to heal wounds, to have antibacterial effects and even used to aid leishmaniasis treatment I believe. Due to these properties, there has been innapropriate exploitation of this natural resource leading to deforestation. I would like to know if this is still true and if the measures taken for this problem are actually solving it. I've also read that the plant's regeneration is rather slow and that it does not produce many seeds for the species' dispersal. I have been thinking of consulting with the national institutes responsible for the matter (in Peru), but maybe there are other ways of acquiring this information.
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Hai you can find some details about the Copaiba tree in following website
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The most important thing is to check whether plant interest building is a physical or education-promoted process. And then how much of people's interest towards plants was determined by physical environment and how much by education. I am trying to answer this problem using a new tech data set now.
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Dear Arokiyaraj Selvaraj
This is a wonderful story. It is a very big job for just one man. Hopefully the media coverage may encourage further native forest plantings elsewhere. It is a bit disturbing to read that some of the people of the area wanted to cut down the forest. This shows it can take a long time to educate people about the value of local plants even when they are making up a whole beautiful forest. The heartening remarks in the reports are those that look at this man-made forest as a whole ecosystem, which includes the animals that live there.
I understand that maybe wood is a desirable but dwindling resource in this area. Maybe another advantage of local forest plants could be promoted through their sustainable use in folk medicine for example - the rekindling of the old ways of using the forest to survive. This maybe just a romantic image I am creating from a safe distance in my Western culture. But I have seen a film where the retention of the old cultural ways of using the forest helped the population to survive in Bougainville when it was blockaded in the eighties. The film is called "Bougainville: Our Island, Our Fight". They loved their forest and they fought to save it from being destroyed by mining.
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As our industrialised agriculture is heavily reliant on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs), what are its implications on natural indigenous biodiversity?
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In relation to the use of a common GMO crop, i.e. "roundup ready canola" the simple answer to this question is yes! Plant biodiversity & soil biological diversity will be negatively affected
Evidence has previously shown that some plant families including Brassicas, Beets & Amaranths are non-hosts for obligate biotrophic symbionts including arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Monocultural crop rotations of such non-host plants are in turn likely to negatively affect AMF biodiversity & thus the potential for mutually beneficial effects of this ubiquitous plant & fungal partnership, see:
Ocampo JA, Hayman DS, 1981. Influence of plant interactions on vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal infections. II. Crop rotations and residual effects of non-host plants. New Phytologist 87: 333-343.
Karasawa T, Arihara J, Kasahara Y, 2000. Effects of previous crops on arbuscular mycorrhizal formation and growth of maize under various soil moisture conditions Soil Science & Plant Nutrituion. 46: 53-60.
It can therefore be hypothesised & may be easily tested that the blanket use of glyphosate herbicides for weed management in roundup-resisitant brassica crops will be likely to increase the monocultural effects by removing weeds as potential host plant partners of AMF.
Has this hypothesis been tested yet? Unfortunately not yet!
Why not? Try asking Monsanto for permission to conduct such research, ... not as easy as it may seem!
What other biodiversity effects are likely to result from subsequent decline on AMF populations & biodiversity?
Subsequent crop rotations that are host plants of AMF are less likely to be able to benefit from the effects of AMF symbioses,, i.e. improved phosphate uptake, increased plant drought tolerance, improved soil aggregation, improved soil drainage & aeration, & improved plant disease resistance. Thus it is further hypothesised that subsequent crop & weed plant biodiversity will be negatively affected by decreased AMF biodiversity following the use of glyphosate for 'roundup-ready canola.
Will the subsequent & necessary use of increased inputs of P fertilisers remedy or mitigate against effects on AMF biodiversity or plant biodiversity. Not likely! Chemical fertilsers only feed plant nutrient requirements. In the absence of suitable plant hosts AMF populations decline.
In addition to the effects of vegetation clearance by widespread use of chemical herbicides, intensive soil disturbance tillage practices are also known to decrease AMF populations & biodiversity.
In summary, GMO crops merely continue to & may accelerate or add to the ecologically detrimental effects of intensive vegetation clearance & soil disturbance on soil & plant biodiversity & ecological functions.
Unfortunately we haven't yet acknowledged our predominant ignorance about the unintended effects that we humans can cause during crop production.
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Most difficult tasks related to the plant conservation.
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In general - always include society and socio-economics of the region you are working in. It is becoming more and more obvious that "strict" conservation plans which do not take the social level into account will most certainly not work!