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Physical Education and Sport - Science topic

Physical education and sport theory, methodology and research.
Questions related to Physical Education and Sport
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Dears I have a query about the best style in references you prefer when writing a paper in Physical education field, Harvard or APA style?
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it all depends on the institution and the journal for which it intends to write.
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I am looking for information for the last 100 or 50 years on measurable sporting performance (for example: in athletics, swimming, cycling, rowing and the like) for competitors aged 40+, 50+, 60+, 70+ etc to answer the question: Has the physical performance of the elderly changed over the last 100 or 50 years?
Results for London etc marathons provide times and ages since the 1980s, but that is one activity and just 35 years.
Is there more information?
Many thanks.
Malcolm Tozer
24 February 2016
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Thank you. That is very helpful.
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Dear all,
I sent an article to the Journal of Physical Education and Sport (JPES) a few months ago, and I have been trying to contact them on a numerous occasions since then on whether they received my article. I sent them emails, multiple times, asking for any confirmation whether they will review the article or not, so I can submit it to another journal. There was no answer whatsoever.
I called every phone of their Editorial office many times (shown on their website), and although I was charged because of the voicemail/fax answer machine, no body picked up the phone.
I asked a colleague of mine (researcher from Romania) to contact them, and he also called them many times during the last week and nobody answered.
I wrote to them on their Facebook page as well, but it seems that nobody has seen this message at all.
I was wondering whether you have had any experience with this journal and whether is normal not to receive any email and confirmation on whether they received your article for more than 2 months?
Thank you for your time,
Stefan
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We sent to it journal science article too and haven't answer. Sometimes our authors waited more then 8 months. Sometimes they said always change text. I recommend to you publishing your article in Ukrainian science journal Web of science. Very quickly. Many indexing. I can help if you need
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Firstly, is it correct to describe the study as an AB/BA crossover design if I have 2 conditions and 2 periods but all participants were followed-up at 16-months post-intervention also?
Secondly, are there any useful resources I can refer to, to figure out how to correctly analyse the data using SPSS?
Measurements were taken pre and post period 1 and then pre and post period 2 and again at 16-months post-intervention.
4 schools with 11 class groups were included. Before baseline 2 schools (6 class groups) were assigned to the AB condition and 2 schools (6 class groups) were assigned to the BA condition. A was a control condition where groups continued with normal PE lessons and B was the intervention condition (8-week intervention focusing on fundamental movement skill development). A 4-week washout period was included before groups crossed over for period 2. All participants were assessed for FMS proficiency and BMI across 5 time-points.
Time 1: Period 1 pre-test
Time 2: Period 1 post-test
4-week wash-out period, then groups crossed over for period 2
Time 3: Period 2 pre-test
Time 4: Period 2 post-test
Time 5: 16-month post-intervention 
Research questions:
1. can an 8-week intervention programme lead to significant improvements in FMS proficiency levels?
2. can any improvement in FMS proficiency levels be maintained over time?
3. do the effects of the intervention programme vary by sex and/or weight status?
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Béatrice Marianne Ewalds-Kvist thank you for your suggestion.
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which is the best teaching method for the kids of age 5 till 10 years?
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hi, teaching methodes regardings PE you mean?
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How can I record the central relative timing of the components of the dart throwing?
We are going to analysis the EEG signal of dart throwing to components of throwing so that measuring the central relative timing and investigating the validation of the stability of the relative timing of GMP (about the schema theory, Schmidt, 1975, 2003).
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Hello,
In stable position like in chess playing the EEG record may be quite good. Problem starts when you try to record EEG while moving. We used to try to record EEG during simple movement: squat, staying in squad position, flexing in elbow. Unfortunately the record was completely unreadable. The signal was full of artifacts. 
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If not, how can I access the English version?
I would like to use it for my Master's Thesis.
Thank you!
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Dear Silke,
You can find the Dutch translated version of Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ) here:
Simons J, Theunissen I. (2005) Beleving van fysieke competentie bijjongeren  aan  de  hand  van  de physical self-description questionnaire. Simons, J. (Ed.),  Actuele themata uit de psychomotorische therapie. Jaarboek  2005.  (Actual  themes  from  psychomotor  therapy:  Yearbook  2005)  Leuven/Voorburg:  Acco,  pp.  11-35.  https://lirias.kuleuven.be/handle/123456789/55175
If you can’t borrow the book, I would contact Prof. Dr. Johan Simons directly:
Johan Simons (Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, O&N IV Herestraat 49 - box 1510, 3000 Leuven): http://www.kuleuven.be/wieiswie/en/person/00011514
Best wishes from Munich,
Martin
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Is it possible to measure the Ground contact time while jumping with the gopro cam with 240 fps ?
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I'm pretty sure it is possible.
I used the program 'meausre dynamics'. You just need to mark the first and the last frame, where the contact is visible. Then you can calculate the time that has passed in between the difference of those pictures. Have a look at the file (in german), but there are some picutres an calculations that might help.
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Especially for PE Activities Program for Motor Action Domains and types of tasks Evaluation by MAD
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Thank you Evelyn, and sorry for my poor english.
This study is not exactly what I want.
I will also read it. It's seems interesting.Tthanks for your help,
Greetings from Spain.
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In the litterature can be found percentage and average values.
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Dear Nebojsa,
I hope I understood correctly the topic, otherwise please excuse my intervention and forget about it.
I'd differ ball possession from contact basing on a quality parameter of the touch. If you get in contact with the ball it's not given you're possessing it, as it could be an interception, deviation, odd control, and so on. So in my humble opinion, on a mathematical point of view, as a first approach, I'd speak about effective posession of the ball when the mean speed of the ball (in a limited amount of time, when the ball is close to the player) is almost equal to the speed (and direction) of the man carring it.
For first touch pass I would put a yes/no control based on the success of the pass (yes: direction, speed of pass, height, [...] are correct. No: the other cases; this for avoiding that reception mistakes false the count). If the answer is no, I'd stop talking about posession in the exact moment when the ball leaves the foot of the passer.
kind regards,
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Action in sports, which refers to "what to do in the play", are qualified as unconscious actions due to time restrictions. In fact, players have very limited time to determine that actions in the course of the game and of course to execute them. Decision-making is studied in the area of sport sciences as a task that players must repeat at all moments during the game and for its entire duration. However, players thrive to make better decisions, which implies to recall their own actions, rethink them and at some point to describe them so they can discuss about it with other teammates. That portion of learning seems to be praised as useful for the quality of teaching-learning-training process although still lacks of scientific evidence due to the complexity decision-making and learning processes themselves.
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Cher collègue,
Je vous invite à lire le chapitre commun commis avec mon collègue Christophe Mauny :
Christophe Gibout · Christophe Mauny (2006) Les représentations symboliques comme moyens de re - définition et de ré-appropriation des techniques corporelles en sports collectifs. 
L'article est en téléchargement sur le site de researchgate et dispose d'une bibliographie où, peut-être, vous trouverez des choses qui vous interessent.
Bien cordialement,
Christophe Gibout
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Sports in Schools.
Can it affect your academic performance? What's the problem faced by teachers in organizing sports in school? 
Please indicate a few sources where I can Find the relevant information for this Research Question.
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Dear Thompson.
To organize a sports activity in schools provides an opportunities for children and youth to engage in valuable and positive relationships with adults, which is especially important when such benefits are not available at home.
It is found that who are highly involved in sport are more “psychologically resilient,” and better able to recover from problems and protected from social isolation.
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Accelerometer cut points for obese populations.
Does anyone have experience in measuring physical activity by accelerometer in obese individuals?
Due to a greater body mass the energy cost of movement is greater in obese individuals. There is a clear argument for using specific cut points in obese individuals. However, there is very little in the literature on this subject.
If anyone has got experience in this, what cut points did you use and what was your rational for using these cut points?
Any thoughts or discussion on this is much appreciated 
Nils
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We are working in this question since the last two years with different accelerometers and different intensity but, at the moment, we don't have any publication.
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the cooperative method is the succeful 
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Brahim:
If handball can develop cooperative skills and enable to be move their bodies, becoming more active, I fully endorse it. The digital natives in today's classroom are inclined to play the game online, which causes them to put on weight and develop anti-social skills.
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We want to observe interaction and social skills in a group of adolescents with autism who are part of a sport-based program. Is there a validated tool for such thing? Could anyone point me in the right direction? I am happy to share research notes if anyone is interested.
Thanks!
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The problem is that "social skills" and interactions is so broad that you might need to narrow down the range of behaviors you want to look at. For example, in such a population you might want to measure things like any verbal bid directed at a peer, responses to another peer's action with a verbal or gestural response or gaze, etc. - basically some well-defines set of socially relevant (appropriate or inappropriate) responses that are high-variability in the population, and targets of intervention. Then, as in the first response, you need to track the incidence of these over time, and apply sequential analysis stats to describe changes over time. You also need a comparison context - some other program that has all the same properties (e.g., cardiovascular exercise, gross motor activity, presence of other people) but not the same opportunities for social interaction - maybe like an aerobics class where there's relatively little interaction. The point is, you can't show effects of the interaction unless you compare it to a well-matched alternative. There are sequential analysis approaches (clunky but useable) to showing different trajectories of change over time. You can also look at sequences of social actions - this is where sequential analyses get more interesting and useful - to see whether the kids get more socially *responsive*, in specific way, with experience. Good luck.
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I am working physical education and sport department. I’m planning to investigate ADD group (child or adult) determination via exercise program. I read about various articles for exercise in the publication. But, I didn’t find enough information about measument of ADD.
Would you like some advice about tests (performance of attention) for evaluation of ADD.
Thank you for your attention...
Dr. Gonca iNCE
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These are the two scales of ADD
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 side deviations For line work Force leads to weakness in the Force while running and throwing during movement
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Dear my  colleague Hamdy,
I hope the following papers help you.
Buller, P. F., & McEvoy, G. M. (2012). Strategy, human resource management and performance: Sharpening line of sight. Human Resource Management Review. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.hrmr.2011.11.002
Cholewicki, J., & McGill, S. M. (1996). Mechanical stability of the in vivo lumbar spine: Implications for injury and chronic low back pain. Clinical Biomechanics, 11(1), 1–15. http://doi.org/10.1016/0268-0033(95)00035-6
Colloca, C. J., Keller, T. S., Harrison, D. E., Moore, R. J., Gunzburg, R., & Harrison, D. D. (2006). Spinal manipulation force and duration affect vertebral movement and neuromuscular responses. Clinical Biomechanics, 21(3), 254–262. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2005.10.006
Danion, F., & Sarlegna, F. R. (2007). Can the human brain predict the consequences of arm movement corrections when transporting an object? Hints from grip force adjustments. The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 27(47), 12839–12843. http://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3110-07.2007
Dulhunty, J. (2002). A simplified conceptual model of the human cervical spine for evaluating force transmission in upright static posture. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 25(5), 306–317. http://doi.org/10.1067/mmt.2002.124421
Flanagan, J. R., & Wing, a M. (1997). The role of internal models in motion planning and control: evidence from grip force adjustments during movements of hand-held loads. The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 17(4),
Han, J. S., Goel, V. K., & Kumar, S. (1991). A nonlinear optimization force model of the human lumbar spine. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 8(3), 289–301. http://doi.org/10.1016/0169-8141(91)90039-O
Hansen, L., de Zee, M., Rasmussen, J., Andersen, T. B., Wong, C., & Simonsen, E. B. (2006). Anatomy and biomechanics of the back muscles in the lumbar spine with reference to biomechanical modeling. Spine, 31(17), 1888–99.
Keenan, K. G., Santos, V. J., Venkadesan, M., & Valero-Cuevas, F. J. (2009). Maximal voluntary fingertip force production is not limited by movement speed in combined motion and force tasks. The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 29(27), 8784–8789. http://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0853-09.2009
Lackner, J. R., & Dizio, P. (1994). Rapid adaptation to Coriolis force perturbations of arm trajectory. J Neurophysiol, 72(1), 299–313. http://doi.org/citeulike-article-id:450102
Ledet, E. H., Tymeson, M. P., DiRisio, D. J., Cohen, B., & Uhl, R. L. (2005). Direct real-time measurement of in vivo forces in the lumbar spine. Spine Journal, 5(1), 85–94. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.spinee.2004.06.017
Luinge, H. J., & Veltink, P. H. (2004). Inclination measurement of human movement using a 3-D accelerometer with autocalibration. IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering : A Publication of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 12(1), 112–121. http://doi.org/10.1109/TNSRE.2003.822759
Shirazi-Adl, A., & Parnianpour, M. (1993). Nonlinear response analysis of the human ligamentous lumbar spine in compression. On mechanisms affecting the postural stability. Spine, 18(1), 147–58. http://doi.org/10.1097/00007632-199301000-00021
Shirazi-Adl, A., Sadouk, S., Parnianpour, M., Pop, D., & El-Rich, M. (2002). Muscle force evaluation and the role of posture in human lumbar spine under compression. European Spine Journal, 11(6), 519–526. http://doi.org/10.1007/s00586-002-0397-7
Shum, G. L. K., Crosbie, J., & Lee, R. Y. W. (2005). Symptomatic and asymptomatic movement coordination of the lumbar spine and hip during an everyday activity. Spine, 30(23), E697–702. http://doi.org/10.1097/01.brs.0000188255.10759.7a
Teo, E. C., & Ng, H. W. (2001). Evaluation of the role of ligaments, facets and disc nucleus in lower cervical spine under compression and sagittal moments using finite element method. Medical Engineering and Physics, 23(3), 155–164. http://doi.org/10.1016/S1350-4533(01)00036-4
Vaz, G., Roussouly, P., Berthonnaud, E., & Dimnet, J. (2002). Sagittal morphology and equilibrium of pelvis and spine. European Spine Journal, 11(1), 80–87. http://doi.org/10.1007/s005860000224
Wada, O., Tateuchi, H., & Ichihashi, N. (2014). The correlation between movement of the center of mass and the kinematics of the spine, pelvis, and hip joints during body rotation. Gait and Posture, 39(1), 60–64. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.gaitpost.2013.05.030
Wu, B., Wang, C., Krug, R., Kelley, D. A., Xu, D., Pang, Y., … Zhang, X. (2010). 7T human spine imaging arrays with adjustable inductive decoupling. IEEE Transactions on Bio-Medical Engineering, 57(2), 397–403. http://doi.org/10.1109/TBME.2009.2030170
Regards, 
Abdel-Rahman
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articles and books - TGfU and Sport Education models
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Thanks for all of you!
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Strategic management
Secondary school
Top-level sport program
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Secondary schools with top-level sports - a hot topic?
Since the inception of these programs 25-30 years ago, former students at these schools have had sports careers at high national- and international-levels . The results from the Winter Olympics in Vancouver in 2010 and Sochi in 2014 are examples of this. Of a total of 49 medals for Norway, 26 were won by 10 former students from these schools. Based on the article “Trøndelag - The world’s best ‘ski nation’?” , the American newspaper The Wall Street Journal had a front-page article entitled “How Norway Scores So Much Olympic Gold” in February 2014.
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I just want to have an idea how this centers are structure, and what is the conception of athlete life and career that support this kind of facility. What is the scientic literature that supports the conception of Sports Performance Centers?
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Olá Ana,
It's a large question, interesting but and I think that a little complicated it. However, I will try to reply it. In any case, I recommend a book, which deal with your question: Sport Development in the United States: High Performance and Mass Participation. 
So,  I found it, however, only a little presentation. In this way, I recommend also you look mainly the research and studies which are developped in the USA Universities, I'm sure there are many centers of excellence in trainning for athletes in these Universities. Indeed, independently of sports modality. They apply a model of trainning that we know it's efficient, and many other countries apply successfully it .  
I hope this helps.
Sinecerely yours.
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Looking for some papers to do with Task cards on learning be it in Physical Education, Sport or Theories of learning.
Many thanks
Sam
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i need information about fifa 11++ warm up program
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I need to know about new studies about this teaching sport model with young students (from 10 to 14).
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En mi página puedes encontrar bastantes: https://es.pinterest.com/TGfUresources/
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I am planning on investigating the relationship between student and teacher goal orientation. Have basically decided on the AGQ-S for students in physical education, and need a corresponding measure tested on teachers´ goal orientation. Any suggestions?
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Hello Marcelo,
Thank you for your swift answer! The Dresel et al (2013) paper was very helpful. It let me backtrack the development of a Teachers´ goal orientation measure (Nietzsche et al (2011), partly based on the work of Butler (2007). Seem to be one of the better options right  now for measuring teachers´ goal orientations. 
Best,
Ingar
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I instruct elementary physical education methods and will have a large number (28) of students during the semester. The typical class size is 15. Students enrolled in the course will learn to construct and instruct a 30-minute lesson plan in physical education. For many of the students, this will be the first experience in writing and instructing a lesson plan. Field experiences will also be required with placement being in one physical education setting. The entire group of 28 will attend the field experiences together. The course meets on Tuesdays and Thursdays, so during the semester there are approximately 28 class days. Several weeks are needed to introduce physical education concepts and fundamental skills before instructing the lesson plan and its components. I would love ideas and suggestions on how to accommodate 28 students in physical education methods without losing the effectiveness of my own instruction.
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Dear Melissa,
   It is only my opinion but If these are teacher candidates then they should be put to work! There is no reason why they cannot, in smaller or larger groups, be made responsible for presenting key parts of the material to their peers. Text, video or other resources can be found as a backstop against poor performance. However, if they are going to be teaching soon they need to learn how to develop lesson plans "from scratch' - starting with material they are not entirely familiar with and going all the way to delivery. 28 adults is not harder to deal with then the classes they are likely to be teaching in the future.
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This is for an u15/16 squad. The goal is to maintain their conditioning over the Christmas break. 
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Thank you so much everyone.
Haresh, that paper you referred me to is exactly what I needed so thank you very much.
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Would you mind please sending Physical Activity Behavior questionnaire (for children) and Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of children questionnaire along with keys for statistical analyzing?
Regards
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I don't think that IPAQ is intended for use with children, Michael.
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Children aged 10 to 15 feigning learning disabilities to avoid PE
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Hello Janette. I am now a Professor at a Norwegian University. But about 18 years ago, when I was a senior researcher in England, I conducted field research for the National Health Service among young pupils, aged about 14-16, who had asthma. A surprising view (indeed, two opposite views) that emerged was the attitudes of these young people towards PE teachers. If my memory serves me correctly, those who expressed a view (during semi-structured focus group interviews) on PE teachers, either perceived these teachers as unsympathetic and lacking in necessary skills with regard to responding to asthmatic attacks, or, the very opposite: namely sympathetic human beings who were well trained in how to deal with emergencies. 
In my report, I proposed that teacher education providers (mainly, colleges and universities) should prepare future teachers for dealing professionally and competently with asthma-related problems. Regarding the teachers whom some pupils described as unsympathetic, the feeling is captured in statements that roughly add up to something like the following: ´I told the teacher I could´t do PE today because my asthma was bad, but he thought I was making excuses´.
I know that this does not directly address your specific question, but I hope it touches some of the issues regarding what you refer to as "groomed" disability. I must add that I have not come across this term before, and wonder if it might be interpreted as a derogatory judgement. Are there alternative ways of referring to some pupils who might mimic illness in order to avoid doing PE? Finally, it would be appropriate to consider why, for example, some obese children do not want to participate in PE through fear of being bullied.
Best wishes, Paul
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Please let me know if there are articles regarding SPARK physical education program for children with hearing loss or cochlear implant.
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I am planning to get water polo throwing velocity by capturing video from their shooting process with the camera
any article suggestion, how should be my procedure?
what type of camera do I need ?
how can I find out the speed from the video?
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For calculation of speed from video taken by standard video camera will not be helpful. The throw of ball will take less than 3 sec. Standard video camera record at 30 fps and you get a low resolution. It is best to get a high speed video camera that can capture at a speed more than 200 fps. You have to calibrate the camera lens and the field of view. Try reading Theoretical foundation at http://www.kwon3d.com/theories.html
Good luck. 
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I need convert g-force values obtained from a smartphone to counts for calculate counts*epoch and steps. Anyone know an algorithm for do this?
Thanks.
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Hello Jose,
Counts are usually proprietary, so it is difficult to compare acceleration data using different devices. Researchers have published accelerometer data in g and thresholds exist for triaxial accelerometers using raw acceleration data. Van Hees and Hildebrand have completed work in this area using two different accelerometers so the data processing method may be useful for you depending on your research questions.
Many thanks,
Lynne
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If I have allometrically scaled (body mass) data from a performance test is it possible to use the scaling component to track changes longitundinally?
If I scaled data from a baseline measure (fitness test) from a full squad/cohort of players, and want to assess a number of specific players longitudinally (across a season) do I still use the original scaling component from baseline to assess changes? 
For example if a player has a large increase in body mass across a season but maintains performance of a fitness test, does the original scaling component apply as I am assessing the individual against themselves?
Thanks
Josh
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Allometric scaling provides a method for examining the structural and functional consequences of changes in size and scale among organisms.
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As part of a conference that I have to realize, I'm looking for the following:
Are there different training/education in universities or within sportives federations in order to be a health professionnal ?
If so, what are the relationships between the university educated professionals and those formed within sports federations?
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in the UK it depends on the level of involvement. a community exercise class for those people with health conditions (diabetes, heart related or COPD) are usually run by exercise instructors who have completed the necessary vocational qualification (either through REPS or BACR or Wright foundation to name a few). those working in hospital programmes have normally been through a degree programme either as a physiotherapist or physiologist usually to post grad level. hope this helps, please e mail me further if you want more information
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I want to know how to implement the use of imagery during soccer practice.
I am working on the use of imagery in acquisition of soccer skills among young players. Is there any special way of implementing this during practice?
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Thank you Elli!
What sport did you compete?
I did an 8-year study with 24 4.5-5 year non-swimmers to develop physical literacy. Mental training was included, starting with simple cue words.
visit my website
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Most data regarding sports accidents emanate from hospitals and rescuers. In France, it is somewhat difficult to get precise information as to these accidents. I would be interested in international data in order to compare the situation in France and in other countries...
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We are doing some research on prevalence of injuries among players Chhattisgarh, India.
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My husband is working on Olympic education programs, and he needs this questionnaire.
Thanks ....... 
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Hi there, 
I personally write about this my PhD. I hope you gonna like it! But, in Poland, I have had to use another questionnaire, which I had to prepare first. It's working great, but I have a copy only in Polish language. 
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This is Kambiz Abdi, Ph.D student of Sports Management, Faculty of Physical Education & Sports Sciences Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. According to our system, the Ph.D. students can go internship for completion their research works and to learn more from other sources as an opportunity study. I am writing to inquire about the availability of internship opportunities in your research group. Since, I followed your publications and the some current projects, I find your department as very interesting places to work and research. I am very much interested in contributing in any experiments that you suggest me. Also, I have 6 month granted on educational leave by the Ministry of Science, Research, and Technology of Iran.  I can come over there, if you accept me as a visiting PhD . Your kindly cooperation is appreciated in advance.
I am looking forward to hear from you at your earliest convenience.
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Thanks for your interest to do your internship in our institute.
However, I should say it that your field of work is not match to what we are doing, and it is completely far away. We are working on silicon technology (porous silicon, micropunching, electroplating,) which needs high background in Microsystems, Electronic, physics, chemistry, and math.
I suggest you to look for some universities which are doing research in sports like Essex University in London or Hamburg or Köln Universities in Germany, those topic will be more interesting and matching to your field.
Good luck
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How can we find the bat angular position in a baseball bat swing?
Which software is useful to find the bat position at back lift, down swing of bat, bat ball contact and follow through of bat swing?
How will we find the bat angle as well?
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motion tracking (vicon etc) would work well; but for good resolution during swing, you need to make sure your cameras are capturing fast enough, and I *don't* know how well you're going to be able to capture the ball contact dynamics with a visual system.
An 'easy' way is to stick a pair of 6-dof accelerometers on the bat; you will need to compensate for drift, probably re-zeroing for each swing, but you can get some really high frequency data that way. 
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Many of these people do not understand the assignment because of mental retardation. Homework should be simple enough to be understood and properly weigh the factors considered. Is there a site or group that may propose certain principles for designing appropriate tasks? I simplify cognition software but I have a little problem in the design of motor tasks for example to assess the impact of feedback or ...
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thanks a lot dear beatrice marianne.
these are very useful. i will study.
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Does interval training improve mile run times?
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The most successful businesses have one thing in common: they never stop learning. They consequently execute their continuous improvement programs, based on bench-marking with their most successful competitors or even the best-of-best organizations even outside their own industry. So for example a top manufacturer aspiring to deliver world class services around his products will look at top service providers e.g. in the hospitality industry.
To what degree does sports science exploit the potential of learning from the best-of-best?
Lets look at golf. In order to develop a good swing, some basic capabilities are needed: flexibility, stability, hand-eye-coordination, etc.
Are there any studies that,
- identify the basic capabilities
- identify the best-of-best a golfer can learn from
- show how golf training could incorporate training practices from these best-of-best?
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Yes we do because elite athletes cant be copied for novice one.
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Physical education teachers play a key role in promoting health-seeking behaviors. However, teachers will successfully serve the role of a health promoter only if they themselves display a positive attitude towards their own health. I am looking for information about health behaviors (e.g. physical activity, proper nutrition habits, prophylactic behavior, health practices) undertaken by physical education teachers.
I would be glad to receive some references as well.
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This research is good .It is often like what I hear from some medics who say many take care of the health of others and overwork themselves and put their health in jeopardy.Apart from coaches who participate with their athletes, many physical education teachers and lecturers in Nigeria are due to poor enabling environment often are preachers and not doers of what they preach
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Please support with evidence if possible.
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If the fracture is consolidated one may assume that the DHS completed its role. So you should not bother about loosening of the screw. Loose or not it does not matter any more. Here one should have concerns about an eventual development of a vascular osteonecrosis of the head. In such cases the screw may seem to be loose but the trouble is with the destruction of femoral head. Anyway, you are right that osteoporosis is a factor that makes the osteosynthesis less stable. However, the grade of the fracture , timing of surgery, quality of surgical technique are important factors which influence the stability of osteosynthesis.
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Speed of walking, lenght of steps, time of heel contact and some other things like these are diference and there are many paper about these.but what about hip or shoulders shifting or such things...
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Thank u
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How do you rate (percent wise) the performance of skills? Is the rating based on the criterion with minimum standard or based on the way the student performs the skills based on skill cues? Do you give a greater score to students for competency on the skill performance such as time and distance or based on skill cues?
How do we know that students have learned a physical education skill? We can assess students using formative and summative assessments but how do we know that students will actually be able to use their skills in real-life, authentic situations? In short, how do we know that our students are competent in the target technique?
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Dear Hashem: First we have to be sure that students did learn the required physical education skills, and thereafter have the moral to be able to use their skills when needed in the real-life and authentic situations.
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I haven't found definite evidence and guidelines for the amount of weight training children and young athletes should / could do to avoid adverse effects on growth. I'm looking for good data on risk of injuries, improper supervision / guidance, growth hormone, strength gains, training volumes, training loads.
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Dear Xavier,
I would add some references that should avoid some myths about strength training of children. Lot of years many researchers try to solve this problem. There are lot of benefits and a few of risks, so that it is up to you ….
DOCHERTY D, WENGER H, COLLIS M, QUINNEY H. The effects of variable speed resistance training on strength development in prepubertal boys. J Human Movement Studies 1987; 13 (8): 377-82.
FAIGENBAUM A, KRAEMER W, CAHILL B, CHANDLER J, DZIADOS J, ELFRINK L, FORMAN E, GAUDIOSE M, MICHELI L, NITKA M, ROBERTS S. Youth resistance training: Position statement paper and literature review. Strength and Conditioning Journal 1996; 18 (6): 62-75.
FAIGENBAUM A, MICHELI L. Preseason conditioning for the preadolescent athlete. Pediatr Ann 2000; 29: 156-61.
FAIGENBAUM A, WESCOTT W. Strength and power for young athletes, Human Kinetics, Champain, 2000
FALK B, MOR G. The effects of resistance and martial arts training in 6 to 8 year old boys. Pediatr Exerc Sci 1996; 8 (1): 48-6.
FALK B, TENENBAUM G. The effectiveness of resistance training in children: A meta-analysis. Sports Med 1996; 22 (3): 176-86.
FLANAGAN S, LAUBACH L, DEMARCO G, ALVAREZ C, BORGERS S, DRESSMAN E, GORKA C, LAUER M, MCKELVY A, METZLER M, POEPPELMAN J, REDMOND C, RIGGENBACH M, TICHAR S, WALLIS K, WESELI D. Effects of two different strength training modes on motor perfomance in children. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 2002; 73 (3): 340-4.
GUY J, MICHELI L. Strength training for children and adolescents. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2001; 9 (1): 29-6.
HOLLOWAY J, BEUTER A, DUDA J. Self-efficacy and training in adolescent girls. J Appl Soc Psychol 1988; 18 (8): 699-19.
JEFFREY, A. et al. Training for children... J Am Acad Orthop Svrg, 2001, 9, s. 29 – 36.
KATO S, ISHIKO T. Obstructed growth of children´s bones due to excessive labor in remote corners. In: Kato S (Ed.). Proceedings of the International Congress of Sports Sciences. Tokyo: Japanese Union of Sports Science 1964: 476.
LILLEGART W, BROWN E, WILSON D, HENDERSON R, LEWIS E. Efficacy of strength training in prepubescent to early postpubescent males and females: Effects of gender and maturity. Pediatr Rehab 1997; 1 (3): 147-57.
MERSCH F, STOBOY H. Strength training und muscle hypertrophy in children. In: Oseid S, Carlsen K (Ed.). Children and Exercise XIII. Champaign: Human Kinetics 1989: 165-82.
MORRIS F, NAUGHTON G, GIBBS J, CARLSON J, WARK J. Prospective ten-month exercise intervention in premenarcheal girls. Positive effects on bone and lean mass. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 1997; 12: 1453-62.
RAMSAY J, BLIMKIE C, SMITH K, GARNER S, MACDOUGALL J, SALE D. Strength training effects in prepubescent boys. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1990; 22 (5): 605-14.
RISSER W. Weight training injuries in children and adolescents. Am Fam Phys 1991; 44 (6): 2104-10.
SADRES E, ELIAKIM A, CONSTANTINI N, LIDOR R, FALK B. The effect of long-term resistance training on anthropometric measures, muscle strength, and self-concept in pre-pubertal boys. Pediatr Exerc Sci 2001; 13: 357-72.
SALE D. Strength training in children. In: Gisolfi G, Lamb D (Ed.). Perspectives in Exercise Science and Sports Medicine. Indianapolis: Benchmark Press 1989: 165-216.
SHAIBI GQ, CRUZ ML, BAL GDC, WEIGENSBERG MJ, GALEM MJ, CRESPO MC, GORAN MJ. Effects of resistance training on insulin sensitivity in owerweight latino adolescents males. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006; 38:1208-1215.
SOTHERN M, LOFTIN J, UDALL J, SUSKIND R, EWIG T, TANG S, BLECKER U. Safety, feasibility and efficacy of a resistance training program in preadolescent obese youth. Am J Med Sci 2000; 319 (6): 370-5.
VRIJENS F. Muscle strength development in the pre-and post-pubescent age. Med Sport 1978; 11: 152-8.
WELTMAN A, JANNEY C, RIANS C, STRAND K, BERG B, TIPPIT S, WISE J, CAHILL B, KATCH F. The effects of hydraulic resistance strength training ind pre-pubertal males. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1986; 18 (6): 629-38.
WELTMAN A, JANNEY C, RIANS C, STRAND K, KATCH F. Effects of hydraulic-resistance strength training on serum lipid levels in prepubertal boys. American Journal of Diseases in Children 1987; 141 (7): 777-80.
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Amateur marathon lovers who do not have the luxury of doing all kinds of exercises during day time will not have enough blood going to their brains and other internal organs including skin and bones when they train themselves for endurance. They hope that when they exercise non-stop, blood will be circulated to all their body cells. That is not true, blood only goes to their muscles. Thus, if a person does a marathon run every quarter, I expect that bone loss will start in a few years time but brain damage can happen much sooner. One more question - can the following exercise (called the 30-time start-stop interval training for internal organs) reverse brain damage and osteoporosis? The main criterion of this start-stop exercise is that you have to stop your exercise(s) 30 times in a day so that you can send more blood to your organs for a while every time when you stop moving. Please comment.
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Your question is puzzling, and contains several statements that are simply false. Even a cursory search of Pubmed, Google Scholar, or any other search tool will show that cerebral blood flow is maintained or increased during exercise, and that weight-bearing exercise is the primary mechanism to prevent osteoporosis.
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see above
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The term periodization specifically used for elite athletes who needs planning for long term say cricketer, soccer players etc. The children who don't have long term planning for participation may not require periodization. Rather encourage them to involve in routine playing to maintain physical health.
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Flat foot or Pronated Foot or Pes pelanus
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The flat foot/ collaps arches/ pronated foot has many reasons to it. To maintain a good arch properly functioning "Windlass Mechanism" is necessory with the help of cordinated contribution of hind food, mid foot and forefoot as a chain. Break down in any part of the chain may lead to collapsing the arch (longitudinal or transverse). The intrinsic muscles, extrinsic muscles and plantar fascia combinely contribute to stabilize the arches.
Gastrocnemius muscle play an important role in controlling the hind portion of the arch. The change in length and tension of Gastrocnemius muscle may directly influence the angle of calcanium inclination which will inturn change in medial longitudinal arch. Here the question is you want to improve the collaps arch or improve pain due to collaps arch? Streatching of the Gastrocnemius may not improve the collaps arch but it may relieve posterior heel pain. If the aim is to improve the arch then strengthening of Windless Mechanism is must.
As Rachana suggested, knowing the type of flat may helps the Physical Therapist to decide the choice of treatment or for referral service...
Regards
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I am interested in initiating the recording of sports injuries in India. Is there any particular criteria to start this? Could you suggest how to start and manage it.?
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Dear colleagues,
The most widely used injury classification nowadays is the OSICS code. Most of the professional clubs I work with or I am in touch use this classification. It also can be suitable in current population.
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I want to learn about this type of research.
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Taking a look at the Cochrane Review website would be a good start: http://www.cochrane.org/cochrane-reviews and http://www.cochrane-net.org/openlearning/html/mod12-2.htm
Also, this *might* be useful, as it sounds like you are looking outside the standard medical trial format: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/book/10.1002/9780470754887
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Close chain exercise is a type of isotonic one, where the end of the chain is fixed or, in other explanation, the proximal part of the segment moves to the distal one. For open chain exercise it is evident that the end of the chain is not fixed or, for the other comment, the distal part of the segment moves to the proximal.
According to these definitions there ares conflict existing for identifying leg press sort of exercise.
Although I myself found in literature that leg press is classifyed in both forms of exercise.
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Dear Mohsen,
An interesting debate. I would consider this exercise an open kinetic chain exercise as the distal segment (although attached to a platform – which is moving) is moving around/away from the proximal segment. A squat or push up for example has the proximal segment moving around the distal segment. In saying this there are also kinetic link or pseudo-chain movements that have both occurring at the same time - a push press exercise for example has the lower body performing a closed kinetic chain exercise while the upperbody is performing an open kinetic chain exercise. I would urge against trying to tie in joint compression into the mechanical term as this can be misleading. Consider a chin up...this exercise has a joint distraction but is closed kinetic chain as the proximal segment is moving around the distal segment. Likewise zero gravity conditioning (like that required for astronauts) adds a new dimension.
Just to mix it up a little further, the concept of kinetic chains is an engineering one that is attributed to a mechanical engineer named Franz Reuleaux (circa 1875) who describes a series of overlapping segments connected via pin joints. These interlocking joints would create a system that would allow the movement of one joint to affect the movement of another joint within the kinetic link (hence the term of a kinetic link exercises which has two compound movements joined together – push press, baseball pitch, etc)
Regards
Rob
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I'm beginning my research in this topic and I'd like to improve my literature review.
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Thanks Volker and Richard, I'll begin to read this books. Joaquín
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What are recommended hamstring rehabilitation protocols for professional sport as it relates to what exercise prescription protocols would be recommended?
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Artistic gymnastic is a sport where gymnasts perform their movement on 4 (women) or 6 (men) apparatus (for women: floor exercises, balance beam, vault, uneven bars)
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According your knowledge about gymnastics and biomechanics, you could begin by reading book on general mechanics in gymnastics as "Gymnastics: A Mechanical Understanding" by Tony Smith (1983) or more recent "The science of gymnastics" by Jemni et al.(2011).
For more precise studies on gymnastics biomechanics you have to focus your searches on specific apparatus or gymnic motion. Motions with rotation and angular momentum are often studied as high bar/asymmetric bars dismount or flight, or vaulting.
You should read the research papers by Pr. Yeadon, a world specialist in gymnastics biomechanics. Some references can be founded at the website of Loughborough University: http://www.lboro.ac.uk/microsites/ssehs/biomechanics/gymnastics/index.html
Yeadon MR, Hiley MJ. The mechanics of the backward giant circle on the high bar. Human Movement Science. 2000;19(2):153-73.
Best regards
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I am looking for a model that goes beyond e.g. the Pelz short game test (with focus on putting, bunker, chip, pitch) and that includes a comprehensive set of
- capabilities (e.g. shot shaping, distance control, course management, ...),
- results (e.g. driving distance & accuracy, fairway hits, greens in regulation, etc.) as well as a set of
- enablers (e.g. clubhead speed, kinematic chain, angle of attack, smash factor, ... physical and mental fitness, etc.)
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Elisabeth
I am unaware of any capability model that exists for the game of golf. It may be the case that you may have to develop your own, however this would no doubt be a very difficult task. It may be worthy at looking at the literature analysing the ranking of performance measures such as drive distance, drive accuracy, GIR to establish what is considered the most important measures of performance from which it may be possible to derive an assessment tool, or a development plan.
Ashley
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I have found STAI-C by Spielberg, but I was looking for something more sport specific.
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There are several sites that you can go to:
WWW.helpinghandschildrenshospital.com or try wwwrosemond.com a family psychologist that help answer questions for parents and teachers.
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When students apply the knowledge of other disciplines to understand physical education, then the approach is cross-disciplinary.
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you are right
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Nonspecific - different movement structure, but from a physiological point of view identical to the special endurance training - same HR, same levels of lactate... for example special strength training.
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I agree with Andrew and even if lactate concentrations, HR, and others indicator would be the same in the non-specific training, there are other variables to consider that are more important for optimizing performance in 400-m running sprint and one of them and one of the most important is the running pace!! and I think that this aspect must be trained in a specific way always!
Hope to help you
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According to the biomechanical basis of human movement book there is a definition for the close pack position "The joint position with maximum contact between the two joint surfaces and in which the ligaments are taut, forcing the two bones to act as a single unit." However, there is no definition existing for congruency and no mention about the difference or relationship between this two.
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I think Alexia's comment is an example of the confusion between concept and terminology. While I appreciate what she is trying to say; first, it's not correct to say "ultimate stress" - Ultimate stress is an engineering term to mean the max stress a material can withstand before failure - it is the peak of the stress/strain curve of a material before failure. So its not really a condition that would occur in any physiological joint position. Second, in the so called closed-packed position, only some parts of the capsule are under stress as I stated above with the shoulder example. Third ,the statement about smoothness has nothing to do with congruency. Congruency is when the radias of curvature of the two articulating surfaces are most coincident. The movement possible in a closed pack position is limited only in certain directions - not all directions ( determined by the asymmetrical loading of capsuloligamentous tissue.).
So my suggestion is to encourage disuse of the term closed-pack , because it is misleading and mis-represented clinical Jargon with little scientific evidence to support the clinical assumptions ascribed to it. If you want to describe a specific joint position then just describe the position - In addition don't just assume that the joint is in some max congruent position or some max capsular stress position unless we have some evidence to back that up. We need to move toward more evidence based clinical practice and a first step toward this is to challenge/reevaluate many of the traditional assumptions of the past.
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In-service PE teachers'knowledge about measurement and evaluation questionnaires
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i have 15 years knowledge in this field.
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Many new tactical metrics as centroid position, stretch index or surface area not provides pratical applications to coaches in a easy and specific way...thus, how can I design new tactical metrics to provide relevant information to coaches through automatic metrics resulting from positional tracking of players?
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Dear Filipe,
There are certainly a lot of solutions, and I guess you are innovative engough to find these ideas. In my mind, what is important for you is to distinguish (1) your “metric”, that is the indicator that captures the displacement (or a part of the overall movement) of a team, from (2) the “collective variable” that measures the relation between the metrics.
According to the first point, you may be creative, and, as an example, propose a “weighting” of each player (according to their position to the ball, or to their position to the goal… and so on). According to the second point, the relative phase has been often chosen to account for this relation, but certainly others variables may be instructive.
In all these cases, it would be interesting to compare the new description you propose with the usual indicators (centroid positions, stretch index…) and/or with significant events occurring in the game. I mean.. when you do a description of the game using indicators, we need to know what is the “reality” you describe.. so the indicator in itself is often not instructive.
I also think that it could be interesting to look at some subparts of the team (only 2 or 3 players.. or more), and investigate in which way the team cannot be reduced to a superorganism…
Yours..
Jérôme
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I do a research about non-specific lactate training for 400m sprint and his effect to the performance.
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there is the publication of Nummela et aL. (1992)
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Does anybody have experience with development of competencies in physical education faculties?
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This question is at the heart of "quality physical education", which is one of the strategic priorities of the International Council of Sport Science and Physical Education. The forthcoming International Convention on Science, Education and Medicine in Sport (ICSEMIS) includes several sessions which will address this issue. Only by ensuring that teachers of physical education are properly trained to help children develop physical literacy, the basis for all sport participation and performance, can high quality physical education be assured. See attached, ICSSPE's Position Statement on Physical Education, which is endorsed by UNESCO and the International Paralympic Committee.
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I have designed some tests to measure the coordinative abilities for the soccer juniores 10-12 years old, and I need to know your opinion about them.
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For us to have an input, we need to see what you have designed so that we give our honest opinion.
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Review of textbook
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Read a review of an excellent book.