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Phytochemistry - Science topic

Phytochemistry are chemical compounds that occur naturally in plants
Questions related to Phytochemistry
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How to write good review article on medicinal plants, phytochemistry and analytical methods?
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Dear Sunil Kumar, by looking at previous research and writing useful information about plants, for example, the medical importance of the plant, it's chemical composition and the geographical location of the plant
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we want to submit our manuscript to a special issue in the field of phytochemistry, pharmacology of natural products, or liquorice in particular. any suggestions?
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Please visit this lik:
Deadline for submitting manuscripts is December 20, 2022.
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Dear colleagues,
maybe someone knows some upcoming conference on phytochemistry or natural products? Preferably free or for a nominal fee? a contribution of 200-500 euros is a lot for me. I'd be grateful for any options.
with respect,
Olga
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The American Society for Pharmacognosy meeting starts 23 July, 2022
Let them know where you live and ask for a discount for registration. I don't know if you will get a discount but it doesn't hurt to ask.
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In identification tests, unusually color was appeared with Fehling test, while the positive test is to form a precipitate.    
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sir did you get the possible answer for the green suspension ?
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Please suggest some fast publishing journals on phytochemistry, food and nutrition, pharmacology, genetics, cancer research & experimental pharmacology.
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Thank you sir
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When we change the column of GC-MS the Kovats indices get changed too.
for example, The α-Pinene having KI= 982 in HP-5 and KI= 1027 in DB-Wax.
The Limonene having KI= 1031 in HP-5 and KI= 1234 in DB-Wax.
The α-Pinene will go out from the column before the Limonene.
Can we find the inverse If we use another column than those known?
Or always the α-Pinene will be detected before the limonene regardless the type of column and the active phase?
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I think there is a certain order in which different volatiles appear on a GCMS column, their order is related to the column type and the properties of the compounds themselves, and their RI values are very different from the column type. These are my views, hope they can help you. Maybe we can also learn from each other.
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Has anyone isolated and characterized simple straight chain fatty acid sugar esters from plants? Kindly share your experiences.
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I am studying the physiological and phytochemical responses of tomato on salinity in soilless culture systems. The plants will be treated with 70mM and 140mM via drip irrigation. Thus, I need to know the right steps on how to apply the treatment and prevent the plants from being shocked by the treatment. Any suggestions?
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Please read the bellow article, the method is explained very well here.
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Dear researchers, Can tell me about modern, rapid and reliable technique for isolating macromolecules from plant sample ?
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I would like to make some modifications of my flavonoids for the sake to enhance the pharmaological activity.
Is it possible and practical ? And what kind of reagents will be more convenient?
Any suggestions or articles will be more valuable.
Thank you,
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Dear Alexander Sinko many thanks for sharing this very interesting technical question with the RG community. Flavonoids normally have several –OH groups at different positions, so that a variety of fluorinated derivatives are possible. There are some literature references available in which the authors describe the use of elemental fluorine (diluted with nitrogen) as fluorinating agent. However, most organic chemistry laboratories are not properly equipped for woorking with elemental fluorine.
An alternative synthetic route involves the synthesis of fluorinated flavonoids starting from fluorinated benzene derivatives. For more information, please have a look at the following potentially useful articles:
Synthesis and anti-rhinovirus properties of fluoro-substituted flavonoids
and
Separation of Quercetin’s Biological Activity from Its Oxidative Property through Bioisosteric Replacement of the Catecholic Hydroxyl Groups with Fluorine Atoms
The first article is freely available as public full text from the internet (please see the attached pdf file). The second article has not been posted as public full text on RG. However, one of the authors has an RG pprofile (https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Suh-Cho-2). Thus you can easily contact him directly via RG and request the full text.
I also came across a Master thesis which could provide useful information about this topic:
Synthesis of Fluoroflavones as Potential Neuroprotective Agents
(also attached)
Good luck with your research and best wishes, Frank Edelmann
P.S. Please also share this question with the "flavonoid guru" Yasser Fakri Mustafa
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my sample reacts to dragendorff's reagent but shows no reaction to Mayer's reagent. what does it mean?
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See above
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Caffeine does not behave as base. It belongs to alkaloids mostly due to its pharmacological action.
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Few year ago, a friend publish an article in a journal that was not quoted as 'prédator'. Rencently the same journal was found in the list of 'prédator journal'
1-Which are the Criteria to Identify a Journal as predator?
2-In which circonstances a scientific journal can move from 'non predator' to 'predator'?
3-Which agencies (structures) are qualified to classify a journal as predator or not?
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It might be useful for you to look at the discussion paper published by the Committee on Publication Ethics on predatory publishing. It lists a number of features of predatory publishers and is available through the COPE website.
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To have the chance to find new structures from plants, we need to collect all the fractions and isolate even the most minor compounds.
But, the problem is that we recapitulate at the end only a very small mg!
Is this kind of work still significant? or not worth!
Could we publish in high journal with only elucidation of new structures from plants?
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I ran my methanolic extracts (flavonoids compounds) over silica gel, then no separation took place due to the complexity of the mixture. I collected all the test tubes fraction together and I removed the solvent. Consequently, the first color was white turned yellow! While, I didn't separate any fraction and all the fractions were concentrated together!
How can we explain the change of colors, whereas we didn't make any isolation?
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I am researching various cannabinoid delivery systems. I have a viscous ethanol cannabinoid extract that I wish to turn into a powder. I need it to be a powder preferably one that is water soluble or dispersible. Would freeze drying be an applicable process?
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Yes, you can.
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As we know Like dissolves Like; polar analytes are dissolved in polar solvents.
I noticed in an article that they use the soxhlet apparatus with a temperature in the range of 70-80° to recover methoxyflavoinds (polar class of compounds)!
I'm just questioning if the temperature might plays the role to extract polar compounds even with apolar solvent?
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Kindly see also the following useful RG link:
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In protocols reported in literature, we add Na2SO4 ( drying agent) to remove the water traces from the essential oil.
If some water traces stay with essential oil. What can we have after a long period of time? The chemical reaction between traces of water and essential oil? How the essential oil can get adulterated?
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If we don't dry our essential oil by Na2SO4 then it may slowly hydrolyzed by water slowly on storage.
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I have planed for animal experiments in India. We need a chemical reagent for our experiment, the cost of it is less in ChemFaces, Wuhan, China (https://m.chemfaces.com/) and the cost is slightly high in ChemScene (https://www.chemscene.com/). Which company among these two is very authentic, provides high-quality chemical compounds? Which chemical vendor can I place an order from?
Your suggestion will be of great help. Looking forward to hearing from you all
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I would like to know if this kind of work is valuable or not.
After the isolation of different molecules from the crude extract for the sake to determine the responsible molecule against a specific activity. Can we make some formulations between 2 or 3 of the isolated constituents in order to strengthen the bioactivity desired?
I don't know if you could share with me some similar works.
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I don't know if I understood your question correctly. But yes, compounds can react in some way with each other and some cases have better activity in crude extract mode than when their compounds are isolated in isolation (it is called synergy, or entourage effect), I share the research with you in case it helps you.
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I would like to get my results in Word files in order to use it in my article.
And thank you for your cooperation.
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I have an older instrument and all I can say is "Good luck with that".
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I extracted the essential oil and I found that my major compound represent 95 % of the mixture and only less than 5 % as minor constituents ( 20 constituents).
I'm I allowed to take my major constituent as starting material to perform chemical reactions?
Do the minor constituents representing only 5 % will not disturb the obtention of the desired compound?
I would like to insert some functional groups to increase bioactivity.
Any help in this regard will be appreciated.
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Dear Alexander Sinko, well done ! 95% !!!, as dear Dr Erdal mentioned , I advise you to be careful to remained 5% ( 20 components), you can use Column Chromatography or Solvent extraction........
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Traditional herbal medicines, which are often used as a fresh prepared herbal infusions as antypyretic agents, are used in a hot or a warm state. When the boiling water is used for making the infusion, the extraction temperature is at first a little below of boiling temperature. In this temperatures a spectrum of extractive substances is larger than in room temperature, when most phytochemical analysis are performed.
Reading the techniques used in phytochemistry I never found descriptions of analysis or chromatographies, made in temperatures of application of the infusions. On the other hand in many times when we look at the infusates they are clear in higher temperatures, when are hot and with descending temperatures is seen opalisation and precipitation.
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You may check the following publications:
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We are planning for wet-lab experiments in India, so we need a few chemicals reagents. The cost of products is comparatively less in ChemFaces company based in Wuhan, China. Can this company be trusted? will it provide high-quality and authentic chemicals. Your suggestion will be of great help!
Website link of ChemFaces
I am waiting for your valuable reply...
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Sir,
To the best knowledge of me, this company has a wide range of chemicals, some of them can be seen in perfect articles in some well-known journals, such as Cell.The products from ChemFaces, China is OK, but you have to make sure that you are contacting a qualified and honest dealer or the correct contact information of the manufacturer.
Good luck!
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Interested in knowing molecules with two or more sulfonic/phosphonic acid groups without a common endpoint (excluding phytic acid) and are available from natural resources or utmost commercially available.
Any relevant reading suggestions are also much appreciated. Thanks.
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Dear Nagapradeep N. that's a really interesting technical question. As an inorganic chemist I'm certainly not a proven expert in this field. In fact, without running a detailed internet search, no such compound immediately come to my mind (at least no naturally occurring ones). For a very good overview on the chemistry of organic phosphonates (including bis- and tris-phosphonates) please have a look at the following useful review article:
Phosphonic acid: Preparation and applications
This article is freely available as publiic full text on RG.
The situation looks much brighter when it comes to commercially available compounds of this type. For example, please check benzene-1,3,5-tris(phosphonic acid) and benzene-1,3,5-tris(sulfonic acid).
Good luck with your research!
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I want to perform the antidiabetic activity of my essential oil as an application to valorize it, and to enrich my paper. And I'm looking for a protocol that doesn't require a lot of reagents and materials.
Any suggestion or reference will be valued and appreciated.
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I'm performing antiplatelet aggregation induced by collagen, and I have only this manner, I can not test it by other methods such as ADP or TRAP-6 ...
And using different manners helps to confirm finding results and making a correlation. How can we deal with this kind of circumstances?
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I think this is the role of a researcher, to find new techniques to evaluate biological activity.
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After the extraction by hydrodistillation Clevenger apparatus, we recover essential oil ( volatile constituents) and we throw non-volatiles constituents found in water as a residue and waste.
This by-product containing interesting phytochemicals and bioactive compounds.
Could we valorize this residue by recovering the polar and heavy compounds?
Are we allowed to consider it as aqueous extract?
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It must be considered that the hydrodistillation extractions are quite long and at a temperature that allows us to evaporate the part we want to separate, so it is very likely that the other compounds of interest are also in the plant have been degraded. To know if there are compounds of interest in that waste you must analyze it.
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I am looking for guidelines and recommendations for the construction and implementation of OSPE (Objective Structured Practical Examination) for assessing students' practical knowledge/Skills in Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, and related pharmacy courses
Could you provide any suggestions, references, or any manual, please
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I am having problems extracting essential oils (in order to check for terpenes) from only one plant. I am using Clevenger apparatus and it functions normally for every plant but one (of genus Encephalartos). When I try do hydrodistillation, some sort of pressure forms and makes it impossible for the process to happen. Stem does not go much higher than the connection point of the flask and glassware apparatus and very soon there are drops coming outside at the connection point.
The machine itself works perfectly for every plant species besides this one. What could be the potential reason for this?
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The contribution of natural products (NPs) to modern drug discovery can not be denied. More interestingly, the application of in silico (computer-based approaches) has even given more success to the search of NP-based starting molecules in the search for novel, potent and cheaper drug candidates. However, these in silico based methods also face some challenges. Obviously, most of the challenges are usually not discussed in scientific publications; in several cases rendering the use of in silico based approaches to investigate NPs (even in combination with experimental validation techniques) difficult to identify and propose new NP drug-base molecules. In this discussion, I would be happy if we can highlight some of these challenges. The idea is to give newcomers in this area of research an idea of what they can come across or should be expecting.
Peace
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See this article:
Applications of Virtual Screening in Bioprospecting: Facts, Shifts, and Perspectives to Explore the Chemo-Structural Diversity of Natural Products
10.3389/fchem.2021.662688
Here, we discuss some biases and limitations of computational methods applied in the screening of natural products.
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I have found an old pharmaceutical research from 1833 in which emetic power of Cucumis melo roots was confirmed. I cannot find data about chemical constituents of the Cucumis melo roots. Their effect seemed similar to the one of emetin (an alkaloid) or of saponins.
I'd be grateful for anysuggestions.
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according to scopus there are more than 550 papers on Cucumis melo roots, you can get access to many articles through google scholar.
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hi,
I have a question about the preparation and procedure of the DPPH assay in onions.
I already have some results with a 0.1 mM DPPH solution:
%DPPH radical scavening of Ascorbic acid
5 uM             5,984876429 %       
7.5 uM          15,27111767 %
10 uM           33,89893028 %
15 uM           55,30247141 %
20 uM           76,65068241 %
but with my onion extracts I had very high values:
%DPPH radical scavening of onion samples
Onion yellow/A         54,11059457%
Onion yellow/B         56,16589185%
Onion Red/A             103,3887937%
Onion Red /B            103,5600685%
I took the concentration of 0.1 mM from a wheat protocol. But in a couple of scientific papers I've noticed, that the usually used DPPH concentration for onion extract is 0.6, 0.4 or 0.2 mM. But I´m not sure which of them should I take and why? Could somebody explain the logic behind it i.e. why these exact values are used?
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Hi Dear Maria
In my experience, you should dilute your onion extracts, and please check the following papers to get more info.
My regards
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As we know, when we increase the concentration, the percentage of inhibition gets increased until reaching the maximum point. But, is it necessary to reach 100% ? Because, sometimes even if we increase the concentration over and over, the value remains stable!
What leads this phenomenon and how can we interpret it?
C1= 1 mg gives 60 % of inhibition
C2= 1.5 mg gives 86 % of inhibition
C3= 3 mg gives 86.2 % of inhibition
C4= 10 mg gives 86.5 % of inhibition
Even increasing the concentration, inhibitions percentage started to look stagnated, no more progress!
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Depending on the inhibition test, it can reach 100%.
for example, in antibacterial tests it is easier to reach 100%.
In protein / enzyme inhibition tests it is more difficult, as there is the question of saturation and other parameters involved.
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I took 2 gm tissue and then added 20ml solvent. After that I collected supernatent and then made up volume 25 ml by about 10 ml hexane. I know absorbance reading and A1% value, I am a bit confused about total volume used amount. Would you someone assist me regarding that "V" value ? 
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Your 'V' value will be 25 ml. Thanks
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Isolation of new compounds from plants and natural resources is a considerable target to find something new and relevant.
But, what is the main intention of isolating compounds already known and isolated?
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Alexander Sinko Good question!
In natural products research, we usually perform Bioactivity-guided isolation of compounds from natural sources like plants. Here, at first, we screen for bioactivity in a plant and if found potential then look for the individual compounds responsible for the activity and here comes the necessity of isolation of compounds. Till this point we don't know which compound is showing the bioactivity, we might only have idea about possible compounds from the literature of the previous works. In order to identify & characterize a compound, we first need to isolate it without knowing if it's known or novel.
Furthermore, someone may find a compound inactive for a particular activity, while another may find it highly potent for other biological role.
A sufficient literature review before selecting a plant for research usually leads to some novel compounds or at least known compounds with novel activities.
Hope you got what you were looking for.
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We dry the plant in order to remove water and moisture, whereas we immerse it in water to launch the hydrodistillation!
What will happen if we don't dry the plant? I examined so much plant without drying and the yield of essential oil was more interesting than this which is dried!
What is the role of drying plant before runing up the extraction of essential oil?
What happens to the plant and specifically the volatiles compounds during the drying process biologically and chemically?
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Moisture is reduced. Besides, drying of plant materials facilitates the free bonding in between the phytochemicals and the slovents used for the extraction. This will yield Essential Oil enriched with more phytochemicals from plants.
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After obtaining essential oil by the extraction, we need to save it at 4°C for ulterior use and keep it from the light.
What can we have if our essential oil stays exposed to the light?
Does the sunlight and artificial light having the same effect in terms of the chemical reaction of oxidation joining this phenomenon of transformation into oxidized components?
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I made a GC-MS analysis of essential oil without injection of any standard ( Alkanes) and I Identified the different compounds based on the NIST library.
I worked with the HP-5 MS column, but I didn't find enough results concerning this column, consequently, I recovered the values of KI ( Retention indices) of DB-5!
I don't know if what I did is feasible or not!
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We protect the essential oil from light so as not to oxidize by the insertion of oxygen and obtaining oxygenated components and especially if it contains a huge amount of monoterpene hydrocarbons because they have double bonds and those are very sensitive to be oxidized. I joined you at this point.
But, essential oils containing oxygenated constituents are very potent and having good biological activities than those containing an important amount of only hydrocarbons monoterpenes!
Example: Limonene after the auto-oxidation becomes a carveol, and the carveol enhances the antioxidant capacity.
What about protecting essential from oxidation, whereas we need oxygenated constituents?
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Dear Alexander Sinko thank you for this very interesting technical question. The answer to your question depends on what you want the oxygenated monoterpenes to use for. For example, various oxygenated monoterpenes were shown to exhibit antibacterial activity:
Screening of Antibacterial Activities of Twenty-One Oxygenated Monoterpenes
This article is freely available as public full text on ResearchGate.
Also please have a look at the following relevant article entitled:
Access to Oxygenated Monoterpenes via the Biotransformation of (R)‑Limonene by Trichoderma harzianum and Saccharamyces cerevisiae
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I harvested a plant and dry it under shade, but mold has been procured. Thereby, I find new constituents after extraction of essential oil and performing GC-MS analysis.
How can I interpret this phenomenon of transformation?
I need in-depth what is happened chemically?
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Dear Alexander Sinko thank you for your interesting technical question. For a potentially overview about secondary metabolites of plants please gave a look at the following useful article:
Secondary metabolites in fungus-plant interactions
The article is freely available as public full text on ResearchGate.
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I'm preparing a table of composition of my essential oil. And I see in so much papers that we have to put retention indice (Kovats indice) than the retention time.
Are we allowed to put Retention time in the table?
Because the results that I recovered from the GC-MS device are in retention time!
Secondly, can we compare retention time with the data library?
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This is a very critical and useful question for the analyst. I do agree with Md. Atikul Islam. I want to add something:
Retention indices are retention times normalized to adjacently eluting n-alkanes. Usually, for multi residue analysis, it is used. You may also visit the following link:
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Having a molecule containing double bonds (e.g Limonene), or a molecule containing a functional group (e.g citronellal). Which one of those are you expecting will have a good antioxidant activity? and why?
Note:
Limonene: containing 2 double bonds
Citronellal: containing 1 double bond + functional group ( aldehyde)
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Dear Alexander Sinko thank you for your interesting technical question. I assume that citronellal can be viewed as a modest antioxidant because the aldehyde functional group –CHO can be oxidized to a carboxyl functional group –C(=O)OH. For a relevant reference supporting this please have a look at the following article entitled
Assessment of antioxidant activity of citronellal extract and fractions of essential oils of Citrus hystrix DC
(see attached pdf file)
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I obtained the GC-MS report of my essential oil containing ( Compound name, CAS, REV, for ).
I don't have any standards to calculate Kovats Indice from the following relation :
I= 100[n + (N - n) x (Log tr (unknown) - logtr (n))/ logtr(N) - logtr(n))
Can I put the Kovats Indice written in the NIST and Wiley database in my table of composition?
Attached you will find an example of my GC-MS Data Report.
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Dear Sinko. Thank you so much for this magnificent question.
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We determine the antioxidant activity through either donation H or donation of an electron.
Could you give deeply more details about this explanation?
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An antioxidant is a molecule capable of slowing or preventing the oxidation of other molecules. Oxidation is a chemical reaction that transfers electrons from a substance to an oxidizing agent. Oxidation reactions can produce free radicals, which start chain reactions that damage cells. Antioxidants terminate these chain reactions by removing free radical intermediates and inhibit other oxidation reactions by being oxidized themselves. As a result, antioxidants are often reducing agents such as thiols, ascorbic acid or polyphenols.
For more information check the file bellow will help you a lot
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How the journal evaluators examine the work and the reproducibility of results?
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To ensure understandability, reproducibility, and replicability, the research methodology must be clearly spelled out and expatiated upon. In other words, all procedures carried out in a study must be explained in detail in the methods section, leaving no room for whats or whys. The following could render more insights.
PLOS. (2021, February 26). How to write your methods. https://plos.org/resource/how-to-write-your-methods/
USC Libraries. (2021, March 18). Research guides: Organizing your social sciences research paper: 6. The methodology. Research Guides at University of Southern California. https://libguides.usc.edu/writingguide/methodology
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In order to make a good comparison, it is obviously clear to refer to results carried out under close conditions.
What can we do If we don't find this condition fulfilled?
Any suggestions?
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It's best to first give a generic explanation of what your study findings reveal that's unique or different from the existing literature and then give two to three examples from other studies showing what's similar with the results of your study and what's different. https://www.editage.com/insights/how-i-can-compare-my-results-those-other-studies-discussion-section?amp
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After extraction of the essential oil, I found a high percentage of limonene presenting more than 90%.
Can I separate the pure limonene from the minority that presents less than 10%?
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Use separating funnel and confirm its purity with GCMS.
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Organic solvents like methanol, ethyl acetate... are easy to remove by rotavapor. But, water is difficult! I put my aqueous extract in a beaker inside the oven with a light temperature of 50 ° over 10 hours, and I recovered my crude extract.
Does the lighter temperature of the oven might also damage sensitive substances?
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It is advisable 2 use rotavapour most time because prolong expose to oven will not only affect the active ingredient but also the potency of the extracts
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Sometimes we find a problem with plants containing a very tiny amount of essential oil (yield=0.08%). What we do is making consecutive extraction by changing the flask containing the plant by a new one and keeping the other part containing the essential oil with hydrolat until obtaining a respectful amount of essential oil which we can recover.
But, the problem is it might take 3 days doing extraction in succession (sequentially).
Does the water has an impact on the quality of essential oil? Because essential oil stays with water a long time! I think that it might have the hydrolysis phenomenon!
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Yes of course. Do you have "hydrolizeables" e.g. ester that could hydrolize. Or do you have enzymes that could catatlize some reaction. Maybe you should fractionate your extract and then separate each fraction in its components
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In order to make a good comparison between your present work and the previous reported studies, we need to compare with results obtained below the same conditions.
Sometimes, we don't find works realised under the conditions that we used !
How can we valorize our work?
Are we allowed to compare even if the conditions are not alike?
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Official definitions by IUPAC
The terms “antioxidant activity” and “antioxidant capacity” have different meanings: antioxidantactivity deals with the kinetics of a reaction between an antioxidant and the prooxidant or radical itreduces or scavenges, whereas antioxidant capacity measures the thermodynamic conversion efficiencyof an oxidant probe upon reaction with an antioxidant.
"Methods of measurement and evaluation of natural antioxidant capacity/activity (IUPAC Technical Report)
  • January 2013
  • Pure and Applied Chemistry 85(5)
  • DOI:
  • 10.1351/PAC-REP-12-07
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Hello,
I am looking for unanalyzed and unpublished GC-MS datasets from diverse mass spectrometer vendors ? Such as ToFs, single/ triple Quads, Orbitraps etc. that have been acquired from human, plant, or microbial samples for "metabolomics" or "phytochemistry" ?
Happy to collaborate and explain further. Do message for further details.
Thanks,
Biswa
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I m also having Single Quad GC MS data sets from Plant source. Let us work together.
My mail id is vellai1973@gmail.com
Regards
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I am using the concept of plant functional traits (Cornellisen et al., 2003) in a paper. Considering descriptions for whole plant traits (life history; life form; growth form; plant height; clonality; spinescence; branching architecture, root-mass fraction (Pérez-Harguindeguy et al., 2013), where does "phytochemical profile" fit in? I can see how it isn't considered a "whole plant trait", and that it influences trait expression, but is that the extent of it? I guess I am trying to make sure that I am thinking about this correctly.
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In a document of WHO on http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2003/9241546271.pdf , they recommand to wash medicinal plants before air drying them. But most of the research articles that I find out don't take it into account.
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the plant material needs to be cleaned before you process it further.
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Dear Dr. Willi Glettig,
Please check the message of your RG account. Please send one test e mail to my e mail address (send you in the message). We may discuss some important matters.
Regards,
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I know how to get the general extract from a plant - I can get the total phenols, alkaloids, Flavanoids, etc, but I want to isolate just one particular phenolic compound from the total extract. How do I do that? Papers explaining the process would be great. Thank you!
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Ladies and Gentlemen
Solvent Extracts are never monomolecular pure, except if the solvents are used for crystal-growth (takes a lot of time, and many bio-molecule can’t be crystalized. However, if you are concerned about pure compounds e.g. for serious research results or for commercialization of compounds you must use Chromatography preferably HPLC or SFC
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Principle depends on the addition of acid or base at the beginning of the water extract of tobacco
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Nicotine is a classical alkaloid the separated
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If anyone is interested in the genus Polygonum, especially the species found in Bangladesh and India, I suggest that you read several papers by Prof Bidyut K Datta. I am fortunate to co-author most of those papers.
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Polygonaceae plants have a worldwide distribution, most of which are in the temperate region of the Northern Hemisphere. There are 235 Polygonaceae species and 37 varieties in China. In the tribe Polygoneae of the subfamily Polygonoideae, there are seven genera, namely, Antenoron, Fagopyrum, Fallopia, Koenigia, Polygonum, Pteroxygonum, and Reynoutria. Polygonum is the largest genus of the family Polygonaceae. This chapter summarizes the current knowledge of phytochemistry, bioactivity, phylogeny, and omics of Polygoneae medicinal plants. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7158354/
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Dear colleagues, do you have any idea about the advances on phytochemistry especially the use of informatics for chemical studies, and biological activities molecular interactions modelisations, and is there any other applications of informatics on this field. Thank you
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Informatics study on natural products chemistry is possible but you should know about phytochemicals , then individual separation .Then apply the informatics to study the bioactivity.
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my target to isolate alkaloids from plant leaves, as phytochemistry of plant reported for some alkaloid derivatives , so please guide me.
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Alkaloids are usually found naturally either as acidic salts or free bases.
Both alkaloidal bases and their salts are soluble in alcohol. Generally, the bases are soluble in organic solvents and insoluble in water; but there are some exceptions. There are two main methods:
1- The plant material is extracted with water or aqueous alcohol containing HCl acid. The aqueous layer is then extracted with organic solvent such as CHCl3 to remove pigments and other unwanted substances which is soluble in that solvent. The aqueous layer is then treated with ammonia to get the alkaloid free which is then separated by shaking with organic solvent.
2- The plant material is moistened with water and mixed with lime or NH4OH to get free most of the alkaloids (if they exist in salt form or in plant). These materials are then extracted with organic solvent such as chloroform.
The concentrated organic layer containing the free alkaloid treated with aqueous mineral acid and allowed to separate. So the salts are now in the aqueous layer, where many impurities remain behind in the organic layer.
The aqueous layer containing the salt of alkaloid is treated with a base to set free form of alkaloid and shaken with organic solvent such as chloroform. So free alkaloid is separated out in chloroform layer and evaporated to get crude alkaloid. The process is repeated three times to get more free alkaloids.
Regards
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The combination of reverse phase and open column chromatography is much needed for isolating active compounds from polar fractions. Can these resins be used in purification columns like that of the C18 columns, which on the other hand are not apt for open columns?
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The COSMOSIL C18-OPN is a new "Water-Wet" C18 packing material developed for reversed-phase open column chromatography. The C18-OPN material can be used in 100% aqueous effluents ... external surface of the C18-OPN gel is coated with hydrophilic group to increase wettability of the gel, and octadecyl group is bonded in the pore of the gel. This physical characteristic of the gel makes the reversed phase open column chromatography possible with 100% water. flow rate should be .25 ml per min and its reported in their catalog it can separate in70% water theophylline and theobromine with distinguishable peak
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Other than parsley leaf oil.
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Cold-pressed Nigella Sativa oil appears to have menthatriene in significant amounts. I have been reading more focused on thymoquinone and found this incidentally this morning. I hope it is helpful. https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/6273817/
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Please include methods of extraction and isolation.
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based on my last paper we used Soxhlet extractor for lawsone
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I need to carry out the GC-MS analysis of essential oil of about 50 leaf samples. Please suggest me a center or institution in India for doing the same with minimum charges.
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Perfumers World in Bangkok.
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I have done DFT and TD-DFT to obtain singlet excited state, now I want to calculate triplet state also and to check singlet to triplet transition. I have used B3LYP/6-311g(d,p) for singlet state.
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I have done the calculations of triplet energy, but now i want to see my triplet energy values in an out put file, so what is the easiest way to find the triplet energy , please?
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I want built a small biochemistry lab for research purpose ( Phytochemical Study).
Phytochemical screening
 It refers to the extraction, screening and identification of the medicinally active substances found in plants. Some of the bioactive substances that can be derived from plants are flavonoids, alkaloids, carotenoids, tannin, antioxidants and phenolic compounds.
Please give me some guideline and references for built a small laboratory.
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Hi,
as
Sebastian Schmitt
mentioned, it is indeed necessary to provide a more specific question in this case. Depending on the machines available in your lab it could be possible to perform an analysis more than another. Of course some basic chemicals are in every lab, but to avoid misleading you it could be better to receive more information about the type of research you want to carry.
Please have a look at the following link:
Best regards
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I have plant methanol, ethyl acetate, n-hexane, and butanol extracts. I am interested in the chemical profiling of each extract through LC-MS/MS. If someone knows the details of commercial labs offering these facilities at reasonable prices then please the contact details. Thank you so much.
Yours truly,
Dr. Khalid
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Thank you all for sharing information about the companies.
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I want to compare the amount of an enzyme's expression (laccase for example) or presence in the tissue as a result of the experimental treatment. Is there a protein similar to an antibody that might bind with the enzyme and can be filtered then quantified by spectroscopy? or perhaps by comparison of PCR bands. I am interested to hear any other thoughts or suggestions as well. Thanks very much.
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Adam B Shapiro thank you very much for your reply and the link.
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i have work on pure compound isolation of different phyto-chemicals, i need different solvent system for hit and trial methods?
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DearThe mobile phase is determined by the components to be examined The mobile phase of phenols is different, for example, from alkaloids and fats This is why sometimes several mobile phases of solvents are used with different volumetric ratios and placed in small containers, in principle, to examine small sheets of TLC ..... to obtain a clear separation of the compounds to be separated.
best regards
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I have an open question that is not often asked, as a biochemist I'm working on phytochemistry field and have from time to time problems to solve, sometimes trying to solve a problem may lead to invent a new methodology that had never used before, my question is how can we patent such Discovery as US patent ? and how much do we have to pay for that ? thank you very much.
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You asked a very important question that should be of concern to all scientists. You see some scientists are workaholic. They keep working everyday, morning and night, year after year, and yet do not get credit for what they do. To put it mildly, they are not even noticed. Maybe simply because they do not care or know how to get credit for what they do. Even some stop half way and do not take their research to completion. Again, maybe the intended goal or mindset is to have 1000 publications yet without a single patent. Sometimes, it is part of their work or modified version of it that someone else is receiving credit for. This is hard to believe you know. Even the publishers takes advantage of this. They accept their papers very fast, put it under subscription and make tens of thousands from it. Then the only honour they accord the scientist is to call him or her a professor.
To solve this problem, I came up with a concept about 2yrs ago when I was designing the contents of our Elsevier book on Phytochemicals as Lead Compounds for New Drug Discovery. Then I purposely included a chapter to present the realities of drug acceptance criteria. It did deliberately. Now I am also working on another book that will present information about patenting and grant writing. All this needs to change. Our children should know this even before they become graduate students. Thanks.
Chapter: FDA drug candidacy acceptance criteria and steps: problems and way forward. Written by Professor Shahira M. Ezzat and Drs. Mahitb H. El Bishbishy, Angelo Mark P Walag and Andrew Mtewa
Regards,
Egbuna
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I am writing a review of the herbal plants which requires to elaborate the phytochemistry information. I just wonder if there is any easier way to know which chemical compound belongs to which family? Thank you in advance.
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Thank you
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Does anyone one have protocol for total polyphenol and total flavonoid estimation by 96 well plate method.
gallic acid and quercetin is used as standard. 
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@ Wasif Nouman Can you please provide full reference to Gull 2014? Thanks!
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I tried yesterday the Shinoda Test for flavonoids. I followd the protocol. I extracted direct from the yellow flower Tithonia sp with ethyl acetate, later I evaporated and ressolubilized with etanol. Then I put the Mg powder an the HCl and was negative three times. The literature is says there is a lot of flavonoids in this flower, but the test just didn't work. I tried oxalic-boric reaction with aceton in Uv light, but it was negative too.
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1. I agree with validating your procedure with a positive control. Shinoda test yields different colours depending on the type of flavonoid being tested, but if I'm not mistaken, it will be somewhere around the yellow to red spectrum.
2. What is the colour of your extract? I'm thinking it might be possible that the colour confounds the result of your Shinoda test.
3. Can you look up biogenesis of flavonoids in Tithonia? It should give you a better clue whether flavonoids are abundant in Tithonia flowers. It's just I have my reservations -- their flowers are yellow to red coloured (I'm talking about T. diversifolia and T. rotundifolia), which to me, looks more like carotenoids than anthocyanins (which can be considered as flavonoids)
4. Look up ontogenic factors, which may affect flavonoid content.
I hope these are helpful rather than not!
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The plant is already known as anti-cancerous, but the biochemical study has not been done. However the active compound, from the plant has been researched already to find anti-cancerous activity in various in-silico studies, however no wet-lab is done. How should the road map of the studies can be carried out ?
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Test the raw extract on cancer cell lines in vitro and chemically induced cancer in vivo, if the extract. If it showed anticancer effect, try to separate and purificate the effective ingredients and test them separately. Determine the LD50 of the effective compound in two animal species. Perform preclinical study. Then clinical study
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Hello
I am a doctoral student I work in phytochemistry, I have results UPLC-MS but I found difficulties in the interpretation of the results. Here is an example of a chromatogram obtained. thanks for the help????
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In manual. Send me a chromatogram. I'll try to help you.
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If exposure time maintained within 2 min.
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I am working on a research work base phytochemistry, as i am from pharmacy background. Now i have done my thesis work after working 4 months in laboratory, i think this is the time to publish my work on a journal. But here i stuck whenever i tried to write my manuscript. Could anyone help me to overcome the situation and give me a brief description that how to write and publish my paper easily .
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The advice/guidance/strategies as per the following publications may further help:
  • Bavdekar, S. B. and Gogtay, N. J. (2015) Writing an Abstract for a Research Manuscript: Providing an Honest, Succinct and Complete Summary, The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India, 63, 12, pp. 64-67.
  • Daft, R. L. (1985) Why I Recommended That Your Manuscript Be Rejected and What You Can Do about It, in L, C.L. and Frost, P.J. (eds.) Publishing in the Organizational Sciences. California: SAGE Publications, Inc., pp. 164-182.
  • Day, R. A. (1998) How to Write and Publish a Scientific Paper. 5th edn. Phoenix, Arizona: The Oryx Press.
  • Mumpton, F. A. (1990) The universal recipe or how to get your manuscript accepted by persnickety editors, Clays and Clay Minerals, 39, 6, pp. 631-636.
  • Robinson, P. H., Udén, P., Wiseman, J. and Mateos, G. G. (2007) Editorial : Some suggestions and guidelines for preparation of manuscripts for submission for consideration for publication, Animal Feed Science and Technology, 3, 134, pp. 181-188.
  • Zellmer, W. A. (1991) Advice on Writing for the Beginner, American Journal of Hospital Pharmacy, 48, 4, pp. 687-690.