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I am conducting research on paleodemography in a Sephardic medieval population on the Iberian peninsula, known as "La Perla de Sefarad": the city of Eliossana, currently known as Lucena (Cordoba, Spain). For this I need to compare this population with other medieval Jewish populations, which are from the Iberian peninsula or from other European states, mainly from medieval times. I have found it difficult to access this information, since there are few articles that analyze medieval Jewish populations from the point of view of a physical anthropologist. Hence my interest in asking you if you know information about it and, if so, I would ask you to provide me with the same: some article, doctoral thesis or other type of file that could contain information about it. It would be very useful for me to continue my research
Estoy realizando una investigacion sobre paleodemografia en una poblacion medieval sefardí de la peninsula iberica, conocida como "La Perla de Sefarad": la ciudad de Eliossana, actualmente conocida como Lucena (Cordoba, España).
Para ello necesito comparar dicha poblacion con otras poblaciones medievales judías, que sean de la península ibérica o de otros estados europeos, fundamentalmente de época medieval.
He encontrado dificultados para acceder a dicha informacion, al ser escasos los articulos que analizan poblaciones judias medievales desde el punto de vista de un antropologo fisico.
De ahí mi interes en preguntaros si conoceis informacion al respecto y, caso de que así fuera, os rogaría que me facilitarais la misma: algun articulo, tesis doctoral u otro tipo de archivo que pudiera contener informacion al respecto. Me sería de mucha utilidad para continuar mi investigacion
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Dear collegues,
I am looking for a already prepared dataset of Model Life Table "West". Excel or Calc would be preferred. Thanks in advance!
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Here's the 2010's version of MLT (UN and CD) following 1 year and 5 years age structure.
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Currently designing a product for the kids of age 3-4, taking into consideration the interaction of the user i.e. interaction would be both physical and cognitive as the child has to do a craft based activity over a play house; there are very few contents available that would give an insight on the physic of the child. I want to make the play house such that it is cheap, safe, provide adequate space for their creative explorations and be durable.
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you may check McCormick and sanders -- Human factors engineering
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At what low (minus-below zero) temperature do human bones disintegrate - for example skull bones broke ? And how long they must be exposed on that ?
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Hi, Is it possible to find a relationship between mitochondrial dna sequence and any morphological variations in human? for example the high or the shoulder width. I did look around but I did not find answer.
Thank you
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Thank you Gary for answering. I immediately take a look at the paper.
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Does anybody know of an institution whereby I can do a course/module in Biological/Physical Anthropology via distance learning to supplement my studies please? I work therefore I have to study this in my free time. I have a Bachelor of Arts Degree majoring in Anthropology.  Thank you
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You can try in IGNOU in India.
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Looking for any published data that could be used to determine body fat percentages and muscle mass in nonhuman anthropoids as a function of sex. The data for a particular species could be obtained from separate sources.
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And this: Zihlman, A. L., & Bolter, D. R. (2015). Body composition in Pan paniscus compared with Homo sapienshas implications for changes during human evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(24), 7466–7471. http://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1505071112
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As a just graduate student on physical anthropology, I began to wonder about the modern research trends on the matter. Since a while, I felt curious about the branch known as somatology, which is still taught on few anthropology careers on Latinamerica. I'm not sure about quoting a definition of the field, since there is not something up to date that defines it. In turn, the more I found in my quick internet research was that somatology, apart from the fact of being on clear disuse on the last decades, there is lacking a recent book or publication that sumarize the principles of that discipline, i.e. tenets, theories, techniques and methodologies, in the light of modern biology or at least in a way showing to be relevant for interdisciplinary aproaches in ph. anthropology. The more I've seen is a collection of techniques that characterize populations or subsets of those in function of somehow arbitrary traits (e.g. measuring skinfolds from different parts of body on different groups of people, for example athletes vs sedentary people). So then, I have to ask if there is one from the (at least) three following options:
 a) Somatology is a science in all fairness, or at least some of their aproaches and methods are still valid and founded strongly on biological principles (as population genetics), and is some sort of “victim” of modern trends that are replacing it gradually;
b) Is some kind of “protoscience”, and just needs some tweaks and fixes and more theoretical developement to be up to date and fit in modern biological approaches for anthropology,
c) Is a case of obsolete aproach, with no use for modern reseach whatsoever, and it totally justified that being replaced gradually for other strategies and trends.
I appreciate your honest thoughts on this topic, thanks.
Edit: I think it's very different from what is known actually as kinanthropometry, but not really sure.
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Genomic studies have now overtaken the methods of studying phylogenetic relationships or intra or inter-population relationships from somatologic and anthropomorphic parameters practiced traditionally by physical anthropologists.
But, for comparing gross morphological features, especially body mass, nutritional status, under nutrition and other health physique related  or life-style issues somatological studies are still very relevant and not obsolete. 
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My question concerns especially test for differences in pathological features between the age and sex specific subsamples. My sample consists of a total of 60 skeletons, divided into the specific groups sizes of subsamples range from 4 to 22 skeletons.
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Dear Simone,
Because of the issues regarding the Osteological Paradox, i.e. the difference between the living and the cemetery population, I recommend you consider modelling your populations using the Population and Cemetery Simulator I programmed. In there you can check if the small sample size just drowns in random noise or if, sometimes, you can indeed get a reproducible signal.
Best
Andreas
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I just added a draft of my last job, even not finished or published on a medieval Sephardic cemetery in the city of Lucena (Cordoba, Spain). One paleodemographic comparative study with other populations is done and, if possible, I would like to extend it to other Sephardic populations, or Jewish populations of other times. I would thank any information about it, especially if you could tell me access to other articles on studies of physical anthropology and paleodemography of Sephardic populations, or Jewish populations in general. He thanked in advance for your help, Yours truly
Juan Pablo Diéguez Ramírez
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Lo siento, pero no tengo información de ese periodo y población. Yo me dedico exclusivamente al paleolítico. Un saludo
Ángel Rivera
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For my non-metric trait study on humans, I am in need of learning the basic homology between humerus and femur. What kind of evolutionary anatomical differences or similarities exist between the two very bones? Could you recommend any basic literature on this topic? Thank you very much in advance.
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...just out of interest, I have also just ordered a copy of this book, which looks like it has some interesting chapters on limb development and evolution in humans. I obviously haven't read it yet, but it might also be of interest to you:
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Dear colleagues, has somebody an idea what this can be? These are spheroidal prickly figures (diameter less than 1mm), which are arranged rare single, mostly in groups. Here you can see it in the frontal sinus of a human Os frontale.
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Lichens substitute in manganese oxide.  That may be worth investigating further.  We have had this experience on fossil bones from South African cave sites.  
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Dear archaeologists,
I am currently working on partial burials for my PhD. work. I am looking for examples of burials of amputated limbs (apart from hospital contexts and martial trophies)... Any ideas ?
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Check out the work by John W Verano who works in Pre-Columbian Peruvian contexts. There is quite a bit. He is on researchgate.
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Could anyone please suggest bibliographic references about the second metacarpal bones of neanderthal and paleolithic human? Thank you!
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You have the PHd of Isabelle Villemeur (Université Bordeaux 1) for the hand .(Etude morphologique et biomécanique du squelette de la main des Néandertaliens : comparaison avec la main des hommes actuels)
and the PHd of Anne Hambucken for the Member Sup.  HAMBUCKEN, A. (1993). Variabilité morphologique et metrique de l'Humerus, du Radius et de l'Ulna des Néandertaliens. Comparaison avec l'Homme moderne. Thèse de Doctorat, Université Bordeaux I. 
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hi dears
What dates do you recommend for these tools that been found randomly in different places in the southern Alborz mountain of Iran? The Geographical coordinates is :(N:36 12 40.00 E: 50 15 31.50)?
thanks a lot...
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Dear Hosein, it would be unrealistic to assign a date to these pieces coming from unspecified stratigraphic context. I’m not familiar with this area, but for me both seem to be rejuvenation flakes knapped from Blade/ bladelet cores and the one on the left seems to be retouched into truncated piece. All the best.
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Palaeoanthropology and palaeobiology in human evolutionary biology have well-substantiated divisions of the genus Homo and are relatively clear about the line within the genus leading down to modern humans. Are there any similar taxonomic divisions in present human populations? So far, I have found that the answer to this question is no. I would like to give a detailed account of why this is or is not the case.
What are the current positions in the literature on the matter from a systematics/taxonomic point of view?
Thank you in advance for your time,
Phila. 
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I think the answer about clear phylogenetic lineages in humans is that, by the criteria used in drawing such lineages within other species, NO, Tha answer is fairly simple, but details are given in the two articles by my colleague Alan Templeton, cited above. The basic issue is this: For a species to be clearly subdivided into sub-groups (sub-species, or the older term "race"), using molecular (mitochrondrial DNA) evidence, the lineages must be clearly distinguishable (not overlapping) and the territories occupied fairly distinct, with little or no gene-flow between them. For our nearest evolutionary relatives, the chimps, (genus Pan troglodytes, there are five clear sub-species, each with several clear lineages within each sub-species. Using the same molecular approach, humans show no clea lineages at all within the Homo sapies. Our groups form one big blur on a mt-DNA tree. The reason is that for the entire period of our evolution from Homo erectus, hominid populations migrated and interbred to a degree not matched by any other animal species. While different human geograpphic populations do have differences in their genetic make-up, these differences are minor when compared to true sub-species in other animals. It was pointed out long ago (Richard Lewontin among many others) that there is more genetic variation within any given geographic population than between any two populations.I hope this helps.
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Does anybody know Lithoglyphus pygmaeus specimens (or ornaments manufactured from this gastropod) discovered in prehistoric sites?
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Dear Cătălin,
From what I could find on a quick search on the Internet, I understand that L. pygmaeus is a species currently found only near the Danube in the area of Giurgiu (http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/156068/0).
It may be possible that the species had a larger geographic range in the past, but, just in case it didn't, I suggest you also look for information on ornaments made from other Lythoglyphus species, as close comparison material.
For example, L. naticoides was used in prehistoric times for making ornaments. Here's a paper that can get you started:
Apparently, a L. naticoides necklacewas also found in Romania:
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Broken anterior processus in one os malleus is almost the same size as manubrium. Is anyone met similar change ? Maybe it's normal variability ?
Pictures and above question from my collegue / Zdjęcie i pytanie od pana Marcina :
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My answer was toward tibial distal end exostosis-malleolus. If you mean ear ossciles, then it is not occupational,  but to pathological or even traumatic osteosclerosis.
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Can anyone share or indicate the source for lectures with presentations (ppt or other formats) on the Human Population Ecology ? With respecting copyright of course. I would be grateful for any help. Best regards !
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We know of many pioneering researchers use odontometry as a tool, but does anyone know what person established this term, and the first context of its use? Are there references of this?
Regards.
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Owen is a good address: He published the book Odontography in 1840-1845. Two books with Odontology in the titles are:
Peyer B (1968) Comparative Odontology. Univ Press Chicago
Keil A (1966) Grundzüge der Odontologie. Borntraeger Berlin
Best wishes Kurt
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I would like to train juvenile and adult baboons to use a hand dynamometer built for humans. The purpose is to test grip strength between control and experimental groups. I haven't been able to find any other studies doing this with large bodied nonhuman primates. I am trying to find background research to guide my study design.
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Anecdotal answer here.
Do not know if it would be of much help, but I met a person last year, while he was setting up an experiment to measure grip strength in macaques. He was going to use a regular handgrip dynamometer. I am not certain how he was going to motivate the macaques though.
It is work in progress, so there are no publications. I can send you a personal message with his contact details, if you would like to.
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Besides Turner's 1980's work on the dental morphology of archaeological series, I've found very little: Huffman's, Bartolomucci (LBG)'s and Neves & Powell's work. Does anyone know of anything else? Thanks
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Other than Michaela Huffman's recent dissertation and the older sources you mention, I am not aware that anybody else has worked in this area.
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Specifically among the Chumash/Tongva tribes.
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You're welcome! Glad I could be of help!
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Could anyone suggest bibliographic references for paleopathology of pre colonial (amerindian) populations in the amazonian region?
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I'm sure you know that Anna C. Roosevelt has done Amazonian
archeology, but I do not see anything about paleopathology in her
writings. Perhaps contacting her would be the best way to find this
information.
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Dear all,
the equation of body density (Durenberg et al, 1990) uses biceps skinfold.
 Is there any formula for calculating body density using the four skinfolds of triceps ,subscapular,suprailiac and medial calf.
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Dear all,
  Since I have taken only the four skinfolds of triceps ,subscapular, suprailiac and medial calf. I have not taken biceps. I can't use the Durnin and Womersley(1974) – four sites, fourmula, because it used biceps skinfold as one component.
best wishes.
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I currently know of two - one (a snake) at Casas Grandes (Paquime) in Chichihuah and the other in the Municipio de Tacuichamona, in Sinaloa, (Weigand, personal communication 2010).  However, I am hereby canvassing the archaeological community to learn of any others.  Any and all information will be duly acknowledged in publication.  Many thanks!!
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Will do!
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Dear friends! The jaw belongs to a teenager of 15 years, 15 thousand years Paleolithic. What diseases can cause such changes in the mandible (besides scurvy)? 
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I agree...There are two forms of vitamin D, D2 and D3. Vitamin D2, (ergocalciferol), which 15000 years ago likely would have come solely from dietary intake of plant foods. Vitamin D3, (cholecalciferol), would have come from animal foods (fatty fish, bird eggs, and animal liver), it also could be made internally when skin was exposed to sufficient ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun. Poor diversity of food supply, restricted diet and lack of exposure to sunlight may have caused the apparent osteomalacia/rickets in this young person.
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I get a request from a colleague. In the context of a paläanthropological research project he asked me for a microcephalic skulls of an adult with Down syndrome. In my collection there is not such a skull.
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nothing like this in the collection of the national museum of natural history in paris.
as far as I know, such a case is not reported in the medical litterature.
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If there are any links to articles I would be grateful on them.
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Dear Siniša,
to get good overview you can find many articles related to settlement burials from Czech Republic and Slovakia in proceedings (Graves, burials and human remains in prehistoric and medieval settlements): Tichý, R. - Štulc, O.: Hroby, pohřby a lidské pozůstatky na pravěkých a středověkých sídlištích. Živá archeologie - Supplementum 3, Hradec Králové 2010.
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Right now i only found some mentions of hittite iron, products, and biblical mentions of the iron using hittites. So no real archaeological evidence for now.
Everything could help like evidence for products, ovens, productionplaces and traces of ressource exploitation.
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Your welcome, Eik.
You may also find it helpful to check the works of Prof. Trevor Bryce, one of my lecturers when I was doing my degree.
Trevor seems to be now held as one of the leading experts on the Hittites, at least among English speaking scholars.
I'd suggest concentrating on his later works, because I know his views have changed over time.  On some key points they are very different from where they were when I was a student 30+ years ago, particularly with regard to Troy and the identity of the  Ahhiyawans.
I still see Trevor occasionally at the University of Queensland, but I'm not in a position to put you in touch with him.  His most recent work is a book on the history of Ancient Syria.
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We've found such cases in EIA settlements at Lower Danube.
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Schmorl's nodes supposedly have an etiology in intervertebral disk rupture or hernia. In the bioarchaeological literature their presence is usually analysed in connection with degenerative joint disease or osteoarthritic changes on the vertebral bodies. Moreover, these nodes are regarded as a stress indicator suggestive for the physical activity performed by the individual in the course of his/her lifetime. If you wish, I could send you further reading on this subject and examples of published cases.
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Until now we have investigated the arm proprioceptive control in volleyball players - female, but we intend to develop our researches in enrolled patients in rehabilitation programs ( i.e. post stroke ).
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Dear Nicolae, you can ask Mara Fabri Associate Professor Università Politecnica delle Marche Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicinehttps://www.researchgate.net/profile/Mara_Fabri
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I have some histological tooth sections marked Mandrillus but they are quite a bit smaller than Madrillus sphinx teeth. Are Mandrillus leucophaeus teeth smaller? I'm having a terrible time finding any data on this.
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Thank you, Jaime!  I've downloaded the paper.  
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I was involved in a research project to assess the patterns of waking and standing from sitting for elderly people using special apparatus and software in Germany. However, I am looking for more input of your view to assess the quality of motion (movement) to build standards for further comparison and application for industry. This will help basic field in medicine, human factor engineering and physical education fields.
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Dear prof. Kilani,
We have started to use Functional Movement Screening (FMS) as an standardized test for quality of whole body movement ability and quality in field research as well as in outpatient practice. It is subjective, but very applicable and does not require any hardware. For scientific purposes we use set of MoCap sensors and special software.
I don't know if FMS is adequate for industry purposes, but sensor network surely is.
Regards,
Dusko Spasovski
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We are looking for missing bone parts removed from the parietal bones (25 mm/1 inch diameter) of several individuals skulls' (probably >100) from different populations from the NMNH Smithsonian Institution. They have been removed most likely in the 1950s by a researcher from Middle/Eastern Europe and the purpose of the study as far as we know, was to compare parietal bone thickness among different populations. If you are aware of the existence of these bone elements in your collection or any related articles please let us know! Many thanks!
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Dear Barbara, if you're missing these parts in the same size (mostly or always) from the right parietals approximately from the area of tuber parietale, it is highly likely that they have been collected for the same research! Unfortunately we don't know yet who and from where took away them and we are not aware of any publication related to the topic since probably it has been written on the language of the researcher that time. It would be really nice to find out whether these elements still exist somewhere?! We're working on it!
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Cultural Heritage has grown over the past decades to become one of the most pending questions to mankind. Individuals continue more than ever before to look into the very roots of their existence, which is a good thing to do. However, this root-treatment cannot be established by oral traditions only. One needs bio- and material cultural objects that reflect how our forefathers were living and left behind. Only since the mid 19th century, many of these artifacts are assembled in hundreds of museums where they are treated with good care. However, with the accumulation of artifacts and the restoration and necessary conservation of cultural objects, it will become a burden to pay for this type of work and as the assemblage will only grow, there will come a point in time that there will not be enough budget to pay for all that work. So, how do you see the future of Cultural Heritage?
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Here is an anecdote for Jean. She wrote:"not conserving some things of the past costs the people and society their mental health and mental balance."
Well, some years ago in Toronto, Canada, the head of the neutron activation archaeometry group there got the order to close the lab and the reactor, because they needed the site to construct a hospital. The scientist asked all of us in the same profession to write a letter to the president of the Toronto University. As an obeying citizen, I wrote a letter to the president in saying that thanks to the work done at the reactor in Cultural Heritage, the average man saw interesting projects shown by the big media. By closing the reactor, it would take away the mental health and balance of a large group of people who from the moment of closure wouldn't get any longer this info. I wrote the president that by leaving the lab open, he would not need the hospital to hospitalize these people.
He answered that the decision was not his but somewhere higher up. Everythin seems always to happen 'somewhere higher up' who are voted in by us!
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This is just a great book; but out of print. Does anyone know, if there is somewhere some old stock or a pdf to order?
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Is there something particular in this book you need? Baker's 'The Osteology of Infants and Children' has a considerable amount about fetal remains.
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What method best identifies the components of dental calculus?
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None of the methods is the best. Everything depends on your task. PIXE cannot detect light elements – major components of calculus, but have better detecting limit for heavier elements (so, it is good for trace elements). EDS has better localization and can detect light elements. Of course, great advantage of EDS is that it is usually coupled with SEM, and in addition to elemental analysis you have all capabilities of electron microscope at hand.
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Archaeological as well as physical anthropological contributions sometimes contain very long chapters about the current state of research. Publications are presented chronologically as abstracts - up to Adam & Eva! So do you have any input on the period of such cited publications and volumes of such a chapter? Let's exchange opinions..!
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As far as I am concerned, a good "Status Quaestionis" chapter is essential in any major study. What you describe, however, is not a "Current State of Research" but a glorified bibliography. What is the difference? An analysis of the current state of research examines trends and shifts in research questions, methodologies, theoretical frameworks and the like, and identifies past biases - personal, political, ideological - and their impact on previous research.
This is important because it is impossible to divorce data from the theoretical and methodological frameworks through which they were and are presented. This is true even of the most mundane facts. For example, it is widely accepted that in the mystery cult of Mithras, December 25 was an important feast day. Most scholars repeating that datum appear to be unaware of the fact that there is not a shred of evidence for this. That may seem a minor detail, easily cleared up, but if one pursues the question _why_ the error arose in the first place, it soon becomes apparent that it is not an isolated slip of the pen. It is one of the many problematic legacies of a very particular understanding of the dynamics of religious change in the Roman Empire.
A good "Current state" gives you the background you need to recognize the potential implications of such an error, But that is just one example.
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Not pixel to pixel or 100%, I need real bone size..... I must measure some distances from the computer screen.
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Hi, you could use TIVMI, it is a software program done by a French programmer (B. Dutailly, Bordeaux, France, UMR PACEA) for anthropo-biological studies. This software is free, you have just to ask a license here, http://www.pacea.u-bordeaux1.fr/TIVMI/.
It is more precise than others software (GUYOMARC'H P., SANTOS F., DUTAILLY B., DESBARATS P., BOU C. et COQUEUGNIOT H. 2012 - Three-dimensional computer-assisted craniometrics: A comparison of the uncertainty in measurement induced by surface reconstruction performed by two computer programs. Forensic Science International, 219, 1-3, p. 221-227.)
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Estimating age at death.
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I enjoyed reading other responses, and agree that using several methods is best. While the 1985 AJPA papers are good, newer methodology has been devised since then, while other methods (such as cranial suture ossification) have been de-emphasized in more recent literature (such as White & Folkens, 3rd edition - 2010). My two cents on the matter are: 1) It most strongly depends on the age group of the individual you're ageing, 2) How complete is the skeleton, as some areas tend to be more accurate than others, and 3) Whenever possible, the result of said ageing should be compared with the wider sample context of the site.
To expand on these points:
1) You wouln't check dental wear on a 5 year old, just like you wouldn't check dental development on a 40 year old. Every age group, give or take a few years, has a few ageing methods that specifically apply to it, just like it has others that are completely useless to apply. In the methodology section of my PhD (due next year), I discuss and discriminate which are best to prioritize at every life stage.
2) If you're working with forensic and definitely archaeological remains, you're bound to find yourself with a fragmentary mess, and in order to sensibly age any individual, it is good to know which methods carry more weight (again, at any life stage). I would always trust pubic symphysis morphology (I prefer the Suchey-Brooks system over the Todd system) over the auricular surface. Assuming I find only half a pubic symphysis, and I calculate 29-33 years at death, I would still place more emphasis on it, even if I had a complete auricular surface that looked as if the person was in their mid-40s.
3) What I mean about comparing the particular ageing methods in one individual over others at the site is this - Imagine that, you only have teeth on which to base your estimate for a particular individual and all other remains at a site are adults. You judge dental wear and estimate the person died in their early 20s because you're just beginning to see some dentin on the M2s. However, if you check out other skeletons from the site and notice that they have surprisingly unworn posterior dentition for their age, then you know you're likely underestimating age on the skeleton you're working on.
I emphasize #3 because back in 2007 I was working in China and found a skeleton with most epiphyses unfused but still with a dental age of around 29-33 years. Of course it turned out that it was a pathological case and the individual suffered from an endocrine disorder, but it has made me cautious about ageing ever since.
Hope this helps!
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Is anyone aware of newer studies about the etiology of Schmorl's nodes? "Etiology largely unknown" is so dissatisfying in the interpretation of osteoarchaeological results.
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Some information about the etiology are listed in this article - sure you'll discover more when looking at the references cited.
Vertebral morphology influences the development of Schmorl's nodes in the lower thoracic vertebrae (Plomp KA, Roberts CA, Viðarsdóttir US)
Am J Phys Anthropol. 2012 Dec;149(4):572-82. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.22168.
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I wonder why preservation of fossils and the processes and methods of restoration are of so little interest, is that why?
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This is an interesting question and important. The AIC and IIC are now debating the nature of their publications and also I think we need to look at peer review. I know that a similar discussion took place in anthropology in the 1980s where people argued that publication of work in proceedings of conferences was a "gray" publication venue and meant only as a "preliminary" result. The AIC has taken this route as well with the specialty publications being sort of minor league trials where JAIC editors can pick and choose what should be published in the JAIC. I have done this in the past also, published by results in proceedings or lower impact journals and their refined the work for higher.
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I am primarily interested in this question for human remains held in UK repositories (e.g., museums, university departments, archaeological units), but would like to gather general views on the topic regardless of location.
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I agree with Felix: who is in charge of the site would be extremely important. Also there would need to be some filter as to who could access its content, or at least certain parts of the content, for ethical reasons and to abide by cultural sensitivity: remembering that human remains were often acquired in ways that are no longer culturally acceptable ie. Australia's Aboriginal specimens throughout the UK. Unfiltered access to these types of remains by anyone with access to the internet may cause unneeded distress to the communities from where they originated.