Science topic

Physical Fitness - Science topic

The ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities in a highly functional state, often as a result of physical conditioning.
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Aerobic activities, e.g. brisk walking, yoga, dancing and cycling, seem to be overrated for enhancing physical fitness and mental wellbeing. The question is "what health benefits accrue from daily participation in low-impact aerobic exercise?" Sharing is caring. Thanks!!!
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Also check please the following useful link: https://www.webmd.com/fitness-exercise/what-is-anaerobic-exercise
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Do warm-up exercises play role in developing the physical fitness of players?
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Yes, in fact, warming up is essential and plays an active role in developing physical fitness and preparing the athletes to perform their kinetic exercise exercises in training. A good warm-up routine is necessary to keep the muscles warm and prevent injuries.
- Warming up helps the body distribute oxygen to the training muscle groups.
- Warming up raises body temperature, reducing the risk of muscle and tendon injuries.
- A 5-15-minute warming-up exercises increase blood flow to the training muscles.
- A dynamic warm-up expands the body's core and promotes blood flow to the muscles preparing for the activity.
- A proper warm-up routine prepares the cardiovascular system for future (more intense) physical activity.
For further details, check the following articles.
Best wishes
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Hello,
I have conducted a survey experiment with two conditions. I want to research whether the perceived physical fitness influences the investment decision of the investor. In the survey I had one 'normal condition' and one 'physically not fit condition'. In SPSS that is: 1=Normal; 2=NotFit. The investment decision is: 1=Yes; 2=No. Is it possible to run a correlation analysis on this to see what the effect of the IV on the DV is? Or is this not possible?
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So are the NORMAL and PHYSICALLY FIT conditions something that you randomly allocated respondents to, or are they responses they gave to question? If it is the former then the 2x2 chisq or logistic regression, but if it is the later then like NO for finding if it "influences" the decision. There would be other (presumably unmeasured) variables related to both of these these..
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Physical fitness is essential to allow people to carry out everyday activities. It is often particularly low in stroke survivors. It may limit their ability to perform everyday activities and also worsen any stroke-related disability. So, it is recommended that seniors do exercises in order to improve cognitive function, quality of life, and the ability to maintain physical activity. On the other hand, other researchers say that training programs increase the risk of having another stroke.
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Have a look at the following RG links.
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I am new to statistics and trying to analyse my quantitative data. I am referring to "https://stats.idre.ucla.edu/other/mult-pkg/whatstat/" and "Laerd statistics" for the choice of statistical tests. The previous source suggests tests ranging from chi-square to multiple linear regression based on the number and nature of variables. Whereas the latter source has a clear distinction between "tests for group differences" and "tests for association and prediction".
I am confused if I have to phrase my question, looking for group difference or association according to the number and nature of my variables, for example- "Is there a difference between males and females based on their physical fitness?" OR "Is there an association between gender and physical fitness?"
In other words, Can I only test either a group difference or association for a given set of variables? Or I can test both?
Looking forward to your inputs.
Please let me know if my question is not clear.
Regards,
Noopur
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In statistics, they have different implications for the relationships among your variables.
Association between two variables means the values of one variable relate in some way to the values of the other. Association is usually measured by correlation for two continuous variables and by cross tabulation and a Chi-square test for two categorical variables.
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We’re faced with a different set of issues that we do not know about exercise after recovering from COVID-19. What is scientific background in this case? How can non-athletes apply different exercise routine to get back in good physical fitness? Where is the gap for optimal intensity and type of workout? Is there a guideline or standardized prescription with scientific approach?
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Can training in a training intensity commensurate with the person’s age. For young and middle-aged people, they are possible to start with a moderate intensity, but for the elderly, it is recommended to start with a light intensity?
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Physical fitness yield good academic performance, how?
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There is a saying that says a healthy mind is in a healthy body, and this means that the functional apparatus of the human being must work with high efficiency in order for the human performance to be at a high level. A defect in any functional system (circulatory, respiratory, Nervous, bone, and muscular…) will lead to failure to obtain fitness Physical
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I've only been able to find % body fat data based off sum of 4 skinfold sites. It would be wonderful if anyone knows of a good dataset for sum of 7 sites for elite female gymnasts. Thanks in advance. 
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Any article suggestions would be greatly appreciated for this question.
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You need to check this, I hope it will help you
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Briefly, we evaluated the effects of an exercise program on physical fitness and aggression measures using a 2x2 mixed ANOVA (2 time points, 2 groups). However, we also aim to show possible common aspects of trainability / whether individual changes in physical fitness (e.g. vertical jump) relate to individual changes in aggression (e.g. physical aggression).
Which statistical analysis could test such a statement?
Thank you.
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Hello Drazenka,
The best choice will depend on several factors: (a) the reliability of each of the measures; (b) whether the relationship (if one exists) is linear or non-linear in form; and (c) sample size.
Reliability: Any time you form a difference score, the reliability of those differences will always be less than the reliability of either of the scores from which the difference is formed, unless both scores are perfectly reliable or the scores are uncorrelated (in which case, a difference would be pretty meaningless). My guess is that you could likely get a pretty reliable vertical jump measure by averaging the value of, say, six attempts on a given occasion (but it would still be subject to disturbances such as current injury status, health, time after eating, level of fatigue, etc.). I'm not sure how the aggression scores would fare, without more information about how you quantified them.
Relationship: If the relationship is linear in form, then ordinary Pearson or Spearman correlation would do a good job of quantifying the association (or incorporate into a regression model). If non-linear, you could either try polynomial regression, or categorize cases into subsets/groups (e.g., quartiles, quintiles) based on one variable and compare the groups on the other variable (via eta-squared in anova or R-squared in regression).
Sample size: the categorization might not work well with more than a few levels without an adequate sample size.
Good luck with your work.
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Being healthy is really important and I do believe staying physically fit can impact your research in a positive way due to the direct correlation of our mental physical wellness.
Please share your thoughts on it.
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I do agree that physical fitness can effect with positive impact on researchers capabilities and production.
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On the first page of his book, "Experiential Learning", David S. Kolb (1984) writes: "Human beings are unique among all living organisms in that their primary adaptive specialization lies not in some particular physical form or skill or fit in an ecological niche, but rather in identification with the process of adaptation itself-in the process of learning. We are thus the learning species, and our survival depends on out ability to adapt not only in the reactive sense of fitting into the physical and social worlds, but in the proactive sense of creating and shaping those worlds" In what way is experiential learning similar to this a part of the learning process in schools you know? - and; How is it done in practical terms?
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Dear Kjartan,
You might find some relevant examples in this guidebook :@GretchenKerr
Regards, Eileen O'Connor
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I want to measure the extent to which a person is perceived as being healthy, preferably by using a semantic differential scale (e.g., healthy - unhealthy) to have an equal balance of positive and negative items. I already made a measure by myself (healthy - unhealthy; physically fit - physically unfit; weight-conscious - not weight-conscious ), but I would like to find a scale that has already been validated. Any ideas or suggestions? Best, Ben
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Hi Ben De Groeve , you could try the international fitness scale (F.B. Ortega, J.R. Ruiz, V. Espana-Romero, et al.The International Fitness Scale (IFIS): usefulness of self-reported fitness in youth. Int J Epidemiol, 40 (2011), pp. 701-711, 10.1093/ije/dyr039)
Specific to health, I know Marques et al utilised this "The perception of adolescents about their health was collected through the question, “You would say your health is … ?” Answers were given, through selection, on a 4-point scale (poor, fair, good, and excellent)" citing a pretty comprehensive, albeit dated, review by E.L. Idler, Y. Benyamini Self-rated health and mortality: a review of twenty-seven community studies J Health Soc Behav, 38 (1997), pp. 21-37
Not sure if any of those help or are useful. But they sprang to mind
Cain
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Generalized Resistance Resources (GRRs) is part of Aaron Antonovsky's concept salutogenesis. 
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May I add a view from Chinese medicine? In Chinese medicine, if the spleen is not healthy, nutrition absorption rate is low. western exercises cannot activate the spleen function except the Chinese exercise (qigong) or get Chinese medicine treatments of acupuncture, herbs, magnet therapy or the whole body healing system,
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there is Harris–Benedict equations with its revised version by mifflin, i m confused which one to use ?
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Dear Munib,
Although established around 100 years ago, our students still use the Harris–Benedict prediction in the physical activity lab. Due to changes in lifestyle, new predictions such as the Mifflin St Jeor equation are more accurate. Working with obese patients (BMI 30 or more) the Broca-Index correction makes sense.
All these measurements simply rely on bodyweight, height, age and gender.
If you are able to measure lean body mass by bioelectrical impedance analysis you can predict the daily resting energy expenditure by Katch-McArdle and Cunningham formula, respectively.
Concerning you question, the difference between Harris–Benedict and Mifflin St Jeor equations is around 5 %, with higher accuracy of the later one.
Best wishes
Marc
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I've been told by professional coaches that it is important to set an incline in order to mimic outside conditions, and that the distance would be inaccurate with a 0% incline.  I also saw articles that said that was a myth, and that the article used to encourage inclines only used 9 participants.  Edit: thanks to Pedro in the comments!  This question is in reference to Jones and Doust (1996).  How supported is this paper's conclusions by other empirical work?  What should I search to find more information?  I'm investigating the body of literature myself, but would love any shortcuts or tips.  Thank you!
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Yes Gabriel,
It is published in portuguese. Please find attached the article.
Abraço
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Currently I  am working on a project relating effect of some herbal medicine on the extent physical fitness in animal model. And in this  purpose I  need to monitor the oxygen consumption rate and it's change in mice. Is there any simple process for this experimentation? please suggest me something considering my fund scarcity.
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Thank you very much sir
I wish this guideline will show me the proper way.
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arm cycle ergometer (Lode)
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Dear Dr Marisa,
see articles that might be worth reading. 
Kind regards,
Olaf 
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Is there an article about the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and the incidence of sudden cardiac death in athletes ?
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No, it shouldn't in sports. Sudden death is a genetic, morphological and electrophysiological predisposition. It happens in athletes with perfect cardiorespiratory fitness. 
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Am working on an app that helps users keep fit by looking at there physical challenges and body types to help them look the way they desire after they have filled some forms. what can i use to process this. will fuzzy logic work and which approach of recommender system should i take, or i shoul work on expert system. someone please help
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I can recommend you Freeletics®. It could be very helpful on the exercise assessment, always with the overview of a certified expert, specially in this case because even when the app is fine for strength training, it has to be complemented with other exercises for capacities such as flexibility...
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I would like to know the available physical fitness assessment tests, they preferred to be objective and applicable for an epidemiological study on a relatively large sample size
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In our studies we use the Fitnessgram, I suggest you to do a quick online research about the uses of this program to evaluate physical fitness
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In most cases the athletes tend to retire early than expected, hence taking a longer time to adjust to career transition after retirement.
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Dear Eric,
Bone mineral density was shown to be a good predictor of physical performance. Maybe you can use the following Information…
Bennell KL, Malcolm SA, Khan KM, Thomas SA, Reid SJ, Brukner PD, Ebeling PR, Wark JD. Bone mass and bone turnover in power athletes, endurance athletes, and controls: a 12-month longitudinal study. Bone. 1997;20(5):477-84. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/14073704_Bone_mass_and_bone_turnover_in_power_athletes_endurance_athletes_and_controls_A_12-month_longitudinal_study
Zieliński J, et al. Changes in physical activity of elite track and field athletes in selected age categories. STUDIES IN PHYSICAL CULTURE AND TOURISM 2006;6(Supplement):185-87. http://www.wbc.poznan.pl/Content/61393/Zielinski_REV.pdf
Dregelid B. The association between physical fitness, body composition and bone mineral density among female athletes. Norwegian University of Science and Technology (Master’s Thesis); Trondheim 2013. http://brage.bibsys.no/xmlui/bitstream/handle/11250/271546/640831_FULLTEXT01.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
Lemez S, Baker J. Do elite athletes live longer? A systematic review of mortality and longevity in elite athletes. Sports Med Open. 2015;1(1):16. http://www.sportsmedicine-open.com/content/pdf/s40798-015-0024-x.pdf
Best wishes from Germany
Martin
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Our group are completing a 2015 update of our Cochrane Review titled 'Physical Fitness Training for Stroke Patients'. If you are aware of any ONGOING or UNPUBLISHED randomised trials of exercise interventions please could you let me know?
The exercise interventions we are interested in are cardiorespiratory ('endurance') training, resistance ('strength') training or a combination of both.
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We are currently doing an ongoing RCT on exercise post stroke where patients are randomised into an exercise programme of preference for18 months post stroke. It is a multicenter study.Inclusion time is at 3 months follow -up after first time ever stroke. The programme of Choice needs to be focused on high intensity (Borgs scale 15-16),type of exercise : strength and / or endurance training; time: 45 minutes-60 minutes; frequency: 1/w and so be physically active 7/w for 30 minutes. The patients set goals and Write exercise diaries. They have their own "Coach" that visit them each month.
See: clintrials.gov NCT 01467206
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Let's say a person undertakes a program of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on an exercise bike, with a heart-rate monitor, in a gym. This program involves 30 min sessions every day. The objective of each session is to reach the maximum achievable heart rate at the end of the 30 min period. By 'maximum achievable' I mean the rate at which a highly motivated individual is able to reach (while being yelled at by a trainer, for instance). I think this limit is effectively determined by the person's ability to tolerate pain/discomfort - it would be around say 85% of a person's 'maximum' heart rate, which is determined using the 220-age_in_years rule-of-thumb. At this limit the person is a 'mess' (lost all inhibition, sweating profusely, short of breath, grunting involuntarily, etc.).    
My question is - How would this 'maximum achievable' rate change as the program progresses and as the person (who is already reasonably fit) becomes fitter? Would it increase or decrease? And what determines this discomfort/pain threshold anyway, if it is not heart rate? Furthermore, what is the significance of the 'maximum' heart rate if it is not reachable/achievable in reality?   
Thanks in advance for your help.
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The maximum achievable heart rate , HR max, of an individual is fixed and decreases with advancing age. When someone does intense exercise his/her HRmax can be achieved  earlier and that person who does the very intense exercises will work at close to this value for the period of intense exercise.
A person who is in a detrained state will also achieve heart rates close to HRmax on starting exercise programs (by doing relatively easy tasks) but as fitness increases the intensity of work required to achieve HR max increases.
In a nut shell HR MAX does not really increase at high work loads but a fit person is able to tolerate more work for longer periods at the HR max than an unfit person and also requires a higher volume and intensity of work to achieve this HRmax than an unfit person.
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I want to differentiate the fitness regime of bowlers and fast bowlers.However, even the specifications of importance of physical fitness in them.
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Dear Priyanka, 
                      Its an nice question, as  for my understanding fitness regime should prevent the injuries and should increase the performance also, generalising one kind of fitness program for all fast bowlers is hypothetical, for example  malinga and akhtar using their shoulder and trunk much to generate the phase where as in case of Glenn McGrath  has a fine bowling biomechanics he not stretching all his joints. its remains same in spin bowlers also each bowler has their own style  and biomechanical difference also. as simple bowling is a complex biomechanical movement so understanding each bowlers need is an concern. 
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I am looking to produce a dissertation study based on the effects of plyometric training on sand to see if it can be used as an additional training program in footballers seasons to increase power output, agility, vertical jump height and speed. Whilst have minimal effect on muscle soreness and fatigue.
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You can see my article with the title of:
Comparing The Effects of The Plyometric Exercise on Sand, Grass and
Wood Surfaces on Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness Of Young Athletes" in "International Journal of Sport Studies. Vol., 4 (4), 441-447, 2014"
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Testing is improtant to monitor training progress.
But it should take little time and should provide reliable and valid data on running speed, jump strength and power.
Reference lists could help me indentify such assessment tools.
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Hi Karel,
Brian MacKenzie, a UK track and field level 4 coach, produced a book which gives an overview of various types of performance testing, and some references for their normative scores, and reliability. This may be a simple place to get a good overview of some choices.
If you search his name (but make sure you get the correct person, perhaps by putting UK or level 4 coach), you may get more information about him. I also found his personal coaching website, but the book is able to be downloaded free. (There is another strength and fitness person of the same name, different background knowledge.)
Other field tests that are already in use would include those in the NFL field test battery from the pre-season testing combine. For example: Robbins, D. W., & Goodale, T. (2012). Evaluation of the Physical Test Battery Implemented at the National Football League Combine. Strength & Conditioning Journal, 34(5), 1-10.
Sprinting speed, power and agility are high priority there, so the tests reflect those areas of focus.
Good luck with your research.
Jeremy
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How do typically developing children conceptualise 'keep-fit' are there any UK based qualitative papers that I can reference please?
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Hi Llinos,
There is a systematic review by Rees et al (2013) on The views of young people in the UK about obesity, body size, shape and weight. 
I hope this helps.
Itodo.
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I am preparing a special issue entitled "Prevalence of overweight and obesity in physically active children, and health-related physical fitness" for Current Pediatric Reviews (indexed in pubmed and scopus). I will be happy if anyone wish to contribute as an author (only review papers will be considered) or reviewer (submission deadline: 31/1/2015).
Briefly, the aims and scope of the special issue: The aim of the proposed special issue is to present the latest advances in research concerning the prevalence of overweight and obesity in physically active children, and the impact on health-related physical fitness. Although regular participation in exercise and sport activities has been suggested as a mean to decrease the risk for overweight and obesity, recent findings have shown that (a) the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children engaged in sport activities (e.g. soccer players) might be similar as in general population, and (b) there is a negative effect of body mass index on health-related physical fitness components (e.g. aerobic capacity, muscle strength and power). Thus, we invite researchers to submit reviews in topics that include, but are not limited to:
- Prevalence of overweight and obesity in physically active children (e.g. athletes).
- Comparison between groups with different physical activity levels with regards to obesity markers such as body mass index and body fat.
- Relationship between body mass index and body fat in groups differing for sex, age, maturation and physical activity.
- Relationship among body mass index, body fat and health-related physical fitness components.
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There no focus on obesity and BMI in active children, but the problem of the modern world is, availability of unhealthy foods close to children. Though children are active, they are putting in a lot of fats in the body than they are burning. We need to study nutritional environment of the children and modify these environments to commensurate healthy eating physical activity.
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I am trying to measure cardiovascular fitness in preschool children with a secure and validated test.
I am thinking in 20m shuttle run. Any experiences?
Thanks.
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Dijon Sports Science, Burgundy University
In 1994 we developed a Field Intermittent Test call 45s-15s (45s-15s FIT). It is particularly suitable for the evaluation of the maximum aerobic speed for children and all person who practice intermittent activity. Try this test you will be delighted.
Best regards.
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I'm doing research related to physical fitness and academic achievement.
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I suggest reviewing some articles on the subject:
Chaddock L, Pontifex MB, Hillman CH, Kramer AF (2011) A review of the relation of aerobic fitness and physical activity to brain structure and function in children. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 17: 975- 985.
Chang YK, Labban JD, Gapin JI, Etnier JL (2012) The effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance: a meta-analysis. Brain Res 1453: 87-101.
Churchill JD, Galvez R, Colcombe S, Swain RA, Kramer AF, et al. (2002) Exercise, experience and the aging brain. Neurobiol Aging 23: 941-955.
Cui Z, Hardy LL, Dibley MJ, Bauman A (2011) Temporal trends and recent correlates in sedentary behaviours in Chinese children. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 8: 93.
Ekeland E, Heian F, Hagen KB (2005) Can exercise improve self esteem in children and young people? A systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Br J Sports Med 39: 792-798.
Erickson KI, Voss MW, Prakash RS, Basak C, Szabo A, et al. (2011) Exercise training increases size of hippocampus and improves memory. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108: 3017-3022.
Fedewa AL, Ahn S (2011) The effects of physical activity and physical fitness on children's achievement and cognitive outcomes: a meta-analysis. RQES 82: 521-535.
Gomez-Pinilla F, Vaynman S, Ying Z (2008) Brain-derived neurotrophic factor functions as a metabotrophin to mediate the effects of exercise on cognition. Eur J Neurosci 28: 2278-2287.
Hillman CH, Buck SM, Themanson JR, Pontifex MB, Castelli DM (2009) Aerobic fitness and cognitive development: Event-related brain potential and task performance indices of executive control in preadolescent children. Dev Psychol 45: 114-129.
Hillman CH, Erickson KI, Kramer AF (2008) Be smart, exercise your heart: exercise effects on brain and cognition. Nat Rev Neurosci 9: 58-65.
Hillman CH, Kamijo K, Scudder M (2011) A review of chronic and acute physical activity participation on neuroelectric measures of brain health and cognition during childhood. Prev Med 52: S21-28.
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Seeking to hear views and expert opinions.
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Says:-
Thank you so much for your valuable comments.
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At the moment my team is planning a test. Every participant gets a smartphone, a blood pressure meter, a body scale and a pedometer.
For one week everyone has to measure with all the devices. Vital parameters are then collected on a database (connection via smartphone).
Second week we want to motivate the people to more physical activity by showing them their parameters in diagrams (smartphone app) and motivating text messages.
So we have to get as many motivating text messages as possible. Sadly I didn't find any list, so we just got a few ideas like "What about a walk in the park with your dog?". Additionally we want to flag these motivating texts like "just for dog owners".
Does anyone have some ideas how to motivate people (age = 45 +/- 10)?
If you have any questions please feel free to ask.
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I agree that TTM might help you classify the individuals within your cohort into loose groups based on their behaviour. But TTM is somewhat silent on the specific interventions you might need to employ to progress or maintain PA motivation. TTM is your framework but you'll still need a theoretically driven intervention programme. If you're focussing on motivation then I would suggest SDM as it is widely accepted and accessibly published. I've got a general framework on how these two relate, DM me your email if you want me to send anything through.
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Physical activity is a different concept to physical fitness, although the two are often related. Physical activity has been defined as ‘any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that result in caloric expenditure’. Therefore, physical activity is commonly described by the following four dimensions: (i) frequency – ‘the number of events of physical activity during a specific time period’; (ii) duration – ‘time of participation in a single bout of physical activity’; (iii) intensity – ‘physiological effort associated with participating in a special type of physical activity’; and (iv) type of activity. Any assessment of physical activity should ideally measure all of these dimensions and account for day-to-day variation. Three of these dimensions (i.e. intensity, frequency and duration) of physical activity are fundamental because their assessments provide the ability to calculate energy expenditure (EE) associated with physical activity.
In contrast, physical fitness comprises cardiorespiratory endurance (assessed by either measured or estimated VO2max), muscle endurance and muscle strength, both of which are specific to a muscle group and must therefore be measured individually. Flexibility, balance, agility and coordination are additional components of physical fitness.
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Physical activity," "exercise," and "physical fitness" are terms that describe different concepts. However, they are often confused with one another, and the terms are sometimes used interchangeably. This paper proposes definitions to distinguish them. Physical activity is defined as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that results in energy expenditure. The energy expenditure can be measured in kilocalories. Physical activity in daily life can be categorized into occupational, sports, conditioning, household, or other activities. Exercise is a subset of physical activity that is planned, structured, and repetitive and has as a final or an intermediate objective the improvement or maintenance of physical fitness. Physical fitness is a set of attributes that are either health- or skill-related. The degree to which people have these attributes can be measured with specific tests. These definitions are offered as an interpretational framework for comparing studies that relate physical activity, exercise, and physical fitness to health.