Science topics: EducationPhysics Education

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# Physics Education - Science topic

For researchers on physics education and science education.

Questions related to Physics Education

For a plate capacitor the force on the plates can be calculated by calculating the change of field energy caused by an infinitesimal displacement. Looks like a very first principle. However, thinking about a displacement of a charge in a homogeneous electric field seems to explain no force at all...

Apart from becoming Physics teachers, what other career prospects are there for graduates of Physics Education?

Dear

**R**^{G}^{ }specialists, I am wondering if is there a phase transition to a localized transversal phonon sort of coherent state? We know that there is one for the diffuse photon field when light scattering becomes strong enough (frozen light limit [1,2]).This question arises only for transverse waves [3,4].

Following [1]

**Frozen light,****Sajeev J****.****Nature***:***volume 390, pp. 661–662, 1997**Are there strong interference effects, due to the wave-like nature of transverse phonons, which severely obstruct their diffusion?

We already know that electrons & photons can be localized, please see the following articles & references therein:

Conference Paper Atomistic Visualization of Ballistic Phonon Transport

I am asking this question on the supposition that a classical body may be broken down in particles which are so small in size that quantum mechanics is applicable on each of these small particles. Here number of particles tends to uncountable (keeping number/volume as constant).

Now statistical mechanics is applicable if practically infinite no. of particles are present. So if practically infinite number of infinitely small sized particles are there, Quantum Statistical Mechanics may be applied to this collection. (Please correct me if I have a wrong notion).

But this collection of infinitesimally small particles make up the bulky body, which can be studied using classical mechanics.

Dear and Distinguished Fellows from the solid-state physics R

^{G}community.Does have anyone read after 20 years the preprint from Prof. Laughlin

*A Critique of two metals?*I read it when I was a PhD student. I think his opinion after 20 years deserves more attention. Please, feel free to follow down the link to the arXiv preprint if somebody has an interest and please leave your opinion:

Article A Critique of Two Metals

Dear Sirs,

The elevator example in general relativity is used to show that gravitational force and an inertial force are not distinguishable. In other words the 2nd Newton's law is the same in the two frames: inertial frame with homogenous gravitational field and the elevator's frame without gravitational field which has constant acceleration in respect to the inertial frame.

But every one knows that an inertial force is a force which does not obey the 3rd Newton's law. For example such forces are cetrifugal force and Coriolis force existing in the Earth reference frame. Gravitational force satisfies the 3rd Newton's law. So one can conclude that the gravitational force is not inertial.

Could you clarify the above controversy.

Dear Sirs,

R Feynman in his lectures, vol 1, chapter 12, Characteristics of force wrote:

"The real content of Newton’s laws is this: that the force is supposed to have some

*independent properties*, in addition to the law F=ma; but the*specific*independent properties that the force has were not completely described by Newton or by anybody else, and therefore the physical law F=ma is an incomplete law. ".Other researchers may consider the 2nd Newton's law as a definition of force or mass. But R. Feynman did not agree with them in the above chapter.

What is your view on the 2nd Newton's law?

Dear Sirs,

Everyone knows the derivation of Lorentz transformations from electromagnetic wave front propagation. But Lorentz transformations are the basis of the general mechanics theory. It seems to me it is logically correct to derive the transformations from purely mechanical grounds. But how to do this? Mechanical (sound) waves are not of course applicable here. Or there is only purely mathematical approach? I The later is also not good in physics. Could it be derived from gravitational wave propagation? If it is so is there any controversy because General relativity is based on special relativity? I would be grateful for your suggestions.

Dear

*community, this review thread is about the role of RKKY interaction in solid-state physics. I want to learn more about it. I would like to know for example, what physics effects RKKY describe well.***R**^{G}

*The RKKY exchange interaction (Ruderman - Kittel - Kasuya - Yosida) is defined as an indirect exchange interaction between magnetic ions, carried out through itinerant conduction electrons.*In rare-earth metals, whose magnetic electrons in the 4f shell are shielded by the 5s and 5p electrons, the direct exchange is rather weak and insignificant and indirect exchange via the conduction/itinerant electrons gives rise to magnetic order in these materials.

*Some initial clarifications:**For this thread, the are two types of electrons: itinerant or conduction electrons and localized electrons.***Indirect exchange**is the coupling between the localized magnetic moments of magnetic metals via the conduction electrons, while**direct exchange**occurs between moments, which are close enough to have sufficient overlap of their wavefunctions.

**RKKY interaction takes place in metals and semiconductors**, where itinerant electrons mediate the exchange interaction of ions with localized oppositely directed spins, partially filled**d**

*and*

**f**

*shells.*

*The physical mechanism is the following:*

**Conduction/itinerant electrons interact with the effective magnetic field of the i-th site**of the crystal lattice and**acquire a kind of spin polarization**. When passing through the next lattice site**, relaxation of the magnetic moments of the electron and the site will cause mutual changes in both the spin polarization and the spin of the lattice site.**

**Hereby, RKKY can be described using the concept that conduction electrons move in an effective field created by a localized magnetic moment of one site.**[1] M.A. Ruderman and C. Kittel, Phys. Rev. 96, 99 (1954).

[2] T. Kasuya, Prog. Theor. Phys. 16, 45 (1956).

[3] K. Yosida, Phys. Rev. 106, 893 (1957).

[4] D. I. Golosov and M. I. Kaganov, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 5, 1481-1492 (1993).

Dear Sirs,

I would like to find out whether galilean relativity principle (which means the same

form of three Newton's laws in all inertial frames) is derived from the three Newton's laws or

any other classical mechanics statements.

Dear

**R**members:^{G}Screenshot from:

Vonsovskii, S. V. and Svirskii, M. S. 1961.

**About the spin of phonons****.**Soviet Physics of the Solid State. 3:2160. In Russian.**Do you know any article/book which uses explicit expressions containing Anisotropic Elastic Langragians**

*L( C*?_{ij })For instance: cubic, hexagonal, or tetragonal ones? Other symmetries are also welcome.

**can be written in the 4**

*L*^{th}index range -

**or Voig -**

_{ijkl}_{ }

**notations, but the math expressions must contain explicitly the elastic stiffness components**

_{ij}**or compliances**

*C*_{ij}**if**

*S*(_{ij}

*S*) according to the point symmetry group.

^{-1}C ~ 1For example: in the isotropy case: 2, in the cubic case 3, in the hexagonal case 6 and so on.

**A lagrangian is defined as**

**therefore the potential term**

*L(C*,_{ij}) = K( ρ v^{2}) - U( C_{ij })*U(C*does have to include an expression invariant to the point group symmetry considered.

_{ij})I did an intensive search on the web, so far only two papers with two expressions (isotropic and cubic cases) both papers from the '60s.

Thank you all so much for the interest.

**Discussion of the state of art on the application of the Ertel's potential vorticity theorem in atmospheric physics & physical oceanography.**Prof. H. Ertel generalized Rossby's work proposal of 1939. Prof. Rossby firstly proposed that instead of the full three-dimensional vorticity vector, the local vertical component of the absolute vorticity is the most important component for large-scale atmospheric flow.

Via an independent paper published in 1942, Prof. Ertel identifying a conserved quantity following the motion of an air parcel proved that a

**certain quantity called the Ertel potential vorticity is also conserved for an idealized continuous fluid.**Several links to check on the topic powered by ResearchGate:

Hello Dear colleagues:

it seems to me this could be an interesting thread for discussion:

I would like to center the discussion around the concept of Entropy. But I would like to address it on the explanation-description-ejemplification part of the concept.

i.e. What do you think is a good, helpul explanation for the concept of Entropy (in a technical level of course) ?

A manner (or manners) of explain it trying to settle down the concept as clear as possible. Maybe first, in a more general scenario, and next (if is required so) in a more specific one ....

Kind regards !

Dear Fellows I checked very recent literature for the

**P-T phase diagram**by means of exp. measurements on Metallic Hydrogen.I found several interesting papers that show its metallic phase at high pressure:

**Any comments please? are there any new DFT calculations for a Metallic Hydrogen P-T Phase Diagram?**1.

**Metallic hydrogen**F Silvera et al 2018 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter in press https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-648X/aac401*Figures 6 and 8*

2.

**Insulator-metal transition in liquid hydrogen and deuterium**Shuqing Jiang, Nicholas Holtgrewe, Zachary M. Geballe, Sergey S. Lobanov, Mohammad F. Mahmood, R. Stewart McWilliams, Alexander F. Goncharov

**arXiv:1810.01360v1***Fig. 5*

3.

**Theory of high pressure hydrogen, made simple Ioan B Magd˘au, Floris Balm and Graeme J Ackland** IOP Conf. Series: Journal of Physics: Conf. Series 950 (2017) 042059 doi :10.1088/1742-6596/950/4/042059

*Fig. 1*

4.

**Observation of the Wigner-Huntington transition to metallic hydrogen**Ranga P. Dias, Isaac F. SilveraScience 17 Feb 2017:
Vol. 355, Issue 6326, pp. 715-718
DOI: 10.1126/science.aal1579

*Fig 1*

Dear Sirs,

The 1st law in Newton`s principia are now understood as two statements: the determination of inertial frame reference (if F=0 then a=0 and if F is not equal 0 then there is some body accelleration "a"); there is in nature at least one inertial frame reference. Theoretically I can understand it a little bit. As we have such a determination of inertial frame reference then the 2 nd Newton law is not directly followed from the 1 st law, or this determination is partly independent of the 2nd law. So it looks like logically good.

But what we have in experiment? I do not know whether there is any research on experimental determination of any particular inertial system (like International Celestial Reference System) using the 1 st Newton law. So in practice we use the 2 nd law (e.g. school example - foucault pendulum plane rotation). Could you clarify on the experimental and theoretical determination of inertial frame reference. You know there are teachers that see the 1st law as the consequence of the 2nd law.

We are living in a world that sometimes two brothers or sisters may not understand each other. In such a situation, a number of historical records, literature phrases, and similar subjects may get confused or misused.

The question is here how physics may solve those kinds of difficulties.

The basics of electronic conductivity can be explained without inciting quantum mechanics or brillouin zone- simply by virtue of outermost free electrons of metallic elements (from electronic configuration) and overlapping of energy bands as many metal atoms come close to one another. The similar approach for electrical conductivity does not apply too good for ceramics, because it is nearly impossible to explain delocalized electrons in ionic/covalent bonded material in terms of basic chemistry (say 10th to 12th grade level) without inciting QM, VBT-MOT and Brillouin zone; and it is hopeless task to locate position of electronic band for ceramics with simple Bohr theory of Atom (e.g. Rydberg ionization equation).

So, How can I preliminarily explain electrical (both ionic and electronic) conductivity of ceramics in a language familiar with (preliminary) origin of band structure in metals? I do not want deep Quantum Mechanics or Brillouin Zone explanation at this level.

Considering the context of the COVID-19 pandemic that requires remote teaching activities. In the case of Chemical Education, which requires a high degree of abstraction and the use of visualizations can effectively contribute to the student's learning process, how does the teacher deal with the relationship of macro, micro and symbolic representations, in online teaching?

What is the best way to teach physics? And what methodology could be adopted? Share your opinion or experience so that we can enhance our teaching whether in the classroom or even in the daily life of our social relationships.

I am referring to the use of computer science for education purposes.

Could you please suggest me some articles with these preconceptions discussed?

Thanks in advance.

One of the consequences of relativistic physics is the rejection of the well-known concepts of space and time in science, and replacing them with the new concept of Minkowski space-time or simply space-time.

In classical mechanics, the three spatial dimensions in Cartesian coordinates are usually denoted by x, y and z. The dimensional symbol of each is L. Time is represented by

*t*with the dimensional symbol of T.In relativistic physics x, y and z are still intactly used for the three spatial dimensions, but time is replaced by

*ct*. It means its dimension has changed from T to L. Therefore, this new time is yet another spatial dimension. One thus wonders where and what is time in space-time?Probably, due to this awkwardness,

*ct*is not commonly used by physicists as the notion for time after more than a century since its introduction and despite the fact that it applies to any object at any speed.The root of this manipulation of time comes directly from Lorentz transformations equations. But what are the consequences of this change?

We are told that an observer in any inertial reference frame is allowed to consider its own frame to be stationary. However, the space-time concept tells us that if the same observer does not move at all in the same frame, he or she still moves at the new so-called time dimension with the speed of light! In fact, every object which is apparently moving at a constant speed through space is actually moving with the speed of light in space-time, divided partially in time and partially in spatial directions. The difference is that going at the speed of light in the time direction is disassociated with momentum energy but going at the fraction of that speed in the other three dimensions accumulates substantial momentum energy, reaching infinity when approaching the speed of light.

It is noticed recently, that a considerable number of physics Lecturers rely mainly on IT technology in their lectures and conduct all examinations online. I think, their action is not acceptable as far as a good asessement were concerned. Since Physics exams should contain Both Multiple choice and detailed questions of Physics.They do not bother marking the exam papers, because it is done by computer.

Einstein, based on his argument in section 6 of 1905 paper, claimed:

“If a unit electric point charge is in motion in an electromagnetic field, the force acting upon it is

**equal**to the electric force which is present at the locality of the charge, and which we ascertain by transformation of the field to a system of co-ordinates at rest relatively to the electrical charge.”Simply, total electromagnetic forces, acting on a moving charge, claimed to be equal calculated in any inertial reference frame; F’ = F.

Using an example, Feynman, in his lectures, failed to prove that electromagnetic forces are equal if calculated in the two inertial frames suggested by Einstein.

His result was F’ =

*γ*FWhy did Feynman fail? Can you find an example to support Einstein’s claim?

Attached file presents and reviews Feynman’s analysis and calculation.

I am investigating any study to make new views for me about education in nuclear. For example some training courses may be effective for students or their parents. So i need some help.

What are the main factors associated with physical activity during middle or high school physical education?

Other than single relaxation time how Debye type behaviour effects the electrical properties of amorphous semiconductors particularly chalcogenide glasses?

My question is Can we attain 50-60 Hz Sound frequency on flowing water through tubes? while in background pump is working or other sounds are there (no noise cancellation).

What happens if we have high crossflow velocity of the water lets say 2 to 3 m/s.

Dear Sirs,

Everybody knows plane and spherical wave solutions of Maxwell equations, e.g for decaying plane wave E=E0*exp(-kx)*cos(w(t-x/v)). But seems to me they give the unreal situation that the wave amplitude is nonzero at different points of space at given time moment. Could you advise the experiment or natural phenomenon which produces such a wave in nature?

Maybe we have infinte speed of the EM interaction? Do you know any real solution of Maxwel equations which exists only in one space point at the given time moment? Maybe using delta function? Or maybe there is my mistake?

In my microbal fuel cell work, when I am running MFC I measure output by using a multimeter and I am able to measure only current or only Voltage at one time. When I measure both at a onetime the voltage suddenly falls to zero, and the current drops also.

Can any one help me understanding this concept?

How can i solve this problem?

thank you.

Current undergraduate project to determine effects of equipment manipulation in physical education lessons in badminton for 10-12 year old on; physical activity levels, perceived physical competence, motivation and physical education enjoyment.

On the internet, we find several options of smartphones & tablets apps for playing games with physics and mathematical concepts. Which ones have you already used and would recommend for the use in the basic & high schools?

Some researchers on 'Science Education' have been studying their use already and have made public some of their presentations about these works. Would you have some recommendation of researchers to be contacted that have been working on this topic?

Thanks in advance!

In the theory of relativity the upper bound of velocity is included by using the Lorentz transformation. Therefore the theory of relativity can give no answer to my why question. However, in my preprint I explain why:

Preprint On the upper bound of velocity

In theoretical electrical engineering you learn that the group velocity of electromagnetic waves in wave guides can not exceed c. The reason is the electromagnetic properties of empty space and the group velocity of electromagnetic waves. This is derived without needing the Lorentz transformation.

One remembers, first, that all matter used in anything is constructed of atoms, where atoms are made of particles, where quantum mechanics (QM) physically works.

Any physics, chemistry, engineering, computer science, even mathematics -- where the electrons, light, wave, and number behaviors are determining these fields by Nature -- will

**obey quantum rules**, such as NO "law of the excluded middle" and NO "axiom of choice", and where QM principles play main roles.One reads, for example, at Stanford U. that:

*the concepts and techniques of quantum mechanics are essential in many areas of engineering and science such as materials science, nanotechnology, electronic devices, and photonics.*Nominations by participants here (in order of appearance) include:

**Superfluidity, superconductivity, HVDC with QM rectification by a thyristor (semiconductor), incandescence, laser, quantum decoherence, entanglement, P-type or N-type semiconductors, transistor radio, and the entire known universe for 13.8 billion years so far.**

What is your reasoned opinion? What is your best example of QM having visible effects on microscopic and macroscopic scales?

Having announced that I am preparing a new Physics text

Update 2 is a tentative chapter list.

I would be interested in hearing from people as to Freshman mechanics topics you would like to hear discussed.

With a slight invocation of LaTeX, the book is based on two equations.

\vec{F} = \frac{d \vec{P}}{dt}

PHYSICS - CALCULUS = TOTAL NONSENSE

What will be new?

First, the book will be affordable. I am targeting $15 or $20 as a final price for a paper book that covers a semester of mechanics including harmonic motion. The possibility of a lower price in the third world is not ruled out.

Second, the text will be based on symbolic reasoning. Yes, there will be folks saying that their students haven't learned how to work symbolic problems yet. Well, it is time that they learned, isn't it? By the way, how are they passing calculus?

At more length, my text will actually be calculus based. "Calculus-based" means that students will need to use calculus to work homework problems and solve exam questions. As 'calculus-based' is required by some accrediting agencies, textbooks that pretend to be calculus-based but in which students only do numerical work buried under masses of unit conversions are now going to be challenged to be acceptable.

Hidden in symbolics and calculus is the use of vectors. Space is three-dimensional, and problems will match. Momentum and angular momentum are axial and polar vectors, not scalars, and will be treated as such.

In a certain sense, the book will represent a radical change in how physics is taught, at least relative to many places that now teach freshman physics.

Dear Sirs,

The setup for the dispersion measurement is as follows. Hg lamp, collimator, goniometer with triangular prism. We measure the light dispersion using the prism. To do so we determine the minimal deviation angle of the particular color line and then calculate the refraction coefficient (the wavelengths are known from the standard source). To find the minimal deviation angle we rotate the prism.

In the above setup does anybody know whether the smooth minimum of the deviation angle (as a function of incidence angle) can increase the error of the measurement of the minimal deviation angle? Please correct me if there is a mistake.

Do the theories of education suitable for scientific subjects such as math, physics, chemistry, etc...?

It seems clear that most of the developing countries and some of the developed ones use the theories of educations and obligate their teachers to train on some of these theories, Do these theories suitable for non-literature such scientific subjects? Some trainers say that these theories could be used for scientific subjects with little modifications. However, from my experience in the real classroom, the 21st-century methodologies of education which based on gaming much more than traditional education show bad results in the students' knowledge and their academic background. In my opinion, the bad results are due to unsuitable or incomplete educational environments such as apathy of students as well as teachers toward education -teaching and learning-, teacher ability to control the classroom, and number of students per classroom versus the period length of the lesson and the activities amount that required to deliver the lesson.

What are the particular strengths of developed countries such as Singapore’s instructional regime that helps it perform so well? What are its limits and constraints? Is Singapore’s teaching system transferable to other countries?

Dear Sirs,

Could anybody help to solve the following task?

Let us have two different inertial masses, say different in 2 times. Point masses are good also. Each of them is pulled by a string (constant force). To solve the problem we should use Einstein equations as every inertial mass possesses a kinetic energy and therefore curve space-time around itself. Did we receive the accelerations of each body which differs in 2 times? So maybe here we get a contradiction in GR?

Dear Sirs,

I would like to find out more precisely whether the 2nd Newton law is valid or not in wide range of masses, accelerations, forces. Particulary I have a question whether the inertial property of body (inertial mass) is able to stop the body for small external forces or not. I have found in the Internet the fresh articles with tests of the 2nd Newton law for small accelerations (10^-10), small forces (10^-13) and SMALL masses (about 1 kg). The articles deal with the question of dark matter and MOND theory in astrophysics.

But I am interested in BIG masses. Could the test be carried out in planetary scale? Maybe for the Moon or asteroids? Or for masses like 1000 kg? Thank you very much for any references.

Dear Sirs,

1, 2, 3 laws of Newtons need closed system (net force is zero). How do we practically realize, create such closed system?

One example. Let us look at a body motion. One can say If the body velocity is constant, e.g. zero then no forces act to it. Is it true? I think no. According to the 1st Newton law the velocity constance is the CONSEQUENCE of F=0.

So are there precise ways to construct closed system? Or all physical theory is just a mean to generate a hypothesis which has more higher probability to be true then other random thought?

Could you give references on mass measurement from the 3rd law (with different forces: gravitational, elastic, etc)? E.g. old articles by

**Saint-Venant.**How is it possible? What physics is behind it?

Is there any body which is at rest but not in equilibrium?

There are two conditions for a body to be in equilibrium:

(i) Sum of forces acting on body= 0

(ii) Resultant torque = 0

If a body is in at rest, resultant force is zero. If a body is moving with uniform velocity, still the resultant force is zero. These bodies will be in equilibrium. Similarly a rotating ceiling fan is in equilibrium as net torque acting on it is zero.

Some physicists/teachers present the following two examples as bodies at rest but not in equilibrium:

1. Body at highest point when thrown upward against gravity.

2. Pendulum at its extremes.

But I'm not satisfied with these examples and the related explanations. I think that there is no body which is at rest but not in equilibrium. What do you say? Are the above examples correct as an answer to my question?

I have data on a specific concept inventory (CI) from various cohorts. These cohorts can be categorised into group 1 with instruction type 1 and group 2 with instruction type 2. I know that the categorisation into these groups is reflected in the CI data, i.e. the performance is similar within the groups and different between the groups.

Would it be appropriate to perform a psychometric analysis on the combined data? Or should one treat both cases individually? In the latter case, the result could be that validity depends on the type of instruction.

What is the common practise? How did you choose your data?

Example:

Our citrus industry can be related to the concept of ecosystem in Biology course. Here, I can explain that the citrus tree is a home to various insect and a substrate to some mosses; in which these insects and mosses may develop ecological relationship with one another.

If you can share me teaching materials or researches that relates science teaching with your local industry, that would be of great help to my study as well.

I would like to know if it makes sense to perform a statistical analysis to evaluate how to improve the learning process and the teaching process during teaching. When teaching physics, chemistry or mathematics, does it have any utility to evaluate additional data to test scores and to the fulfillment of the program in class?
How does the teaching process in the best teaching centers, the statistics that work for them, make sense, or is it simply a matter of quality in the knowledge and appropriate strategies?
Greetings.

An atomic clock emits a nano-bullet that moves at a given speed through a vacuum pipe to another atomic clock at a given moment. The other atomic clock records the instant at which the bullet reaches and calculates the time of another atomic clock based on the known speed and distance. Sync the clock and repeat the back and forth comparisons. The data match shows that the clock time coincides.

With such a synchronous clock, can we measure the unidirectional speed of light unchanged?

"I thought about quantum mechanics a hundred times more than general relativity, but I still don't understand," Einstein said.

Perhaps the most difficult to understand is the wave-particle duality, which may be because the understanding of it is only in the form of mathematics.In fact, no one can actually verify the wave-particle duality, because the experiment can't verify a single photon.

Electrons orbiting the nucleus of the cycle and the volatility of the particles there are closely linked, we can think of chemical bonds between atoms and atomic are fluctuating, at a certain moment because electronic is only a position on the orbit, and from the time a constantly changing position, the this kind of change has the regularity.When two atoms of electrons near each other, two atoms repel each other, and when electrons in an atom near the nucleus of another atom when they will attract each other, so that can form regularity of volatility.

Inner surface cracks in the double-slit experiment of atom has been in a regular wave conditions, when the particle is trying to through the gap, when near the atom will be fluctuations in the perforated of atomic bomb, a reflection of photonic and electronic electromagnetic ejection in such a state of regular fluctuations, as the accumulation of time and the number of regular interference fringes are formed.The smaller the momentum of a particle is, the larger the Angle of the ejection is, the greater the spacing of the stripes, the longer the wavelength is.

Electronic counter near the double slit to observe, emitting a large number of photon hits the aperture inner surface of atoms, and makes the surface atomic wave interference, can be seen as inhibits such a state of regular wave, the particles will no longer through double slit by regular reflection and ejection, which in turn has emerged two bright stripe.

This is why increasing gap width will not cause interference and diffraction, because of the emitted particles and gap edge contact and collision probability becomes a matter of fact interference and diffraction and crack width, crack of fluctuations, particle momentum, launch position and the Angle of aperture.

The general idea I have is, when we have photo ionised a molecule, vacancy will be created at the core and this vacancy could be filled by the electron in the outer shell (usually transition elements, which have unpaired electron), so we would have multiplet splitting. But why is this not considered Auger?

1. Is this not the same principle that happens during Auger spectroscopy?

2. It is reported in multiple papers that transition metals show multiplet. eg, NiO is reported to show multiplet, but one of the multiplet also overlaps with Ni3+. Is there a way to exactly differentiate it?

The Bermuda Triangle is one of the amazing landmarks in the world And there are strange, interesting and horrible events in that area. Events such as the crash of planes, the sinking of ships, the collapse of the compass, and etc. Scientists express different ideas for these events Like hexagonal clouds, deep earthquakes, atmospheric disturbances, methane gas and etc. And each of these reasons justifies part of the events in that area . What really happens in this area ? Could this be the cause of the extraterrestrials? Is there another area like the Bermuda Triangle?

What is the possibility that I'll get a PhD job for research in String Theory and Particle Physics? I'm currently in my 3rd Year of Undergraduate Studies and have done research work in Photonics. Due to unavailability of faculty specialized in relativity, cosmology, particle physics etc., I chose to do research in Photonics. To manage my interests, I studied relativity, particle physics from online resources. What are the chances that I'll get a PhD job at institutes like Perimeter Institute of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Stanford, Kavli IPMU etc.?

There are pedagogical tendencies to teach applied physics in engineering careers

As a Brazilian Portuguese native speaker, I am teaching since the last 3 years Mathematics and Physics in German (I am currently at the level C1/C2) in the city of Berlin. What I have noticed so far: most of the fast learners did not feel the impact of my accent and in few times the lack of native language expressions to explain a certain topic from my side was quickly complemented by these students. They are the minority in all classes I have been teaching. However, the slow learners gave up very quickly and used as an excuse for it the fact of a small lack of my languages skills, even if some of them had already a history of deficiency in their learning processes. I would be interested in quantitative studies that compares the impact of a foreign language teacher teaching in the mother language of children. Is there something remarkable on it to pay attention?

¿How to promote phenomenon based learning in a curriculum organized by disciplines?

All spectra I've been able to find are taken above 400 nm. This is probably due to the fact that a spectrograph + ICCD is needed to be able to do this.

Dear Colleagues,

I am looking for AER colleagues in Europe, i.e. researchers or others that are doing astronomy education research. I myself is an astronomy education researcher in Sweden and looking for possible connections and contacts in, firstly, Europe, but also elsewhere.

I, together with a colleague of mine from Brasil, am trying to build a network to get a possible overview of the activities and efforts that have been done and are being done in Europe (thesis, articles, book, presentations, etc.). We are involved in an ambitious project to creating a world wide network of AER persons.

If you are a astronomy education researcher and feel that such network could be important and useful for you, please contact me via ResearchGate or email: urban.eriksson (at) fysik.lu.se.

Also, feel free to forward this information to any colleague of yours that might be interested in such network.

Many thanks!

Urban

------------------------------

Urban Eriksson, Ph.D

Dr. Urban Eriksson
Reader in Physics and Astronomy Education Research (PAER)

Assoc. Professor in physics with specialization in Physics Education Research
Director for the National Resource Center for Physics Education

Chair for the IAU working group for Astronomy Education Research and Methods

Lund University | Faculty of Science | Department of Physics
Box 118, SE 221 00 Lund, Sweden | Visiting address: Sölvegatan 14
urban.eriksson@fysik.lu.se | Mobile/WhatsApp: +46 73-059 39 62
www.lunduniversity.lu.se | www.fysik.org
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Urban_Eriksson

The Schrodinger experiment (intended to illustrate what he thought was the implausibility of a half-live half-dead cat state function, but now taken seriously by many) is modified to examine the question of whether physical processes collapse the wave function, or whether consciousness is required as I understand von Neumann suspected.

The AI (artificial intelligence) is not assumed to be conscious, just a sophisticated but deterministic program, or expert system, with motors attached robot-like. We assume from quantum mechanics calculations that the room contains a state function which is a 50-50 live-cat, dead-cat. When we open the room we expect to find one of the following:

- Live cat, with AI having recorded an observation of opening the smaller box and finding a live cat.
- Dead cat, with AI having recorded an observation of opening the smaller box and finding a dead cat.

There is nothing to collapse the wavefunction until you and I open the box, according to von Neumann. As I understand him. The AI is a physical process, just like the cat's internal biological processes are physical, and if the cat itself doesn't collapse the wave function, neither can the AI.

However, notice that the AI has the same subjective experiences that we do. There is no cross-state mixing between the AI and the cat. The AI which found the live cat never mixes with the dead cat state, and vice versa.

There, in an interview with the AI, it will insist that it never found any contradiction to the notion that it collapsed the wave function, even though our mathematics informs us otherwise.

Many QM text books say that because one can obtain interference patterns even when only one particle passes through the equipment at a time, this is proof of wave-like behaviour and that each particle must therefore pass through both slits and interfere with itself.

The brighter physics undergraduate then says ah yes, but sound or water waves also show interference with twin slits.

In the case of sound waves when viewed at the molecular level, they are just gas particles that collide, and there is no need to assume that a molecule passes through both slits to interfere with itself. Particularly if pressure is reduced so at any one time only one collision takes place at a point in time. (the equivalent of one photon passing through the experiment at a time).

The explanation has to be able to define the logic that leads to the assertion that in the photon case, the particle passes through both slits to interfere with itself, whereas in the sonic case it does not.

I work with supervised training in Brazil, especially with physics formation teachers' students. I want understand how occur this moment in your country: when its happens (starting in the middle of the course like here), who supervised (at school and from university) and how happen this supervision. If you can list some papers, I thank you.

especially for Physics teaching

The majority of the undergraduate physics students are familiar with length contraction, time dilation, relativistic mass and energy, relativistic electric and magnetic fields. But, they have no idea about relativistic temperature, heat, and the form of the thermodynamics laws in special theory of relativity,

Given the difficulty in measuring socially just behaviours, I am hoping to find a tool to specifically measure if an intervention might increase education students willingness to engage in social issues. I am aware of questionnaires used in both psychology and social work, but have not seen anything specifically for tailored to education.

Thanks

I'm looking for program/model that effectively improves physical abilities/skills of elementary and high school students, and if possible free one:-). I'm aware of SPARK, which is a commercial program, but I would like to see something that is available to everybody.

Thanks.

Teaching based intuition/graphical/applications or teaching based demonstrations/technical language/excercises?

Models are very important as they enable aspects of the system, i.e., objects, events, or ideas which are either complex, or on a different scale to that which is normally perceived, or abstract to become either visible or more readily visible.

Models are also very important in scientific research in formulating hypotheses to be tested and describing scientific phenomena.

Recently, the need of a theory of model-based teaching and learning (MBTL) came out due to the cognition of the importance of models in physics education and research.

One of the challenges up to now is that there is no coherent theory that outlines the cognitive processes involved in model-based learning and even there are no any coherent theories of how model-based teaching should be approached.

Which could be the best examples to explain Inertial Reference Frame in the High School?

I am interested in the teaching modality for high school physics with minimal or no ICT capability. How physics concepts are brought to the learner and what challenges were commonl;y met.

I have some feedback from a referee at Physics Education (PED) on the draft paper linked below, Leading Clocks Lag - A Pedagogical Memory Aide.

The reviewer comments (below, 1 referee for apparently preliminary review) can be summarized as:

1. Liked the heuristic "leading clocks lag."

2. Didn't know about and enjoyed reading the de Broglie wavelength derivation.

3. Eliminate well known (textbook-ish) derivations.

4. Include some comments on use of the material in student discussions.

Item #4 I cannot do myself. Do you teach this level of physics, or are you involved with a student physics club, and find the idea sufficiently interesting to try with some students? I would of course be happy to accept a co-author who could help meet the referee's requirements.

Yours,

Robert

REFEREE REPORT(S):

Referee: 1

COMMENTS TO THE AUTHOR(S)

The author suggest a phrase "leading clocks lag" as a memory aid to be used for discussions of synchronized clocks in special relativity, which I think is a useful phrase to add to relativity teaching.

However, I do not think that the manuscript can be published in its present form. A substantial part is devoted to derivations of different properties in special relativity, that are well-known. The application to the de Broglie wavelength is less familiar - I was not previously aware of the relation between clock synchronization and the de Broglie wavelength and I enjoyed learning about it, also by reading the more extensive presentation in reference 6.

The text has more the character of being intended as a textbook chapter than an article, apart from the few short comments expressing the view that this presentation should facilitate understanding the special theory of relativity.

The author makes educational claims e.g. that "students will understand how quantum systems automatically constitute an Einstein synchronized frame, and how observing such systems at a single point as often required by quantum measurement can produce unexpected results." However, the paper would be much more interesting if these claims were supported, e.g. by a presentation about using the material in student groups and following student discussions or evaluating their learning in some other format.